Sacramento Surge

Sacramento Surge
Sacramento Surge helmet
Helmet
Sacramento Surge logo
Logo
Year founded 1991
Year retired 1992
City Sacramento, California
Team colors Aqua, Light Gold, Black, White[1]
                   
Franchise W-L-T record Regular season: 11–9
Postseason: 2–0
Championships

World Bowls (1)

  • World Bowl II (1992)

The Sacramento Surge was a professional American football team that played in the World League of American Football (WLAF) in 1991 and 1992. The team played its first season at Hughes Stadium in Sacramento, and the second season in Hornet Stadium on the Sacramento State University campus. It was owned by Managing General Partner Fred Anderson and the General Manager was Michael F. Keller. In charge of Special Projects was Jack Youngblood, who also partnered with Joe Starkey and Ronnie Lott on the Surge radio broadcasts KRAK.

The team was coached by former Buffalo Bills quarterback–head coach Kay Stephenson. Charlie Sumner was the defensive coordinator and Jim Haslett was a defensive assistant coach.

The Surge won the World Bowl in 1992, the only American team to do so. On this championship team were future professional wrestler Bill Goldberg and investment guru Pete Najarian.

After the WLAF ended its American presence at the end of the 1992 season, Anderson continued Sacramento’s presence in professional football by acquiring a Canadian Football League expansion franchise. The new team was named the Sacramento Gold Miners; Stephenson and several Surge players were retained in the change, as were the team colors of aqua and yellow.

Contents

  • 1 Season-by-season
  • 2 1991 season

    • 2.1 Personnel

      • 2.1.1 Staff
      • 2.1.2 Roster
    • 2.2 Schedule
  • 3 1992 season

    • 3.1 Personnel

      • 3.1.1 Staff
      • 3.1.2 Roster
    • 3.2 Schedule
  • 4 References
  • 5 External links

Season-by-season

Season League Regular season Postseason
Won Lost Ties Win % Finish Won Lost Win % Result
1991 WLAF 3 7 0 .300 3rd (North American West)
1992 WLAF 8 2 0 .800 1st (North American West) 2 0 1.000 World Bowl ’92 champions
Total 11 9 0 .550 2 0 1.000

1991 season

1991 Sacramento Surge season
Head coach Kay Stephenson
General manager Mike Keller
Owner Fred Anderson
Home field Hughes Stadium
Results
Record 3–7
Division place 3rd
Playoff finish did not qualify
  • 1992 →

Personnel

Staff

1991 Sacramento Surge staff
Front office

  • Managing General Partner – Fred Anderson
  • General Manager – Mike Keller
  • Assistant to the General Manager – Cliff Dochterman
  • Special Projects – Jack Youngblood
  • Director of Community Relations – Doug Cosbie
  • Player Personnel Consultant – Bob Griffin
  • Player Personnel Consultant – Lannie Julias

Head coaches

  • Head Coach – Kay Stephenson

Offensive coaches

  • Running Backs/Wide Receivers – Bob Owens
  • Offensive Line – Jim Criner
  • Offensive Assistant – Mike Weston
Defensive coaches

  • Defensive Coordinator/Defensive Backs – Charlie Sumner
  • Defensive Line/Linebackers/Special Teams – Jim Haslett
  • Defensive Assistant – Bob Moran

[2]

Roster

1991 Sacramento Surge roster
Quarterbacks

  •  5 Ben Bennett
  • 10 Mike Elkins
  • 11 Todd Ellis
  •  5 Mickey Guidry

Running Backs

  • 28 Tony Burse FB/TE
  • 26 Victor Floyd
  • 20 Paul Frazier
  • 22 Leon Perry

Wide Receivers

  • Sam Archer
  • 87 Paco Craig
  • 88 Chris Gaiters
  • 80 Derek Holloway
  • 86 Carl Parker
  • 87 Colin Sumner

Tight Ends

  • 81 Mel Farr, Jr. FB
Offensive Linemen

  • 72 John Buddenberg G
  • 67 Jon Burman T
  • 54 Byron Forsythe C
  • 75 Mark Nua T
  • 76 Doug Robb G
  • 62 Richard Stephens T
  • 51 Curtis Wilson C

Defensive Linemen

  • 65 John Dominic NT/DE
  • 96 Nate Hill DE
  • 77 Shawn Knight DE
  • 71 Saute Sapolu DE
Linebackers

  • 52 Anthony Henton LB
  • 56 Tim Moore OLB
  • 50 Pete Najarian ILB
  • 58 Paul Soltis ILB
  • 95 Steve Thompson OLB/DE
  • 59 Rick Zumwalt OLB

Defensive Backs

  • 27 Mike Adams CB
  • 33 Greg Coauette SS
  • 45 Tom Gerhart FS
  • 24 Mike Hall CB
  • 29 Art Malone DB
  • 21 Robert McWright CB
  • 25 Mike Wallace CB

Special Teams

  •  2 John Nies K/P
  • Kendall Trainor K
Operation Discovery

  • 83 Ricardo Cartwright WR The Bahamas
  • 79 Oliver Erhorn DL Germany
  • 57 Matti Lindholm ILB Finland
  • 74 Juha Salo OL Finland

Rookies in italics

Schedule

Week Date Opponent Results Game site Attendance
Final score Team record
1 Saturday, March 23 Raleigh–Durham Skyhawks W 9–3 1–0 Hughes Stadium 15,126
2 Saturday, March 30 at Birmingham Fire L 10–17 1–1 Legion Field 16,432
3 Sunday, April 7 at San Antonio Riders L 3–10 1–2 Alamo Stadium 6,772
4 Saturday, April 13 Frankfurt Galaxy W 16–10 2–2 Hughes Stadium 17,065
5 Monday, April 22 at New York/New Jersey Knights L 20–28 2–3 Giants Stadium 21,230
6 Saturday, April 27 Barcelona Dragons L 20–29 (OT) 2–4 Hughes Stadium 19,045
7 Saturday, May 4 Montreal Machine L 23–26 (OT) 2–5 Hughes Stadium 17,326
8 Saturday, May 11 at Orlando Thunder L 33–45 2–6 Florida Citrus Bowl 20,048
9 Saturday, May 18 London Monarchs L 21–45 2–7 Hughes Stadium 21,409
10 Saturday, May 25 at Frankfurt Galaxy W 24–13 3–7 Waldstadion 51,653

1992 season

1992 Sacramento Surge season
Head coach Kay Stephenson
General manager Mike Keller
Owner Fred Anderson
Home field Hornet Stadium
Local radio KFBK
Results
Record 8–2
Division place 1st
Playoff finish World Bowl ’92 champion
  • ← 1991

Personnel

Staff

1992 Sacramento Surge staff
Front office

  • Managing General Partner – Fred Anderson
  • Partner – Dave Lucchetti
  • Partner – Jim Anderson
  • Partner – Bill Pullum
  • Partner – Dick Baker
  • General Manager – Mike Keller
  • Assistant to the General Manager – Cliff Dochterman
  • Director of Marketing Operations – Jack Youngblood
  • Director of Community Relations – Doug Cosbie
  • Player Personnel Consultant – Bob Griffin
  • Player Personnel Consultant – Lannie Julias

Head coaches

  • Head Coach – Kay Stephenson

Offensive coaches

  • Running Backs – Bob Owens
  • Wide Receivers – Bob Moran
  • Offensive Line – Jim Criner
Defensive coaches

  • Defensive Coordinator/Linebackers – Jim Haslett
  • Defensive Line – Jim Niblack
  • Defensive Backs – John Fontes
  • Defensive Assistant – Rick Mueller

[3]

Roster

1992 Sacramento Surge roster
Quarterbacks

  • 18 David Archer
  •  5 Mickey Guidry
  • 11 Lee Saltz

Running Backs

  • 28 Tony Burse
  • 40 Doug DuBose FB
  • 23 Mike Pringle

Wide Receivers

  • 85 Stefon Adams
  • 88 Eddie Brown
  • 89 Anthony Green
  • 86 Carl Parker
  • 82 Mark Stock

Tight Ends

  • 83 Paul Green
Offensive Linemen

  • 72 John Buddenberg G
  • 54 Byron Forsythe G/C
  • 52 Terry Gray G
  • 76 Jarrod Johnson OL
  • 74 Tom Rehder G
  • 70 Ernie Rogers T
  • 62 Richard Stephens T
  • 51 Josh Taotoai OL
  • 61 Lance Zeno C

Defensive Linemen

  • 93 George Bethune DE
  • 73 Bill Goldberg DT
  • 79 Vance Hammond DT
  • 96 Nate Hill DT
  • 75 Michael Sinclair DE
  • 77 David Westbrooks DE
Linebackers

  • 95 Corian Freeman OLB
  • 55 Mike Jones MLB
  • 50 Pete Najarian MLB
  • 56 Basil Proctor OLB
  • 58 Randy Thornton

Defensive Backs

  • 45 Tom Gerhart S
  • 44 Derrick Kelson CB
  • 21 Robert McWright CB
  • 24 Tracey Perkins CB
  • 42 Louis Riddick S
  • 22 Junior Robinson CB
  • 27 Herb Welch S

Special Teams

  • 15 Cary Blanchard K
  •  3 John Nies K/P
Operation Discovery

  • Vacant

Rookies in italics

[3]

Schedule

Week Date Kickoff Opponent Results Game site Attendance
Final score Team record
1 Saturday, March 21 Birmingham Fire W 20–6 1–0 Hornet Stadium 17,920
2 Sunday, March 29 at Ohio Glory W 17–6 2–0 Ohio Stadium 37,837[4]
3 Saturday, April 4 2:00 p.m.[5] Montreal Machine W 14–7 3–0 Hornet Stadium 21,024
4 Saturday, April 11 San Antonio Riders L 20–23 (OT) 3–1 Hornet Stadium 20,625[6]
5 Saturday, April 18 at Birmingham Fire L 14–28 3–2 Legion Field 20,794
6 Sunday, April 26 at London Monarchs W 31–26 4–2 Wembley Stadium 18,653
7 Sunday, May 3 at Montreal Machine W 35–21 5–2 Olympic Stadium 21,183
8 Saturday, May 9 Frankfurt Galaxy W 51–7 6–2 Hornet Stadium 22,720
9 Saturday, May 16 Ohio Glory W 21–7 7–2 Hornet Stadium 21,272
10 Saturday, May 23 at San Antonio Riders W 27–21 8–2 Bobcat Stadium 19,273
Postseason
Semifinal Sunday, May 31 Barcelona Dragons W 17–15 9–2 Hornet Stadium 23,640
World Bowl Sunday, June 6 8:10 p.m.[7] Orlando Thunder W 21–17 10–2 Olympic Stadium 43,789

References

  1. ^ “Team Colors – WLAF”. SSUR.org. Retrieved January 16, 2010..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ 1991 Sacramento Surge Media Guide.
  3. ^ ab 1992 Sacramento Surge Media Guide.
  4. ^ “Around the league”. Orlando Sentinel. March 30, 1992. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
  5. ^ “Machine at Surge”. The Sacramento Bee. April 4, 1992. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
  6. ^ “Riders top Surge in overtime”. The Sacramento Bee. April 12, 1992. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
  7. ^ “QB Archer seeks 2nd NFL shot”. Orlando Sentinel. June 6, 1992. Retrieved June 6, 2012.

