Machilipatnam

City in Andhra Pradesh, India
Machilipatnam

Masulipatnam, Masula, Bandar
City
Koneru centre, the business centre of Machilipatnam

Koneru centre, the business centre of Machilipatnam
Machilipatnam is located in Andhra Pradesh

Machilipatnam
Machilipatnam
Location in Andhra Pradesh, India

Show map of Andhra Pradesh

Machilipatnam is located in India

Machilipatnam
Machilipatnam
Machilipatnam (India)

Show map of India

Coordinates: 16°10′N 81°08′E / 16.17°N 81.13°E / 16.17; 81.13Coordinates: 16°10′N 81°08′E / 16.17°N 81.13°E / 16.17; 81.13
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
District Krishna
Mandal Machilipatnam
Founded 14th century
Government

 • Type Municipal Corporation
 • Body Machilipatnam Municipal Corporation
 • MLA Kollu Ravindra (Telugu Desam Party)
 • Municipal commissioner A.S.N.V. Maruthi Diwakar
Area

[1]
 • Total 26.67 km2 (10.30 sq mi)
Elevation

14 m (46 ft)
Population

(2011)[2]
 • Total 169,892
 • Density 6,875/km2 (17,810/sq mi)
Languages

 • Official Telugu
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
521001
Telephone code 91-08672
Vehicle registration AP-16
Website machilipatnam.cdma.ap.gov.in

Machilipatnam (About this soundpronunciation ), also known as Masulipatnam and Bandar, is a town in Krishna district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is a municipal corporation and the administrative headquarters of Krishna district.[3] It is also the mandal headquarters of Machilipatnam mandal in Machilipatnam revenue division of the district.[4][5] The ancient port town served as the settlement of European traders from the 16th century, and it was a major trading port for the British, Dutch and French in the seventeenth century.[6]

Contents

  • 1 Etymology
  • 2 History
  • 3 Geography

    • 3.1 Climate
  • 4 Demographics
  • 5 Governance

    • 5.1 Civic administration
    • 5.2 Politics
  • 6 Economy
  • 7 Culture

    • 7.1 Art and handicrafts
    • 7.2 Dance
    • 7.3 Cuisine
    • 7.4 Religious worship
  • 8 Tourism
  • 9 Transport
  • 10 Education
  • 11 Famous people
  • 12 See also
  • 13 References
  • 14 External links

Etymology

During the 17th century, it was known by the names Masulipatnam, Masula and Bandar (translates to port in Turkish, Arabic and Persian).[7][8][9] The port town in the ancient times was also referred with the name Maesolia.[10]

History

Masulipatam port in 1759

View of Masulipatnam in 1676

The town has existed since the 3rd century BCE (Satavahana period) when, according to Ptolemy, it was known as Maisolos. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea calls it Masalia in the 1st-century BCE.[11] The port is on the southeastern, or Coromandel Coast, of India. At the mouth of the River Krishna on the Bay of Bengal, the Masula port saw flourishing sea trade.

Muslin was traded by ancient Greeks from the town and the word muslin originated from the name Maisolos.[12] Muslin was an important source of income for the town, being a favorite of Roman traders for domestic consumption. Several Roman coins were found during excavations of Buddhist towns near Machilipatnam.[13]

The town was the district headquarters of the then, Masulipatnam district and now to the Krishna district, which was formed in 1859 in the composite Madras state.[5]

The Machilipatnam port served as the principal seaport of the Golconda Kingdom (more anciently named Telangana) from the 15th to 17th centuries.[14]

Geography

Machilipatnam city is at 16°10′N 81°08′E / 16.17°N 81.13°E / 16.17; 81.13 on the southeast coast of India and in the east coast of Andhra Pradesh.[15] The city has an average elevation of 14 meters (45 feet).[16]

Climate

Machilipatnam city gets most of its annual rainfall due to the southwest monsoon. It has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) with hot summers and moderate winters. The hottest months are between April and June. The average normal rainfall in the district is 959 millimetres (37.8 in).

Machilipatnam city is frequently hit by cyclones originating in the Bay of Bengal. The Andhra Pradesh coast between Ongole and Machilipatnam is vulnerable to high surges of the sea due to cyclones. The 1977 Andhra Pradesh cyclone crossed the coast near Nizampatnam and took approximately 10,000 lives. As the storm approached the coast, gale winds reaching 200 km/h lashed Prakasam, Guntur, Krishna, East Godavari and West Godavari districts. A storm surge, 5 meters high, inundated the Krishna estuary and the coast south of Machilipatnam city (Bandar).

On 8 December 2004, a high capacity S-Band Doppler cyclone warning radar was installed, commissioned and made operational at the city.[17] It is from a German manufacturer, Gematronik. With the installation of the radar, the state will be better equipped to track cyclones by the onset of monsoon, according to an official from the State Met Office talking to the newspaper The Hindu. This facility will monitor the 960 km long coastline of the state.[18]

Climate data for Machilipatnam
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.4
(90.3)
34.6
(94.3)
38.1
(100.6)
41.8
(107.2)
46.5
(115.7)
45.4
(113.7)
40.8
(105.4)
38.6
(101.5)
36.8
(98.2)
37.2
(99.0)
33.3
(91.9)
33.0
(91.4)
46.5
(115.7)
Average high °C (°F) 28.5
(83.3)
30.2
(86.4)
32.5
(90.5)
34.6
(94.3)
37.3
(99.1)
36.7
(98.1)
33.7
(92.7)
32.6
(90.7)
32.5
(90.5)
31.6
(88.9)
30.1
(86.2)
28.8
(83.8)
32.4
(90.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23.8
(74.8)
25.5
(77.9)
27.5
(81.5)
30.2
(86.4)
32.4
(90.3)
32.4
(90.3)
29.7
(85.5)
29.0
(84.2)
28.9
(84.0)
27.8
(82.0)
25.8
(78.4)
24.3
(75.7)
28.1
(82.6)
Average low °C (°F) 19.0
(66.2)
20.8
(69.4)
22.6
(72.7)
25.7
(78.3)
27.5
(81.5)
27.0
(80.6)
25.6
(78.1)
25.4
(77.7)
25.3
(77.5)
24.0
(75.2)
21.6
(70.9)
19.9
(67.8)
23.7
(74.7)
Record low °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
15.6
(60.1)
17.3
(63.1)
17.8
(64.0)
17.6
(63.7)
21.0
(69.8)
18.8
(65.8)
18.8
(65.8)
18.1
(64.6)
17.8
(64.0)
15.3
(59.5)
14.6
(58.3)
14.0
(57.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2
(0.1)
7
(0.3)
6
(0.2)
10
(0.4)
35
(1.4)
117
(4.6)
195
(7.7)
184
(7.2)
167
(6.6)
242
(9.5)
86
(3.4)
19
(0.7)
1,070
(42.1)
Average rainy days 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.8 2.2 7.7 13.8 12.6 10.4 9.2 5.6 1.2 65.1
Average relative humidity (%) 76 75 73 73 66 62 72 74 78 79 75 75 73
Source #1: NOAA (1971–1990)[19]
Source #2: Climate-Data.org[20]
Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1871 36,188 —    
1881 35,056 −3.1%
1891 38,809 +10.7%
1901 39,507 +1.8%
1911 42,123 +6.6%
1921 43,940 +4.3%
1931 56,928 +29.6%
1941 59,146 +3.9%
1951 77,953 +31.8%
1961 101,417 +30.1%
1971 112,612 +11.0%
1981 138,525 +23.0%
1991 159,110 +14.9%
2001 179,353 +12.7%
2011 169,892 −5.3%

Demographics

As of 2011[update]census, Machilipatnam had a population of 1,70,008. The total population constitutes 83,561 males and 86,447 females — a sex ratio of 1035 females per 1000 males. 13,778 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 7,076 are boys and 6,702 are girls. The average literacy rate stands at 83.32% with 130,173 literates, significantly higher than the state average of 67.41%.[2][21]

Governance

Civic administration

Machilipatnam Municipal Corporation is the civic body of the city. It was constituted as a municipality in 1866 and was upgraded to corporation from special grade municipality on 9 December 2015.[22][23] It covers an area of 26.67 km2 (10.30 sq mi) under its jurisdiction. The present commissioner of the corporation is Sampath and the municipal chairperson is Motamarri Venkata Baba Prasad.[24]

Machilipatnam Urban Development Authority is the urban planning authority, headquartered at Machilipatnam.[25]

Politics

Machilipatnam is a part of Machilipatnam (Assembly constituency) for Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Kollu Ravindra is the present MLA of the constituency from the Telugu Desam Party.[26][27] The assembly segment is also a part of Machilipatnam (Lok Sabha constituency), which was won by Konakalla Narayana Rao of Telugu Desam Party.[28]

Economy

Machilipatnam is known for its handloom industry, which produces Kalamkari textiles exported to United States and other Asian countries.

The other notable industries are boat building and fishing.[29] Machilipatnam was a trading base for the Europeans in the 17th century and known for minting copper coins, exporting diamonds, textiles etc., through the port.[30] The state government is taking measures to bring back the glory of the former port city. It has planned to set up Machilipatnam deep seaport and its associated industrial corridor under the Machilipatnam Area Development Authority. This move is expected to generate employment to over 25,000 people.[29][31]

Culture

Bandar laddu hand moulded

Art and handicrafts

Machilipatnam Kalamkari is a handcrafted dyed block-painting of a fabric.[32] It is performed at the nearby town of Pedana and was registered with geographical indication from Andhra Pradesh.[33] Machilipatnam and Srikalahasti styles are the only existing Kalamkari style works present in India.[34]

Dance

Kuchipudi, a popular Indian Classical Dance form, originated at Kuchipudi, 25 kilometres from Machilipatnam.

Cuisine

The city is well known for a sweet known as Bandar Laddu.[35]

Religious worship

There are many religions with worship centers in and around the city, such as Panduranga Temple at Chilakalapudi, Agastheeswara Temple etc. Dattashram is a pilgrimage site on the coast and home to ancient Shiva and Datta temples. Manginapudi is popularly known as “Datta Rameswaram” due to the consecration of 12 wells for bathing (recalling those at Rameswaram).[36]

Tourism

Manginapudi Beach is on the coast of the city.[37]

Transport

The city has a total road length of 359.09 km (223.13 mi).[38] The National Highway 65 connects Machilipatnam to Pune via Hyderabad, Suryapet and Vijayawada. NH 216 from Kattipudi to Ongole, passes through the city.

Machilipatnam bus station is owned and operated by Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation.[39][40] The station is equipped with a bus depot for storage and maintenance of buses.[41]

Machilipatnam railway station is a ‘B–Category’ and ‘Adarsh station’ under the jurisdiction of Vijayawada railway division.[42] It is the terminal station of Vijayawada-Machilipatnam branch line that connects Howrah-Chennai main line at Vijayawada.[43]

Machilipatnam port was damaged by a giant ocean wave on 1 November 1864.[30] Since then, there were many efforts to build a new port. Navayuga Engineering Company Limited is in the process of building a deep water port at Gilakaladinne of the city.[44]

The nearest domestic airport is Vijayawada Airport.

Education

The primary and secondary school education is imparted by government, aided, and private schools of the School Education Department of the state.[45][46]Sri Venkateswara Public School is one of the public schools of the town.

Famous people

  • Divi Gopalacharlu – Ayurvedic scholar[47]
  • Pingali Venkayya – Freedom fighter
  • Mutnuri Krishna Rao – Freedom fighter, journalist
  • U G Krishnamurthy – Philosopher
  • Nalluri Moses Mohan First National Award Winner For Best Teacher In AP
  • Bhogaraju Pattabhisitaramayya – Freedom fighter
Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu
Raghupati Venkayya.jpg
Born (1887-10-15)October 15, 1887

Machilipatnam, Madras Presidency, British India
(now in Andhra Pradesh, India)
Died 15 March 1941(1941-03-15) (aged 53)
Occupation Film Director, Film Producer
Family Devika (granddaughter)

Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu (15 October 1887 – 15 March 1941), known widely as the father of Telugu cinema, was an Indian artiste and film maker.[48] Naidu was a pioneer in the production of silent Indian films and talkies. Starting in 1909, he was involved in many aspects of Indian cinema’s history, like travelling to different regions in Asia to promote film work. He was the first to build and own cinema halls in Madras. The Raghupati Venkaiah Award is an annual award incorporated into Nandi Awards to recognize people for their contributions to the Telugu film industry.[49][50]

See also

  • List of cities in Andhra Pradesh
  • List of municipal corporations in Andhra Pradesh

References

  1. ^ “Machilipatnam at Glance”. Machilipatnam Municipality. Retrieved 12 May 2015..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ ab “Andhra Pradesh (India): Districts, Cities, Towns and Outgrowth Wards – Population Statistics in Maps and Charts”. citypopulation.de.
  3. ^ “Mandals in Krishna district”. aponline.gov.in. Archived from the original on 13 December 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
  4. ^ “Krishna District Mandals” (PDF). Census of India. p. 517. Retrieved 18 January 2015.
  5. ^ ab “District Census Handbook – Krishna” (PDF). Census of India. p. 15,16. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  6. ^ Reddy, Consulting Editor-KV Nandini. Social Sci. (History) 7 (Rev.). Ratna Sagar. p. 72. ISBN 9788183322966. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  7. ^ Guru Srikanth, S (2 April 2015). “Machilipatnam Growth May Trigger Off Reverse Migration”. The New Indian Express. Machilipatnam. Archived from the original on 28 November 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  8. ^ Bhatia, Gita Duggal, Joyita Chakrabarti, Mary George, Pooja. Milestones Social Science – 7 (History, Geography, Social and Political Life). Vikas Publishing House. p. 55. ISBN 9789325982673.
  9. ^ Gateways Of Asia. Routledge. ISBN 9781136169021.
  10. ^ “The rise and fall of Maesolia port”. The Hindu. 8 August 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  11. ^ The Great Stupa at Nagarjunakonda in Southern India, p. 187
  12. ^ Periplus, Point 62; http://legacy.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/periplus.asp
  13. ^ Buddhist Monks and Monasteries of India: Their History and Their Contribution to Indian Culture by Sukumar Butt, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1988, p. 132
  14. ^ Edward Stanley Poole (1865). The Thousand and One Nights, Commonly Called The Arabian Nights’ Entertainments, Translated from the Arabic, with Copious Notes, Volume 3 (Volume 1 ed.). Chatto & Windus. p. 89. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  15. ^ “redirect to /world/IN/02/Machilipatnam.html”. fallingrain.com.
  16. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00maplinks/mughal/bellinmasulipatam/overview1758.jpg
  17. ^ “Weather Radar Network of India Meteorological Department”. India Meteorological Department. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
  18. ^ “The Hindu : Andhra Pradesh News : Modern cyclone warning system for Machilipatnam”. hindu.com.
  19. ^ “Musulipatnam Climate Normals 1971–1990”. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
  20. ^ “Climate: machilipatnam”. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  21. ^ “Literacy of AP (Census 2011)” (PDF). Official Portal of Andhra Pradesh Government. p. 43. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  22. ^ “Masula, Srikakulam, Vizianagaram upgraded into corporations”. The Hindu. Vijayawada. 10 December 2015. Archived from the original on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  23. ^ “Population Glitch for Masula to Turn into Corporation”. Machilipatnam. 20 February 2015. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  24. ^ “Machilipatnam info”. Machilipatnam Municipality. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
  25. ^ “State constitutes Machilipatnam Area Development Authority”. Machilipatnam. 2 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
  26. ^ “MLA”. Government of AP. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  27. ^ “Machilipatnam Assembly 2014 Election Results”. Elections.in. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  28. ^ “MP (Lok Sabha)”. Government of AP. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  29. ^ ab Naga Sridhar, G. “A port all at sea”. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
  30. ^ ab T. Appala Naidu (8 August 2015). “The rise and fall of Maesolia port”. Machilipatnam. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  31. ^ Appala Naidu, T (6 February 2016). “MADA to expedite work on deep-sea port project”. The Hindu. Machilipatnam. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
  32. ^ “Kalamkari back in demand”. The Hindu. Tirupati. 25 October 2010. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011.
  33. ^ “State Wise Registration Details of G.I Applications” (PDF). Geographical Indication Registry. p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  34. ^ “Kalamkari: Craft of the matter”. mid-day. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  35. ^ Varma, Sujatha (13 April 2013). “In search of Bandar Laddu”. The Hindu. Retrieved 12 July 2015. Vani sweets, near to the Koneru center and RK sweets, near to the bus stand are famous in the city
  36. ^ “History”. dattapeetham.com.
  37. ^ “Manginapudi Beach”. Andhra Pradesh Tourism. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  38. ^ “Details of Roads in Each ULB of Andhra Pradesh”. Commissioner and Directorate of Municipal Administration. Municipal Administration and Urban Developmemt Department – Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original on 1 August 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
  39. ^ “Bus Stations in Districts”. Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  40. ^ Mareedu, Mouli (21 May 2010). “RTC takes a low blow from Laila”. The Times of Iindia. Hyderabad. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  41. ^ “Depot Name”. APSRTC. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
  42. ^ “Vijayawada Division – a profile” (PDF). Indian Railways. Retrieved 13 February 2013.
  43. ^ “Machilipatnam Railway Station”. India Rail Info. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  44. ^ “G.O. on development of Machilipatnam deep water port” (PDF). Department of Ports. Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  45. ^ “School Education Department” (PDF). School Education Department, Government of Andhra Pradesh. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  46. ^ “The Department of School Education – Official AP State Government Portal | AP State Portal”. www.ap.gov.in. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  47. ^ “Medical Personalities in Chennai – www.chennaibest.com”. 50.6.66.190. Retrieved 2017-10-22.
  48. ^ “LIST OF NANDI, NTR And Raghupati Venkayya Awards”. greatandhra.com.
  49. ^ “Telugu Cinema Celebrity – Raghupati Venkaiah Naidu”.
  50. ^ Nijam cheppamantara, abaddham cheppamantara… “. The Hindu.

