Periscelididae

Periscelididae
Cyamops alessandrae male.jpg
Cyamops alessandrae
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Animalia
Phylum:
Arthropoda
Class:
Insecta
Order:
Diptera
Section:
Schizophora
Superfamily:
Opomyzoidea
Family:
Periscelididae
Subfamilies
  • Periscelidinae
  • Stenomicrinae

Periscelididae is a family of flies.

Contents

  • 1 Description
  • 2 Genera
  • 3 Species Lists
  • 4 Phylogeny
  • 5 Read also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

Description

Aulacigastrids are small black flies.The head is rounded. Postvertical bristles present and diverging. Ocellar bristles are present, there are two orbital bristles on each side of frons, the anterior orbital bristle directed forward and towards median line.There is one pair of frontal bristles, curving backward.Interfrontal bristles are absent. Vibrissae (a row of vibrissa-like bristles) are well developed.On the mesonotum there are two pairs of dorsoscentral bristles. The costa is continuous (not interrupted), the subcosta is incomplete. The posterior basal wing cell and discoidal wing cell are fused and the anal vein does not reach the margin of the wings. The wing is clear or with infuscated spots.Tibiae without dorsal preapical bristle.
Genera include Cyamops

Genera

These 12 genera belong to the family Periscelididae:

  • Cyamops Melander, 1913 i c g b
  • Diopsosoma c g
  • Marbenia c g
  • Myodris Lioy, 1864 g
  • Neoscutops c g
  • Parascutops c g
  • Periscelis Loew, 1858 i c g b
  • Planinasus c g
  • Procyamops Hoffeins & Rung, 2005 g
  • Scutops c g
  • Stenocyamops c g
  • Stenomicra Coquilett, 1900 i c g b

Data sources: i = ITIS,[1] c = Catalogue of Life,[2] g = GBIF,[3] b = Bugguide.net[4]

Species Lists

  • West Palaearctic including Russia
  • Japan
  • World list

Phylogeny

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  Opomyzoidea  

 Clusioinea (Clusiidae[5])

 Agromyzoinea (Odiniidae+Fergusoninidae+Agromyzidae)

 Opomyzoinea (Opomyzidae+Anthomyzidae)

  Asteioinea  

 Neurochaetidae+Aulacigastridae+Periscelididae

 Teratomyzidae

 Xenasteiidae

 Asteiidae

Read also

Morphology of Diptera

References

  1. ^
    “Periscelididae Report”. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2018-04-21..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^
    “Browse Periscelididae”. Catalogue of Life. Retrieved 2018-04-21.
  3. ^
    “Periscelididae”. GBIF. Retrieved 2018-04-21.
  4. ^
    “Periscelididae Family Information”. BugGuide.net. Retrieved 2018-04-21.
  5. ^ Nello schema di McAlpine, i Clusiidae sono in relazione con il genere Acartophthalmus, che secondo l’analisi cladistica di Buck (2006) va collocato nel clade dei Carnoidea. Vedi Acartophthalmidae.
  • Duda. 1934. Aulacigastridae. In Lindner, In: Lindner, E. (Ed.). Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region 6,1,58c, 1-5. Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision (in German).
  • Shtakel’berg, A.A. Family Periscelididae in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition.Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision.Uncertain family diagnosis.

External links

  • Data related to Periscelididae at Wikispecies
  • Periscelididae in Italian.

Aulacigastridae

Aulacigastridae

External images

Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Animalia
Phylum:
Arthropoda
Class:
Insecta
Order:
Diptera
Superfamily:
Opomyzoidea
Family:
Aulacigastridae

Duda, 1921
Genera

Aulacigaster Macquart, 1835

Synonyms

Aulacigastreridae

Aulacigastridae is a very small family of flies known as sap flies. The family Stenomicridae used to be included within this family, but was moved by Papp in 1984. They are found in all the Ecoregions.

Contents

  • 1 Description
  • 2 Biology
  • 3 Species Lists
  • 4 Identification
  • 5 Phylogeny
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

Description

For terms see Morphology of Diptera.

Aulacigastrids are small black flies.The head is rounded. Postvertical bristles and ocellar bristles are absent, there are two orbital bristles on each side of frons, the anterior orbital bristle directed forward and towards median line. Vibrissae are well developed.On the mesonotum there are two pairs of dorsocentral bristles. The costa is interrupted near the subcosta (which reaches the costa).The posterior basal wing cell and discoidal wing cell are fused and the anal vein does not reach the margin of the wings.

Biology

The larvae of sap flies feed on the sap of deciduous and coniferous trees (sap runs) and feed on micro-organisms within the sap. Adults feed on nectar, and other fermenting substances.

Species Lists

  • West Palaearctic including Russia
  • Nearctic
  • Australasian/Oceanian
  • Japan
  • World list

Identification

  • Duda. 1934. Aulacigastridae. In Lindner, In: Lindner, E. (Ed.). Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region 6,1,58c, 1-5. Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision (in German).
  • Shtakel’berg, A.A. Family Aulacigastridae in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition.Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision.