External links

  • 1991 Sacramento Surge stats on FootballDB.com
  • 1991 Sacramento Surge stats on FootballDB.com


1994 FIFA World Cup

1994 FIFA World Cup
World Cup USA ’94
1994 FIFA World Cup.svg

1994 FIFA World Cup official logo
Tournament details
Host country United States
Dates 17 June – 17 July (31 days)
Teams 24 (from 5 confederations)
Venue(s) 9 (in 9 host cities)
Final positions
Champions  Brazil (4th title)
Runners-up  Italy
Third place  Sweden
Fourth place  Bulgaria
Tournament statistics
Matches played 52
Goals scored 141 (2.71 per match)
Attendance 3,597,042 (69,174 per match)
Top scorer(s) Bulgaria Hristo Stoichkov
Russia Oleg Salenko
(6 goals each)
Best player(s) Brazil Romário
Best young player Netherlands Marc Overmars
Best goalkeeper Belgium Michel Preud’homme
Fair play award  Brazil
← 1990
1998 →

The 1994 FIFA World Cup was the 15th FIFA World Cup, held in nine cities across the United States from 17 June to 17 July 1994. The United States was chosen as the host by FIFA on 4 July 1988. Despite the host nation’s lack of football tradition, the tournament was the most financially successful in World Cup history; aided by the high-capacity stadia in the United States, it broke the World Cup average attendance record with more than 69,000 spectators per game, a mark that still stands.[1][2] The total attendance of nearly 3.6 million for the final tournament remains the highest in World Cup history, despite the expansion of the competition from 24 to 32 teams (and from 52 to 64 games), which was first introduced at the 1998 World Cup and is the current format.[1]

Brazil won the tournament after beating Italy 3–2 in a penalty shoot-out at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California near Los Angeles, after the game had ended 0–0 after extra time. It was the first World Cup final to be decided on penalties. The victory made Brazil the first nation to win four World Cup titles. There were four new entrants in the tournament: Greece, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, as well as two countries that were formed at the end of the Cold War: Russia, following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and for the first time since 1938, a newly reunified Germany took part in the tournament, following Germany reunification in October 1990, a few months after West Germany’s victory in the 1990 World Cup.

Contents

  • 1 Qualification

    • 1.1 List of qualified teams
  • 2 Summary
  • 3 Mascot
  • 4 Venues
  • 5 Referees
  • 6 Squads
  • 7 Seeding and draw
  • 8 Opening ceremony
  • 9 Results

    • 9.1 Group stage

      • 9.1.1 Group A
      • 9.1.2 Group B
      • 9.1.3 Group C
      • 9.1.4 Group D
      • 9.1.5 Group E
      • 9.1.6 Group F
      • 9.1.7 Ranking of third-placed teams
    • 9.2 Knockout stage

      • 9.2.1 Round of 16
      • 9.2.2 Quarter-finals
      • 9.2.3 Semi-finals
      • 9.2.4 Third place play-off
      • 9.2.5 Final
  • 10 Statistics

    • 10.1 Goalscorers
    • 10.2 Awards
    • 10.3 All-star team
    • 10.4 Final standings
  • 11 Firsts

    • 11.1 Sponsorship
  • 12 Lasts
  • 13 References
  • 14 External links

Qualification

Three teams, one African, one Asian, and one European, made their debuts at the 1994 tournament. Nigeria qualified from the African zone alongside Cameroon and Morocco as CAF was granted three spots as a result of the strong performances by African teams in 1990. In the Asian zone, Saudi Arabia qualified for the first time by topping the final round group ahead of South Korea as both edged out Japan, who were close to making their own World Cup debut, but were denied by Iraq in what became known as the “Agony of Doha”. The Japanese would not have to wait long, though, debuting in the 1998 tournament. In the European zone, Greece made their first World Cup appearance after topping a group from which Russia also qualified, competing independently for the first time after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

The defending champions West Germany were united with their East German counterparts, representing the unified Germany for the first time since the 1938 World Cup. Norway qualified for the first time since 1938, Bolivia for the first time since 1950, and Switzerland for the first time since 1966. Norway’s 56-year gap between appearances in the final tournament equalled Egypt’s record in the previous tournament as the longest. Mexico had its first successful qualification campaign since 1978, failing to qualify in 1982, qualifying as hosts in 1986 and being banned for the Cachirules scandal in 1990.

The qualification campaigns of both Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were affected by political events. The nation of Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, and the team completed its qualifying group under the name “Representation of Czechs and Slovaks” (RCS), but failed to qualify for the finals, having been edged out by Romania and Belgium at Group 4. Yugoslavia (which was supposed to play in Group 5) was suspended from international competition in 1992 as part of United Nations sanctions against the country as a result of the Yugoslav Wars. The sanctions were not lifted until 1994, by which time it was no longer possible for the team to qualify. Chile’s suspension from the 1990 FIFA World Cup, following the forced interruption of their qualification game against Brazil, extended to the 1994 qualifiers as well.

This was the second World Cup (the first being the 1938 edition), for which neither England, Scotland, Northern Ireland nor Wales (the Home Nations) qualified, with England (finishing third behind Norway and Netherlands in Group 2) missing out after having finished fourth in the 1990 tournament, and Scotland (which finished fourth in Group 1) failing to qualify for the first time since 1970. France, who had been already designated as hosts of the 1998 tournament, also missed out following surprise home losses to Israel and Bulgaria. This was the second World Cup in a row for which France had failed to qualify, and the last one to date to not feature England, France and Japan. Other notable absentees were 1990 Round of 16 participants Uruguay, UEFA Euro 1992 champions Denmark, Poland, Portugal and Hungary (all four for the second time in a row).

List of qualified teams

The following 24 teams, shown with final pre-tournament rankings,[3] qualified for the final tournamentː

Summary

Striker, the official mascot of the tournament.

Three nations bid for host duties: United States, Brazil, and Morocco.[4] The vote was held in Zurich on 4 July 1988, and only took one round with the United States bid receiving a little over half of the votes by the Exco members.[4] FIFA hoped that by staging the world’s most prestigious tournament there, it would lead to a growth of interest in the sport. One condition FIFA imposed was the creation of a professional football league – Major League Soccer was founded in 1993 and began operating in 1996. There was some initial controversy about awarding the World Cup to a country where football was not a nationally popular sport, and at the time, in 1988, the U.S. did not have a professional league of its own anymore; the North American Soccer League, set up in the 1970s, had folded in 1984 after attendance faded. Success of the 1984 Summer Olympics and particularly the football tournament also contributed to FIFA’s decision. Despite the controversy, the U.S. staged a hugely successful tournament, with average attendance of nearly 70,000 breaking a record that surpassed the 1966 FIFA World Cup average attendance of 51,000, thanks to the large seating capacities the stadiums in the United States provided for the spectators in comparison to the smaller venues of Europe and Latin America. To this day, the total attendance for the final tournament of nearly 3.6 million remains the highest in World Cup history, despite the expansion of the competition from 24 to 32 teams at the 1998 World Cup in France.[1][2] Germany, Brazil, Argentina, Belgium, Italy and the United States were seeded for the final draw, which took place in Las Vegas on 19 December 1993.[5]

The format of the competition stayed the same as in the 1990 World Cup: 24 teams qualified, divided into six groups of four. Sixteen teams would qualify for the knockout phase: the six group winners, the six group runners-up, and the four third-placed teams with the best records. This was the last time this format was used, due to the expansion of the finals tournament in 1998 to 32 teams. This World Cup was the first in which three points were awarded for a win instead of two. FIFA instituted this feature to encourage attacking football after the defensive display of many teams at Italia ’90.

The tournament saw the end of Diego Maradona’s World Cup career, having played in the 1982, 1986, and 1990 World Cups, and leading Argentina to the 1986 World Cup title and the final of the 1990 World Cup. Maradona was expelled from the tournament after he failed a drug test which uncovered ephedrine, a weight loss drug, in his blood. Colombia, despite high expectations due to their style and impressive qualifying campaign, failed to advance from the round robin. The team was supposedly dogged by influence from betting syndicates and drug cartels, with coach Francisco Maturana receiving death threats over squad selection.[citation needed] Defender Andrés Escobar was a tragic figure of this tournament, as in the group stage game against the United States, he scored an own goal that eliminated his team. Escobar was shot to death outside a bar in a Medellín suburb only 10 days later, apparently in retaliation for the own goal.[6]

Lothar Matthäus scoring a penalty kick in Germany’s quarterfinal against Bulgaria at Giants Stadium on 10 July. Bulgaria came back to win the game.

On the field, Bulgaria was one of the biggest surprises of the tournament. The Bulgarians had never won a game in five previous World Cup finals but, led by Hristo Stoichkov who eventually shared the tournament lead in scoring, they made a surprising run; Bulgaria won two of their three group games to qualify for the second round, where they advanced with a 3–1 penalty shoot-out win over Mexico. Bulgaria then faced the reigning world champions, Germany, in the quarterfinals, where goals from Stoichkov and Yordan Letchkov gave them a 2–1 victory. Bulgaria went on to finish in fourth place after losing to Italy after extra time and Sweden, in the semifinals and third-place game, respectively.