External links


What happens when you procession an encampment without having a gold/plunder in your hand?

The name of the pictureThe name of the pictureThe name of the pictureClash Royale CLAN TAG#URR8PPP

8

What happens when you play Procession
on a Encampment with out having a gold or plunder in your hand?

Does procession lose track of Encampment therefore it not able to trash it and it ends up back in the supple? Do you still gain a card and if so what value of card you gain?

share|improve this question

    8

    What happens when you play Procession
    on a Encampment with out having a gold or plunder in your hand?

    Does procession lose track of Encampment therefore it not able to trash it and it ends up back in the supple? Do you still gain a card and if so what value of card you gain?

    share|improve this question

      8

      8

      8

      What happens when you play Procession
      on a Encampment with out having a gold or plunder in your hand?

      Does procession lose track of Encampment therefore it not able to trash it and it ends up back in the supple? Do you still gain a card and if so what value of card you gain?

      share|improve this question

      What happens when you play Procession
      on a Encampment with out having a gold or plunder in your hand?

      Does procession lose track of Encampment therefore it not able to trash it and it ends up back in the supple? Do you still gain a card and if so what value of card you gain?

      dominion dominion-dark-ages dominion-empires

      share|improve this question

      share|improve this question

      share|improve this question

      share|improve this question

      edited Jan 15 at 3:11

      ConMan

      6,7001840

      6,7001840

      asked Jan 15 at 2:59

      StyxsksuStyxsksu

      347112

      347112

          1 Answer
          1

          active

          oldest

          votes

          8

          The Procession plays Encampment for the first time. You don’t reveal a Plunder or Gold, so you set Encampment aside. This does not prevent Procession from playing it a second time, but both Encampment’s attempt to set itself aside again, and Procession’s attempt to trash it, will fail because it’s not currently in play. You gain an Action card costing $3 ($1 more than Encampment), then at the end of your turn you return Encampment to its pile.

          Reasons for what happens:

          1. Procession needs to wait for Encampment to finish being played twice before it can do the trashing. It can’t find Encampment if it’s set aside (because it has “lost track”), so it can’t trash it.

          2. Procession’s “gain an Action card” effect does not depend on successfully trashing the played card (as noted in the FAQ).

          3. “Lose track” effects only happen when an effect tries to move a card, but the card is in an unexpected location. So Procession “thinks” the Encampment is in play and tries to move it to the trash, but since it’s not in the “in-play area” it can’t trash it. But being set aside doesn’t change Encampment’s text or cost so it still does the same thing when it gets played again, and it can still be used to calculate the cost of the card gained by Possession.

          share|improve this answer

          • And 3) “lose track” only prevents a card from being moved; it doesn’t prevent it from being played or from getting information such as the cost. (These seem to be common misconceptions about the lose track rule).

            – GendoIkari
            Jan 15 at 3:34

          • Yes, that. I had it in mind, but didn’t explicitly state it. I will add it to my answer.

            – ConMan
            Jan 15 at 4:56

          • I assume you don’t get to keep the Encampment if you draw a gold off the second time it is played since it has already been put to the side and has been lost track of?

            – Styxsksu
            Jan 17 at 18:06

          • That’s right – once it’s set aside, it will definitely be going back to the supply even if it’s played again and you draw a Gold.

            – ConMan
            Jan 20 at 22:50

          Your Answer

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          8

          The Procession plays Encampment for the first time. You don’t reveal a Plunder or Gold, so you set Encampment aside. This does not prevent Procession from playing it a second time, but both Encampment’s attempt to set itself aside again, and Procession’s attempt to trash it, will fail because it’s not currently in play. You gain an Action card costing $3 ($1 more than Encampment), then at the end of your turn you return Encampment to its pile.

          Reasons for what happens:

          1. Procession needs to wait for Encampment to finish being played twice before it can do the trashing. It can’t find Encampment if it’s set aside (because it has “lost track”), so it can’t trash it.

          2. Procession’s “gain an Action card” effect does not depend on successfully trashing the played card (as noted in the FAQ).

          3. “Lose track” effects only happen when an effect tries to move a card, but the card is in an unexpected location. So Procession “thinks” the Encampment is in play and tries to move it to the trash, but since it’s not in the “in-play area” it can’t trash it. But being set aside doesn’t change Encampment’s text or cost so it still does the same thing when it gets played again, and it can still be used to calculate the cost of the card gained by Possession.

          share|improve this answer

          • And 3) “lose track” only prevents a card from being moved; it doesn’t prevent it from being played or from getting information such as the cost. (These seem to be common misconceptions about the lose track rule).

            – GendoIkari
            Jan 15 at 3:34

          • Yes, that. I had it in mind, but didn’t explicitly state it. I will add it to my answer.

            – ConMan
            Jan 15 at 4:56

          • I assume you don’t get to keep the Encampment if you draw a gold off the second time it is played since it has already been put to the side and has been lost track of?

            – Styxsksu
            Jan 17 at 18:06

          • That’s right – once it’s set aside, it will definitely be going back to the supply even if it’s played again and you draw a Gold.

            – ConMan
            Jan 20 at 22:50

          8

          The Procession plays Encampment for the first time. You don’t reveal a Plunder or Gold, so you set Encampment aside. This does not prevent Procession from playing it a second time, but both Encampment’s attempt to set itself aside again, and Procession’s attempt to trash it, will fail because it’s not currently in play. You gain an Action card costing $3 ($1 more than Encampment), then at the end of your turn you return Encampment to its pile.

          Reasons for what happens:

          1. Procession needs to wait for Encampment to finish being played twice before it can do the trashing. It can’t find Encampment if it’s set aside (because it has “lost track”), so it can’t trash it.

          2. Procession’s “gain an Action card” effect does not depend on successfully trashing the played card (as noted in the FAQ).

          3. “Lose track” effects only happen when an effect tries to move a card, but the card is in an unexpected location. So Procession “thinks” the Encampment is in play and tries to move it to the trash, but since it’s not in the “in-play area” it can’t trash it. But being set aside doesn’t change Encampment’s text or cost so it still does the same thing when it gets played again, and it can still be used to calculate the cost of the card gained by Possession.

          share|improve this answer

          • And 3) “lose track” only prevents a card from being moved; it doesn’t prevent it from being played or from getting information such as the cost. (These seem to be common misconceptions about the lose track rule).

            – GendoIkari
            Jan 15 at 3:34

          • Yes, that. I had it in mind, but didn’t explicitly state it. I will add it to my answer.

            – ConMan
            Jan 15 at 4:56

          • I assume you don’t get to keep the Encampment if you draw a gold off the second time it is played since it has already been put to the side and has been lost track of?

            – Styxsksu
            Jan 17 at 18:06

          • That’s right – once it’s set aside, it will definitely be going back to the supply even if it’s played again and you draw a Gold.

            – ConMan
            Jan 20 at 22:50

          8

          8

          8

          The Procession plays Encampment for the first time. You don’t reveal a Plunder or Gold, so you set Encampment aside. This does not prevent Procession from playing it a second time, but both Encampment’s attempt to set itself aside again, and Procession’s attempt to trash it, will fail because it’s not currently in play. You gain an Action card costing $3 ($1 more than Encampment), then at the end of your turn you return Encampment to its pile.

          Reasons for what happens:

          1. Procession needs to wait for Encampment to finish being played twice before it can do the trashing. It can’t find Encampment if it’s set aside (because it has “lost track”), so it can’t trash it.

          2. Procession’s “gain an Action card” effect does not depend on successfully trashing the played card (as noted in the FAQ).

          3. “Lose track” effects only happen when an effect tries to move a card, but the card is in an unexpected location. So Procession “thinks” the Encampment is in play and tries to move it to the trash, but since it’s not in the “in-play area” it can’t trash it. But being set aside doesn’t change Encampment’s text or cost so it still does the same thing when it gets played again, and it can still be used to calculate the cost of the card gained by Possession.

          share|improve this answer

          The Procession plays Encampment for the first time. You don’t reveal a Plunder or Gold, so you set Encampment aside. This does not prevent Procession from playing it a second time, but both Encampment’s attempt to set itself aside again, and Procession’s attempt to trash it, will fail because it’s not currently in play. You gain an Action card costing $3 ($1 more than Encampment), then at the end of your turn you return Encampment to its pile.

          Reasons for what happens:

          1. Procession needs to wait for Encampment to finish being played twice before it can do the trashing. It can’t find Encampment if it’s set aside (because it has “lost track”), so it can’t trash it.

          2. Procession’s “gain an Action card” effect does not depend on successfully trashing the played card (as noted in the FAQ).

          3. “Lose track” effects only happen when an effect tries to move a card, but the card is in an unexpected location. So Procession “thinks” the Encampment is in play and tries to move it to the trash, but since it’s not in the “in-play area” it can’t trash it. But being set aside doesn’t change Encampment’s text or cost so it still does the same thing when it gets played again, and it can still be used to calculate the cost of the card gained by Possession.

          share|improve this answer

          share|improve this answer

          share|improve this answer

          edited Jan 15 at 4:59

          answered Jan 15 at 3:09

          ConManConMan

          6,7001840

          6,7001840

          • And 3) “lose track” only prevents a card from being moved; it doesn’t prevent it from being played or from getting information such as the cost. (These seem to be common misconceptions about the lose track rule).

            – GendoIkari
            Jan 15 at 3:34

          • Yes, that. I had it in mind, but didn’t explicitly state it. I will add it to my answer.

            – ConMan
            Jan 15 at 4:56

          • I assume you don’t get to keep the Encampment if you draw a gold off the second time it is played since it has already been put to the side and has been lost track of?

            – Styxsksu
            Jan 17 at 18:06

          • That’s right – once it’s set aside, it will definitely be going back to the supply even if it’s played again and you draw a Gold.

            – ConMan
            Jan 20 at 22:50

          • And 3) “lose track” only prevents a card from being moved; it doesn’t prevent it from being played or from getting information such as the cost. (These seem to be common misconceptions about the lose track rule).

            – GendoIkari
            Jan 15 at 3:34

          • Yes, that. I had it in mind, but didn’t explicitly state it. I will add it to my answer.

            – ConMan
            Jan 15 at 4:56

          • I assume you don’t get to keep the Encampment if you draw a gold off the second time it is played since it has already been put to the side and has been lost track of?

            – Styxsksu
            Jan 17 at 18:06

          • That’s right – once it’s set aside, it will definitely be going back to the supply even if it’s played again and you draw a Gold.

            – ConMan
            Jan 20 at 22:50

          And 3) “lose track” only prevents a card from being moved; it doesn’t prevent it from being played or from getting information such as the cost. (These seem to be common misconceptions about the lose track rule).

          – GendoIkari
          Jan 15 at 3:34

          And 3) “lose track” only prevents a card from being moved; it doesn’t prevent it from being played or from getting information such as the cost. (These seem to be common misconceptions about the lose track rule).

          – GendoIkari
          Jan 15 at 3:34

          Yes, that. I had it in mind, but didn’t explicitly state it. I will add it to my answer.

          – ConMan
          Jan 15 at 4:56

          Yes, that. I had it in mind, but didn’t explicitly state it. I will add it to my answer.

          – ConMan
          Jan 15 at 4:56

          I assume you don’t get to keep the Encampment if you draw a gold off the second time it is played since it has already been put to the side and has been lost track of?

          – Styxsksu
          Jan 17 at 18:06

          I assume you don’t get to keep the Encampment if you draw a gold off the second time it is played since it has already been put to the side and has been lost track of?

          – Styxsksu
          Jan 17 at 18:06

          That’s right – once it’s set aside, it will definitely be going back to the supply even if it’s played again and you draw a Gold.

          – ConMan
          Jan 20 at 22:50

          That’s right – once it’s set aside, it will definitely be going back to the supply even if it’s played again and you draw a Gold.

          – ConMan
          Jan 20 at 22:50

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          Nawab of Masulipatam

          The Nawabs of Masulipatam ruled under the Nizam in eastern India. The best known of them was Nawab Haji Hassan Khan.

          Their title later became Nawab of Banganapalle as they shifted from Masulipatam to Banganapalle. They belong to the Najm-i-Sani Dynasty.

          List of nawabs

          The Najm-i-Sani dynasty

          • Nawab Ali Quli Khan Bahadur
          • Nawab Muhammad Taqi Khan Bahadur
          • Nawab Hasan Ali Khan Bahadur (1731–1771)
          • Subhan Bakhsh (1771–1799)
          • Qutb ud-Daula (1799-?)
          • Nawab Muhammad Ali Khan Bahadur (?-1853)
          • Nawab Daud Ali Khan Bahadur (1853–1883)
          • Nawab Husain Ali Khan Bahadur (1883-?)
          • Nawab Jaafar Ali Khan Bahadur

          See also

          • Nawab of Banganapalle
          • Nizam of Hyderabad
          • Nawab of Carnatic

          External links

          • Information about Nawabs of Maulipatam and Banganapalle

          Scrolling with a WACOM tablet pen

          The name of the pictureThe name of the pictureThe name of the pictureClash Royale CLAN TAG#URR8PPP

          14

          I’ve got a wacom pen with a button. How can I trigger scrolling when moving the pen with the button pressed?

          According to xev, below, the triggering events are MotionNotify with state 0x200.

          If this isn’t done trivially, an idea I have is to build a service to read these events from somewhere and transform them into other events. This way, I can define gestures, as well. With this approach:

          • Where can I read them?
          • How can I write events back?
          • Are there libraries to detect gestures?
          MotionNotify event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695630659, (349,181), root:(1255,185),
              state 0x0, is_hint 0, same_screen YES
          
          ButtonPress event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695630659, (349,181), root:(1255,185),
              state 0x0, button 2, same_screen YES
          
          MotionNotify event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695630667, (348,183), root:(1254,187),
              state 0x200, is_hint 0, same_screen YES
          
          MotionNotify event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695630675, (347,184), root:(1253,188),
              state 0x200, is_hint 0, same_screen YES
          
          ...
          
          MotionNotify event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695632069, (327,486), root:(1233,490),
              state 0x200, is_hint 0, same_screen YES
          
          ButtonRelease event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695632069, (327,486), root:(1233,490),
              state 0x200, button 2, same_screen YES
          
          

          share|improve this question

          • Just wanted to ask the same question. Any ideas?

            – student
            Jun 18 ’16 at 15:42

          • What exactly are you trying to accomplish? If it’s just for a certain app, it might be easier to configure it that way. For example, the GIMP will let you scroll an image if you hold down the middle button. In Firefox, I’ve used the “Grab and Drag” extension to make it work similarly.

            – hackerb9
            Dec 28 ’17 at 19:20

          14

          I’ve got a wacom pen with a button. How can I trigger scrolling when moving the pen with the button pressed?

          According to xev, below, the triggering events are MotionNotify with state 0x200.

          If this isn’t done trivially, an idea I have is to build a service to read these events from somewhere and transform them into other events. This way, I can define gestures, as well. With this approach:

          • Where can I read them?
          • How can I write events back?
          • Are there libraries to detect gestures?
          MotionNotify event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695630659, (349,181), root:(1255,185),
              state 0x0, is_hint 0, same_screen YES
          
          ButtonPress event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695630659, (349,181), root:(1255,185),
              state 0x0, button 2, same_screen YES
          
          MotionNotify event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695630667, (348,183), root:(1254,187),
              state 0x200, is_hint 0, same_screen YES
          
          MotionNotify event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695630675, (347,184), root:(1253,188),
              state 0x200, is_hint 0, same_screen YES
          
          ...
          