Phylogeny

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  Opomyzoidea  

 Clusioinea (Clusiidae[1])

 Agromyzoinea (Odiniidae+Fergusoninidae+Agromyzidae)

 Opomyzoinea (Opomyzidae+Anthomyzidae)

  Asteioinea  

 Neurochaetidae+Aulacigastridae+Periscelididae

 Teratomyzidae

 Xenasteiidae

 Asteiidae

References

  1. ^ Nello schema di McAlpine, i Clusiidae sono in relazione con il genere Acartophthalmus, che secondo l’analisi cladistica di Buck (2006) va collocato nel clade dei Carnoidea. Vedi Acartophthalmidae.
  • Mathis, W. N., Freidberg, A. A, 1994 Revision of the Nearctic Aulacigaster Macquart with notes on A. leucopeza (Meigen) from the Palearctic Region (Diptera, Aulacigastridae) Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 96 :583–598 online

External links

  • Diptera.info Images

Anthomyzidae

Anthomyzidae
Stiphrosoma.sabulosum.short.winged.jpg
Short-winged form of Stiphrosoma sabulosum from Germany
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Animalia
Phylum:
Arthropoda
Class:
Insecta
Order:
Diptera
Superfamily:
Opomyzoidea
Family:
Anthomyzidae
Genera
  • Amnonthomyza Roháček, 1993
  • Amygdalops Lamb, 1914
  • Anagnota Becker, 1902
  • Anthomyza Fallén, 1810
  • Apterosepsis Richards, 1962
  • Barbarista Roháček, 1993
  • Cercagnota Roháček & Freidberg, 1993
  • Epischnomyia Roháček, 2006
  • Fungomyza Roháček, 1999
  • Ischnomyia Loew, 1863
  • Margdalops Roháček & Barraclough, 2003
  • Mumetopia Melander, 1913
  • Paranthomyza Czerny, 1902
  • Receptrixa Roháček, 2006
  • Santhomyza Roháček, 1984
  • Stiphrosoma Czerny, 1928
  • Typhamyza Roháček, 1992
  • Zealantha Roháček, 2007

The Anthomyzidae are small, slender, yellow to black flies with narrow and elongated wings, which may have distinct markings. Some species have greatly reduced wings. Fewer than 100 species are known, mostly from Europe. Although they occur in all major regions, they seem to be most varied in the Holarctic region.

Around 20 diverse genera have been placed in the family. Two, Teratomyza and Teratoptera, are now in the Teratomyzidae, and Cyamops and Stenomicra are in the Stenomicridae. Melanthomyza Malloch from Chile should probably not be retained in the family. The remaining genera are very similar to one another.

Anthomyzidae wing veins

Contents

  • 1 Description
  • 2 Biology
  • 3 Phylogeny
  • 4 References
  • 5 Further reading

    • 5.1 Species lists
  • 6 External links

Description

For terms see Morphology of Diptera

These are sinute to small (1.3-4.5 mm), slender flies. They are yellow (sometimes with dark spots or stripes) to black in colour. The postverticals on the head are small, convergent or parallel, and rarely absent. Two or three pairs of frontal bristles, which curve backward, are present and usually preceded by one or more weaker bristles. Interfrontal bristles are absent or present. Peristomal bristles (“false vibrissae”) are present. In the more common Anthomyza and Paranthomyza, the lower side of femur 1 has a well-developed spine in apical third. Wings are usually long and narrow and immaculate (sometimes marked). Some species are brachypterous. The costa has a subcostal break and the subcosta is incomplete.

Biology

File:Anthomyza sp. oviposition - 2012-08-12.ogvPlay media

Anthomyza sp. ovipositing on an old (empty) head of grass

Larvae have been reported from decaying dicotyledonous plants, from fungi, and in Europe from leaf sheaths of various grasses and of Typha, Scirpus, and Juncus, from Lipara galls on Phragmites. They may be either phytophagous or saprophagous, but damage to cereals or other plants has not been reported.

Adults are usually found in moist habitats such as damp meadows, marshes, bogs, and damp deciduous or mixed forests with rich undergrowth. Some species inhabit dry grasslands (some species of Anthomyza and the brachypterous Stiphrosoma sabulosum).

Phylogeny

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  Opomyzoidea  
  Clusioinea  

 Clusiidae[1]

  Agromyzoinea  

 Odiniidae

 Fergusoninidae

 Agromyzidae

  Opomyzoinea  

 Opomyzidae+Anthomyzidae

 Asteioinea

References

  1. ^ Nello schema di McAlpine, i Clusiidae sono in relazione con il genere Acartophthalmus, che secondo l’analisi cladistica di Buck (2006) va collocato nel clade dei Carnoidea. Vedi Acartophthalmidae.