The United States, relatively new to professional football, advanced to the second round as one of the best third-place teams. They played Brazil on Independence Day and, despite a 1–0 defeat, the United States’ performance was considered a great success in their football history.[citation needed]

Brazil’s win over the hosts helped take them to the final against Italy. While Brazil’s path was relatively smooth as they defeated the Netherlands in the quarterfinals and Sweden in the semis, the Italians had made hard work of reaching the final. During the group stage Italy struggled and narrowly advanced to the next round, despite losing 1–0 to the Republic of Ireland. Italian playmaker Roberto Baggio, who was expected to be one of the stars of the tournament,[citation needed] had not yet scored a goal. During the Round of 16 game against Nigeria, Italy was trailing 1–0 in the dying minutes when Baggio scored the tying goal, forcing the game into extra time. He scored again with a penalty kick to send Italy through. Baggio carried the Italians from there, scoring the game-winning goal in the quarterfinal against Spain, and both goals in 35th minute and 110th minute in Italy’s semifinal victory over Bulgaria after extra time.[7]

The third-place playoff was set between Bulgaria and Sweden, the team which scored more goals than any other in this World Cup. These teams had also previously met in the qualifying group. Sweden won, 4–0. Swedish forward Tomas Brolin was named to the All-star team.[8]

The final game at the Rose Bowl was tense, but devoid of scoring chances. It was the second time in 24 years that the two nations had met in a final. Despite the strategies implemented by FIFA to promote offensive play, both teams failed to produce a goal. After 120 goalless minutes, the World Cup was decided for the first time by a penalty shoot-out. After four rounds, Brazil led 3–2, and Baggio, playing injured, had to score to keep Italy’s hopes alive.[7] He missed by shooting it over the crossbar, and the Brazilians were crowned champions for the fourth time.[9] After the game ended, then-Vice-President Al Gore hosted the awarding ceremony by handing Brazilian captain Dunga the prestigious trophy; the Brazilian national team dedicated the title to the deceased Formula One motor racing champion and countryman Ayrton Senna, who had died two and a half months prior.[citation needed]

The tournament’s Golden Boot went jointly to Bulgaria’s Stoichkov and Oleg Salenko of Russia, the latter becoming the first player to score five goals in a game, coming in a 6–1 victory against Cameroon. Both players scored six goals in the tournament. Brazilian striker Romário, with five goals, won the Golden Ball as the tournament’s best player.[9]

Mascot

The official mascot of this World Cup was Striker, the World Cup Pup, a dog wearing a red, white and blue football uniform with a ball.[10] Striker was designed by the Warner Bros. animation team.[11] A dog was picked as the mascot because dogs are a common pet in the United States.[11]

Venues

The games were played in nine cities across the country. All stadiums had a capacity of at least 53,000, and their usual tenants were professional or college American football teams. The venue used most was the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, with eight games, among them one round of 16 match, a semi-final, the third-place game, and the final. Giants Stadium near New York hosted seven matches including a semi-final; Boston (Foxborough), San Francisco (Stanford) and Dallas hosted 6 matches each and Chicago, Washington and Orlando each hosted 5 matches. The least used was the Pontiac Silverdome near Detroit, the first indoor stadium used in a World Cup, with four group stage games. The Pontiac Silverdome was also the only venue of the 9 used that did not host any knockout round matches.

Because of the large area of the continental United States, the match locations were often far apart. Some teams in Groups A and B had to travel from Los Angeles or San Francisco all the way to Detroit and back again, covering 2,300 mi (3,680 km) and three time zones one way. The teams in Groups C and D only played in Foxborough (Boston), Chicago and Dallas – a trip from Boston to Dallas is 2,000 miles (3,200 km), but only covers one time zone; Chicago is in the same time zone as Dallas but is still 1,000 miles (1,600 km) away from both Dallas and Boston. The teams in Groups E and F’s travel was a bit easier – they played exclusively in East Rutherford (New York City), Washington and Orlando- all in the same time zone. A few teams such as Cameroon and Italy did not have to travel great distances to cities to play matches.

The variety of climate in different cities all over the United States made playing conditions challenging. Aside from the oceanic coolness of Boston (Foxborough), the Mediterranean climate of San Francisco (Stanford) and occasionally the coolness of Chicago, most matches were played in very hot and/or humid conditions, thanks to nearly all of the matches being scheduled to be played during the day instead of at night in order to suit a time difference compromise for television in Europe, Africa and the Middle East; this had always been done every time a World Cup was held in the Americas. Although playing in the sometimes triple-digit dry heat and smoggy conditions of Los Angeles (Pasadena) and the intense mixture of heat and humidity of Washington and New York City (East Rutherford) proved to be difficult, the cities with the most oppressive conditions were the southern cities of Orlando and Dallas because of the combination of triple-digit heat and extreme humidity.[12] The Floridian tropical climate of Orlando meant all matches there were played in temperatures of 95 °F (35 °C) or above with humidity at 70% or more (the temperature there during the group stage match between Mexico and Ireland was 105 °F (41 °C)) thanks to the mid-day start times.[13] Dallas was not much different: in the semi-arid heat of a Texas summer, temperatures exceeded 100 °F (38 °C) during mid-day, when matches there were staged in the open-type Cotton Bowl meant that conditions were just as oppressive there as they were in Orlando.[14] Detroit also proved to be difficult: the Pontiac Silverdome did not have a working cooling system and because it was an interior dome-shaped stadium, the air could not escape through circulation, so temperatures inside the stadium would climb past 90 °F (32 °C) with 40% humidity. United States midfielder Thomas Dooley described the Silverdome as “the worst place I have ever played at”.[15]

Pasadena, California
(Los Angeles area)
Stanford, California
(San Francisco Bay area)
Pontiac, Michigan
(Detroit area)
East Rutherford, New Jersey
(New York City area)
Rose Bowl Stanford Stadium Pontiac Silverdome Giants Stadium
Capacity: 94,194 Capacity: 84,147 Capacity: 77,557 Capacity: 76,322
2018.06.17 Over the Rose Bowl, Pasadena, CA USA 0039 (42855669451) (cropped).jpg StanfordStadium2004.jpg Silverdome 2.jpg Giants Stadium aerial crop.jpg
Dallas, Texas
1994 FIFA World Cup is located in the US

Pasadena
Pasadena
Pontiac
Pontiac
Stanford
Stanford
East Rutherford
East Rutherford
Orlando
Orlando
Chicago
Chicago
Dallas
Dallas
Foxborough
Foxborough
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
1994 FIFA World Cup (the US)
Cotton Bowl
Capacity: 63,999
2007 Cotton Bowl panoramic 1 crop.jpg
Chicago, Illinois Orlando, Florida Foxborough, Massachusetts
(Boston area)
Washington, D.C.
Soldier Field Citrus Bowl Foxboro Stadium Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium
Capacity: 63,160 Capacity: 62,387 Capacity: 54,456 Capacity: 53,121
Soldier Field Chicago aerial view crop.jpg Citrus Bowl aerial view crop.jpg Foxborostade crop 1.png RFK Stadium aerial photo, 1988.JPEG

Referees

Squads

Teams were selected as usual following FIFA rules with 22 players. Greece, Italy, Saudi Arabia and Spain were the only countries who had all their players coming from domestic teams, while the Republic of Ireland and Nigeria had no players from domestic teams. Saudi Arabia was the only team with no players from European teams.

Seeding and draw

The composition of the four pots was based on the FIFA World Ranking (established in 1993) and on the qualified teams’ results in the three previous World Cups. The teams’ pre-tournament rankings[16] are shown in parenthesis. The principle of the draw was that each group must have at least two European teams, USA and Mexico could not be drawn in the same group, and Brazil and Argentina could not be drawn with another South American team.

Pot 1 (Top 5 plus hosts) Pot 2 (Africa + Americas) Pot 3 (Europe 1–6) Pot 4 (Europe 7–10 + Asia)
  •  United States (hosts) (23)
  •  Germany (1990 champions) (1)
  •  Argentina (runners up in 1990) (8)
  •  Belgium (27)
  •  Brazil (3)
  •  Italy (third place in 1990) (4)
  •  Cameroon (24)
  •  Morocco (28)
  •  Nigeria (11)
  •  Bolivia (43)
  •  Colombia (17)
  •  Mexico (16)
  •  Bulgaria (29)
  •  Republic of Ireland (14)
  •  Netherlands (2)
  •  Romania (7)
  •  Spain (5)
  •  Russia (19)
  •  Greece (31)
  •  Norway (6)
  •  Sweden (10)
  •   Switzerland (12)
  •  South Korea (37)
  •  Saudi Arabia (34)

The draw for the tournament took place at the Las Vegas Convention Center on 19 December 1993, officiated by general-secretary Sepp Blatter. Teams were drawn by German legend Franz Beckenbauer, heavyweight boxing champion Evander Holyfield and comedian and actor Robin Williams. Numbers for placement in the group were drawn by actor Beau Bridges, Women’s World Cup champion Michelle Akers, model Carol Alt, artist Peter Max, racecar driver Mario Andretti and Olympic gold medalist in gymnastics Mary Lou Retton.[17][18]

Opening ceremony

The opening ceremony of the World Cup was held on 17 June at Chicago’s Soldier Field. Numerous dignitaries attended, including United States President Bill Clinton, Chancellor of Germany Helmut Kohl and President of Bolivia Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada. The ceremony was emceed by Oprah Winfrey, who fell off the dais in introducing Diana Ross, who gave a musical performance. Ross was also supposed to kick a football into the goal from the penalty spot at the beginning of her performance, with the goal then splitting in two as part of a pre-orchestrated stunt. She kicked the ball wide to the left, missing the goal, but the goalposts were collapsed anyway in accordance with the stunt plans. In addition, Daryl Hall and Jon Secada also gave musical performances.

Results

Group stage

Times are Eastern Daylight Time (UTC−4) (East Rutherford, Foxborough, Orlando, Pontiac and Washington), Central Daylight Time (UTC−5) (Chicago and Dallas), and Pacific Daylight Time (UTC−7) (Pasadena and Stanford)

In the following tables:

  • Pld = total games played
  • W = total games won
  • D = total games drawn (tied)
  • L = total games lost
  • GF = total goals scored (goals for)
  • GA = total goals conceded (goals against)
  • GD = goal difference (GF−GA)
  • Pts = total points accumulated

Group A

The Group A game between the United States and Switzerland was the first to take place indoors, played under the roof at the Pontiac Silverdome.

Following the tournament, Colombian defender Andrés Escobar was shot dead on his return to Colombia, after his own goal had contributed to his country’s elimination.

Victories against Colombia and the United States (in front of a crowd of 93,869) were enough to see Romania through as group winners, despite a 4–1 hammering by Switzerland in between. The magnitude of that victory allowed Switzerland to move ahead of the United States on goal difference, although the hosts qualified for the second round as one of the best third-placed teams.

Switzerland’s 4–1 victory over Romania came nearly 40 years to the date of Switzerland’s last World Cup victory, also a 4–1 victory, on that occasion over Italy. The United States’ 2–1 victory over Colombia was its first World Cup victory since 29 June 1950 when it upset England 1–0 in the 1950 World Cup.

Pos Team

Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Romania 3 2 0 1 5 5 0 6 Advance to knockout stage
2   Switzerland 3 1 1 1 5 4 +1 4
3  United States (H) 3 1 1 1 3 3 0 4
4  Colombia 3 1 0 2 4 5 −1 3
Source: FIFA
(H) Host.
18 June 1994
United States  1–1   Switzerland Pontiac Silverdome, Pontiac
Colombia  1–3  Romania Rose Bowl, Pasadena
22 June 1994
Romania  1–4   Switzerland Pontiac Silverdome, Pontiac
United States  2–1  Colombia Rose Bowl, Pasadena
26 June 1994
Switzerland   0–2  Colombia Stanford Stadium, Stanford
United States  0–1  Romania Rose Bowl, Pasadena

Group B

Group B produced two of the four semifinalists of this World Cup, and was also one of the two groups in which two, rather than three, sides would progress to the second round. Brazil and Sweden proved to be far stronger than Cameroon and Russia in every department. The game between the latter two broke two World Cup records. Oleg Salenko of Russia became the first – and remains the only – man to score five goals in a single World Cup game as Russia ran out 6–1 winners against their African opponents. The goals also ensured that Salenko finished the tournament joint-top scorer with six goals, having previously bagged one against Sweden. Cameroon left a mark too as Roger Milla, at the age of 42, became the oldest World Cup goalscorer of all time as he grabbed his side’s consolation goal in the game. The result was not enough to take Russia through following heavy defeats at the hands of both Brazil and Sweden. Brazil overcame Cameroon with similar ease before a draw with Sweden confirmed top spot.