          MotionNotify event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695632069, (327,486), root:(1233,490),
              state 0x200, is_hint 0, same_screen YES
          
          ButtonRelease event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695632069, (327,486), root:(1233,490),
              state 0x200, button 2, same_screen YES
          
          

          share|improve this question

          • Just wanted to ask the same question. Any ideas?

            – student
            Jun 18 ’16 at 15:42

          • What exactly are you trying to accomplish? If it’s just for a certain app, it might be easier to configure it that way. For example, the GIMP will let you scroll an image if you hold down the middle button. In Firefox, I’ve used the “Grab and Drag” extension to make it work similarly.

            – hackerb9
            Dec 28 ’17 at 19:20

          14

          14

          14

          4

          I’ve got a wacom pen with a button. How can I trigger scrolling when moving the pen with the button pressed?

          According to xev, below, the triggering events are MotionNotify with state 0x200.

          If this isn’t done trivially, an idea I have is to build a service to read these events from somewhere and transform them into other events. This way, I can define gestures, as well. With this approach:

          • Where can I read them?
          • How can I write events back?
          • Are there libraries to detect gestures?
          MotionNotify event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695630659, (349,181), root:(1255,185),
              state 0x0, is_hint 0, same_screen YES
          
          ButtonPress event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695630659, (349,181), root:(1255,185),
              state 0x0, button 2, same_screen YES
          
          MotionNotify event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695630667, (348,183), root:(1254,187),
              state 0x200, is_hint 0, same_screen YES
          
          MotionNotify event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695630675, (347,184), root:(1253,188),
              state 0x200, is_hint 0, same_screen YES
          
          ...
          
          MotionNotify event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695632069, (327,486), root:(1233,490),
              state 0x200, is_hint 0, same_screen YES
          
          ButtonRelease event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695632069, (327,486), root:(1233,490),
              state 0x200, button 2, same_screen YES
          
          

          share|improve this question

          I’ve got a wacom pen with a button. How can I trigger scrolling when moving the pen with the button pressed?

          According to xev, below, the triggering events are MotionNotify with state 0x200.

          If this isn’t done trivially, an idea I have is to build a service to read these events from somewhere and transform them into other events. This way, I can define gestures, as well. With this approach:

          • Where can I read them?
          • How can I write events back?
          • Are there libraries to detect gestures?
          MotionNotify event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695630659, (349,181), root:(1255,185),
              state 0x0, is_hint 0, same_screen YES
          
          ButtonPress event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695630659, (349,181), root:(1255,185),
              state 0x0, button 2, same_screen YES
          
          MotionNotify event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695630667, (348,183), root:(1254,187),
              state 0x200, is_hint 0, same_screen YES
          
          MotionNotify event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695630675, (347,184), root:(1253,188),
              state 0x200, is_hint 0, same_screen YES
          
          ...
          
          MotionNotify event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695632069, (327,486), root:(1233,490),
              state 0x200, is_hint 0, same_screen YES
          
          ButtonRelease event, serial 33, synthetic NO, window 0xc00001,
              root 0x2ce, subw 0x0, time 695632069, (327,486), root:(1233,490),
              state 0x200, button 2, same_screen YES
          
          

          linux xorg hardware wacom

          share|improve this question

          share|improve this question

          share|improve this question

          share|improve this question

          edited Mar 20 ’18 at 22:46

          jw013

          36.2k6100125

          36.2k6100125

          asked Sep 29 ’13 at 15:39

          konrkonr

          1218

          1218

          • Just wanted to ask the same question. Any ideas?

            – student
            Jun 18 ’16 at 15:42

          • What exactly are you trying to accomplish? If it’s just for a certain app, it might be easier to configure it that way. For example, the GIMP will let you scroll an image if you hold down the middle button. In Firefox, I’ve used the “Grab and Drag” extension to make it work similarly.

            – hackerb9
            Dec 28 ’17 at 19:20

          • Just wanted to ask the same question. Any ideas?

            – student
            Jun 18 ’16 at 15:42

          • What exactly are you trying to accomplish? If it’s just for a certain app, it might be easier to configure it that way. For example, the GIMP will let you scroll an image if you hold down the middle button. In Firefox, I’ve used the “Grab and Drag” extension to make it work similarly.

            – hackerb9
            Dec 28 ’17 at 19:20

          Just wanted to ask the same question. Any ideas?

          – student
          Jun 18 ’16 at 15:42

          Just wanted to ask the same question. Any ideas?

          – student
          Jun 18 ’16 at 15:42

          What exactly are you trying to accomplish? If it’s just for a certain app, it might be easier to configure it that way. For example, the GIMP will let you scroll an image if you hold down the middle button. In Firefox, I’ve used the “Grab and Drag” extension to make it work similarly.

          – hackerb9
          Dec 28 ’17 at 19:20

          What exactly are you trying to accomplish? If it’s just for a certain app, it might be easier to configure it that way. For example, the GIMP will let you scroll an image if you hold down the middle button. In Firefox, I’ve used the “Grab and Drag” extension to make it work similarly.

          – hackerb9
          Dec 28 ’17 at 19:20

          1 Answer
          1

          active

          oldest

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          0

          I ran into a much simpler variant of this problem: translating the extra keys on my mouse into keyboard/mouse-button combinations, to allow binding them in the window manager to move/resize windows. Perhaps my code can serve you as a starting point:

          https://gist.github.com/CyberShadow/ae30a8d9f86c170c2451c3dd7edb649c

          The gist of the idea is that it captures input events from my mouse’s /dev/input/... device, optionally modifies them, and writes them back out to /dev/uinput.

          share|improve this answer

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            0

            I ran into a much simpler variant of this problem: translating the extra keys on my mouse into keyboard/mouse-button combinations, to allow binding them in the window manager to move/resize windows. Perhaps my code can serve you as a starting point:

            https://gist.github.com/CyberShadow/ae30a8d9f86c170c2451c3dd7edb649c

            The gist of the idea is that it captures input events from my mouse’s /dev/input/... device, optionally modifies them, and writes them back out to /dev/uinput.

            share|improve this answer

              0

              I ran into a much simpler variant of this problem: translating the extra keys on my mouse into keyboard/mouse-button combinations, to allow binding them in the window manager to move/resize windows. Perhaps my code can serve you as a starting point:

              https://gist.github.com/CyberShadow/ae30a8d9f86c170c2451c3dd7edb649c

              The gist of the idea is that it captures input events from my mouse’s /dev/input/... device, optionally modifies them, and writes them back out to /dev/uinput.

              share|improve this answer

                0

                0

                0

                I ran into a much simpler variant of this problem: translating the extra keys on my mouse into keyboard/mouse-button combinations, to allow binding them in the window manager to move/resize windows. Perhaps my code can serve you as a starting point:

                https://gist.github.com/CyberShadow/ae30a8d9f86c170c2451c3dd7edb649c

                The gist of the idea is that it captures input events from my mouse’s /dev/input/... device, optionally modifies them, and writes them back out to /dev/uinput.

                share|improve this answer

                I ran into a much simpler variant of this problem: translating the extra keys on my mouse into keyboard/mouse-button combinations, to allow binding them in the window manager to move/resize windows. Perhaps my code can serve you as a starting point:

                https://gist.github.com/CyberShadow/ae30a8d9f86c170c2451c3dd7edb649c

                The gist of the idea is that it captures input events from my mouse’s /dev/input/... device, optionally modifies them, and writes them back out to /dev/uinput.

                share|improve this answer

                share|improve this answer

                share|improve this answer

                answered Jul 22 ’18 at 3:57

                Vladimir PanteleevVladimir Panteleev

                789418

                789418

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                    Haji Hassan Khan

                    Haji Hassan Khan
                    Religion Islam
                    Military career
                    Allegiance Mughal Empire
                    Service/branch Nawab of Masulipatam
                    Rank Mansabdar, Faujdar, Subedar, Nawab
                    Battles/wars Carnatic Wars

                    Haji Hassan Khan was Nawab of Masulipatam. He was second son of Nawab Muhammad Taqi Khan Bahadur who in turn was Nawab of Masulipatam.

                    Contents

                    • 1 Official name
                    • 2 Life
                    • 3 Death
                    • 4 Titles held
                    • 5 See also
                    • 6 References
                    • 7 External links

                    Official name

                    His official name was Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Hasan Ali Khan Bahadur, Nawab of Masulipatam.

                    Life

                    He entered the Nizam’s service and appointed to a large mansab. A firman from him authorized the French Representative Fouquet, then chief of the Company at Machilipatnam to set up a loge[1] at Yanaon in the year 1731.

                    He became faujdar of the Northern Circars between 1758 and 1765. Finally he surrendered the government to the HEIC in return for a substantial pension and jagirs. He was greatest of all nawabs of masulipatam.

                    Death

                    He died at Masulipatam in 1771.

                    Titles held

                    Haji Hassan Khan
                    Najm-i-Sani Dynasty
                    Preceded by
                    Nawab Muhammad Taqi Khan Bahadur
                    Nawab of Masulipatam
                    1731*–1771
                    Succeeded by
                    Subhan Bakhsh
                    Preceded by
                    French East Indian Company
                    Faujdar of Northern Circars
                    1758–1765
                    Succeeded by
                    British East India Company

                    * He ascended throne sometime before 1731.

                    See also

                    • Nawab of Carnatic
                    • Nawab of Banganapalle

                    References

                    1. ^ Loge : trade zone where the French enjoyed legal and fiscal privileges

                    External links

                    • Information about Nawabs of Masulipatam and Banganapalle

                    Can’t login to MediaWiki right after installation

                    The name of the pictureThe name of the pictureThe name of the pictureClash Royale CLAN TAG#URR8PPP

                    0

                    When Installing latest stable MediaWiki on A CentOS machine I created a user and a password with my email as part of the LocalSettings.php file that the installer creates.

                    After the installation wizard finished I downloaded the LocalSettings.php file and uploaded it to the site’s directory.

                    I then navigated to MediaWiki site in my browser by the website’s domain.

                    • When I try to login I get an error message that the credentials for my user are wrong.

                    • When I try to retrieve password to my email my username isn’t recognized.

                    • I also tried a capitalized version.

                    Why is it?

                    share|improve this question

                      0

                      When Installing latest stable MediaWiki on A CentOS machine I created a user and a password with my email as part of the LocalSettings.php file that the installer creates.

                      After the installation wizard finished I downloaded the LocalSettings.php file and uploaded it to the site’s directory.

                      I then navigated to MediaWiki site in my browser by the website’s domain.

                      • When I try to login I get an error message that the credentials for my user are wrong.

                      • When I try to retrieve password to my email my username isn’t recognized.

                      • I also tried a capitalized version.

                      Why is it?

                      share|improve this question

                        0

                        0

                        0

                        When Installing latest stable MediaWiki on A CentOS machine I created a user and a password with my email as part of the LocalSettings.php file that the installer creates.

                        After the installation wizard finished I downloaded the LocalSettings.php file and uploaded it to the site’s directory.

                        I then navigated to MediaWiki site in my browser by the website’s domain.

                        • When I try to login I get an error message that the credentials for my user are wrong.

                        • When I try to retrieve password to my email my username isn’t recognized.

                        • I also tried a capitalized version.

                        Why is it?

                        share|improve this question

                        When Installing latest stable MediaWiki on A CentOS machine I created a user and a password with my email as part of the LocalSettings.php file that the installer creates.

                        After the installation wizard finished I downloaded the LocalSettings.php file and uploaded it to the site’s directory.

                        I then navigated to MediaWiki site in my browser by the website’s domain.

                        • When I try to login I get an error message that the credentials for my user are wrong.

                        • When I try to retrieve password to my email my username isn’t recognized.

                        • I also tried a capitalized version.

                        Why is it?

                        centos mediawiki

                        share|improve this question

                        share|improve this question

                        share|improve this question

                        share|improve this question

                        asked Jan 15 at 5:41

                        JohnDoeaJohnDoea

                        581133

                        581133

                            1 Answer
                            1

                            active

                            oldest

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                            0

                            This seems to have been a browser caching issue. After I closed the browser tab and opened another and got into the website anew, I could then login.

                            It might be that I totally closed the browser window — I didn’t notice if I closed it in between using the different tabs. I think I didn’t close the browser window.

                            In either case I didn’t refresh the page F5 or CTRL+R or CTRL+F5 and similar.

                            share|improve this answer

                            • That’s definitely not a browser caching issue. Could be an issue with the server-side cache in MediaWiki (the admin user not being available yet or being in some half-created state) although it seems unlikely. But it’s impossible to debug that without way more details (what cache backend you use etc), especially if it doesn’t happen anymore.

                              – Tgr
                              Jan 15 at 19:52

                            • Thanks, you might want to make this an answer somehow and I’ll gladly accept.

                              – JohnDoea
                              Jan 18 at 23:39

                            Your Answer

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                            0

                            This seems to have been a browser caching issue. After I closed the browser tab and opened another and got into the website anew, I could then login.

                            It might be that I totally closed the browser window — I didn’t notice if I closed it in between using the different tabs. I think I didn’t close the browser window.

                            In either case I didn’t refresh the page F5 or CTRL+R or CTRL+F5 and similar.

                            share|improve this answer

                            • That’s definitely not a browser caching issue. Could be an issue with the server-side cache in MediaWiki (the admin user not being available yet or being in some half-created state) although it seems unlikely. But it’s impossible to debug that without way more details (what cache backend you use etc), especially if it doesn’t happen anymore.

                              – Tgr
                              Jan 15 at 19:52

                            • Thanks, you might want to make this an answer somehow and I’ll gladly accept.

                              – JohnDoea
                              Jan 18 at 23:39

                            0

                            This seems to have been a browser caching issue. After I closed the browser tab and opened another and got into the website anew, I could then login.

                            It might be that I totally closed the browser window — I didn’t notice if I closed it in between using the different tabs. I think I didn’t close the browser window.

                            In either case I didn’t refresh the page F5 or CTRL+R or CTRL+F5 and similar.

                            share|improve this answer

                            • That’s definitely not a browser caching issue. Could be an issue with the server-side cache in MediaWiki (the admin user not being available yet or being in some half-created state) although it seems unlikely. But it’s impossible to debug that without way more details (what cache backend you use etc), especially if it doesn’t happen anymore.

                              – Tgr
                              Jan 15 at 19:52

                            • Thanks, you might want to make this an answer somehow and I’ll gladly accept.

                              – JohnDoea
                              Jan 18 at 23:39

                            0

                            0

                            0

                            This seems to have been a browser caching issue. After I closed the browser tab and opened another and got into the website anew, I could then login.

                            It might be that I totally closed the browser window — I didn’t notice if I closed it in between using the different tabs. I think I didn’t close the browser window.

                            In either case I didn’t refresh the page F5 or CTRL+R or CTRL+F5 and similar.

                            share|improve this answer

                            This seems to have been a browser caching issue. After I closed the browser tab and opened another and got into the website anew, I could then login.

                            It might be that I totally closed the browser window — I didn’t notice if I closed it in between using the different tabs. I think I didn’t close the browser window.

                            In either case I didn’t refresh the page F5 or CTRL+R or CTRL+F5 and similar.

                            share|improve this answer

                            share|improve this answer

                            share|improve this answer

                            answered Jan 15 at 5:41

                            JohnDoeaJohnDoea

                            581133

                            581133

                            • That’s definitely not a browser caching issue. Could be an issue with the server-side cache in MediaWiki (the admin user not being available yet or being in some half-created state) although it seems unlikely. But it’s impossible to debug that without way more details (what cache backend you use etc), especially if it doesn’t happen anymore.

                              – Tgr
                              Jan 15 at 19:52

                            • Thanks, you might want to make this an answer somehow and I’ll gladly accept.

                              – JohnDoea
                              Jan 18 at 23:39

                            • That’s definitely not a browser caching issue. Could be an issue with the server-side cache in MediaWiki (the admin user not being available yet or being in some half-created state) although it seems unlikely. But it’s impossible to debug that without way more details (what cache backend you use etc), especially if it doesn’t happen anymore.

                              – Tgr
                              Jan 15 at 19:52

                            • Thanks, you might want to make this an answer somehow and I’ll gladly accept.

                              – JohnDoea
                              Jan 18 at 23:39

                            That’s definitely not a browser caching issue. Could be an issue with the server-side cache in MediaWiki (the admin user not being available yet or being in some half-created state) although it seems unlikely. But it’s impossible to debug that without way more details (what cache backend you use etc), especially if it doesn’t happen anymore.