Further reading

  • Przemysław Trojan, 1962 Odiniidae, Clusiidae, Anthomyzidae, Opomyzidae, Tethinidae in (series) Klucze do oznaczania owadów Polski, 28,54/58; Muchowki = Diptera, 54/58 Publisher Warszawa : Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe (in Polish)
  • Jindřich Roháček, 1996. Revision of Palaearctic Stiphrosoma, including the Anthomyza-laeta group (Diptera, Anthomyzidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 93:89-120, ISSN 1210-5759 European Journal of Entomology
  • Jindřich Roháček, 1998. Taxonomic limits, phylogeny and higher classification of Anthomyzidae (Diptera), with special regard to fossil record. Eur. J. Entomol. 95:141-177, ISSN 1210-5759 European Journal of Entomology
  • Jindřich Roháček, 2006. A monograph of Palaearctic Anthomyzidae (Diptera), Part 1.published as supplement 1 of the Časopis Slezského zemského muzea, Vol. 55 (2006) 326 pages, 661 black-and-white illustrations. ISSN 1211-3026, .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    ISBN 80-86224-57-0
  • Jindřich Roháček, 2007. Zealantha thorpei gen. et sp. nov. (Diptera: Anthomyzidae), first family representative from New Zealand. Zootaxa 1576: 1–13 Zootaxa

Species lists

  • West Palaearctic including Russia
  • Australasian/Oceanian
  • Nearctic
  • Japan
  • World list

External links

  • Encyclopedia of Life – Family Anthomyzidae at EOL
  • Diptera.info images


Opomyzidae

Opomyzidae
Geomyza.tripunctata.jpg
Geomyza tripunctata
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Animalia
Phylum:
Arthropoda
Class:
Insecta
Order:
Diptera
Superfamily:
Opomyzoidea
Family:
Opomyzidae
Genera
  • Anomalochaeta Frey, 1910
  • Geomyza Fallén, 1810
  • Opomyza Fallén, 1820
  • Scelomyza Séguy, 1938

Opomyzidae is a family of acalyptrate Diptera. They are generally small, slender, yellow, brown or black coloured flies. The larval food plants are grasses, including cereal crops, the adults are mainly found in open habitats. Some species being agricultural pests.

Opomyza wing veins

Contents

  • 1 Description
  • 2 Species
  • 3 Biology
  • 4 Identification
  • 5 Phylogeny
  • 6 Gallery
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links

Description

For terms see Morphology of Diptera.
Small slender yellow, brown, reddish or black flies. The narrow wings are usually with light or dark-colored spots (darkly marked crossveins apical spot). Head with one pair of backwardly directed orbital (frontal bristles) bristles.Scattered interfrontal setulae are present Ocellar bristles are present. Postvertical bristles are absent (rarely present). Vibrissae absent but Geomyza with a strong bristle near the vibrissal angle.Ocelli are present and the arista is pubescent or with long hairs.Tibae without preapical dorsal bristles. R1 is short, the subcosta ends near the break of the costa (usually incomplete but apical part sometimes visible as a faint line reaching the costa) and near apex of R1;posterior basal wing cell and anal cell are small.
The crossvein BM-Cu is present but usually incomplete. Tibiae without dorsal preapical bristle.

Species

  • Genus Anomalochaeta Frey, 1910
  • Anomalochaeta guttipennis (Zetterstedt, 1838)
  • Genus Geomyza Fallén, 1810
File:Geomyza cf hackmani - 2014-09-05.webmPlay media

Geomyza cf. hackmani

  • Geomyza angustipennis Zetterstedt, 1847
  • Geomyza apicalis (Meigen, 1830)
  • Geomyza balachowskyi Mesnil, 1934
  • Geomyza breviseta Czerny, 1928
  • Geomyza hackmani Nartshuk, 1984
  • Geomyza hendeli Czerny, 1928
  • Geomyza majuscula (Loew, 1864)
  • Geomyza nartshukae Carles-Tolrá, 1993
  • Geomyza subnigra Drake, 1992
  • Geomyza tripunctata Fallén, 1823
  • Geomyza venusta (Meigen, 1830)
  • Genus Opomyza Fallén, 1820
File:Opomyza germinationis - 2013-06-07.webmPlay media

Opomyza germinationis

  • Opomyza athamus (Séguy, 1928)
  • Opomyza florum (Fabricius, 1794)
  • Opomyza germinationis (Linnaeus, 1758 )
  • Opomyza limbatus (Williston, 1886)
  • Opomyza lineatopunctata von Roser, 1840
  • Opomyza petrei Mesnil, 1934
  • Opomyza punctata Haliday, 1833
  • Opomyza punctella Fallén, 1820
  • Opomyza townsendi (Williston, 1898)
  • Genus Scelomyza Séguy, 1938
  • Scelomyza hirticornis Séguy, 1938

Biology

The larvae live in the stems of grasses, a few species being a pest in agriculture, for instance Opomyza florum, the Yellow Cereal fly. Damage caused by Opomyzidae to Gramineae is termed “dead heart”.