The Swedes also progressed, finishing in second place with five points. Sweden’s 3–1 victory over Russia was the nation’s first World Cup victory, in a knockout stage game, since 3 July 1974. Russia failed to progress to the second round for the second time, while Cameroon failed to repeat their surprise performance from the previous tournament.

Pos Team

Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Brazil 3 2 1 0 6 1 +5 7 Advance to knockout stage
2  Sweden 3 1 2 0 6 4 +2 5
3  Russia 3 1 0 2 7 6 +1 3
4  Cameroon 3 0 1 2 3 11 −8 1
Source: FIFA
19 June 1994
Cameroon  2–2  Sweden Rose Bowl, Pasadena
20 June 1994
Brazil  2–0  Russia Stanford Stadium, Stanford
24 June 1994
Brazil  3–0  Cameroon Stanford Stadium, Stanford
Sweden  3–1  Russia Pontiac Silverdome, Pontiac
28 June 1994
Russia  6–1  Cameroon Stanford Stadium, Stanford
Brazil  1–1  Sweden Pontiac Silverdome, Pontiac

Group C

As was the case with Group B, Group C would only send two teams into the Round of 16 as Spain and defending champions Germany progressed to round two. Coming from two goals down with four minutes left to snatch a 2–2 draw against Spain, the South Koreans very nearly eclipsed that feat against Germany when they came from 3–0 down to lose narrowly 3–2. In spite of these comebacks, South Korea was held to a 0–0 draw against Bolivia in their other group game when a win would have seen them through. Spain’s late implosion against the South Koreans effectively decided that it would be Germany who won the group and not them.

Germany, who defeated Bolivia 1–0 in the tournament’s opening game, finished with seven points. Spain had to settle for second place despite leading in all three games.

Despite Bolivia finishing last in the group, Erwin Sanchez made team history after scoring the nation’s first World Cup goal in a 3-1 loss to Spain. Prior to 1994, Bolivia had never scored in either of their previous appearances at the 1930 and 1950 World Cups.

Pos Team

Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Germany 3 2 1 0 5 3 +2 7 Advance to knockout stage
2  Spain 3 1 2 0 6 4 +2 5
3  South Korea 3 0 2 1 4 5 −1 2
4  Bolivia 3 0 1 2 1 4 −3 1
Source: FIFA
17 June 1994
Germany  1–0  Bolivia Soldier Field, Chicago
Spain  2–2  South Korea Cotton Bowl, Dallas
21 June 1994
Germany  1–1  Spain Soldier Field, Chicago
23 June 1994
South Korea  0–0  Bolivia Foxboro Stadium, Foxborough
27 June 1994
Bolivia  1–3  Spain Soldier Field, Chicago
Germany  3–2  South Korea Cotton Bowl, Dallas

Group D

Tournament favorites Argentina led by Diego Maradona collected a maximum of six points from their opening two games after dominating Greece 4–0 in Foxboro with a Gabriel Batistuta hattrick before winning a close match against a formidable Nigeria with a 2–1 victory on the same field four days later; despite this Argentina finished third in the group. Nigeria had been very impressive on their World Cup debut, and despite the narrow loss to Argentina, had emerged as group winners following victories against Bulgaria and Greece, the latter in which Nigeria doubled its lead late on a goal from Daniel Amokachi – a goal that would allow Nigeria to top its group. Maradona only played with Argentina during their first two games, both in Foxborough (playing Greece and Nigeria, the former scoring his last ever World Cup goal against); he was thrown out of the tournament after testing positive for ephedrine.

Having qualified for the tournament through a last-gasp goal against France, Bulgaria surprised many people, as the nation had never even won a game at the World Cup finals prior to this tournament. Despite losing its opening game 3–0 to Nigeria, Bulgaria came back in style with a 4–0 win over Greece (who had suffered exactly the same fate five days earlier against Argentina), and a 2-0 win against Argentina saw them advance. Argentina had actually been winning the group going into injury time, while Bulgaria played the last 25 minutes with 10 men; however, a 91st-minute header from Nasko Sirakov meant that Argentina dropped two places and finished third. Nigeria won the group on goal difference. Bulgaria’s victory over Argentina earned them second place.

Pos Team

Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Nigeria 3 2 0 1 6 2 +4 6 Advance to knockout stage
2  Bulgaria 3 2 0 1 6 3 +3 6
3  Argentina 3 2 0 1 6 3 +3 6
4  Greece 3 0 0 3 0 10 −10 0
Source: FIFA
21 June 1994
Argentina  4–0  Greece Foxboro Stadium, Foxborough
Nigeria  3–0  Bulgaria Cotton Bowl, Dallas
25 June 1994
Argentina  2–1  Nigeria Foxboro Stadium, Foxborough
26 June 1994
Bulgaria  4–0  Greece Soldier Field, Chicago
30 June 1994
Argentina  0–2  Bulgaria Cotton Bowl, Dallas
Greece  0–2  Nigeria Foxboro Stadium, Foxborough

Group E

Italy and Norway getting ready to play at Giants Stadium

Group E remains the only group in World Cup history in which all four teams finished with the same points and same goal difference. It began at Giants Stadium where Ray Houghton’s chip ensured a shock Irish victory over the then-three-time champions Italy by 1–0, as well as gaining a measure of revenge for the previous World Cup, in which Italy both hosted and eliminated Ireland at quarterfinals. The next day in Washington, Norway played its first World Cup game since 1938 and Kjetil Rekdal’s goal five minutes from time proved decisive in an equally tense encounter as Norway beat Mexico.

In the second round of group play, the tropical weather of Orlando played a key factor for Mexico in their next game against Ireland. The match was held in record-breaking heat and humidity, temperatures in which the Mexicans were accustomed to but visibly uncomforted the Irish. Luis García’s double had them 2–0 up and in control of the game before a disagreement on the touchline resulted in fines for both Republic of Ireland’s manager, Jack Charlton, and their striker John Aldridge. Aldridge was able to regain concentration in time to score six minutes from the end of the game to make it 2-1. Despite their loss, Aldridge’s goal proved crucial to Ireland in the final group standings.

During the previous day at Giants Stadium in New Jersey, Italy’s World Cup hopes seemed to be diminishing fast as goalkeeper Gianluca Pagliuca was sent off with the game still at 0–0. Yet despite this, Italy was still able to salvage an important 1–0 victory. Norway would ultimately pay a price for their inability to take advantage of Pagliuca’s dismissal. With the four teams level on points, the final two group games would each have to finish as draws for things to stay that way. Republic of Ireland made it through after a dreary 0–0 draw with Norway; midfielders Massaro and Bernal traded strikes as Italy and Mexico played to a 1–1 draw.

Those results meant that Mexico won the group on goals scored, with three in the group. With Ireland and Italy also progressing having finished with identical records, Ireland finished ahead of Italy because of Ireland’s victory over Italy. Norway’s shortcomings in attack ultimately let them down, and they exited the tournament with only one goal.

Pos Team

Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Mexico 3 1 1 1 3 3 0 4 Advance to knockout stage
2  Republic of Ireland 3 1 1 1 2 2 0 4
3  Italy 3 1 1 1 2 2 0 4
4  Norway 3 1 1 1 1 1 0 4
Source: FIFA
18 June 1994
Italy  0–1  Republic of Ireland Giants Stadium, East Rutherford
19 June 1994
Norway  1–0  Mexico RFK Stadium, Washington
23 June 1994
Italy  1–0  Norway Giants Stadium, East Rutherford
24 June 1994
Mexico  2–1  Republic of Ireland Citrus Bowl, Orlando
28 June 1994
Italy  1–1  Mexico RFK Stadium, Washington
Republic of Ireland  0–0  Norway Giants Stadium, East Rutherford

Group F

Just as happened to Argentina in Group D, Belgium endured the same fate in Group F. Despite winning both of its first two matches 1–0 against Morocco and neighbors Netherlands, Belgium finished third as, in an upset, it lost to tournament newcomers Saudi Arabia 1–0 in the third game. During that game, Saudi player Saaed Al-Owairian ran from his own half through a maze of Belgian players to score the game’s only goal.

Saudi Arabia advanced through to the Round of 16 as well, having also defeated Morocco 2–1. The Netherlands endured a somewhat nervier experience. The opening 2–1 victory against Saudi Arabia was followed by the 1–0 loss against Belgium before another 2–1 victory against Morocco, with Bryan Roy scoring the winner a mere 12 minutes from time, saw the Dutch win the group because of having scored more goals against Belgium and Saudi Arabia. Morocco, despite losing all three of their group games, did not leave without a fight, as each of their losses were by just a single goal, 1–0 to Belgium, 2–1 to Saudi Arabia, and 2–1 to the Netherlands.

Pos Team

Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1  Netherlands 3 2 0 1 4 3 +1 6 Advance to knockout stage
2  Saudi Arabia 3 2 0 1 4 3 +1 6
3  Belgium 3 2 0 1 2 1 +1 6
4  Morocco 3 0 0 3 2 5 −3 0
Source: FIFA
19 June 1994
Belgium  1–0  Morocco Citrus Bowl, Orlando
20 June 1994
Netherlands  2–1  Saudi Arabia RFK Stadium, Washington
25 June 1994
Saudi Arabia  2–1  Morocco Giants Stadium, East Rutherford
Belgium  1–0  Netherlands Citrus Bowl, Orlando
29 June 1994
Belgium  0–1  Saudi Arabia RFK Stadium, Washington
Morocco  1–2  Netherlands Citrus Bowl, Orlando

Ranking of third-placed teams

Pos Grp Team

Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Qualification
1 D  Argentina 3 2 0 1 6 3 +3 6 Advance to knockout stage
2 F  Belgium 3 2 0 1 2 1 +1 6
3 A  United States 3 1 1 1 3 3 0 4
4 E  Italy 3 1 1 1 2 2 0 4
5 B  Russia 3 1 0 2 7 6 +1 3
6 C  South Korea 3 0 2 1 4 5 −1 2
Source: FIFA

Knockout stage

 
Round of 16 Quarter-finals Semi-finals Final
 
                           
 
3 July – Pasadena
 
 
 Romania 3
 
10 July – Stanford
 
 Argentina 2
 
 Romania 2 (4)
 
3 July – Dallas
 
 Sweden (p) 2 (5)
 
 Saudi Arabia 1
 
13 July – Pasadena
 
 Sweden 3
 
 Sweden 0
 
4 July – Orlando
 
 Brazil 1
 
 Netherlands 2
 
9 July – Dallas
 
 Republic of Ireland 0
 
 Netherlands 2
 
4 July – Stanford
 
 Brazil 3
 
 Brazil 1
 
17 July – Pasadena
 
 United States 0
 
 Brazil (p) 0 (3)
 