                            – Tgr
                            Jan 15 at 19:52

                            That’s definitely not a browser caching issue. Could be an issue with the server-side cache in MediaWiki (the admin user not being available yet or being in some half-created state) although it seems unlikely. But it’s impossible to debug that without way more details (what cache backend you use etc), especially if it doesn’t happen anymore.

                            – Tgr
                            Jan 15 at 19:52

                            Thanks, you might want to make this an answer somehow and I’ll gladly accept.

                            – JohnDoea
                            Jan 18 at 23:39

                            Thanks, you might want to make this an answer somehow and I’ll gladly accept.

                            – JohnDoea
                            Jan 18 at 23:39

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                            French India

                            French establishments in India

                            Établissements Français dans l’Inde
                            1664–1954
                            Flag of French India
                            Flag

                            {{{coat_alt}}}
                            Coat of arms

                            French India after 1815

                            French India after 1815
                            Status French colony
                            Capital Pondichéry
                            Common languages
                            French (de jure)[1]
                            Tamil
                            Telugu
                            Malayalam
                            Bengali
                            English
                            Head of state  
                            • King (1769–1774)
                            Louis XV of France
                            • President (1954)
                            René Coty
                            Commissioner  
                            • 1673
                            François Caron (first)
                            • 1693
                            François Martin (last)
                            High Commissioner  
                            • 1947–1949
                            Charles François Marie Baron (first)
                            • 1954
                            Georges Escargueil (last)
                            Historical era Imperialism
                            • First French East India Company Commissioner of Surat
                            1664
                            • De facto transfer
                            1 November 1954
                            Area
                            1948 508.03 km2 (196.15 sq mi)
                            Population
                            • 1929
                            288546
                            • 1948
                            332045
                            Currency French Indian Rupee

                            Preceded by

                            Succeeded by
                            French East India Company
                            Puducherry
                            Chandannagar
                            Today part of  India
                            Colonial India
                            British Indian Empire

                            Imperial entities of India


                            Dutch India 1605–1825
                            Danish India 1620–1869
                            French India 1668–1954

                            Portuguese India
                            .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}
                            (1505–1961)
                            Casa da Índia 1434–1833
                            Portuguese East India Company 1628–1633

                            British India

                            (1612–1947)
                            East India Company 1612–1757
                            Company rule in India 1757–1858
                            British Raj 1858–1947
                            British rule in Burma 1824–1948
                            Princely states 1721–1949
                            Partition of India
                            1947

                            Map of the first (green) and second (blue — plain and hatched) French colonial empires

                            French India, formally the Établissements Français dans l’Inde[a] (“French establishments in India”), was a French colony comprising geographically separate enclaves on the Indian subcontinent. The possessions were originally acquired by the French East India Company beginning in the second half of the 17th century, and were de facto incorporated into the Dominion of India in 1950 and 1954. The French establishments included Pondichéry, Karikal and Yanaon on the Coromandel Coast, Mahé on the Malabar Coast and Chandernagor in Bengal. French India also included several loges (“lodges”, subsidiary trading stations) in other towns, but after 1816, the loges had little commercial importance and the towns to which they were attached came under British administration.

                            By 1950, the total area measured 510 km2 (200 sq mi), of which 293 km2 (113 sq mi) belonged to the territory of Pondichéry. In 1936, the population of the colony totalled 298,851 inhabitants, of which 63% (187,870) lived in the territory of Pondichéry.[2]

                            Contents

                            • 1 History
                            • 2 List of French establishments in India
                            • 3 List of chief governing officers

                              • 3.1 Commissioners
                              • 3.2 Governors
                              • 3.3 Commissioners
                              • 3.4 High Commissioners
                            • 4 See also
                            • 5 Notes
                            • 6 References
                            • 7 Bibliography
                            • 8 External links

                            History

                            Purple indicates territories under French rule; blue identifies French allies or spheres of influence (1741–1754)

                            France was the last of the major European maritime powers of the 17th century to enter the East India trade. Six decades after the foundation of the English and Dutch East India companies (in 1600 and 1602 respectively), and at a time when both companies were multiplying factories on the shores of India, the French still did not have a viable trading company or a single permanent establishment in the East.

                            Historians have sought to explain France’s late entrance in the East India trade. They cite geopolitical circumstances such as the inland position of the French capital, France’s numerous internal customs barriers and parochial perspectives of merchants on France’s Atlantic coast, who had little appetite for the large-scale investment required to develop a viable trading enterprise with the distant East Indies.[3][4]

                            The first French expedition to India is believed to have taken place in the first half of the 16th century, in the reign of King Francis I, when two ships were fitted out by some merchants of Rouen to trade in eastern seas; they sailed from Le Havre and were never heard of again. In 1604 a company was granted letters patent by King Henry IV, but the project failed. Fresh letters patent were issued in 1615, and two ships went to India, only one returning.

                            From 1658, François Bernier (1625–1688), a French physician and traveller, was for several years the personal physician at the court of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.

                            La Compagnie française des Indes orientales (French East India Company) was formed under the auspices of Cardinal Richelieu (1642) and reconstructed under Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1664), sending an expedition to Madagascar. In 1667 the French India Company sent out another expedition, under the command of François Caron (who was accompanied by a Persian named Marcara), which reached Surat in 1668 and established the first French factory in India.[5][6]

                            In 1669, Marcara succeeded in establishing another French factory at Masulipatam. In 1672, Saint Thomas was taken but the French were driven out by the Dutch. Chandernagore (present-day Chandannagar) was established in 1692, with the permission of Nawab Shaista Khan, the Mughal governor of Bengal. In 1673, the French acquired the area of Pondicherry from the qiladar of Valikondapuram under the Sultan of Bijapur, and thus the foundation of Pondichéry was laid. By 1720, the French had lost their factories at Surat, Masulipatam and Bantam to the British East India Company.

                            A portrait of Ananda Ranga Pillai

                            On 4 February 1673, Bellanger de l’Espinay, a French officer, took up residence in the Danish Lodge in Pondichéry, thereby commencing the French administration of Pondichéry. In 1674 François Martin, the first Governor, initiated ambitious projects to transform Pondichéry from a small fishing village into a flourishing port-town. The French, though, found themselves in continual conflict with the Dutch and the English. The case of France was upheld for many years at the court of the sultan of Golconda, Qutb Shah, by a French huguenot physician named Antoine d’Estremau. In 1693 the Dutch captured Pondichéry and augmented the fortifications. The French regained the town in 1699 through the Treaty of Ryswick, signed on 20 September 1697.

                            From their arrival until 1741, the objectives of the French, like those of the British, were purely commercial. During this period, the French East India Company peacefully acquired Yanam (about 840 kilometres or 520 miles north-east of Pondichéry on Andhra Coast) in 1723, Mahe on Malabar Coast in 1725 and Karaikal (about 150 kilometres or 93 miles south of Pondichéry) in 1739. In the early 18th century, the town of Pondichéry was laid out on a grid pattern and grew considerably. Able governors like Pierre Christophe Le Noir (1726–1735) and Pierre Benoît Dumas (1735–1741) expanded the Pondichéry area and made it a large and rich town.

                            Soon after his arrival in 1741, the most famous governor of French India, Joseph François Dupleix, began to cherish the ambition of a French territorial empire in India in spite of the pronounced uninterested attitude of his distant superiors and of the French government, which didn’t want to provoke the British. Dupleix’s ambition clashed with British interests in India and a period of military skirmishes and political intrigues began and continued even in rare periods when France and Great Britain were officially at peace. Under the command of the Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau, Dupleix’s army successfully controlled the area between Hyderabad and Cape Comorin. But then Robert Clive arrived in India in 1744, a British officer who dashed the hopes of Dupleix to create a French empire India.

                            After a defeat and failed peace talks, Dupleix was summarily dismissed and recalled to France in 1754.

                            In spite of a treaty between the British and French agreeing not to interfere in regional Indian affairs, their colonial intrigues continued. The French expanded their influence at the court of the Nawab of Bengal and increased their trading activity in Bengal. In 1756, the French encouraged the Nawab (Siraj ud-Daulah) to attack and take the British Fort William in Calcutta. This led to the Battle of Plassey in 1757, where the British decisively defeated the Nawab and his French allies, resulting in the extension of British power over the entire province of Bengal.

                            Subsequently, France sent Lally-Tollendal to recover the lost French possessions and drive the British out of India. Lally arrived in Pondichéry in 1758, had some initial success and razed Fort St. David in Cuddalore District to the ground in 1758, but strategic mistakes by Lally led to the loss of the Hyderabad region, the Battle of Wandiwash, and the siege of Pondicherry in 1760. In 1761, the British razed Pondichéry to the ground in revenge for the French depredations; it lay in ruins for four years. The French had lost their hold now in South India too.

                            In 1765 Pondichéry was returned to France in accordance with a 1763 peace treaty with Britain. Governor Jean Law de Lauriston set to rebuild the town on its former layout and after five months 200 European and 2000 Tamil houses had been erected. In 1769 the French East India Company, unable to support itself financially, was abolished by the French Crown, which assumed administration of the French possessions in India. During the next 50 years Pondichéry changed hands between France and Britain with the regularity of their wars and peace treaties.

                            Colonial India
                            British Indian Empire

                            Imperial entities of India


                            Dutch India 1605–1825
                            Danish India 1620–1869
                            French India 1668–1954

                            Portuguese India

                            (1505–1961)
                            Casa da Índia 1434–1833
                            Portuguese East India Company 1628–1633

                            British India

                            (1612–1947)
                            East India Company 1612–1757
                            Company rule in India 1757–1858
                            British Raj 1858–1947
                            British rule in Burma 1824–1948
                            Princely states 1721–1949
                            Partition of India
                            1947

                            In 1816, after the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars, the five establishments of Pondichéry, Chandernagore, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam and the lodges at Machilipatnam, Kozhikode and Surat were returned to France. Pondichéry had lost much of its former glory, and Chandernagore dwindled into an insignificant outpost to the north of the rapidly growing British metropolis of Calcutta. Successive governors tried, with mixed results, to improve infrastructure, industry, law and education over the next 138 years.

                            By a decree of 25 January 1871, French India was to have an elective general council (conseil général) and elective local councils (conseil local). The results of this measure were not very satisfactory, and the qualifications for and the classes of the franchise were modified. The governor resided at Pondichéry, and was assisted by a council. There were two Tribunaux d’instance (Tribunals of first instance) (at Pondichéry and Karikal) one Cour d’appel (Court of Appeal) (at Pondichéry) and five Justices de paix (Justices of the Peace). Agricultural production consisted of rice, peanuts, tobacco, betel nuts and vegetables.

                            The Independence of India on 15 August 1947 gave impetus to the union of France’s Indian possessions with former British India. The lodges in Machilipatnam, Kozhikode and Surat were ceded to India in October 1947. An agreement between France and India in 1948 agreed to an election in France’s remaining Indian possessions to choose their political future. Governance of Chandernagore was ceded to India on 2 May 1950, then it was merged with West Bengal state on 2 October 1954. On 1 November 1954, the four enclaves of Pondichéry, Yanam, Mahe, and Karikal were de facto transferred to the Indian Union and became the Union Territory of Puducherry. The de jure union of French India with India did not take place until 1962, when the French Parliament in Paris ratified the treaty with India.

                            List of French establishments in India

                            French India

                            Pondichéry
                            Pondichéry
                            Karikal
                            Karikal
                            Masulipatam
                            Masulipatam
                            Mahé
                            Mahé
                            Calicut
                            Calicut
                            Chandernagore
                            Chandernagore
                            Cassimbazar
                            Cassimbazar
                            Jugdia
                            Jugdia
                            Dacca
                            Dacca
                            Balasore
                            Balasore
                            Patna
                            Patna
                            Surat
                            Surat
                            Yanaon
                            Yanaon

                            French establishments and loges as of 1947
                              Bengal   Coromandel coast   Gujarat   Malabar coast   Orissa

                            The French establishments of India are all located in the Indian peninsula. These establishments are [7]

                            1. On the Coramandel coast,
                              • Pondichéry and its territory comprising districts of Pondichéry, Villenour and Bahour;
                              • Karikal and its dependent maganams, or districts.
                            2. On the coast of Orissa,
                              • Yanaon and its territory comprising dependent aldées or villages;
                              • The Masulipatam loge.
                            3. On the Malabar coast,
                              • Mahé and its territory;
                              • The Calicut loge.
                            4. In Bengal,
                              • Chandernagore and its territory;
                              • The five loges of Cassimbazar, Jugdia, Dacca, Balasore and Patna.
                            5. In Gujarat,
                              • Surat factory.

                            The name ‘loge’ was given, under the regime of the French East India company, in factories or insulated establishments consisting of a home with an adjacent ground, where France had the right to fly its flag and to form trading posts.

                            List of chief governing officers

                            Bellin’s map of India (Indoustan), 1770

                            Commissioners

                            • François Caron, 1668–1672
                            • François Baron, 1672–1681
                            • François Martin, 1681 – November 1693
                            • Dutch occupation, September 1693 – September 1699 — Treaty of Ryswick (1697)

                            Governors

                            In the days of the French East India Company, the title of the top official was most of the time Gouverneur de Pondichéry et commandant général des établissements français aux Indes orientales. After 1816, it was Gouverneur des établissements français de l’Inde.

                            • François Martin, September 1699 – 31 December 1706
                            • Pierre Dulivier, January 1707 – July 1708
                            • Guillaume André d’Hébert, 1708–1712
                            • Pierre Dulivier, 1712–1717
                            • Guillaume André d’Hébert, 1717–1718
                            • Pierre André Prévost de La Prévostière, August 1718 – 11 October 1721
                            • Pierre Christoph Le Noir (Acting), 1721–1723
                            • Joseph Beauvollier de Courchant, 1723–1726
                            • Pierre Christoph Le Noir, 1726–1734
                            • Pierre Benoît Dumas, 1734–1741
                            • Joseph François Dupleix, 14 January 1742 – 15 October 1754
                            • Charles Godeheu, Le commissaire (Acting), 15 October 1754–1754
                            • Georges Duval de Leyrit, 1754–1758
                            • Thomas Arthur, comte de Lally, 1758 – 1716 January 1761
                            • First British occupation, January 15, 1761 – June 25, 1765 — Treaty of Paris (1763)
                            • Jean Law de Lauriston, 1765–1766
                            • Antoine Boyellau, 1766–1767
                            • Jean Law de Lauriston, 1767 – January 1777
                            • Guillaume de Bellecombe, seigneur de Teirac, January 1777–1782
                            • Charles Joseph Pâtissier, Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau, 1783–1785
                            • François, Vicomte de Souillac, 1785
                            • David Charpentier de Cossigny, October 1785–1787
                            • Thomas, comte de Conway, October 1787–1789
                            • Camille Charles Leclerc, chevalier de Fresne, 1789–1792
                            • Dominique Prosper de Chermont, November 1792–1793
                            • L. Leroux de Touffreville, 1793

                            Colonial Yanaon

                            View of Pondicherry in the late 18th century

                            French factory at Patna on the Ganges

                            Governor’s Garden at Pondicherry, 18th century

                            View of the Palace of the Governor of Pondicherry in 1850

                            • Second British occupation, 23 August 1793 – 18 June 1802 — Treaty of Amiens (1802)
                            • Charles Matthieu Isidore, Comte Decaen, 18 June 1802 – August 1803
                            • Louis François Binot, 1803
                            • Third British occupation, August 1803 – 26 September 1816 — Treaty of Paris (1814)
                            • André Julien Comte Dupuy, 26 September 1816 – October 1825
                            • Joseph Cordier, Marie Emmanuel (Acting), October 1825 – 19 June 1826
                            • Eugène Desbassayns de Richemont, 1826 – 2 August 1828
                            • Joseph Cordier, Marie Emmanuel (Acting), 2 August 1828 – 11 April 1829
                            • Auguste Jacques Nicolas Peureux de Mélay, 11 April 1829 – 3 May 1835
                            • Hubert Jean Victor, Marquis de Saint-Simon, 3 May 1835 – April 1840
                            • Paul de Nourquer du Camper, April 1840–1844
                            • Louis Pujol, 1844–1849
                            • Hyacinthe Marie de Lalande de Calan, 1849–1850
                            • Philippe Achille Bédier, 1851–1852
                            • Raymond de Saint-Maur, August 1852 – April 1857
                            • Alexandre Durand d’Ubraye, April 1857 – January 1863
                            • Napoléon Joseph Louis Bontemps, January 1863 – June 1871
                            • Antoine-Léonce Michaux, June 1871 – November 1871
                            • Pierre Aristide Faron, November 1871–1875
                            • Adolph Joseph Antoine Trillard, 1875–1878
                            • Léonce Laugier, February 1879 – April 1881
                            • Théodore Drouhet, 1881 – October 1884
                            • Étienne Richaud, October 1884–1886
                            • Édouard Manès, 1886–1888
                            • Georges Jules Piquet, 1888–1889
                            • Louis Hippolyte Marie Nouet, 1889–1891
                            • Léon Émile Clément-Thomas, 1891–1896
                            • Louis Jean Girod, 1896 – February 1898
                            • François Pierre Rodier, February 1898 – 11 January 1902
                            • Pelletan (Acting), 11 January 1902
                            • Victor Louis Marie Lanrezac, 1902–1904
                            • Philema Lemaire, August 1904 – April 1905
                            • Joseph Pascal François, April 1905 – October 1906
                            • Gabriel Louis Angoulvant, October 1906 – 3 December 1907
                            • Adrien Jules Jean Bonhoure, 1908–1909
                            • Ernest Fernand Lévecque, 1909 – 9 July 1910
                            • Alfred Albert Martineau, 9 July 1910 – July 1911
                            • Pierre Louis Alfred Duprat, July 1911 – November 1913
                            • Alfred Albert Martineau, November 1913 – 29 June 1918
                            • Pierre Etienne Clayssen (acting), 29 June 1918 – 21 February 1919
                            • Louis Martial Innocent Gerbinis, 21 February 1919 – 11 February 1926
                            • Henri Leo Eugene Lagroua (Acting), 11 February 1926 – 5 August 1926
                            • Pierre Jean Henri Didelot, 1926–1928
                            • Robert Paul Marie de Guise, 1928–1931
                            • François Adrien Juvanon, 1931–1934
                            • Léon Solomiac, August 1934–1936
                            • Horace Valentin Crocicchia, 1936–1938
                            • Louis Alexis Étienne Bonvin, 26 September 1938 – 1945
                            • Nicolas Ernest Marie Maurice Jeandin, 1945–1946
                            • Charles François Marie Baron, 20 March 1946 – 20 August 1947

                            French India became a territoire d’outre-mer of France in 1946.