Identification

  • E. Brunel, 1998 Family Opomyzidae. In: Papp, L. og Darvas, B. (red.): Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera. 3: 259-266. Science Herald, Budapest
  • Drake, C.M. 1993. A review of the British Opomyzidae. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 6: 159-176.
  • Hackman, W., 1958 The Opomyzidae (Dipt.) of Eastern Fennoscandia. Notulae Entomologicae 38 : 114-126.
  • Czerny. 1930.Opomyzidae. In: Lindner, E. (Ed.). Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region 6, 1,54c, 1-15. Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision (in German).
  • Séguy, E., 1934 Diptères: Brachycères. T.II. Muscidae acalypterae, Scatophagidae. Paris: Éditions Faune de France 28.BibliothequeVirtuelleNumerique pdf
  • Shtakel’berg,A.A., 1988 Family Opomyzidae in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition.Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision .
  • Przemysław Trojan, 1962 Odiniidae, Clusiidae, Anthomyzidae, Opomyzidae, Tethinidae in (series) Klucze do oznaczania owadów Polski, 28,54/58; Muchowki = Diptera, 54/58 Publisher Warszawa : Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe

Phylogeny

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  Opomyzoidea  
  Clusioinea  

 Clusiidae[1]

  Agromyzoinea  

 Odiniidae

 Fergusoninidae

 Agromyzidae

  Opomyzoinea  

 Opomyzidae+Anthomyzidae

 Asteioinea

Gallery

References

  1. ^ Nello schema di McAlpine, i Clusiidae sono in relazione con il genere Acartophthalmus, che secondo l’analisi cladistica di Buck (2006) va collocato nel clade dei Carnoidea. Vedi Acartophthalmidae.

External links

  • Opomyzidae in Italian
  • Family description
  • Gallery of Opomyzidae
  • Family Opomyzidae at EOL images
  • Geomyza illustrations
  • Encyclopedia of Life World taxa list
  • Jindřich Roháček


Agromyzidae

Leaf-miner flies
Agromzidaelowres.jpg
Napomyza lateralis
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Animalia
Phylum:
Arthropoda
Class:
Insecta
Order:
Diptera
Superfamily:
Opomyzoidea
Family:
Agromyzidae
Subfamilies
  • Agromyzinae
  • Phytomyzinae

The Agromyzidae are a family commonly referred to as the leaf-miner flies, for the feeding habits of their larvae, most of which are leaf miners on various plants.

A worldwide family of roughly 2,500 species, they are small, some with wing length of 1 mm. The maximum size is 6.5 mm. Most species are in the range of 2 to 3 mm.

Contents

  • 1 General description
  • 2 Technical description
  • 3 Biology
  • 4 Identification
  • 5 Genera
  • 6 Phylogeny
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 Further reading
  • 10 External links

    • 10.1 Species lists

General description

Adult agromyzids can be recognized by the distinctive sclerotization of the head. The upper part of the frons, above the ptilinal suture (known as the frontal vitta) is lightly sclerotized and lacks setae, while the lower part of the frons and the dorsal area of the head tends to be much more heavily sclerotized and setaceous. Thus, the frontal vitta often forms a distinctive patch on the head, different in colour and texture from the rest of the head. The compound eyes are usually oval and fairly small, although in some species, they are larger and more circular.

Larval mines of holly leaf miner, Phytomyza ilicis

The wings are usually hyaline, although those of a few tropical species have darker markings. A few species, including all Agromyza spp., are capable of stridulation, possessing a “file” on the first abdominal segment and a “scraper” on the hind femur.
The family Agromyzidae is commonly referred to as the leaf-miner flies, for the feeding habits of their larvae, most of which are leaf miners on various plants.

Figure 3 Cerodontha denticornis, 3a head lateral, 3b antenna, and figure 5 Phytomyza affinis 5a head lateral, 5b face, 5c antenna