5 July – East Rutherford
 
 Italy 0 (2)
 
 Mexico 1 (1)
 
10 July – East Rutherford
 
 Bulgaria (p) 1 (3)
 
 Bulgaria 2
 
2 July – Chicago
 
 Germany 1
 
 Germany 3
 
13 July – East Rutherford
 
 Belgium 2
 
 Bulgaria 1
 
5 July – Foxborough
 
 Italy 2 Third place
 
 Nigeria 1
 
9 July – Foxborough 16 July – Pasadena
 
 Italy (aet) 2
 
 Italy 2  Sweden 4
 
2 July – Washington
 
 Spain 1  Bulgaria 0
 
 Spain 3
 
 
  Switzerland 0
 

Round of 16

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2 July 1994
12:00 CDT
Germany  3–2  Belgium
Völler Goal 640
Klinsmann Goal 11
Report Grün Goal 8
Albert Goal 90
Soldier Field, Chicago
Attendance: 60,246
Referee: Kurt Röthlisberger (Switzerland)

2 July 1994
16:30
Spain  3–0   Switzerland
Hierro Goal 15
Luis Enrique Goal 74
Begiristain Goal 86 (pen.)
Report
RFK Stadium, Washington
Attendance: 53,121
Referee: Mario van der Ende (Netherlands)

3 July 1994
12:00 CDT
Saudi Arabia  1–3  Sweden
Al-Ghesheyan Goal 85 Report Dahlin Goal 6
K. Andersson Goal 5188
Cotton Bowl, Dallas
Attendance: 60,277
Referee: Renato Marsiglia (Brazil)

3 July 1994
13:30 PDT
Romania  3–2  Argentina
Dumitrescu Goal 1118
Hagi Goal 58
Report Batistuta Goal 16 (pen.)
Balbo Goal 75
Rose Bowl, Pasadena
Attendance: 90,469
Referee: Pierluigi Pairetto (Italy)

4 July 1994
12:00
Netherlands  2–0  Republic of Ireland
Bergkamp Goal 11
Jonk Goal 41
Report
Citrus Bowl, Orlando
Attendance: 61,355
Referee: Peter Mikkelsen (Denmark)

4 July 1994
12:30 PDT
Brazil  1–0  United States
Bebeto Goal 75 Report
Stanford Stadium, Stanford
Attendance: 84,147
Referee: Joël Quiniou (France)

5 July 1994
13:00
Nigeria  1–2 (a.e.t.)  Italy
Amunike Goal 15 Report R. Baggio Goal 89101 (pen.)
Foxboro Stadium, Foxborough
Attendance: 54,367
Referee: Arturo Brizio Carter (Mexico)

5 July 1994
16:30
Mexico  1–1 (a.e.t.)  Bulgaria
García Aspe Goal 40 (pen.) Report Stoichkov Goal 5
Penalties
García Aspe Penalty missed
Bernal Penalty missed
Rodríguez Penalty missed
Suárez Penalty scored
1–3 Penalty missedBalakov
Penalty scoredGenchev
Penalty scoredBorimirov
Penalty scoredLetchkov
Giants Stadium, East Rutherford
Attendance: 74,500
Referee: Jamal Al Sharif (Syria)

Quarter-finals

9 July 1994
12:00
Italy  2–1  Spain
D. Baggio Goal 25
R. Baggio Goal 88
Report Caminero Goal 58
Foxboro Stadium, Foxborough
Attendance: 53,400
Referee: Sándor Puhl (Hungary)

9 July 1994
14:30 CDT
Netherlands  2–3  Brazil
Bergkamp Goal 64
Winter Goal 76
Report Romário Goal 53
Bebeto Goal 63
Branco Goal 81
Cotton Bowl, Dallas
Attendance: 63,500
Referee: Rodrigo Badilla (Costa Rica)

10 July 1994
12:00
Bulgaria  2–1  Germany
Stoichkov Goal 75
Letchkov Goal 79
Report Matthäus Goal 46 (pen.)
Giants Stadium, East Rutherford
Attendance: 75,000
Referee: José Torres Cadena (Colombia)

10 July 1994
12:30 PDT
Romania  2–2 (a.e.t.)  Sweden
Răducioiu Goal 89101 Report Brolin Goal 79
K. Andersson Goal 115
Penalties
Răducioiu Penalty scored
Hagi Penalty scored
Lupescu Penalty scored
Petrescu Penalty missed
Dumitrescu Penalty scored
Belodedici Penalty missed
4–5 Penalty missedMild
Penalty scoredK. Andersson
Penalty scoredBrolin
Penalty scoredIngesson
Penalty scoredR. Nilsson
Penalty scoredLarsson
Stanford Stadium, Stanford
Attendance: 83,500
Referee: Philip Don (England)

Semi-finals

13 July 1994
16:00
Bulgaria  1–2  Italy
Stoichkov Goal 44 (pen.) Report R. Baggio Goal 2125
Giants Stadium, East Rutherford
Attendance: 75,500
Referee: Joël Quiniou (France)

13 July 1994
16:30 PDT
Sweden  0–1  Brazil
Report Romário Goal 80
Rose Bowl, Pasadena
Attendance: 91,500
Referee: José Torres Cadena (Colombia)

Third place play-off

16 July 1994
12:30 PDT
Sweden  4–0  Bulgaria
Brolin Goal 8
Mild Goal 30
Larsson Goal 37
K. Andersson Goal 40
Report
Rose Bowl, Pasadena
Attendance: 93,500
Referee: Ali Bujsaim (United Arab Emirates)

Final

17 July 1994
12:30 PDT
Brazil  0–0 (a.e.t.)  Italy
Report
Penalties
Márcio Santos Penalty missed
Romário Penalty scored
Branco Penalty scored
Dunga Penalty scored
3–2 Penalty missedBaresi
Penalty scoredAlbertini
Penalty scoredEvani
Penalty missedMassaro
Penalty missedR. Baggio
Rose Bowl, Pasadena
Attendance: 94,194
Referee: Sándor Puhl (Hungary)

Statistics

Goalscorers

Hristo Stoichkov and Oleg Salenko received the Golden Boot for scoring six goals.[19] In total, 141 goals were scored by 81 players, with only one of them credited as an own goal.

3 goals
2 goals
1 goal
Own goals
  • Colombia Andrés Escobar (against the United States)

Awards

Golden Shoe Golden Ball Yashin Award Best Young Player FIFA Fair Play Trophy Most Entertaining Team
Bulgaria Hristo Stoichkov
Russia Oleg Salenko
Brazil Romário Belgium Michel Preud’homme Netherlands Marc Overmars  Brazil  Brazil

All-star team

The All-star team is a squad consisting of the eleven most impressive players at the 1994 World Cup, as selected by FIFA’s Technical Study Group.

Goalkeeper Defenders Midfielders Forwards

Belgium Michel Preud’homme

Brazil Jorginho
Brazil Márcio Santos
Italy Paolo Maldini

Brazil Dunga
Bulgaria Krasimir Balakov
Romania Gheorghe Hagi
Sweden Tomas Brolin

Brazil Romário
Bulgaria Hristo Stoichkov
Italy Roberto Baggio

Final standings

After the tournament, FIFA published a ranking of all teams that competed in the 1994 World Cup finals based on progress in the competition, overall results and quality of the opposition.[20]

R Team G P W D L GF GA GD Pts.
1  Brazil B 7 5 2 0 11 3 +8 17
2  Italy E 7 4 2 1 8 5 +3 14
3  Sweden B 7 3 3 1 15 8 +7 12
4  Bulgaria D 7 3 1 3 10 11 −1 10
Eliminated in the quarter-finals
5  Germany C 5 3 1 1 9 7 +2 10
6  Romania A 5 3 1 1 10 9 +1 10
7  Netherlands F 5 3 0 2 8 6 +2 9
8  Spain C 5 2 2 1 10 6 +4 8
Eliminated in the round of 16
9  Nigeria D 4 2 0 2 7 4 +3 6
10  Argentina D 4 2 0 2 8 6 +2 6
11  Belgium F 4 2 0 2 4 4 0 6
12  Saudi Arabia F 4 2 0 2 5 6 −1 6
13  Mexico E 4 1 2 1 4 4 0 5
14  United States A 4 1 1 2 3 4 −1 4
15   Switzerland A 4 1 1 2 5 7 −2 4
16  Republic of Ireland E 4 1 1 2 2 4 −2 4
Eliminated in the group stage
17  Norway E 3 1 1 1 1 1 0 4
18  Russia B 3 1 0 2 7 6 +1 3
19  Colombia A 3 1 0 2 4 5 −1 3
20  South Korea C 3 0 2 1 4 5 −1 2
21  Bolivia C 3 0 1 2 1 4 −3 1
22  Cameroon B 3 0 1 2 3 11 −8 1
23  Morocco F 3 0 0 3 2 5 −3 0
24  Greece D 3 0 0 3 0 10 −10 0

Firsts

The large capacity stadiums enabled large, enthusiastic crowds to attend the games, such as this one at the Giants Stadium quarterfinal game.