                            Commissioners

                            • Charles François Marie Baron, 20 August 1947 – May 1949
                            • Charles Chambon, May 1949 – 31 July 1950
                            • André Ménard, 31 July 1950 – October 1954
                            • Georges Escargueil, October 1954 – 1 November 1954

                            French India de facto transferred to the Republic of India in 1954.

                            High Commissioners

                            • Mr. Kewal Singh, 1 November 1954–1957
                            • M. K. Kripalani, 1957–1958
                            • L. R. S. Singh, 1958–1959
                            • A. S. Bam, 1959–1960
                            • Sarat Kumar Dutta, 1961

                            See also

                            • Apostolic Prefecture of French Colonies in India (Catholic mission)
                            • British Raj
                            • Causes for liberation of French colonies in India
                            • Coup d’état of Yanaon
                            • Danish India
                            • Dutch India
                            • Municipal administration in French India
                            • Portuguese India

                            Notes

                            1. ^ In France, the official name was customarily used in official documents; the expression Inde française was generally not used as it seemed too grandiose, inasmuch as the Indian territory under French administration was minuscule, especially in comparison to British India. Among the French population and in the French press, the expression Comptoirs de l’Inde was commonly used. Properly speaking, though, a comptoir is a trading station, whereas the French possessions in India comprehended entire towns and were not mere trading stations.

                            References

                            1. ^ however not widelyin practice; regional and local tongues as well as English de facto]]
                            2. ^ Jacques Weber, Pondichéry et les comptoirs de l’Inde après Dupleix, Éditions Denoël, Paris, 1996, p. 347.
                            3. ^ Holden Furber, Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient, 1600–1800, University of Minnesota Press, 1976, p. 201.
                            4. ^ Philippe Haudrère, Les Compagnies des Indes Orientales, Paris, 2006, p 70.
                            5. ^ Asia in the making of Europe, p. 747.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.
                            6. ^ The Cambridge history of the British Empire, p. 66.
                            7. ^ Chapitre II, Notices statistiques sur les colonies françaises, 1839.
                            •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “India, French” . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

                            Bibliography

                            • Sudipta Das (1992). Myths and realities of French imperialism in India, 1763–1783. New York: P. Lang.
                              ISBN 0820416762. 459p.

                            External links

                            • French Books on India: Representations of India in French Literature and Culture 1750 to 1962 – University of Liverpool
                            • V. Sankaran, Freedom struggle in Pondicherry – Gov’t of India publication


                            E: Couldn’t find any package by regex ‘linux-headers-3.10.0-862.14.4.el7.x86_64

                            The name of the pictureThe name of the pictureThe name of the pictureClash Royale CLAN TAG#URR8PPP

                            0

                            I am using ubuntu 14. when I run the command below I get the error in the title. I searched but I could not find how to solve it. Thanks.

                            apt-get install -y linux-headers-$(uname -r)
                            

                            error:

                            Reading package lists... Done
                            Building dependency tree       
                            Reading state information... Done
                            E: Unable to locate package linux-headers-3.10.0-862.14.4.el7.x86_64
                            E: Couldn't find any package by regex 'linux-headers-3.10.0-862.14.4.el7.x86_64'
                            

                            share|improve this question

                            • That’s a RHEL 7 or CentOS 7 kernel, not a Ubuntu kernel. Are you working inside a container?

                              – Stephen Kitt
                              Jan 15 at 6:14

                            • es I have made a container with cuda 7 and ubuntu14.0

                              – parvaneh
                              Jan 15 at 20:26

                            0

                            I am using ubuntu 14. when I run the command below I get the error in the title. I searched but I could not find how to solve it. Thanks.

                            apt-get install -y linux-headers-$(uname -r)
                            

                            error:

                            Reading package lists... Done
                            Building dependency tree       
                            Reading state information... Done
                            E: Unable to locate package linux-headers-3.10.0-862.14.4.el7.x86_64
                            E: Couldn't find any package by regex 'linux-headers-3.10.0-862.14.4.el7.x86_64'
                            

                            share|improve this question

                            • That’s a RHEL 7 or CentOS 7 kernel, not a Ubuntu kernel. Are you working inside a container?

                              – Stephen Kitt
                              Jan 15 at 6:14

                            • es I have made a container with cuda 7 and ubuntu14.0

                              – parvaneh
                              Jan 15 at 20:26

                            0

                            0

                            0

                            I am using ubuntu 14. when I run the command below I get the error in the title. I searched but I could not find how to solve it. Thanks.

                            apt-get install -y linux-headers-$(uname -r)
                            

                            error:

                            Reading package lists... Done
                            Building dependency tree       
                            Reading state information... Done
                            E: Unable to locate package linux-headers-3.10.0-862.14.4.el7.x86_64
                            E: Couldn't find any package by regex 'linux-headers-3.10.0-862.14.4.el7.x86_64'
                            

                            share|improve this question

                            I am using ubuntu 14. when I run the command below I get the error in the title. I searched but I could not find how to solve it. Thanks.

                            apt-get install -y linux-headers-$(uname -r)
                            

                            error:

                            Reading package lists... Done
                            Building dependency tree       
                            Reading state information... Done
                            E: Unable to locate package linux-headers-3.10.0-862.14.4.el7.x86_64
                            E: Couldn't find any package by regex 'linux-headers-3.10.0-862.14.4.el7.x86_64'
                            

                            ubuntu

                            share|improve this question

                            share|improve this question

                            share|improve this question

                            share|improve this question

                            asked Jan 15 at 5:52

                            parvanehparvaneh

                            1

                            1

                            • That’s a RHEL 7 or CentOS 7 kernel, not a Ubuntu kernel. Are you working inside a container?

                              – Stephen Kitt
                              Jan 15 at 6:14

                            • es I have made a container with cuda 7 and ubuntu14.0

                              – parvaneh
                              Jan 15 at 20:26

                            • That’s a RHEL 7 or CentOS 7 kernel, not a Ubuntu kernel. Are you working inside a container?

                              – Stephen Kitt
                              Jan 15 at 6:14

                            • es I have made a container with cuda 7 and ubuntu14.0

                              – parvaneh
                              Jan 15 at 20:26

                            That’s a RHEL 7 or CentOS 7 kernel, not a Ubuntu kernel. Are you working inside a container?

                            – Stephen Kitt
                            Jan 15 at 6:14

                            That’s a RHEL 7 or CentOS 7 kernel, not a Ubuntu kernel. Are you working inside a container?

                            – Stephen Kitt
                            Jan 15 at 6:14

                            es I have made a container with cuda 7 and ubuntu14.0

                            – parvaneh
                            Jan 15 at 20:26

                            es I have made a container with cuda 7 and ubuntu14.0

                            – parvaneh
                            Jan 15 at 20:26

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                            Proprietary RF Protocol Security

                            The name of the pictureThe name of the pictureThe name of the pictureClash Royale CLAN TAG#URR8PPP

                            3

                            I’ve just been reading this article on proprietary RF protocols vs Bluetooth and it seems to be suggesting that the security through obscurity gained through a proprietary protocol is advantageous over the more well-known Bluetooth.

                            It states that

                            The case for proprietary PHY and protocol is strong if a design requires optimization in the direction of security…

                            and

                            …proprietary designs ensure “security-through-obscurity,” in that an RF interface that isn’t well known is harder to hack.

                            From a purely security standpoint, would I be better off developing my product targeting a proprietary RF protocol that I design, or sticking with Bluetooth?

                            share|improve this question

                              3

                              I’ve just been reading this article on proprietary RF protocols vs Bluetooth and it seems to be suggesting that the security through obscurity gained through a proprietary protocol is advantageous over the more well-known Bluetooth.

                              It states that

                              The case for proprietary PHY and protocol is strong if a design requires optimization in the direction of security…

                              and

                              …proprietary designs ensure “security-through-obscurity,” in that an RF interface that isn’t well known is harder to hack.

                              From a purely security standpoint, would I be better off developing my product targeting a proprietary RF protocol that I design, or sticking with Bluetooth?

                              share|improve this question

                                3

                                3

                                3

                                I’ve just been reading this article on proprietary RF protocols vs Bluetooth and it seems to be suggesting that the security through obscurity gained through a proprietary protocol is advantageous over the more well-known Bluetooth.

                                It states that

                                The case for proprietary PHY and protocol is strong if a design requires optimization in the direction of security…

                                and

                                …proprietary designs ensure “security-through-obscurity,” in that an RF interface that isn’t well known is harder to hack.

                                From a purely security standpoint, would I be better off developing my product targeting a proprietary RF protocol that I design, or sticking with Bluetooth?

                                share|improve this question

                                I’ve just been reading this article on proprietary RF protocols vs Bluetooth and it seems to be suggesting that the security through obscurity gained through a proprietary protocol is advantageous over the more well-known Bluetooth.

                                It states that

                                The case for proprietary PHY and protocol is strong if a design requires optimization in the direction of security…

                                and

                                …proprietary designs ensure “security-through-obscurity,” in that an RF interface that isn’t well known is harder to hack.

                                From a purely security standpoint, would I be better off developing my product targeting a proprietary RF protocol that I design, or sticking with Bluetooth?

                                bluetooth

                                share|improve this question

                                share|improve this question

                                share|improve this question

                                share|improve this question

                                asked Jan 15 at 0:24

                                Oliver.ROliver.R

                                184

                                184

                                    2 Answers
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                                    2

                                    That article’s security advice is so wrong that presenting it borders on engineering negligence. “Security through obscurity” has been known to be a flawed approach for over 160 years. Pretending that nobody cares about your signals is a strategy best left to the ostriches that came up with it; it is not an actual, viable security strategy in the modern world.

                                    Like everything else associated with security, this past decade has seen the world getting much tougher for the security of RF communications. The introduction of cheap Software Defined Radio hardware has led to a host of open source RF protocol disassembly and analysis tools, rendering the security properties of most proprietary applications all but transparent. If you’d like to see some examples, here’s a video demo showing decoding various 433MHz signals using rtl_433; and here’s a Universal Radio Hacker tool that can automatically detect, parse, and playback many forms of communications. The only investment needed to get started is an under-$20 USB receiver and a computer.

                                    Standardized protocols have the advantage of years of real-world attackers trying to break into the communications. The few comparatively secure protocols in common use today (Bluetooth, WPA3, NFC) are those that have had earlier implementations cracked and broken over and over, and through the iterative process have been refined and improved. Even so, today’s “secure” protocols can have exploitable vulnerabilities discovered tomorrow.

                                    So where does all that bad news that leave you? Your first task is to figure out what an attacker stands to gain by breaking your protocol. Can he remotely operate equipment? Unlock cars? Disable alarms? Make a children’s toy emit terrifying noises? The more “value” your protocol protects (including your customers’ reputations), the more incentive attackers have to crack it.

                                    Today’s “RF script kiddies” are an extremely well-armed bunch, and they gain respect by hacking new signals; do not discount their abilities or tenacity.

                                    A homegrown protocol may be cheap, but it will be completely insecure. If security researchers and professionals can’t get a protocol secure after 20 years of trying, you know it’s not an easy problem to solve. Homegrown might be fine if you’re looking to change the color of a desk lamp; it will not be so good if you’re looking to operate door locks. A standard protocol will have a much better security model, but might have higher unit costs or energy requirements; and even a standard protocol won’t remain perfect over time. Your best defense in both cases is to provide a firmware patching mechanism that will allow your customers to securely upgrade and fix future security bugs.

                                    In summary: everything that DigiKey article said about security is wrong. Please disregard it. Your customers deserve much better.

                                    share|improve this answer

                                    • 1

                                      Okay, very bad idea, thank you for the straightforward advice!

                                      – Oliver.R
                                      Jan 15 at 6:50

                                    • This is a great answer, especially the threat model stuff; this is where you define why and how you need to be protected. Figuring that out would be the first step. Perhaps a toy walky-talky can do with an insecure home grown RF design. Perhaps that

                                      – John Keates
                                      Jan 16 at 1:56

                                    2

                                    This is a great question and very important as companies move to industrial IoT, which is where I see this come up the most. I can say, from first hand pentesting experience, that proprietary protocols using “Security through obscurity” are very dangerous.

                                    The problem with proprietary protocols is that they are not typically fully developed or developed with a specific focus on security in mind, or at all, in my experience. Typically the RF engineer to build the protocol is an EE not a security professional.

                                    Proprietary protocols not being safe is also true with more than RF and also applies to ethernet or serial protocols. I’ve had companies tell me their device is secure because [pick someone] couldn’t figure out the protocol. Yes, that can happen if you have a classic IT red-team, but when you send it to us and we pull out a spectrum analyzer and reverse it and everything is in plain text I’d call that almost no security. Definitely not security you can count on. I can personally verify my lab reversing multiple proprietary Ethernet protocols and 2 wireless RF and one IR. All insecure.

                                    You can also run into multiple other problems, like information leakage, developer backdoors (how about a command to factory reset a device with no authentication, for example), and just broken QA. You also have to pay for all of that now.

                                    Standard bluetooth has a built ability to use AES encryption. I’d highly recommend that approach. 6lowpan and Zigbee are less “known” but both have undoubtedly been fully broken apart by nation state security professionals, as if we did it in our 10 man lab I don’t believe the NSA has not although, I have no proof.

                                    So to be clear, if you would like to pay engineers and security engineers to build you a secure protocol and go through full QA and Pen testing, that’s not a bad thing. If you want to create a simple, unencrypted protocol, and hope “no one will look” I’d say that’s a recipe for disaster. Or you could just use Zigbee/Bluetooth and make sure encryption is enabled.

                                    That said, yes proprietary protocols will be out of reach of the “Script Kiddie,” but I wouldn’t call that ideal security.

                                    share|improve this answer

                                    • Agreed with this approach. I was thinking at a point designing an alternate to the IP protocol, but the possible security implication did not make viable for trying.

                                      – Overmind
                                      Jan 15 at 6:30

                                    • @Overmind I know comments aren’t supposed to be for chat but I would love to talk about that. You can’t DM in SE can you?

                                      – bashCypher
                                      Jan 15 at 22:47

                                    Your Answer

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                                    2

                                    That article’s security advice is so wrong that presenting it borders on engineering negligence. “Security through obscurity” has been known to be a flawed approach for over 160 years. Pretending that nobody cares about your signals is a strategy best left to the ostriches that came up with it; it is not an actual, viable security strategy in the modern world.

                                    Like everything else associated with security, this past decade has seen the world getting much tougher for the security of RF communications. The introduction of cheap Software Defined Radio hardware has led to a host of open source RF protocol disassembly and analysis tools, rendering the security properties of most proprietary applications all but transparent. If you’d like to see some examples, here’s a video demo showing decoding various 433MHz signals using rtl_433; and here’s a Universal Radio Hacker tool that can automatically detect, parse, and playback many forms of communications. The only investment needed to get started is an under-$20 USB receiver and a computer.