Technical description

For terms see Morphology of Diptera
These are small, sometimes minute, flies, at most 0.9 to 6.0 mm in length. The body is usually short, and the thorax has a rectangular profile, with a well-developed humeral callus. The abdomen is broad and the legs are short. The thorax and abdomen are often light grey, rarely dark, but may be yellow, green, blue-green, and variably coppery or metallic.
The wings are equal in length to the body or slightly longer. Wings have the lower calypter much reduced or absent. The chaetotaxy is well developed, especially on the head. The postvertical orbital bristles on the head are always present and divergent, inner and outer vertical bristles on the head are well developed. They have ocellar bristles, frontal bristles (two to eight pairs of frontal bristles, the lower one to three pairs curve inward, the other pairs backward), vibrissae (in some cases weakly developed), and oral bristles are always present. Interfrontal bristles are absent, but interfrontal setulae are sometimes present. The basal segment of the antennae is very short; the second antennal segment is not grooved. The third antennal segment is always large, usually round (not elongated but sometimes with a sharp point) and usually with swollen, and the almost bare or pubescent arista never is plumose. The face in lateral view is not deeply excavated between the antennae and the edge of the mouth. The ptilinal suture is clearly defined. The mouthparts are functional. The proboscis is usually short and thick, rarely elongated and geniculated (Ophiomyia). The maxillary palps are single-segmented and porrect. The thorax is without a continuous dorsal suture and without well-defined posterior calli. The thorax has well-developed dorsocentral bristles, postalar bristles, supra-alar bristles, and acrostichal and intra-alar bristles. The scutellum has two to four bristles. On each side of the thorax is a humeral bristle and one or two notopleural bristles.
In describing the bristles of the thorax (dorsocentral bristles and acrostichal), a formula is used in which the first number indicates the postsutural ones, and the second number, following a plus (+) or minus (-) sign the presutural. A few bristles are on the legs, but bristles on tibia 2, are of taxonomic significance. Tibiae are without a dorsal preapical bristle. Hind tibiae are without strong bristles in the basal 4/5. The front femora are without a conspicuous spine beneath.
The wing venation usually exhibits first and second basal, anal, and discal cells but may lack one or more of the cells. Wings have a discal cell, or are without a discal cell; without a subapical cell. The anal cell is very short and closed. The costa has one break which is at the end of the subcosta. The subcosta is apparent (faint) and joins vein 1 well short of the costa, or terminates before it (vein Sc is complete or incomplete, apically ending in vein R1 (Agromyzinae) or separate from vein R1, but reduced to a fold that may or may not reach the costa (Phytomyzinae)); . Wing vein 4 extends far beyond the end of the first basal cell. Wing vein 6 is present, falling short of the wing margin. Wing venation is shown in the gallery.

The abdomen is moderately long and consists of six segments and with a coating of short pubescence well-developed at some places. The female has an elongated telescopic ovipositor, which in the resting position is retracted into the elongated tergite 7, often called the ovipositor. (Female with oviscape, nonretractable basal segment of the ovipositor).

The egg is oval-shaped, white or yellowish. The larva is apodous, cylindrical and tapering at both ends. The length of the last instar larva is, as a rule, in the order of 2–3 mm. The tracheal system is metapneustic in the first instar early age and amphipneustic in the subsequent stages. The pupa is variable, from barrel shaped, to a more elongated shape. The outer surface can segmentation and is more or less smooth or wrinkled. The color varies from black to brown to yellowish white.

Biology

File:Melanagromyza sp - 2012-05-11.ogvPlay media

Melanagromyza sp. ovipositing on Anthriscus sylvestris

Agromyzidae larvae are phytophagous, feeding as leaf miners, less frequently as stem miners or stem borers. A few live on developing seeds, or produce galls.Sometimes larvae in roots or under bark. The biology of many species is as yet unknown. There is a high degree of host specificity, an example being Phytomyza ilicis, the holly leaf miner that feeds on no other species.
Some Agromyzidae are quarantine species in many countries. Liriomyza huidobrensis, Liriomyza sativae and Liriomyza trifolii are examples.

A number of species attack plants of agricultural or ornamental value, so are considered pests.These insects are very important to agronomy by the direct damage that they cause, particularly on young plants, the leaf of which may, for example, be completely destroyed. By their nutritional bites females of some species are able to inoculate pathogenic fungi, or to transmit viruses.
About 10% of the species of Agromyzidae are considered pests. The most important pest genera are Agromyza, Melanagromyza, Ophiomyia, Liriomyza, Napomyza and Phytomyza.

For examples of pest species see Asparagus miner (Ophiomyia simplex),Chromatomyia horticola, Serpentine leaf miner (Liriomyza brassicae).

Some 110 species are known to occur on cultivated plants. A number of species are of particular importance, especially Liriomyza and Ophiomyia species. Larvae of species in the genera Liriomyza and Phytomyza are extremely polyphagous (they attack many different species of plants).

A long imaginal aestivation and hibernation period is an uncommon overwintering strategy among agromyzid flies.

The shape of the mine is often characteristic of the species and therefore useful for identification. For some of the serpentine leaf miners it is possible to use the mine to indicate the instar of the animal that made it, and in some cases its cause of death.[1] Polytene chromosomes can be isolated from some agromyzid larvae. Adults occur in a variety of habitats, depending on the larval host plants.

Identification

Morphological similarity makes identification difficult, and DNA barcoding is increasingly used to identify species.