  • Although USA ’94 marked the seventh time FIFA hosted the World Cup in the Americas (after being held in Uruguay, Brazil, Chile, Argentina, and twice by Mexico in 1970 and 1986), the United States became the first host in continental America outside of the Latin American spectrum, and the first in the Anglosphere outside of England.
  • The United States–Switzerland game on 18 June at the Pontiac Silverdome was the first to be played indoors in World Cup history: grass was grown by Michigan State University and was the first time since 1965 (the failed attempt at the Astrodome) that natural turf was used in an indoor stadium in the United States. To date, only Sapporo Dome in 2002 and Arena AufSchalke in 2006 have subsequently hosted indoor games in World Cup history.
  • Oleg Salenko of Russia became the first player to score 5 goals in a single World Cup finals game in his country’s group stage win over Cameroon. Cameroon’s Roger Milla also scored a goal in the same game, becoming the oldest player to score a goal in a World Cup. At 42, he was also the oldest player to appear in a World Cup, a record held until 2014, when Faryd Mondragón (43 years, 3 days) of Colombia broke the record in their game against Japan at the 2014 FIFA World Cup. In turn, goalkeeper Essam El-Hadary (45 years, 161 days) of Egypt would surpass Mondragón against Saudi Arabia, in the Volgograd Arena, Volgograd, Russia, on 25 June 2018. Hoewever, Milla remains to be the oldest outfield player to perform in the World Cup.
  • For the first time, during the entering of the players onto the field, the FIFA Anthem, composed by Franz Lambert, was played.
  • Gianluca Pagliuca of Italy became the first goalkeeper to be sent off in a World Cup game, dismissed for handling outside his area against Norway.
  • Brazil’s 11 goals in their seven games was a record for the lowest average goals scored per game for any World Cup-winning side, but this record was broken by Spain’s eight goals in 2010. The three goals Brazil conceded in those seven games was at the time also the lowest average goals conceded per game, although this was subsequently surpassed by France in 1998, Italy in 2006, and Spain in 2010.
  • The finals were the first time FIFA decided to experiment with the style of jerseys worn by officials, foregoing the traditional black. They could choose between burgundy, yellow or silver shirts depending on what was necessary to avoid a clash of colors with the two competing teams. This custom has since been followed, but with black shirts added as an option later.
  • The finals were also the first time that players had their shirt numbers printed on the center front (or on the right or left breast, in Morocco’s and Russia’s case respectively) of the shirt, as well as their names printed on the back of their jerseys in a World Cup, just as other American sports did, to make their identification easier for sportscasters. This custom followed from Euro 92, and has followed ever since (although the numbers printed on the center front were experimented during 1991 FIFA U-20 World Cup in Portugal).
  • The finals were the first to award 3 points for a win in the group stage to motivate teams to play an attacking style.
  • In disciplinary matters, for the first time yellow cards accumulated in the group stage were wiped clean after its completion, and players started with a clean slate at the start of the knockout stage. Previously, players were suspended for one game if accumulating two yellow cards throughout the tournament. Now, players were suspended for one game after accumulating two yellow cards in the group stage, or two yellow cards in the knockout stage. This was in response to the situation in 1990, where players such as Claudio Caniggia and Paul Gascoigne were suspended for the later games.
  • The 1994 World Cup revolutionised television coverage of sports in the United States through the sponsored scoreboard and game clock that were constantly shown on screen throughout the game. Television sports coverage in the United States had long been dependent upon commercial breaks, a feature suitable for sports such as baseball, basketball, ice hockey and American football (which all have breaks in the action), but long considered incompatible with soccer, due to the long stretches of uninterrupted play. Variations on it were quickly incorporated into virtually every team sports broadcast by the decade’s end. The first American pro sports broadcaster to do this was Fox Sports which won national rights to broadcast the NFL’s National Football Conference from CBS six months before the 1994 World Cup began.
  • The 1994 World Cup final was the first (and to date only) goalless final in World Cup history. It was also the first to be decided by a penalty shootout, the other being the 2006 FIFA World Cup Final. Italy took part in both games, and won the latter.

Sponsorship

The sponsors of the 1994 FIFA World Cup are divided into two categories: FIFA World Cup Sponsors and USA Supporters.

FIFA World Cup sponsors USA Supporters
  • Adidas
  • Canon
  • Coca-Cola
  • Gillette
  • EDS[21]
  • Fujifilm
  • JVC
  • MasterCard
  • McDonald’s
  • Philips
  • Snickers
  • American Airlines
  • General Motors (Chevrolet, GMC, Pontiac)
  • Energizer
  • Sheraton
  • Sun Microsystems[22][23]
  • Upper Deck

The official game ball was the Adidas Questra.

Lasts

  • This was the last World Cup in which games other than the last two in each group were played simultaneously, although this only happened once in this tournament: Saudi Arabia v Morocco and Belgium v Netherlands in Group F. From France ’98 onwards, each game in the first two rounds of group play and the whole knockout stage have been played separately to maximize television audiences.
  • This was the last World Cup featuring 24 nations, and the last in which third-placed teams were still able to progress to the round of 16. From 1998 on, there were 32 nations, with only the top two in each group progressing.

References

  1. ^ abc “FIFA World Cup competition records” (PDF). FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. p. 2. Retrieved 30 January 2013..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ ab “Previous World Cups”, FIFA.com. Retrieved 21 November 2013
  3. ^ “FIFA/Coca Cola World Ranking (14 June 1994)”. FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 27 January 2012.
  4. ^ ab “FIFA World Cup host announcement decision” (PDF). FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. p. 2. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  5. ^ History of the World Cup Final Draw FIFA
  6. ^ World Cup Hall of Fame – Andrés Escobar (1967–1994). CNN/Sports Illustrated. 8 May 2002.
  7. ^ ab “Divine by moniker, divine by magic”. FIFA.com. Retrieved 12 June 2014
  8. ^ “FIFA World Cup All-Star Team – Football world Cup All Star Team”. Football sporting 99. Archived from the original on 30 June 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  9. ^ ab “Romario is legen……dary” Archived 4 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine.. Fox Sports. Retrieved 19 November 2013
  10. ^ Wojciech Dzierzbicki XV FIFA World Cup (USA ’94) Archived 23 May 2002 at the Wayback Machine. World Cup History Page
  11. ^ ab “Funny… It Doesn’t Look Like Football” (PDF). Retrieved 2 March 2012.
  12. ^ “WORLD CUP USA 1994: The Best and the Worst”. 14 July 1994 – via LA Times.
  13. ^ “Is Qatar too hot for the World Cup?”.
  14. ^ “US 1994 was a World Cup of scorched feet and sweaty fans”. 29 May 2014.
  15. ^ “The summer that changed U.S. soccer forever”. 4 March 2014.
  16. ^ “FIFA/Coca-Cola World Ranking (14 June 1994)”. FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 2 May 2013.
  17. ^ Arnold, P. FIFA World Cup USA 94 The Official Book. Pp.12. Collins: San Francisco.
    ISBN 0-00-255231-0
  18. ^ “Looking Back at the 1994 FIFA World Cup Draw”. www.ussoccer.com.
  19. ^ “1994 FIFA World Cup USA: Awards”. FIFA. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  20. ^ “All-time FIFA World Cup Ranking 1930–2010” (PDF). Fédération Internationale de Football Association. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  21. ^ Group, Career Communications. “US Black Engineer & IT”. Career Communications Group – via Google Books.
  22. ^ “timeline_of_sun_microsystems_history – Devtome”. devtome.com.
  23. ^ Inc, InfoWorld Media Group (13 June 1994). “InfoWorld”. InfoWorld Media Group, Inc. – via Google Books.

External links

  • 1994 FIFA World Cup USA ™, FIFA.com
  • 1994 World Cup details RSSSF
  • FIFA Technical Report (Part 1), (Part 2), (Part 3) and (Part 4)
  • The event at SVT’s open archive (in Swedish)


Michelle Akers

Michelle Akers
Personal information
Full name Michelle Anne Akers
Date of birth (1966-02-01) February 1, 1966 (age 52)
Place of birth Santa Clara, California, U.S.
Height 5 ft 10 in (1.78 m)
Playing position Midfielder, Forward
College career
Years Team Apps (Gls)
1985–1988 UCF Knights
Senior career*
Years Team Apps (Gls)
1990 Tyresö FF
1992 Tyresö FF
1992 Orlando Lions Women
1994 Tyresö FF
National team
1985–2000 United States 155 (107)
* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only

Michelle Anne Akers (born February 1, 1966) is an American former soccer player, who starred in the historic 1991 and 1999 Women’s World Cup victories by the United States. She won the Golden Boot as the top scorer in the 1991 tournament.

Akers is regarded as one of the greatest female soccer players of all time.[1] She was named FIFA Female Player of the Century in 2002, an award she shared with China’s Sun Wen.[2][3] In 2004, Akers and Mia Hamm were the only two women named to the FIFA 100, a list of the 125 greatest living soccer players selected by Pelé and commissioned by FIFA for that organization’s 100th anniversary.

Akers is a member of the National Soccer Hall of Fame; she was inducted in 2004, along with Paul Caligiuri and Eric Wynalda.

Contents

  • 1 Early life

    • 1.1 University of Central Florida
  • 2 Playing career

    • 2.1 International

      • 2.1.1 International career statistics
      • 2.1.2 Matches and goals scored at World Cup and Olympic tournaments
  • 3 Personal life
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References
  • 6 Further reading
  • 7 External links

Early life

Born to Robert and Anne Akers in Santa Clara, California Feburay 1 1966, Akers grew up in the Seattle, Washington suburb of Shoreline, where she attended and played soccer for Shorecrest High School.[4] She was named an All-American three times during her high school career.[4] At 5 feet, 10 inches in height and 150 pounds, Akers had an imposing physical presence on the soccer field and was noted for her aggressive and physical style of play.[5]

University of Central Florida

Akers attended the University of Central Florida on a scholarship where she was selected as four-time NCAA All-American.[4] She was Central Florida’s Athlete of the Year in 1988–89, the all-time leading scorer in UCF history,[4] won the Hermann Trophy in 1988,[4] and had her #10 jersey retired by the school.

Playing career

International

Akers was a member of the 1985 United States women’s national soccer team for its first game at a tournament in Italy in August 1985. Due to an ankle injury, she did not play in the first game. However, in the second ever international game for the United States she scored the first goal in the history of the program against Denmark, in a 2–2 tie.[6]

Akers scored 15 goals in 24 games for the U.S. from 1985 to 1990 before scoring a team record 39 goals in 26 games in the 1991 season alone. In 1990 and 1991 she was named the United States Soccer Federation (USSF) Female Athlete of the Year.[4] Akers was also the lead scorer in the inaugural FIFA Women’s World Cup in China in 1991, scoring ten goals, including five in one game.[4] This led the U.S. women’s team to the first women’s world championship, defeating Norway 2–1. Akers scored both goals in the Final.

Utterly exhausted after the World Cup, Akers was diagnosed with Chronic Fatigue and Immune Dysfunction Syndrome in the spring of 1994 which could have started in late 1991 and of which she never fully recovered. She learned to manage her diet and training habits, and was shifted to the midfield in part to minimize the beatings doled out by opposing defenders. Despite the precautions, Akers suffered a concussion and a knee injury early in the 1995 World Cup, and was hampered by the knee in a semifinal loss to Norway.[7][8]

In 1996, Akers was again a member of the U.S. women’s national team at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, where it won the gold medal. She was also a member of the gold-medal-winning, 1998 Goodwill Games team. On June 7, 1998, she was awarded the FIFA Order of Merit, their highest honor, for her contributions to the game of soccer. Akers again was part of the 1999 Women’s World Cup team, leading to a second World Cup championship.

Shortly before the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia, Akers retired from the game as the U.S. national team’s second all-time leading scorer (behind Mia Hamm) with 105 goals, 37 assists and 247 points.[9]

International career statistics

Nation Year International appearances
Apps Starts Minutes Goals Assists
United States 1985 2 2 180 2 0
1986 5 5 420 0 0
1987 9 8 720 3 0
1988 2 2 180 0 1
1990 6 5 425 9 1
1991 26 25 1941 39 8
1993 12 12 887 6 6
1994 12 7 571 11 7
1995 18 17 1195 15 5
1996 17 16 1246 7 3
1997 2 2 180 1 0
1998 15 15 929 5 4
1999 20 18 1334 6 1
2000 7 3 242 1 0
Career total 14 153 137 10450 105 36

Matches and goals scored at World Cup and Olympic tournaments

Michelle Akers competed as a member of USA teams in three FIFA Women’s World Cup: China 1991, Sweden 1995 and USA 1999;
and one Olympics: Atlanta 1996; played in 18 matches and scored 13 goals at those four global tournaments.[10] Akers was a goal medalist at Atlanta 1996 Olympics, and world champion at China 1991 and USA 1999 world cup tournaments. Akers with team USA finished third at Sweden 1995 world cup.