                                    Standardized protocols have the advantage of years of real-world attackers trying to break into the communications. The few comparatively secure protocols in common use today (Bluetooth, WPA3, NFC) are those that have had earlier implementations cracked and broken over and over, and through the iterative process have been refined and improved. Even so, today’s “secure” protocols can have exploitable vulnerabilities discovered tomorrow.

                                    So where does all that bad news that leave you? Your first task is to figure out what an attacker stands to gain by breaking your protocol. Can he remotely operate equipment? Unlock cars? Disable alarms? Make a children’s toy emit terrifying noises? The more “value” your protocol protects (including your customers’ reputations), the more incentive attackers have to crack it.

                                    Today’s “RF script kiddies” are an extremely well-armed bunch, and they gain respect by hacking new signals; do not discount their abilities or tenacity.

                                    A homegrown protocol may be cheap, but it will be completely insecure. If security researchers and professionals can’t get a protocol secure after 20 years of trying, you know it’s not an easy problem to solve. Homegrown might be fine if you’re looking to change the color of a desk lamp; it will not be so good if you’re looking to operate door locks. A standard protocol will have a much better security model, but might have higher unit costs or energy requirements; and even a standard protocol won’t remain perfect over time. Your best defense in both cases is to provide a firmware patching mechanism that will allow your customers to securely upgrade and fix future security bugs.

                                    In summary: everything that DigiKey article said about security is wrong. Please disregard it. Your customers deserve much better.

                                    share|improve this answer

                                    • 1

                                      Okay, very bad idea, thank you for the straightforward advice!

                                      – Oliver.R
                                      Jan 15 at 6:50

                                    • This is a great answer, especially the threat model stuff; this is where you define why and how you need to be protected. Figuring that out would be the first step. Perhaps a toy walky-talky can do with an insecure home grown RF design. Perhaps that

                                      – John Keates
                                      Jan 16 at 1:56

                                    2

                                    That article’s security advice is so wrong that presenting it borders on engineering negligence. “Security through obscurity” has been known to be a flawed approach for over 160 years. Pretending that nobody cares about your signals is a strategy best left to the ostriches that came up with it; it is not an actual, viable security strategy in the modern world.

                                    Like everything else associated with security, this past decade has seen the world getting much tougher for the security of RF communications. The introduction of cheap Software Defined Radio hardware has led to a host of open source RF protocol disassembly and analysis tools, rendering the security properties of most proprietary applications all but transparent. If you’d like to see some examples, here’s a video demo showing decoding various 433MHz signals using rtl_433; and here’s a Universal Radio Hacker tool that can automatically detect, parse, and playback many forms of communications. The only investment needed to get started is an under-$20 USB receiver and a computer.

                                    Standardized protocols have the advantage of years of real-world attackers trying to break into the communications. The few comparatively secure protocols in common use today (Bluetooth, WPA3, NFC) are those that have had earlier implementations cracked and broken over and over, and through the iterative process have been refined and improved. Even so, today’s “secure” protocols can have exploitable vulnerabilities discovered tomorrow.

                                    So where does all that bad news that leave you? Your first task is to figure out what an attacker stands to gain by breaking your protocol. Can he remotely operate equipment? Unlock cars? Disable alarms? Make a children’s toy emit terrifying noises? The more “value” your protocol protects (including your customers’ reputations), the more incentive attackers have to crack it.

                                    Today’s “RF script kiddies” are an extremely well-armed bunch, and they gain respect by hacking new signals; do not discount their abilities or tenacity.

                                    A homegrown protocol may be cheap, but it will be completely insecure. If security researchers and professionals can’t get a protocol secure after 20 years of trying, you know it’s not an easy problem to solve. Homegrown might be fine if you’re looking to change the color of a desk lamp; it will not be so good if you’re looking to operate door locks. A standard protocol will have a much better security model, but might have higher unit costs or energy requirements; and even a standard protocol won’t remain perfect over time. Your best defense in both cases is to provide a firmware patching mechanism that will allow your customers to securely upgrade and fix future security bugs.

                                    In summary: everything that DigiKey article said about security is wrong. Please disregard it. Your customers deserve much better.

                                    share|improve this answer

                                    • 1

                                      Okay, very bad idea, thank you for the straightforward advice!

                                      – Oliver.R
                                      Jan 15 at 6:50

                                    • This is a great answer, especially the threat model stuff; this is where you define why and how you need to be protected. Figuring that out would be the first step. Perhaps a toy walky-talky can do with an insecure home grown RF design. Perhaps that

                                      – John Keates
                                      Jan 16 at 1:56

                                    2

                                    2

                                    2

                                    That article’s security advice is so wrong that presenting it borders on engineering negligence. “Security through obscurity” has been known to be a flawed approach for over 160 years. Pretending that nobody cares about your signals is a strategy best left to the ostriches that came up with it; it is not an actual, viable security strategy in the modern world.

                                    Like everything else associated with security, this past decade has seen the world getting much tougher for the security of RF communications. The introduction of cheap Software Defined Radio hardware has led to a host of open source RF protocol disassembly and analysis tools, rendering the security properties of most proprietary applications all but transparent. If you’d like to see some examples, here’s a video demo showing decoding various 433MHz signals using rtl_433; and here’s a Universal Radio Hacker tool that can automatically detect, parse, and playback many forms of communications. The only investment needed to get started is an under-$20 USB receiver and a computer.

                                    Standardized protocols have the advantage of years of real-world attackers trying to break into the communications. The few comparatively secure protocols in common use today (Bluetooth, WPA3, NFC) are those that have had earlier implementations cracked and broken over and over, and through the iterative process have been refined and improved. Even so, today’s “secure” protocols can have exploitable vulnerabilities discovered tomorrow.

                                    So where does all that bad news that leave you? Your first task is to figure out what an attacker stands to gain by breaking your protocol. Can he remotely operate equipment? Unlock cars? Disable alarms? Make a children’s toy emit terrifying noises? The more “value” your protocol protects (including your customers’ reputations), the more incentive attackers have to crack it.

                                    Today’s “RF script kiddies” are an extremely well-armed bunch, and they gain respect by hacking new signals; do not discount their abilities or tenacity.

                                    A homegrown protocol may be cheap, but it will be completely insecure. If security researchers and professionals can’t get a protocol secure after 20 years of trying, you know it’s not an easy problem to solve. Homegrown might be fine if you’re looking to change the color of a desk lamp; it will not be so good if you’re looking to operate door locks. A standard protocol will have a much better security model, but might have higher unit costs or energy requirements; and even a standard protocol won’t remain perfect over time. Your best defense in both cases is to provide a firmware patching mechanism that will allow your customers to securely upgrade and fix future security bugs.

                                    In summary: everything that DigiKey article said about security is wrong. Please disregard it. Your customers deserve much better.

                                    share|improve this answer

                                    That article’s security advice is so wrong that presenting it borders on engineering negligence. “Security through obscurity” has been known to be a flawed approach for over 160 years. Pretending that nobody cares about your signals is a strategy best left to the ostriches that came up with it; it is not an actual, viable security strategy in the modern world.

                                    Like everything else associated with security, this past decade has seen the world getting much tougher for the security of RF communications. The introduction of cheap Software Defined Radio hardware has led to a host of open source RF protocol disassembly and analysis tools, rendering the security properties of most proprietary applications all but transparent. If you’d like to see some examples, here’s a video demo showing decoding various 433MHz signals using rtl_433; and here’s a Universal Radio Hacker tool that can automatically detect, parse, and playback many forms of communications. The only investment needed to get started is an under-$20 USB receiver and a computer.

                                    Standardized protocols have the advantage of years of real-world attackers trying to break into the communications. The few comparatively secure protocols in common use today (Bluetooth, WPA3, NFC) are those that have had earlier implementations cracked and broken over and over, and through the iterative process have been refined and improved. Even so, today’s “secure” protocols can have exploitable vulnerabilities discovered tomorrow.

                                    So where does all that bad news that leave you? Your first task is to figure out what an attacker stands to gain by breaking your protocol. Can he remotely operate equipment? Unlock cars? Disable alarms? Make a children’s toy emit terrifying noises? The more “value” your protocol protects (including your customers’ reputations), the more incentive attackers have to crack it.

                                    Today’s “RF script kiddies” are an extremely well-armed bunch, and they gain respect by hacking new signals; do not discount their abilities or tenacity.

                                    A homegrown protocol may be cheap, but it will be completely insecure. If security researchers and professionals can’t get a protocol secure after 20 years of trying, you know it’s not an easy problem to solve. Homegrown might be fine if you’re looking to change the color of a desk lamp; it will not be so good if you’re looking to operate door locks. A standard protocol will have a much better security model, but might have higher unit costs or energy requirements; and even a standard protocol won’t remain perfect over time. Your best defense in both cases is to provide a firmware patching mechanism that will allow your customers to securely upgrade and fix future security bugs.

                                    In summary: everything that DigiKey article said about security is wrong. Please disregard it. Your customers deserve much better.

                                    share|improve this answer

                                    share|improve this answer

                                    share|improve this answer

                                    answered Jan 15 at 3:41

                                    John DetersJohn Deters

                                    27.1k24189

                                    27.1k24189

                                    • 1

                                      Okay, very bad idea, thank you for the straightforward advice!

                                      – Oliver.R
                                      Jan 15 at 6:50

                                    • This is a great answer, especially the threat model stuff; this is where you define why and how you need to be protected. Figuring that out would be the first step. Perhaps a toy walky-talky can do with an insecure home grown RF design. Perhaps that

                                      – John Keates
                                      Jan 16 at 1:56

                                    • 1

                                      Okay, very bad idea, thank you for the straightforward advice!

                                      – Oliver.R
                                      Jan 15 at 6:50

                                    • This is a great answer, especially the threat model stuff; this is where you define why and how you need to be protected. Figuring that out would be the first step. Perhaps a toy walky-talky can do with an insecure home grown RF design. Perhaps that

                                      – John Keates
                                      Jan 16 at 1:56

                                    1

                                    1

                                    Okay, very bad idea, thank you for the straightforward advice!

                                    – Oliver.R
                                    Jan 15 at 6:50

                                    Okay, very bad idea, thank you for the straightforward advice!

                                    – Oliver.R
                                    Jan 15 at 6:50

                                    This is a great answer, especially the threat model stuff; this is where you define why and how you need to be protected. Figuring that out would be the first step. Perhaps a toy walky-talky can do with an insecure home grown RF design. Perhaps that

                                    – John Keates
                                    Jan 16 at 1:56

                                    This is a great answer, especially the threat model stuff; this is where you define why and how you need to be protected. Figuring that out would be the first step. Perhaps a toy walky-talky can do with an insecure home grown RF design. Perhaps that

                                    – John Keates
                                    Jan 16 at 1:56

                                    2

                                    This is a great question and very important as companies move to industrial IoT, which is where I see this come up the most. I can say, from first hand pentesting experience, that proprietary protocols using “Security through obscurity” are very dangerous.

                                    The problem with proprietary protocols is that they are not typically fully developed or developed with a specific focus on security in mind, or at all, in my experience. Typically the RF engineer to build the protocol is an EE not a security professional.

                                    Proprietary protocols not being safe is also true with more than RF and also applies to ethernet or serial protocols. I’ve had companies tell me their device is secure because [pick someone] couldn’t figure out the protocol. Yes, that can happen if you have a classic IT red-team, but when you send it to us and we pull out a spectrum analyzer and reverse it and everything is in plain text I’d call that almost no security. Definitely not security you can count on. I can personally verify my lab reversing multiple proprietary Ethernet protocols and 2 wireless RF and one IR. All insecure.

                                    You can also run into multiple other problems, like information leakage, developer backdoors (how about a command to factory reset a device with no authentication, for example), and just broken QA. You also have to pay for all of that now.

                                    Standard bluetooth has a built ability to use AES encryption. I’d highly recommend that approach. 6lowpan and Zigbee are less “known” but both have undoubtedly been fully broken apart by nation state security professionals, as if we did it in our 10 man lab I don’t believe the NSA has not although, I have no proof.

                                    So to be clear, if you would like to pay engineers and security engineers to build you a secure protocol and go through full QA and Pen testing, that’s not a bad thing. If you want to create a simple, unencrypted protocol, and hope “no one will look” I’d say that’s a recipe for disaster. Or you could just use Zigbee/Bluetooth and make sure encryption is enabled.

                                    That said, yes proprietary protocols will be out of reach of the “Script Kiddie,” but I wouldn’t call that ideal security.

                                    share|improve this answer

                                    • Agreed with this approach. I was thinking at a point designing an alternate to the IP protocol, but the possible security implication did not make viable for trying.

                                      – Overmind
                                      Jan 15 at 6:30

                                    • @Overmind I know comments aren’t supposed to be for chat but I would love to talk about that. You can’t DM in SE can you?

                                      – bashCypher
                                      Jan 15 at 22:47

                                    2

                                    This is a great question and very important as companies move to industrial IoT, which is where I see this come up the most. I can say, from first hand pentesting experience, that proprietary protocols using “Security through obscurity” are very dangerous.

                                    The problem with proprietary protocols is that they are not typically fully developed or developed with a specific focus on security in mind, or at all, in my experience. Typically the RF engineer to build the protocol is an EE not a security professional.

                                    Proprietary protocols not being safe is also true with more than RF and also applies to ethernet or serial protocols. I’ve had companies tell me their device is secure because [pick someone] couldn’t figure out the protocol. Yes, that can happen if you have a classic IT red-team, but when you send it to us and we pull out a spectrum analyzer and reverse it and everything is in plain text I’d call that almost no security. Definitely not security you can count on. I can personally verify my lab reversing multiple proprietary Ethernet protocols and 2 wireless RF and one IR. All insecure.

                                    You can also run into multiple other problems, like information leakage, developer backdoors (how about a command to factory reset a device with no authentication, for example), and just broken QA. You also have to pay for all of that now.

                                    Standard bluetooth has a built ability to use AES encryption. I’d highly recommend that approach. 6lowpan and Zigbee are less “known” but both have undoubtedly been fully broken apart by nation state security professionals, as if we did it in our 10 man lab I don’t believe the NSA has not although, I have no proof.

                                    So to be clear, if you would like to pay engineers and security engineers to build you a secure protocol and go through full QA and Pen testing, that’s not a bad thing. If you want to create a simple, unencrypted protocol, and hope “no one will look” I’d say that’s a recipe for disaster. Or you could just use Zigbee/Bluetooth and make sure encryption is enabled.

                                    That said, yes proprietary protocols will be out of reach of the “Script Kiddie,” but I wouldn’t call that ideal security.

                                    share|improve this answer

                                    • Agreed with this approach. I was thinking at a point designing an alternate to the IP protocol, but the possible security implication did not make viable for trying.

                                      – Overmind
                                      Jan 15 at 6:30

                                    • @Overmind I know comments aren’t supposed to be for chat but I would love to talk about that. You can’t DM in SE can you?

                                      – bashCypher
                                      Jan 15 at 22:47

                                    2

                                    2

                                    2

                                    This is a great question and very important as companies move to industrial IoT, which is where I see this come up the most. I can say, from first hand pentesting experience, that proprietary protocols using “Security through obscurity” are very dangerous.

                                    The problem with proprietary protocols is that they are not typically fully developed or developed with a specific focus on security in mind, or at all, in my experience. Typically the RF engineer to build the protocol is an EE not a security professional.

                                    Proprietary protocols not being safe is also true with more than RF and also applies to ethernet or serial protocols. I’ve had companies tell me their device is secure because [pick someone] couldn’t figure out the protocol. Yes, that can happen if you have a classic IT red-team, but when you send it to us and we pull out a spectrum analyzer and reverse it and everything is in plain text I’d call that almost no security. Definitely not security you can count on. I can personally verify my lab reversing multiple proprietary Ethernet protocols and 2 wireless RF and one IR. All insecure.

                                    You can also run into multiple other problems, like information leakage, developer backdoors (how about a command to factory reset a device with no authentication, for example), and just broken QA. You also have to pay for all of that now.

                                    Standard bluetooth has a built ability to use AES encryption. I’d highly recommend that approach. 6lowpan and Zigbee are less “known” but both have undoubtedly been fully broken apart by nation state security professionals, as if we did it in our 10 man lab I don’t believe the NSA has not although, I have no proof.

                                    So to be clear, if you would like to pay engineers and security engineers to build you a secure protocol and go through full QA and Pen testing, that’s not a bad thing. If you want to create a simple, unencrypted protocol, and hope “no one will look” I’d say that’s a recipe for disaster. Or you could just use Zigbee/Bluetooth and make sure encryption is enabled.