Genera

List of genera according to Catalogue of Life:[2]

  • Agromyza
  • Amauromyza
  • Aulagromyza
  • Calycomyza
  • Cecidomyiaceltis
  • Cerodontha
  • Chromatomyia
  • Galiomyza
  • Geratomyza
  • Gymnophytomyza
  • Haplopeodes
  • Hexomyza
  • Indonapomyza
  • Japanagromyza
  • Kleinschmidtimyia
  • Liriomyza
  • Melanagromyza
  • Metopomyza
  • Napomyza
  • Nemorimyza
  • Ophiomyia
  • Penetagromyza
  • Phytobia
  • Phytoliriomyza
  • Phytomyza
  • Pseudoliriomyza
  • Pseudonapomyza
  • Ptochomyza
  • Selachops
  • Tropicomyia
  • Xeniomyza

Phylogeny

.mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0;margin:0;font-size:100%;line-height:100%;border-collapse:separate;width:auto}.mw-parser-output table.clade table.clade{width:100%}.mw-parser-output table.clade td{border:0;padding:0;vertical-align:middle;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-label{width:0.8em;border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:bottom;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-slabel{border:0;padding:0 0.2em;vertical-align:top;text-align:center}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-bar{vertical-align:middle;text-align:left;padding:0 0.5em}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leaf{border:0;padding:0;text-align:left;vertical-align:middle}.mw-parser-output table.clade td.clade-leafR{border:0;padding:0;text-align:right}

  Opomyzoidea  
  Clusioinea  

 Clusiidae[3]

  Agromyzoinea  

 Odiniidae

 Fergusoninidae

 Agromyzidae

  Opomyzoinea  

 Opomyzidae+Anthomyzidae

 Asteioinea

See also

  • Liriomyza sativae – Vegetable leaf miner

References

  1. ^ Freeman, B; Smith, D (1990). “Variation of density-dependence with spatial scale in the leaf-mining fly Liriomyza commelinae (Diptera: Agromyzidae)”. Ecological Entomology. 15: 265–274. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.1990.tb00808.x..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D. (red.) (2011). “Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist”. Species 2000: Reading, UK. Retrieved 24 September 2012.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  3. ^ Nello schema di McAlpine, i Clusiidae sono in relazione con il genere Acartophthalmus, che secondo l’analisi cladistica di Buck (2006) va collocato nel clade dei Carnoidea. Vedi Acartophthalmidae.

Further reading

  • Kenneth A. Spencer Handbooks for the identification of British Insects Vol 10 Part 5g. Diptera, Section (g) Agromyzidae. Royal Entomological Society of London pdf
  • Kenneth A. Spencer Agromyzidae (Diptera) of Economic importance Series Entomologica. Volume 9. Dr. W. Junk bv The Hague. D. Gld. 110.-. xii + 418 p.

Extract Google Books

  • Darvas, B., M. Skuhravá and A. Andersen, 2000. Agricultural dipteran pests of the palaearctic region. In: László Papp and Béla Darvas (eds), Contributions to a manual of palaearctic Diptera (with special reference to flies of economic importance), Volume 1. General and applied dipterology, Science Herald, Budapest: 565-650.
  • Dempewolf, M.,2004 Arthropods of Economic Importance – Agromyzidae of the World Hybrid CD Mac and Windows CD
    ISBN 907500057X
  • Frick, K. E., 1952. A generic revision of the family Agromyzidae (Diptera) with a catalogue of New World species. University of California Publications in Entomology 8: 339-452. Berkeley and Los Angeles.
  • Spencer, K. A., 1987. Agromyzidae. In: J. F. McAlpine, B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth and D. M. Wood (eds): Manual of Nearctic Diptera 2. (Research Branch Agriculture Canada, Monograph 28); Minister of Supply and Services Canada: 869-879.
  • K. G. V. Smith, 1989 An introduction to the immature stages of British Flies. Diptera Larvae, with notes on eggs, puparia and pupae.Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects Vol 10 Part 14. pdf download manual (two parts Main text and figures index)
  • Braun, M. R., Almeida-Neto, M., Loyola, R. D., Prado, A.P. & Lewinsohn, T. M. “New Host-Plant Records for Neotropical Agromyzids (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Asteraceae Flower Heads”

External links

  • Agromyzidae of the World
  • Encyclopedia of Life World taxa list and images
  • Agromyzidae Taxonomy Site
  • Images at BugGuide
  • British (and Europe) leafminers
  • Pea Leaf Miner – Center for Invasive Species Research
  • Images representing Agromyzidae at Bold.

Species lists

  • West Palaearctic including Russia
  • Nearctic
  • Australasian/Oceanian
  • Japan


Odiniidae

Odiniidae
EuropäischenZweiflügeligen1790TafCCXLV.jpg
Odinia maculata figured in Europäischen Zweiflügeligen (fig. 9)
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Animalia
Phylum:
Arthropoda
Class:
Insecta
Order:
Diptera
Superfamily:
Opomyzoidea
Family:
Odiniidae
Subfamilies
  • Odiniinae
  • Traginopinae
File:Odinia cf boletina - 2013-06-06.webmPlay media

Odinia cf. boletina on Fomes fomentarius

Odiniidae is a small family of flies. There are only 58 described species but there are representatives in all the major biogeographic realms.