Goal Match Date Location Opponent Lineup Min Score Result Competition

China China 1991 FIFA Women’s World Cup

1 1991-11-17[m 1] Panyu  Sweden Start

3–2
W

Group stage
1 2 1991-11-19[m 2] Panyu  Brazil Start 39 4–0

5–0
W

Group stage
2 3 1991-11-21[m 3] Foshan  Japan {{{4}}}.

off 41′ (on Lilly)

20 1–0

3–0
W

Group stage
3 37 2–0
4 4 1991-11-24[m 4] Foshan  Chinese Taipei Start 8 1–0

7–0
W

Quarter-final
5 29 2–0
6 33 3–0
7 44 pk 5–0
8 48 6–0
5 1991-11-27[m 5] Guangzhou  Germany Start

5–2
W

Semifinal
9 6 1991-11-30[m 6] Guangzhou  Norway Start 20 1–0

2–1
W

Final
10 79 2–1

Sweden Sweden 1995 FIFA Women’s World Cup

7 1995-06-06[m 7] Gävle  China PR {{{4}}}.

off 18′ (on Milbrett)

3–3
D

Group stage
8 1995-06-15[m 8] Västerås  Norway Start

0–1
L

Semifinal

United States Atlanta 1996 Olympic Women’s Football Tournament

9 1996-07-21[m 9] Orlando  Denmark {{{4}}}.

off 62′ (on Parlow)

3–0
W

Group stage
10 1996-07-23[m 10] Orlando  Sweden Start

2–1
W

Group stage
11 1996-07-25[m 11] Miami  China PR Start

0–0
D

Group stage
11 12 1996-07-28[m 12] Athens  Norway Start 76 pk 1–1

r
2–1 aet

Semifinal
13 1996-08-01[m 13] Athens  China PR Start

2–1
W

Gold medal match

United States USA 1999 FIFA Women’s World Cup

14 1999-06-19[m 14] E Rutherford  Denmark Start

3–0
W

Group stage
12 15 1999-06-24[m 15] Chicago  Nigeria {{{4}}}.

off 45′ (on Fair)

39 5–1

7–1
W

Group stage
16 1999-07-01[m 16] Washington  Germany Start

3–2
W

Quarter-final
13 17 1999-07-04[m 17] Palo Alto  Brazil Start 80 pk 2–0

2–0
W

Semifinal
18 1999-07-10[m 18] Los Angeles  China PR {{{4}}}.

off 91′ (on Whalen)

0–0 (pso 5–4)
(W)

Final

Personal life

From 1990 to 1995, she was married, and was known as Michelle Akers-Stahl.[11] She resides in Powder Springs, Georgia, a suburb of Atlanta, and dedicates herself to rescuing horses.[12]

Since her retirement, she has continued to promote the game of soccer and has written several books, including one that documents her battle with chronic fatigue syndrome.[13][14]

See also

  • List of women’s association football players with 100 or more international goals
  • List of FIFA Women’s World Cup goalscorers
  • List of Olympic medalists in football
  • List of 1996 Summer Olympics medal winners
  • List of 2004 Summer Olympics medal winners
  • List of players with the most goals in an association football game
  • 1985 United States women’s national soccer team
  • List of University of Central Florida alumni
  • List of athletes on Wheaties boxes
  • List of Golden Scarf recipients
  • List of prizes named after people

References

  1. ^ Jeff Carlisle (June 2, 2013). “Players whose influence reaches beyond the pitch”. ESPN. Retrieved February 16, 2016..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “Michelle Akers Named FIFA Player of the Century”. US Soccer. Archived from the original on March 13, 2013. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  3. ^ “FIFA names Akers ‘Player of the Century.“. ESPN. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
  4. ^ abcdefg Schafer, Elizabeth D (2002) [1992]. Dawson, Dawn P, ed. Great Athletes. 1 (Revised ed.). Salem Press. pp. 26–28. ISBN 1-58765-008-8.
  5. ^ Miller, Marla All-American Girls New York: Pocket Books, 1999, pp. 14–15.
  6. ^ “US WNT Flashback — 20th Anniversary of First-Ever Match: Who Scored First?” http://www.ussoccer.com/News/Womens-National-Team/2005/08/U-S-WNT-Flashback-20th-Anniversary-Of-First-Ever-Match-Who-Scored-First.aspx, accessed October 3, 2012.
  7. ^ Michelle Akers Biography http://www.biography.com/people/michelle-akers-21321911#national-superstar
  8. ^ Michelle Akers enjoying life after soccer http://www.cfs-info.com/joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=712&Itemid=79
  9. ^ Alexander, Valerie. “World Cup Soccer Stats Erase The Sport’s Most Dominant Players: Women”. Jezebel.com.
  10. ^ “FIFA Player Statistics: Michelle AKERS”. FIFA.
  11. ^ Whiteside, Kelly (June 5, 1995). “WORLD BEATER MICHELLE AKERS, SOCCER’S TOP FEMALE, IS READY TO LEAD THE U.S. TO ANOTHER TITLE”. Sports Illustrated. Retrieved January 9, 2016.
  12. ^ Wahl, Grant, “Green Acres”, Sports Illustrated, July 4, 2011, pp. 98–101.
  13. ^ Cardenas, Natalia. Michelle Akers. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
  14. ^ Scavuzzo, Diane. (12 juni 2015). Women in Soccer: Michelle Akers. Goal Nation. Retrieved 10 June 2018.
Match reports
  1. ^ “FIFA Women’s World Cup China 1991: MATCH Report: Sweden – USA”. FIFA.
  2. ^ “FIFA Women’s World Cup China 1991: MATCH Report: Brazil – USA”. FIFA.
  3. ^ “FIFA Women’s World Cup China 1991: MATCH Report: Japan – USA”. FIFA.
  4. ^ “FIFA Women’s World Cup China 1991: MATCH Report: USA – Chinese Taipei”. FIFA.
  5. ^ “FIFA Women’s World Cup China 1991: MATCH Report: Germany – USA”. FIFA.
  6. ^ “FIFA Women’s World Cup China 1991: MATCH Report: Norway – USA”. FIFA.
  7. ^ “FIFA Women’s World Cup Sweden 1995: MATCH Report: USA – China PR”. FIFA.
  8. ^ “FIFA Women’s World Cup Sweden 1995: MATCH Report: USA – Norway”. FIFA.
  9. ^ “Olympic Football Tournaments Atlanta 1996 – Women: MATCH Report: USA – Denmark”. FIFA.
  10. ^ “Olympic Football Tournaments Atlanta 1996 – Women: MATCH Report: USA – Sweden”. FIFA.
  11. ^ “Olympic Football Tournaments Atlanta 1996 – Women: MATCH Report: USA – China PR”. FIFA.
  12. ^ “Olympic Football Tournaments Atlanta 1996 – Women: MATCH Report: Norway – USA”. FIFA.
  13. ^ “Olympic Football Tournaments Atlanta 1996 – Women: MATCH Report: China PR – USA”. FIFA.
  14. ^ “FIFA Women’s World Cup USA 1999: MATCH Report: USA – Denmark”. FIFA.
  15. ^ “FIFA Women’s World Cup USA 1999: MATCH Report: USA – Nigeria”. FIFA.
  16. ^ “FIFA Women’s World Cup USA 1999: MATCH Report: USA – Germany”. FIFA.
  17. ^ “FIFA Women’s World Cup USA 1999: MATCH Report: USA – Brazil”. FIFA.
  18. ^ “FIFA Women’s World Cup USA 1999: MATCH Report: USA – China PR”. FIFA.

Further reading

  • Akers, M.; Lewis, G. (2000), The Game and the Glory, Zondervan,
    ISBN 0310700256
  • Grainey, Timothy (2012), Beyond Bend It Like Beckham: The Global Phenomenon of Women’s Soccer, University of Nebraska Press,
    ISBN 0803240368
  • Kassouf, Jeff (2011), Girls Play to Win Soccer, Norwood House Press,
    ISBN 1599534649
  • LaFontaine, P.; Valutis, E.; Griffin, C.; Weisman, L. (2001), Companions in Courage: Triumphant Tales of Heroic Athletes, Hatchette Digital Inc.,
    ISBN 0759520518
  • Lisi, Clemente A. (2010), The U.S. Women’s Soccer Team: An American Success Story, Scarecrow Press,
    ISBN 0810874164
  • Longman, Jere (2009), The Girls of Summer: The U.S. Women’s Soccer Team and How it Changed the World, HarperCollins,
    ISBN 0061877689
  • Mitchell, N.; Ennis, L. (2007) Encyclopedia of Title IX and Sports, Greenwood Publishing Group,
    ISBN 0313335877
  • Rutledge, Rachel (2000), The Best of the Best in Soccer, First Avenue Editions,
    ISBN 0761313923
  • Silverman, Al (2004), It’s Not Over ’til it’s Over, Penguin,
    ISBN 1468304313

External links

  • National Soccer Hall of Fame biography
  • University of Central Florida biography
  • Michelle Akers’ U.S. Olympic Team bio
  • Michelle Akers horse rescue website
  • Michelle Akers on Twitter Edit this at Wikidata


Joshua Tree National Park

Joshua Tree National Park
IUCN category II (national park)
Joshua Tree - Cyclops + Potato Head - Sunrise.jpg

Cyclops and Pee Wee Formations near Hidden Valley Campground at dawn
Map showing the location of Joshua Tree National Park

Map showing the location of Joshua Tree National Park
Location in the United States

Show map of the US

Map showing the location of Joshua Tree National Park

Map showing the location of Joshua Tree National Park
Location in California

Show map of California

Location Riverside County and San Bernardino County, California, United States
Nearest city Yucca Valley, San Bernardino
Coordinates 33°47′N 115°54′W / 33.79°N 115.90°W / 33.79; -115.90Coordinates: 33°47′N 115°54′W / 33.79°N 115.90°W / 33.79; -115.90
Area 790,636 acres (1,235.4 sq mi; 3,199.6 km2)[1]
Established October 31, 1994
Visitors 2,853,619 (in 2017)[2]
Governing body National Park Service
Website Official website Edit this at Wikidata

Joshua Tree National Park is an American national park in southeastern California, east of Los Angeles, near San Bernardino and Palm Springs. The park is named for the Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia) native to the Mojave Desert. Originally declared a national monument in 1936, Joshua Tree was redesignated as a national park in 1994 when the U.S. Congress passed the California Desert Protection Act.[3] Encompassing a total of 790,636 acres (1,235.4 sq mi; 3,199.6 km2)[1]—an area slightly larger than the state of Rhode Island—the park includes 429,690 acres (671.4 sq mi; 1,738.9 km2) of designated wilderness. Straddling the border between San Bernardino County and Riverside County, the park includes parts of two deserts, each an ecosystem whose characteristics are determined primarily by elevation: the higher Mojave Desert and the lower Colorado Desert. The Little San Bernardino Mountains traverse the southwest edge of the park.[4]