                                    That said, yes proprietary protocols will be out of reach of the “Script Kiddie,” but I wouldn’t call that ideal security.

                                    share|improve this answer

                                    This is a great question and very important as companies move to industrial IoT, which is where I see this come up the most. I can say, from first hand pentesting experience, that proprietary protocols using “Security through obscurity” are very dangerous.

                                    The problem with proprietary protocols is that they are not typically fully developed or developed with a specific focus on security in mind, or at all, in my experience. Typically the RF engineer to build the protocol is an EE not a security professional.

                                    Proprietary protocols not being safe is also true with more than RF and also applies to ethernet or serial protocols. I’ve had companies tell me their device is secure because [pick someone] couldn’t figure out the protocol. Yes, that can happen if you have a classic IT red-team, but when you send it to us and we pull out a spectrum analyzer and reverse it and everything is in plain text I’d call that almost no security. Definitely not security you can count on. I can personally verify my lab reversing multiple proprietary Ethernet protocols and 2 wireless RF and one IR. All insecure.

                                    You can also run into multiple other problems, like information leakage, developer backdoors (how about a command to factory reset a device with no authentication, for example), and just broken QA. You also have to pay for all of that now.

                                    Standard bluetooth has a built ability to use AES encryption. I’d highly recommend that approach. 6lowpan and Zigbee are less “known” but both have undoubtedly been fully broken apart by nation state security professionals, as if we did it in our 10 man lab I don’t believe the NSA has not although, I have no proof.

                                    So to be clear, if you would like to pay engineers and security engineers to build you a secure protocol and go through full QA and Pen testing, that’s not a bad thing. If you want to create a simple, unencrypted protocol, and hope “no one will look” I’d say that’s a recipe for disaster. Or you could just use Zigbee/Bluetooth and make sure encryption is enabled.

                                    That said, yes proprietary protocols will be out of reach of the “Script Kiddie,” but I wouldn’t call that ideal security.

                                    share|improve this answer

                                    share|improve this answer

                                    share|improve this answer

                                    edited Jan 15 at 1:07

                                    answered Jan 15 at 0:58

                                    bashCypherbashCypher

                                    1,638215

                                    1,638215

                                    • Agreed with this approach. I was thinking at a point designing an alternate to the IP protocol, but the possible security implication did not make viable for trying.

                                      – Overmind
                                      Jan 15 at 6:30

                                    • @Overmind I know comments aren’t supposed to be for chat but I would love to talk about that. You can’t DM in SE can you?

                                      – bashCypher
                                      Jan 15 at 22:47

                                    • Agreed with this approach. I was thinking at a point designing an alternate to the IP protocol, but the possible security implication did not make viable for trying.

                                      – Overmind
                                      Jan 15 at 6:30

                                    • @Overmind I know comments aren’t supposed to be for chat but I would love to talk about that. You can’t DM in SE can you?

                                      – bashCypher
                                      Jan 15 at 22:47

                                    Agreed with this approach. I was thinking at a point designing an alternate to the IP protocol, but the possible security implication did not make viable for trying.

                                    – Overmind
                                    Jan 15 at 6:30

                                    Agreed with this approach. I was thinking at a point designing an alternate to the IP protocol, but the possible security implication did not make viable for trying.

                                    – Overmind
                                    Jan 15 at 6:30

                                    @Overmind I know comments aren’t supposed to be for chat but I would love to talk about that. You can’t DM in SE can you?

                                    – bashCypher
                                    Jan 15 at 22:47

                                    @Overmind I know comments aren’t supposed to be for chat but I would love to talk about that. You can’t DM in SE can you?

                                    – bashCypher
                                    Jan 15 at 22:47

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                                    Governor-general

                                    Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm.[1] Governors-general have also previously been appointed in respect of major colonial states or other territories held by either a monarchy or republic, such as French Indochina.

                                    Contents

                                    • 1 Current uses
                                    • 2 British colonialism and the governors-general
                                    • 3 Modern Commonwealth

                                      • 3.1 Commonwealth realms
                                      • 3.2 Appointment
                                      • 3.3 Commonwealth countries with a governor-general
                                      • 3.4 Other attributes
                                      • 3.5 Former Commonwealth realms

                                        • 3.5.1 In Africa
                                        • 3.5.2 In the Americas
                                        • 3.5.3 In Asia
                                        • 3.5.4 In Europe
                                        • 3.5.5 In Oceania
                                    • 4 Other colonial and similar usage

                                      • 4.1 Belgium
                                      • 4.2 France
                                      • 4.3 Netherlands
                                      • 4.4 Portugal
                                      • 4.5 Philippines

                                        • 4.5.1 Spain
                                        • 4.5.2 United States of America
                                    • 5 Other Western usage

                                      • 5.1 Greece
                                      • 5.2 Other
                                    • 6 Asian counterparts
                                    • 7 See also
                                    • 8 Note
                                    • 9 References
                                    • 10 External links

                                    Current uses

                                    In modern usage, the term governor-general originated in those British colonies which became self-governing within the British Empire. Before World War I, the title was used only in federated colonies in which each of the previously constituent colonies of these federated colonies already had a governor, namely Canada, Australia, and the Union of South Africa. In these cases, the Crown’s representative in the federated Dominion was given the superior title of governor-general. The first exception to this rule was New Zealand, which was granted Dominion status in 1907, but it was not until 28 June 1917 that Arthur Foljambe, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, was appointed the first Governor-General of New Zealand. Another non-federal state, Newfoundland, was a Dominion for 16 years with the King’s representative retaining the title of governor throughout this time.

                                    Since 2016,[why?] the title governor-general has been given to all representatives of the sovereign in independent Commonwealth realms. In these cases, the former office of colonial governor was altered (sometimes for the same incumbent) to become governor-general upon independence, as the nature of the office became an entirely independent constitutional representative of the monarch rather than a symbol of previous colonial rule. In these countries the governor-general acts as the monarch’s representative, performing the ceremonial and constitutional functions of a head of state.

                                    The only other nation which uses the governor-general designation is Iran, which has no connection with any monarchy or the Commonwealth. In Iran, the provincial authority is headed by a governor general[2] (Persian: استاندار ostāndār), who is appointed by the Minister of the Interior.

                                    British colonialism and the governors-general

                                    Lord Tweedsmuir was Governor General of Canada from 1935 to 1940. The uniform shown here was the unique ceremonial dress for Governors General of Canada.

                                    Until the 1920s, governors-general were British subjects, appointed on the advice of the British government, who acted as agents of the British government in each Dominion, as well as being representatives of the monarch. As such they notionally held the prerogative powers of the monarch, and also held the executive power of the country to which they were assigned. The governor-general could be instructed by the colonial secretary on the exercise of some of his functions and duties, such as the use or withholding of the Royal Assent from legislation; history shows many examples of governors-general using their prerogative and executive powers. The monarch or imperial government could overrule any governor-general, though this could often be cumbersome, due to remoteness of the territories from London.

                                    The governor-general was also usually the commander-in-chief of the armed forces in his or her territory and, because of the governor-general’s control of the military, the post was as much a military appointment as a civil one. The governors-general are entitled to wear a unique uniform, which is not generally worn today. If of the rank of major general, equivalent or above, they were entitled to wear that military uniform.

                                    Modern Commonwealth

                                    Commonwealth realms

                                    Following the Imperial Conference, and subsequent issuing of the Balfour Declaration in 1926, the role and responsibilities of the governor-general began to shift, reflecting the increased independence of the Dominions (which were in 1952 renamed Realms; a term which includes the UK itself). As the sovereign came to be regarded as monarch of each territory independently, and, as such, advised only by the ministers of each country in regard to that country’s national affairs (as opposed to a single British monarch ruling all the Dominions as a conglomerate and advised only by an imperial parliament), so too did the governor-general become a direct representative of the national monarch only, who no longer answered to the British government. The report resulting from the 1926 Imperial Conference stated: “…it is an essential consequence of the equality of status existing among the members of the British Commonwealth of Nations that the Governor General of a Dominion is the representative of the Crown, holding in all essential respects the same position in relation to the administration of public affairs in the Dominion as is held by His Majesty the King in Great Britain, and that he is not the representative or agent of His Majesty’s Government in Great Britain or of any Department of that Government.”[3] These concepts were entrenched in legislation with the enactment of the Statute of Westminster in 1931, and governmental relations with the United Kingdom were placed in the hands of a British High Commissioner in each country.

                                    In other words, the political reality of a self-governing Dominion within the British Empire with a governor-general answerable to the sovereign became clear. British interference in the Dominion was not acceptable and independent country status was clearly displayed. Canada, Australia, and New Zealand were clearly not controlled by the United Kingdom. The monarch of these countries (Elizabeth II) is in law Queen of Canada, Queen of Australia, and Queen of New Zealand and only acts on the advice of the ministers in each country and is in no way influenced by the British government. Today, therefore, in former British colonies which are now independent Commonwealth realms, the governor-general is constitutionally the representative of the monarch in his or her state and may exercise the reserve powers of the monarch according to their own constitutional authority. The governor-general, however, is still appointed by the monarch and takes an oath of allegiance to the monarch of their own country. Executive authority is also vested in the monarch, though much of it can be exercisable only by the governor-general on behalf of the sovereign of the independent realm. Letters of Credence or Letters of Recall are now sometimes received or issued in the name of the monarch, though, in some countries, such as Canada and Australia, the Letters of Credence and Recall are issued in the name of the governor-general alone.

                                    At diplomatic functions where the governor-general is present, the visiting diplomat or head of state toasts “The King” or “The Queen” of the relevant realm, not the governor-general, with any reference to the governor-general being subsidiary in later toasts if featuring at all, and will involve a toast to them by name, not office. (E.g., “Mr. and Mrs. Smith,” not “Her Excellency, the Governor-General.” Sometimes a toast might be made using name and office, e.g., “Governor-General Smith.”)

                                    Except in rare cases, the governor-general only acts in accordance with constitutional convention and upon the advice of the national prime minister.[4] The governor-general is still the local representative of the sovereign and performs the same duties as they carried out historically, though their role is almost purely ceremonial. Rare and controversial exceptions occurred in 1926, when Canadian Governor General the Viscount Byng of Vimy refused Prime Minister Mackenzie King’s request for a dissolution of parliament; in 1953 and 1954 when the Governor-General of Pakistan, Ghulam Mohammad, staged a constitutional coup against the Prime Minister and then the Constituent Assembly; and in 1975, when the Governor-General of Australia, Sir John Kerr, dismissed the Prime Minister, Gough Whitlam.[5] In some realms, the monarch could in principle overrule a governor-general,[how?] but this has not happened in modern times.

                                    In Australia the present Queen is generally assumed to be head of state, since the governor-general and the state governors are defined as her “representatives”.[6] However, since the governor-general performs almost all national regal functions, the governor-general has occasionally been referred to as head of state in political and media discussion. To a lesser extent, uncertainty has been expressed in Canada as to which officeholder—the monarch, the governor general, or both—can be considered the head of state.

                                    The governor-general is usually a person with a distinguished record of public service, often a retired politician, judge or military commander; but some countries have also appointed prominent academics, members of the clergy, philanthropists, or figures from the news media to the office.

                                    Traditionally, the governor-general’s official attire was a unique uniform, but this practice has been abandoned except on occasions when it is appropriate to be worn (and in some countries abandoned altogether). In South Africa, the Governor-General of the Union of South Africa nominated by the Afrikaner Nationalist government chose not to wear uniform on any occasion. Most governors-general continue to wear appropriate medals on their clothing when required.

                                    The governor-general’s official residence is usually called Government House. The Governor-General of the Irish Free State resided in the then Viceregal Lodge in Phoenix Park, Dublin, but the government of Éamon de Valera sought to downgrade the office and the last governor-general, Domhnall Ua Buachalla, did not reside there. The office was abolished there in 1936.

                                    In most Commonwealth realms, the flag of the governor-general has been the standard pattern of a blue field with the Royal Crest (a lion standing on a crown) above a scroll with the name of the jurisdiction. In Canada, however, this was replaced with a crowned lion clasping a maple leaf. In the Solomon Islands, the scroll was replaced with a two-headed frigate bird motif, while in Fiji, the former Governor General’s flag featured a whale’s tooth. In New Zealand, the flag was replaced in 2008 with the shield of the coat of arms of New Zealand surmounted by a crown on a blue field.

                                    Governors-general are accorded the style of His/Her Excellency. This style is also extended to their spouses, whether female or male.

                                    Appointment

                                    Tim Healy
                                    First Governor-General of the Irish Free State

                                    Until the 1920s, the Governors General were British, and appointed on the advice of the British Government.

                                    Following the changes to the structure of the Commonwealth in the late 1920s, in 1929, the Australian Prime Minister James Scullin established the right of a Dominion prime minister to advise the monarch directly on the appointment of a governor-general, by insisting that his choice (Isaac Isaacs, an Australian) prevail over the recommendation of the British government. The convention was gradually established throughout the Commonwealth that the governor-general would be a citizen of the country concerned, and would be appointed on the advice of the government of that country, with no input from the British government; Governor General of Canada since 1952 and Governor-General of New Zealand since 1967. Since 1931 as each former Dominion has patriated its constitution from the UK, the convention has become law, or, since 1947, when the first realms established with a patriated constitution, India and Pakistan, were established, was always law, and no government of any realm can advise the Monarch on any matter pertaining to another realm, including the appointment of a governor-general. The monarch appoints a governor-general (in Canada: governor general) as a personal representative only on the advice of the prime minister of each realm; for example, the Governor-General of New Zealand is appointed by the Queen of New Zealand on the advice of the New Zealandian prime minister, the Governor-General of Tuvalu is appointed by the Queen of Tuvalu on the advice of the Tuvaluan prime minister, and the Governor-General of Jamaica is appointed by the Queen of Jamaica on the advice of the Jamaican prime minister. In Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, the Prime Minister’s advice is based on the result of a vote in the national parliament.

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                                    Governors-General who were royal Princes
                                    the Duke of Connaught, son of Queen Victoria, was Governor-General of both Canada and South Africa
                                    the Duke of Gloucester, son of King George V, was Governor General of Australia.
                                    the Earl of Athlone, brother of Queen Mary, was Governor General of both Canada and South Africa

                                    The formalities for appointing governors-general are not the same in all the realms. For example: When appointed, a Governor-General of Australia issues a proclamation in his own name, countersigned by the head of government and under the Great Seal of Australia, formally announcing that he has been appointed by the monarch’s commission, previously issued also under the Great Seal of Australia.[7] The practice in Canada is to include in the governor general’s proclamation of appointment, issued under the Great Seal of Canada,[8] the monarch’s commission naming the governor general as Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Forces[8][9] Also dissimilar among the realms are the powers of governors-general. The Belizean constitution provides the governor-general with the power to assent or to withhold assent to laws,[10] while Papua New Guinea has no requirement for royal assent at all, with laws entering into force when certified as having been passed in Parliament by the Speaker.[11]

                                    Commonwealth countries with a governor-general

                                    Commonwealth realm From
                                    Antigua and Barbuda 1981 [12]
                                    Australia 1901 [13]
                                    Bahamas 1973 [14]
                                    Barbados 1966 [15]
                                    Belize 1981 [16]
                                    Canada 1867 [17]
                                    Grenada 1974 [18]
                                    Jamaica 1962 [19]
                                    New Zealand 1917 [20]
                                    Papua New Guinea 1975
                                    Saint Kitts and Nevis 1983 [21]
                                    Saint Lucia 1979 [22]
                                    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1979 [23]
                                    Solomon Islands 1978
                                    Tuvalu 1978 [24]

                                    Other attributes

                                    Different realms have different constitutional arrangements governing who acts in place of the governor-general in the event of his or her death, resignation, or incapacity.

                                    • In Australia, an Administrator of the Commonwealth may be appointed to perform the necessary official functions, pending a decision by the sovereign, on the advice of the prime minister, about a permanent replacement as governor-general. The administrator has usually been the senior state governor. Each state governor normally holds what is known as a dormant commission. There have been cases where a governor has fallen out of favour with the government, causing their dormant commission to be revoked. The most recent example was that of Sir Colin Hannah, Governor of Queensland, in 1975.
                                    • In The Bahamas, Barbados, Canada, Jamaica, and New Zealand, it is the Chief Justice.
                                    • In Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu it is the Speaker
                                    • Many Caribbean countries have a specific office of “Deputy Governor-General”.

                                    Former Commonwealth realms

                                    The title has been used in many former British colonies, which became independent realms and then later became republics. Each of these realms had a governor-general.