Life histories are known for only few species of Odinia, and no biological information is available for the majority of species in the family. Known odiniid larvae live in the tunnels of wood-boring larvae of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, and other Diptera and function as scavengers or predators of the host larvae. One species, Turanodinia coccidarum Stackelberg, has been reared from the egg masses of Pseudococcus comstocki Kuwana, a mealybug.[1]

Contents

  • 1 Family description
  • 2 Taxonomy
  • 3 Identification
  • 4 Other literature
  • 5 Species lists
  • 6 External links
  • 7 Sources

Family description

See [1] which as well as text has excellent illustrations of Odinia viz [2].

Taxonomy

  • Subfamily Odiniinae
  • Afrodinia Cogan, 1975
  • Neoalticomerus Hendel, 1903
  • Odinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830
  • Turanodinia Stackelberg, 1944
  • Subfamily Traginopinae
  • Coganodinia Gaimari & Mathis, 2008
  • Helgreelia Gaimari, 2007[2]
  • Lopesiodinia Prado, 1973[2]
  • Neoschildomyia Gaimari, 2007[2]
  • Neotraginops Prado, 1973[2]
  • Paratraginops Hendel, 1917
  • Pradomyia Gaimari, 2007
  • Schildomyia Malloch, 1926[2]
  • Shewellia Hennig, 1969[2]
  • Traginops Coquillett, 1900

Identification

  • Cogan, B.H.,1975 New Taxa in Two Families Previously Unrecorded from the Ethiopian Region(Diptera, Odiniidae and Diastatidae). Ann. Natal Mus. 22(2):471-488. Key to Afrotropic genera and species.
  • Prado, A. P., 1973 Contribuicão ao Conhecimento da Familia Odiniidae (Diptera, Acalyptratae). Studia Entomologica, Petrópolis, v. 16, n. 1-4, p. 481-510. Keys world genera.
  • Collin, J.E. (1952), On the European species of the genus Odinia R.-D. (Diptera: Odiniidae). Proceedings of the Royal entomological Society of London (B) 21: 110-116.

Other literature

  • Papp, L., 1978 71. család: Odiniidae – Taplólegyek.In: Dély-Draskovits Á. & Papp L., Taplólegyek – Gabonalegyek. Odiniidae – Chloropidae. Fauna Hung., 133, 202 pp. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. (In Hungarian).
  • Przemysław Trojan, 1962 Odiniidae, Clusiidae, Anthomyzidae, Opomyzidae, Tethinidae in (series) Klucze do oznaczania owadów Polski, 28,54/58; Muchowki = Diptera, 54/58 Publisher Warszawa : Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe (In Polish)

Species lists

  • Palaearctic
  • Nearctic
  • Japan
  • Australasian/Oceanian
  • British

External links

  • Images from Diptera.info

Sources

  1. ^ Papp, L. Papp, L.; Darvas, B., eds. 3.18. Family Odiniidae, in: Contributions to a Manual of Palaearctic Diptera (Print). 3 Higher Brachycera. Budapest: Science Herald. pp. 233–242..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ abcdef Gaimari, Stephen D. (2007). “Three new Neotropical genera of Odiniidae (Diptera: Acalyptratae)”. Zootaxa (PDF)|format= requires |url= (help). New Zealand: Magnolia Press. 1443: 1–16. ISSN 1175-5334.

Clusiidae

Clusiidae
Diptera-Clusiidae-Paraclusia-tigrina-20110910a.JPG
Female Clusia tigrina
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Animalia
Phylum:
Arthropoda
Class:
Insecta
Order:
Diptera
Section:
Schizophora
Superfamily:
Opomyzoidea
Family:
Clusiidae
Subfamilies
  • Clusiinae Frey, 1960
  • Clusiodinae Frey, 1960
  • Sobarocephalinae Lonsdale & Marshall, 2006[1]
Synonyms

Heteroneuridae[1]

File:Paraclusia tigrina - lekking behaviour.ogvPlay media

Clusia tigrina engaged in lekking behaviour

Clusiidae or “druid flies” is a family of small (~ 3.5 mm), thin, yellow to black acalyptrate flies with a characteristic antenna (The second segment of the antennae has a triangular projection over the third segment when viewed from the outside) and with the wing usually partially infuscated. They have a cylindrical body. The head is round, the vertical plate reaches the anterior margin of the frons and the vibrissae on the head are large. The costa is interrupted near subcosta and the latter developed throughout length. Larvae are found in the bark of trees, the flies on trunks.The larvae are notable for their ability to jump. Males of many species in the subfamily Clusiodinae have been observed while engaged in lekking behaviour. There are hundreds of species in 14 genera found in all the Ecoregions, although most species occur in tropical regions. The type genus is Clusia Haliday, 1838.