                                    In Africa

                                    • Governor-General of the Gambia (1965–1970)
                                    • Governor-General of Ghana (1957–1960)
                                    • Governor-General of Kenya (1963–1964)
                                    • Governor-General of Malawi (1964–1966)
                                    • Governor-General of Mauritius (1968–1992)
                                    • Governor-General of Nigeria (1960–1963)
                                    • Governor-General of Sierra Leone (1961–1971)
                                    • Governor-General of the Union of South Africa (1910–1961)
                                    • Governor-General of Tanganyika (1961–1962)
                                    • Governor-General of Uganda (1962–1963)
                                    • In Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), a unique situation arose following the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965, unrecognised by the United Kingdom. The Rhodesian Front government of Ian Smith recognised Elizabeth II as “Queen of Rhodesia”, but refused to recognise the authority of her Governor Sir Humphrey Gibbs, whose duties were performed by an Officer Administering the Government, Clifford Dupont (1905–1978). Dupont served in the post until 2 March 1970, when Rhodesia was declared a republic (an act also unrecognised internationally) and he became President. The country became an independent republic within the Commonwealth as Zimbabwe on 18 April 1980.

                                    In the Americas

                                    • Governor-General of Guyana (1966–1970)
                                    • Governor-General of Trinidad and Tobago (1962–1976)

                                    In Asia

                                    • Governor-General of Ceylon (1948–1972)
                                    • Governor-General of India (1947–1950)
                                    • Governor-General of Pakistan (1947–1956)

                                    In Europe

                                    • Governor-General of the Irish Free State (1922–1936)
                                    • Governor-General of Malta (1964–1974)

                                    In Oceania

                                    • Governor-General of Fiji (1970–1987)
                                    • Governor-General of Tuvalu

                                    Other colonial and similar usage

                                    Belgium

                                    • Belgian Congo;
                                    • Ruanda-Urundi

                                    France

                                    The equivalent word in French is gouverneur général, used in the following colonies:

                                    • From 1887 to 1945 the French appointed a governor-general to govern French Indo-China (now Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia); the function of High commissioner in the Pacific Ocean, from 22 March 1907 held by the Governors of New Caledonia, was used to coordinate that colony, the other French settlements in Oceania and the governors-general of French Indochina and the Resident commissioners of the New Hebrides and the Residents of Wallis and Futuna were subordinated to him.
                                    • Governor General of New France was the vice-regal post in New France from 1663 until 1760 and was the last French vice-regal post. It was replaced by the British post of Governor of the Province of Quebec following the fall of New France. While the districts of Montreal and Trois-Rivières had their own governors, the Governor General of New France and the Governor of the district of Quebec were the same person.
                                    • From 1699–1947, the French appointed a Governor-General to administer French India (including Pondichéry).
                                    • Governors-general of the Mascarene Islands (under control of the chartered Compagnie des Indes to 14 July 1767) from 4 June 1735 (succeeding to governors), and after its split-up of Mauritius (Réunion and the Seychelles got lower-styled Commandants or Governors), till 25 September 1803
                                    • Haiti January 1714 – 31 December 1803; last incumbent Jean-Jacques Dessalines shortly maintained the title after the January I, 1804 independence before proclaiming himself Emperor Jacques I
                                    • Since its creation on 16 June 1895 in French West Africa (AOF), until 4 April 1957; the last stayed on as first of two High commissioners
                                    • Madagascar
                                    • From 28 June 1908 (previously it had a Commissaire général, i.e. Commissioner general) to 4 April 1957 (the last stayed on as first of three High commissioners) in French Equatorial Africa (AEF); during several periods he also acted as Governor of the constitutive colony Congo Brazzaville.

                                    Furthermore, in Napoleonic Europe successive French Governors-general were appointed by Napoleon I in:

                                    • the German states of Brandenburg (various others got “mere” Governors), two incumbents between 27 October 1806 and 10 December 1808, during the French occupation
                                    • Province of Courland under the French occupation (from 1 August 1812, Duchy of Courland and Semigallia and District of Pilten nominally re-established under joint French-Saxon protectorate 8 October 1812 – 20 December 1812) : Jacques David Martin, baron de Campredon (1761–1837)
                                    • Parma and Piacenza under occupation, (after a Commissioner) 15 February 1804 – 23 July 1808, later annexed as département under a Prefect of Taro
                                    • principality of Piombino May 1806 – 1811: Adolphe Beauvais (d. 1811)
                                    • annexed Tuscany, two incumbents, over prefects for Arno, Méditerranée [Mediterranean] and Ombrone:
                                      • May 1808 – 3 March 1809 Jacques François de Boussay, baron de Menou (1750–1810)
                                      • 3 March 1809 – 1 February 1814 Elisa Baciocchi Bonaparte (with courtesy style of Grand Duchess of Tuscany) (1777–1820)
                                    • the Illyrian provinces (comprising present Croatia, Slovenia and even adjacent parts of Austria and Italy), annexed as part of the French Empire proper, 14 October 1809 – August 1813

                                    Netherlands

                                    From 1691 to 1948 the Dutch appointed a gouverneur-generaal (“governor-general”) to govern the Netherlands East Indies, now Indonesia.

                                    While in the Caribbean, various other titles were used, Curaçao had three Governors-General between 1816 and 1820:

                                    • 1816–1819 Albert Kikkert
                                    • 1819–1820 Petrus Bernardus van Starkenborgh
                                    • 1820 Isaäk Johannes Rammelman Elsevier

                                    Portugal

                                    The equivalent word in Portuguese is governador-geral. This title was only used for the governors of the major colonies, indicating that they had, under their authority, several subordinate governors. In most of the colonies, lower titles, mainly governador (governor) or formerly captain-major (capitão-mor), prevailed

                                    • In the Portuguese State of India (Estado da Índia, capital Goa) the style was changed repeatedly for another, mostly Vice-Rei (Viceroy). The Viceroy title was usually reserved for members of the Portuguese Royal Family, the remaining governors receiving the title of governador-general;
                                    • In Brazil, after a few governors, from 1578 till its promotion in 1763 to a Viceroyalty (though various members of the nobility since 1640 had assumed, without sovereign authority, the title of Viceroy).
                                    • in Africa, from 1837 Portugal appointed a governor-general to govern the overseas province of Angola, and another to govern the province of Moçambique. For some time, a governor-general was also appointed to rule Cape Verde and Portuguese Guinea, while these territories were united in a single province. Between 1921 and 1930, additional powers were given to some of the Angola and Mozambique governors, who were restyled in full Alto-comissário e governador-geral (High commissioner and governor-general).

                                    Philippines

                                    The Philippines from the 16th through the 20th century had a series of governors-general during the Spanish and American colonial periods, as well as the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines during World War II

                                    Spain

                                    From 21 November 1564 the Spanish East Indies had a governor-general, which was under the Viceroy of New Spain based in Mexico. After the successful Mexican War of Independence in 1821, the governor-general reported directly to Spain.

                                    United States of America

                                    future US President William Howard Taft was the First American Governor General of the Philippines

                                    From 1899 to 1935 under the Insular Government, the Philippines was administered by a series of governors-general, first military and then civilian, appointed by the United States Federal Government.

                                    Other Western usage

                                    Greece

                                    The Balkan Wars of 1912–13 led to the Greek acquisition of the so-called “New Lands” (Epirus, Macedonia, Crete and the islands of the eastern Aegean), almost doubling the country’s territory. Instead of fully incorporating these new lands into Greece by dividing them into prefectures, the Ottoman administrative system continued in existence for a while, and Law ΔΡΛΔ΄ of 1913 established five governorates-general (Γενικαὶ Διοικήσεις, sing. Γενική Διοίκησις): Epirus, Macedonia, Crete, Aegean and Samos–Ikaria. The governors-general had wide-ranging authority in their territories, and were almost autonomous of the government in Athens.

                                    Law 524 in 1914 abolished the governorates-general and divided the New Lands into regular prefectures, but in 1918 Law 1149 re-instated them as a superordinate administrative level above the prefectures, with Macedonia now divided in two governorates-general, those of Thessaloniki and Kozani–Florina. The governors-general of Thessaloniki, Crete and Epirus were also given ministerial rank. To these was added the Governorate-General of Thrace in 1920–22, comprising Western Thrace and Eastern Thrace (returned to Turkey in the Armistice of Mudanya in 1922). The extensive but hitherto legally rather undefined powers of the governors-general created friction and confusion with other government branches, until their remit was exactly delineated in 1925. The governorates-general, except for that of Thessaloniki, were abolished in 1928, but re-established in December 1929—for Crete, Epirus, Thrace, and Macedonia—and delegated practically all ministerial authorities for their respective areas. Over the next decade, however, in a see-saw of legislative measures that in turns gave and took away authority, they gradually lost most of their powers in favour of the prefectures and the central government in Athens.

                                    Following liberation from the Axis occupation, in 1945 the Governorate-General of Northern Greece was established, initially with subordinate governorates for West Macedonia, Central Macedonia, East Macedonia, and Thrace, the first three of which were then grouped anew into a new Governorate-General of Macedonia, albeit still subject to the Governorate-General of Northern Greece. This awkward arrangement lasted until 1950, when the administration of Macedonia was streamlined, the junior governorates abolished and only the Governorate-General of Northern Greece retained. Finally, in 1955, the Governorate-General of Northern Greece was transformed into the Ministry of Northern Greece, and all other governorates-general elsewhere in Greece were abolished.

                                    Other

                                    • Governor-General in the Swedish Realm

                                      • From 1636 to 1815, Sweden typically appointed the Governors-General of Sweden for the Swedish Dominions on the eastern side of the Baltic and in northern Germany, but occasionally also for Scania.
                                    • From 1809 to 1918 Russia designated Governors-General of Finland in the Grand Duchy of Finland; Governors-General of Poland in Vistula Land and other Governors-General in various other Governorates-General.
                                    • From 1939 to 1944, during the German occupation of Poland, in that part of the country designated the General Government the Nazi official Hans Frank had the title Governor-General (German: Generalgouverneur für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete – Governor-General of the occupied Polish areas).
                                    • The Kingdom of Saxony had two Governors-General during the period of Allied control of the Generalgouvernement Sachsen [de] after the defeat of the French emperor Napoleon I:
                                      • 28 October 1813 – 8 November 1814 Prince Nikolay Grigorievich Repnin-Volkonsky (Russia) (1778–1845)
                                      • 8 November 1814 – 8 June 1815 Eberhard Friedrich Christoph Ludwig, Freiherr von der Recke (Prussia) (1744–1826)
                                    • During the occupation of Serbia by Austrian-Hungarian and Bulgarian forces in World War I, the Austrian-Hungarian government appointed three consecutive governors-general:
                                      • 1 January 1916 – July 1916 Johan Ulrich Graf von Salis-Seewis (1862–1940)
                                      • July 1916 – October 1918 Adolf Freiherr von Rhemen zu Barensfeld (1855–1932)
                                      • October 1918 – 1 November 1918 Hermann Freiherr Kövess von Kövessháza (1854–1924; a former military commander in northern Serbia)

                                    Asian counterparts

                                    • From 1644 to 1911, in Qing Dynasty China, a Governor General or Viceroy (simplified Chinese: 总督; traditional Chinese: 總督; pinyin: Zǒngdū; Wade–Giles: Tsung3-tu1) was the highest official of joint military and civil affairs in one or several provinces.
                                    • The hereditary shōgun of Japan (Japanese: 征夷大将軍, sei-i tai-shōgun) who ruled in the name of the Emperor from 1185 until 1868 were equivalent to governors-general, though they often had far greater power than a governor-general would ordinarily have.
                                    • Imperial Japan:
                                      • From 1895 to 1945, Taiwan was administered by the Japanese Governor-General of Taiwan (Japanese: 台湾総督, taiwan sōtoku).
                                      • From 1910 to 1945, Korea was administered by the Japanese Governor-General of Korea (Japanese: 朝鮮総督, chōsen sōtoku).
                                    • Islamic Republic of Iran

                                      • The provincial authority is headed by an appointed Governor-General[2] (Persian: استاندار, ostāndār).

                                    See also

                                    • Administrator of the Government
                                    • Government House, the name of the official residences of Governors-General in the British Commonwealth (past and present)
                                    • Governor
                                    • Governor-in-chief
                                    • Governor-General of the Philippines
                                    • High Commissioner
                                    • Lieutenant Governor
                                    • Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles; territories of the Dutch Monarchy
                                    • Guberniya, governor-generalship in the Russian Empire
                                    • Representatives of the Commonwealth of Nations
                                    • Each current Commonwealth realm’s Governor-General has his/her own article:
                                      • List of Governors-General of Antigua and Barbuda
                                      • List of Governors-General of Australia
                                      • List of Governors-General of the Bahamas
                                      • List of Governors-General of Barbados
                                      • List of Governors-General of Belize
                                      • List of Governors General of Canada
                                      • List of Governors-General of Grenada
                                      • List of Governors-General of Jamaica
                                      • Governor-General of Mauritius
                                      • List of Governors-General of New Zealand
                                      • Governor-General of Papua New Guinea
                                      • List of Governors-General of Saint Lucia
                                      • List of Governors-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
                                      • List of Governors-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis
                                      • Governor-General of the Solomon Islands
                                      • Governor-General of Tuvalu
                                      • Roman Governors
                                      • List of Roman governors of Asia
                                      • List of Ottoman governors of Egypt
                                    • Some defunct political entities: Governor-General of the Irish Free State, Governor-General of the Federation of the West Indies, Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Governor of Southern Rhodesia, Governor-General of French Indochina
                                    • Some former Commonwealth realms in the Americas Governor-General of Guyana, Governor-General of Trinidad and Tobago
                                    • Some former Commonwealth realms in Africa: Governor-General of Nigeria, Governor-General of Sierra Leone, Governor-General of Tanzania, Governor-General of the Union of South Africa, Governor-General of Uganda, Governor-General of Gambia, Governor-General of Kenya, Governor-General of Ghana, Governor-General of Malawi
                                    • Some former Commonwealth realms in Asia Governor-General of India, Governor-General of Pakistan, Governor-General of Sri Lanka
                                    • Some former Commonwealth realms in Europe Governor-General of Malta
                                    • Some former Commonwealth realms in Oceania Governor-General of Fiji

                                    Note

                                    In Canada the title “Governor General” is always used unhyphenated. In Australia and New Zealand, the term is always hyphenated.[25][26]

                                    References

                                    1. ^ See, e.g., Markwell, Donald (2016). Constitutional Conventions and the Headship of State: Australian Experience. Connor Court. ISBN 9781925501155..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
                                    2. ^ ab IRNA, Online Edition. “Paris for further cultural cooperation with Iran”. Archived from the original on 23 October 2007. Retrieved 21 October 2007.
                                    3. ^ Heard, Andrew (1990), “Canadian Independence”, Vancouver: Simon Fraser University https://www.sfu.ca/~aheard/324/Independence.html, retrieved 25 August 2010 Missing or empty |title= (help)
                                    4. ^ In particular, see the history of the Governor General of Australia
                                    5. ^ Letter from the Queen’s Private Secretary to the Speaker of the House of Representatives of Australia of 17 November 1975, at The Whitlam Dismissal, retrieved 15 February 2006.
                                    6. ^ Constitution, s 2; Australia Act 1986 (Cth and UK), s 7.
                                    7. ^ Proclamatrion, 28 March 2014
                                    8. ^ ab Proclamation, February 1995
                                    9. ^ Governor-General’s Role
                                    10. ^ Constitution of Belize – Organization of American States
                                    11. ^ “Papua New Guinea: Constitution of the Independent State of Papua New Guinea”.
                                    12. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 9 September 2010. Retrieved 24 November 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
                                    13. ^ gg.gov.au
                                    14. ^ “The Government of Bahamas – Landing Page”. Bahamas.gov.bs. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
                                    15. ^ [1] Archived 20 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine
                                    16. ^ “My Government(The Belize Government’s Official Portal)”. 2012-12-06.
                                    17. ^ gg.ca
                                    18. ^ “Office of the Governor General”. GOV.gd. 2013-05-07. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
                                    19. ^ kingshouse.gov.jm
                                    20. ^ gg.govt.nz
                                    21. ^ [2] Archived 11 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
                                    22. ^ [3] Archived 28 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
                                    23. ^ [4] Archived 19 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine
                                    24. ^ “Government”. Tuvaluislands.com. 1999-04-26. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
                                    25. ^ Governor General of Australia ~ Welcome Message – Main Home Page
                                    26. ^ gov-gen.govt.nz Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine

                                    External links

                                    • WorldStatesmen
                                    • National Museum of Australia Governor-General’s dispatch box (1937–1952)