Contents

  • 1 Genera
  • 2 Identification
  • 3 References
  • 4 External links

    • 4.1 Species lists

Genera

  • Subfamily Clusiinae Frey, 1960
  • Clusia Haliday, 1838.[2][3][4]
  • Melanoclusia Lonsdale & Marshall, 2008[2][3]
  • Phylloclusia Hendel, 1913[2][5]
  • Tetrameringia McAlpine, 1960[2][6]
  • Subfamily Clusiodinae Frey, 1960
  • Allometopon Kertész, 1906[2]
  • Clusiodes Coquillett, 1904.[2][4][7]
  • Czernyola Bezzi, 1907[2][8][9][10]
  • ElectroclusiodesHennig, 1965[2]
  • Hendelia Czerny, 1903[2][8][7]
  • Heteromeringia Czerny, 1903[2][4][11][8]
  • Subfamily Sobarocephalinae Lonsdale & Marshall, 2006[1]
  • Apiochaeta Czerny, 1903[2][8][12][10]
  • Chaetoclusia Coquillett, 1904.[2]
  • Procerosoma Lonsdale & Marshall, 2006[2]
  • Sobarocephala Czerny, 1903[2][8][13]

Identification

  • Lonsdale, O., Cheung, D.K.B. & Marshall, S.A. 2011. Key to the World genera and North American species of Clusiidae (Diptera: Schizophora). Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification No. 14, 3 May 2011, available online at http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/bsc/ejournal/lcm_14/lcm_14.html, doi: 10.3752/cjai.2011.14
  • Przemysław Trojan, 1962 Odiniidae, Clusiidae, Anthomyzidae, Opomyzidae, Tethinidae in (series) Klucze do oznaczania owadów Polski, 28,54/58; Muchowki = Diptera, 54/58 Publisher Warszawa : Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe (in Polish)

References

  1. ^ abc Lonsdale, Owen; Marshall, Stephen A. (2006). “Redefinition of the Clusiinae and Clusiodinae, description of the new subfamily Sobarocephalinae, revision of the genus Chaetoclusia and a description of Procerosoma gen. n. (Diptera: Clusiidae)” (PDF Adobe Acrobat). European Journal of Entomology. Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Entomological Society. 103 (1): 163–182. doi:10.14411/eje.2006.020. Retrieved 2009-11-20..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ abcdefghijklmn Lonsdale, O; Cheung, D.K.B.; Marshall, S.A. (14 May 2011). “Key to the World genera and North American species of Clusiidae (Diptera: Schizophora)”. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  3. ^ ab Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2008). “Synonymy within Clusia and description of the new genus Melanoclusia (Diptera: Clusiidae: Clusiinae)”. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Entomological Society of America. 101 (2): 327–330. doi:10.1603/0013-8746(2008)101[327:swcado]2.0.co;2.
  4. ^ abc Stubbs, Allen. E. “An identification guide to British Clusiidae”. Proceedings of the Transactions of the British Entomological Natural History Society. British Entomological Natural History Society. 15 (3/4): 89–93. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  5. ^ Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2007). “Revision of the genus Phylloclusia (Diptera: Clusiidae: Clusiinae)”. Canadian Entomologist. Entomological Society of Ontario. 138: 778–792. doi:10.4039/n06-049.
  6. ^ McAlpine, D.K. (1960). “A review of the Australian species of Clusiidae (Diptera: Acalyptrata)”. Records of the Australian Museum. 25: 63–94. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1975.25.1960.656.
  7. ^ ab Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2007). “Redefinition of the genera Clusiodes and Hendelia (Diptera: Clusiidae: Clusiodinae), with a review of Clusiodes“. Studia Dipterologica. 14: 117–159.
  8. ^ abcde Czerny, P. Leander (1903). “Revision der Heteroneuriden”. Wiener Entomologische Zeitung. 22: 61–108.
  9. ^ Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2006). “Revision of the New World Craspedochaeta Czerny”. Zootaxa. Magnolia Press. 1391 (1): 1–101.
  10. ^ ab Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A.; Fu, J.; Wiegmann, B. (2010). “Phylogenetic analysis of the druid flies (Diptera: Schizophora: Clusiidae) based on morphological and molecular data”. Insect Systematics & Evolution. 41 (1): 231–274. doi:10.1163/187631210×500628.
  11. ^ Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2007). “Revision of the New World Heteromeringia (Diptera: Clusiidae: Clusiodinae)”. Beiträge zur Entomologie. Deutsche Entomologische Institut. 57 (1): 37–80.
  12. ^ Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2008). “Revision of the temperate South American genus Apiochaeta Czerny, 1903, with synonymy of Alloclusia Hendel, 1917 (Diptera: Clusiidae)”. Zootaxa. Magnolia Press. 101: 1–33.
  13. ^ Lonsdale, O; Marshall, S.A. (2007). “Revision of the North American Sobarocephala (Diptera: Clusiidae, Sobarocephalinae)”. Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario. Entomological Society of Ontario. 138: 65–106.

External links

  • Tree of Life An expert up to date account.
  • BugGuide Images
  • Diptera.info Images
  • Delta-Intkey
  • Key to World genera and North America species

Species lists

  • West Palaearctic including Russia
  • Nearctic
  • Australasian and Oceanian
  • Japan