Contents

  • 1 History

    • 1.1 Early
    • 1.2 Post-1870
  • 2 Geography and botany

    • 2.1 Mojave Desert
    • 2.2 Colorado Desert
  • 3 Geology
  • 4 Recreation

    • 4.1 Camping
    • 4.2 Hiking
    • 4.3 Climbing
    • 4.4 Driving
    • 4.5 Birdwatching
    • 4.6 Astronomy
  • 5 Wildlife
  • 6 Wilderness
  • 7 Vandalism
  • 8 In popular culture
  • 9 See also
  • 10 References

    • 10.1 Works cited
  • 11 Further reading
  • 12 External links

History

The park on a 2003 Landsat image

Early

The earliest known residents of the land in and around what later became Joshua Tree National Park were the people of the Pinto Culture, who lived and hunted here between 8000 and 4000 BCE.[5] Their stone tools and spear points, discovered in the Pinto Basin in the 1930s, suggest that they hunted game and gathered seasonal plants, but little else is known about them.[5] Later residents included the Serrano, the Cahuilla, and the Chemehuevi peoples. All three lived at times in small villages in or near water, particularly the Oasis of Mara in what non-aboriginals later called Twentynine Palms. They were hunter-gatherers who subsisted largely on plant foods supplemented by small game, amphibians, and reptiles while using other plants for making medicines, bows and arrows, baskets, and other articles of daily life.[6] A fourth group, the Mojaves, used the local resources as they traveled along trails between the Colorado River and the Pacific coast. In the 21st century, small numbers of all four peoples live in the region near the park; the Twentynine Palms Band of Mission Indians, descendants of the Chemehuevi, own a reservation in Twentynine Palms.[7]

In 1772, a group of Spaniards led by Pedro Fages, made the first European sightings of Joshua trees while pursuing native converts to Christianity who had run away from a mission in San Diego. By 1823, the year Mexico achieved independence from Spain, a Mexican expedition from Los Angeles, in what was then Alta California, is thought to have explored as far east as the Eagle Mountains in what later became the park. Three years later, Jedediah Smith led a group of American fur trappers and explorers along the nearby Mojave Trail, and others soon followed. Two decades after that, the United States defeated Mexico in the Mexican–American War (1846–48) and took over about half of Mexico’s original territory, including California and the future parkland.[8]

Post-1870

In 1870, white settlers began grazing cattle on the tall grasses that grew in the park. In 1888, a gang of cattle rustlers moved into the region near the Oasis of Mara. Led by brothers James. B. and William S. McHaney, they hid stolen cattle in a box canyon at Cow Camp.[9] Throughout the region, ranchers dug wells and built rainwater catchments called “tanks”, such as White Tank and Barker Dam.[10] In 1900,[11] C. O. Barker, a miner and cattleman, built the original Barker Dam, later improved by William “Bill” Keys, a rancher.[12] Grazing continued in the park through 1945.[10] Barker Dam was added to the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) in 1975.[11]

Between the 1860s and the 1940s, miners worked about 300 pit mines, mostly small, in what later became the park.[13] The most successful, the Lost Horse Mine, produced gold and silver worth about $5 million in today’s currency.[14]Johnny Lang and others, the original owners of the Lost Horse Mine, installed a two-stamp mill to process ore at the site, and the next owner, J.D. Ryan, replaced it with a 10-stamp steam-powered mill.[14] Ryan pumped water from his ranch to the mill and cut timber from the nearby hills to heat water to make steam.[14] Most of the structures associated with the mine fell apart, and for safety reasons the National Park Service plugged the mine, which had collapsed.[14] The Desert Queen Mine on Keys’ Desert Queen Ranch was another productive gold mine.[13] In the early 1930s, Keys bought a gasoline-powered two-stamp mill, the Wall Street Mill, and moved it to his ranch to process ore.[15] The ranch and mill were added to the NRHP in 1975[15][16] and the mine in 1976.[17] Some of the mines in the park yielded copper, zinc, and iron.[13]

On August 10, 1936, after Minerva Hoyt and others persuaded the state and federal governments to protect the area, President Franklin D. Roosevelt used the power of the 1906 Antiquities Act to establish Joshua Tree National Monument. It protected about 825,000 acres (1,289.1 sq mi; 3,338.7 km2).[18] In 1950, the size of the park was reduced by about 290,000 acres (453.1 sq mi; 1,173.6 km2) to open the land to more mining.[19] The park was elevated to a National Park on October 31, 1994, by the Desert Protection Act, which also added 234,000 acres (365.6 sq mi; 947.0 km2) to the park.[20]

Geography and botany

The park is named after the Joshua tree.

Mojave Desert

The higher and cooler Mojave Desert is the special habitat of Yucca brevifolia, the Joshua tree for which the park is named. It occurs in patterns from dense forests to distantly spaced specimens. In addition to Joshua tree forests, the western part of the park includes some of the most interesting geologic displays found in California’s deserts. The dominant geologic features of this landscape are hills of bare rock, usually broken up into loose boulders. These hills are popular among rock climbing and scrambling enthusiasts. The flatland between these hills is sparsely forested with Joshua trees. Together with the boulder piles and Skull Rock, the trees make the landscape otherworldly. Temperatures are most comfortable in the spring and fall, with an average high/low of 85 and 50 °F (29 and 10 °C) respectively. Winter brings cooler days, around 60 °F (16 °C), and freezing nights. It occasionally snows at higher elevations. Summers are hot, over 100 °F (38 °C) during the day and not cooling much below 75 °F (24 °C) until the early hours of the morning.[21]

Joshua trees dominate the open spaces of the park, but in among the rock outcroppings are piñon pine, California juniper (Juniperus californica), Quercus turbinella (desert scrub oak), Quercus john-tuckeri (Tucker’s oak), and Quercus cornelius-mulleri (Muller’s oak).[22] These communities are under some stress, however, as the climate was wetter until the 1930s, with the same hot and dry conditions that provoked the Dust Bowl affecting the local climate. These cycles were nothing new, but the original vegetation did not prosper when wetter cycles returned. The difference may have been human development. Cattle grazing took out some of the natural cover and made it less resistant to the changes. But the bigger problem seems to be invasive species, such as cheatgrass, which during wetter periods fill in below and among the pines and oak. In drier times, they die back, but do not quickly decompose. This makes wildfires hotter and more destructive, which kills some of the trees that would have otherwise survived. When the area regenerates, these non-native grasses form a thick layer of turf that makes it harder for the pine and oak seedlings to get a roothold.

Colorado Desert

Aerial view of the desert wilderness area in the northeast corner of Joshua Tree National Park, and the transition zone between Mojave Desert and Colorado Desert. The upper part of the image is Mojave Desert north of the park.

Below 3,000 feet (910 m), the Colorado Desert encompasses the eastern part of the park and features habitats of Creosote bush scrub, Ocotillo, desert Saltbush and mixed scrub including Yucca and Cholla cactus (Cylindropuntia bigelovii). There are areas of such cactus density they appear as natural gardens. The lower Coachella Valley is on the southeastern side of the Park with sandy soil grasslands and desert dunes.

The only palm native to California, the California Fan Palm (Washingtonia filifera), occurs naturally in five oases in the park, rare areas where water occurs naturally year round and all forms of wildlife abound.[4]

Geology

A typical view of the park

Giant Marbles

The park’s oldest rocks, Pinto gneiss among them, are 1.7 billion years old. They are exposed in places on the park’s surface in the Cottonwood, Pinto, and Eagle mountains. Much later, from 250 to 75 million years ago, tectonic plate movements forced volcanic material toward the surface at this location and formed granites, including monzogranite common to the Wonderland of Rocks, parts of the Pinto, Eagle, and Coxcomb mountains, and elsewhere. Erosion eventually exposed the harder rocks, gneiss and granite, in the uplands and reduced the softer rocks to debris that filled the canyons and basins between the ranges. The debris, moved by gravity and water, formed alluvial fans at the mouths of canyons as well as bajadas where the alluvial fans overlapped.[23]

The rock formations of Joshua Tree National Park owe their shape partly to groundwater, which filtered through the roughly rectangular joints of the monzonite and eroded the corners and edges of blocks of stone, and to flash floods, which washed away covering ground and left piles of rounded boulders.[24] These prominent outcrops are known as inselbergs.[25]

Of the park’s six blocks of mountains, five—the Little San Bernardino, Hexie, Pinto, Cottonwood, and Eagle—are among the Transverse Ranges, which trend generally east–west in locations between the Eagle Mountains on the east and the northern Channel Islands, in the Pacific Ocean west of Santa Barbara, on the west. Tectonic forces along the San Andreas Fault system compressed and lifted the crust material that formed these ranges. The San Andreas Fault itself passes southwest of the park, but related parallel faults including the Dillon, Blue Cut, and Pinto, run through the park, and movements along them have caused earthquakes. The easternmost range in the park, the Coxcomb Mountains, runs generally north–south and is part of the Basin and Range Province.[23]

Recreation

Climbing the Old Woman Rock

Camping

Nine established campgrounds exist in the park, two of which (Black Rock Campground and Cottonwood Campground) provide water and flush toilets. A fee is charged per night for each camping spot.[26] Reservations are accepted at Black Rock Campground, Cottonwood Campground, Indian Cove Campground, and Jumbo Rocks Campground for October through May, while the other campgrounds are first-come, first-served. Backcountry camping, for those who wish to backpack, is permitted with a few regulations.[27]

Hiking

There are several hiking trails within the park, many of which can be accessed from a campground. Shorter trails, such as the one mile hike through Hidden Valley, offer a chance to view the beauty of the park without straying too far into the desert. A section of the California Riding and Hiking Trail meanders for 35 miles (56 km) through the western side of the park.[28] The lookout point at Keys View, towards the south of the park, offers views of the Coachella Valley, the Salton Sea, the San Andreas Fault, the Santa Rosa Mountains, and the city of Palm Springs.[29]

Nature walks inside the park include:

  • Hidden Valley
  • Indian Cove
  • Cholla Cactus Garden

Longer trails include:

  • Boy Scout Hiking and Equestrian Trail
  • Contact Mine
  • Fortynine Palms Oasis
  • Lost Horse Mine
  • Lost Palms Oasis
  • Ryan Mountain
  • Warren Peak

Due to graffiti on at least 17 sites on trails, officials have closed them to the public. The closed sites include Native American sites, at the Southern California park’s Rattlesnake Canyon and Barker Dam. They blame the increase in vandalism on the increased use of social media.[30]

Climbing

Climbers in Hidden Valley Campground in March 2008

The park is popular with rock climbers and was originally a winter practice area while Yosemite Valley and other parts of the Sierra Nevada were snowbound, but later became an area of interest in its own right. There are thousands of named climbing routes, at all levels of difficulty. The routes are typically short, the rocks being rarely more than 230 ft (70 m) in height, but access is usually a short, easy walk through the desert, and it is possible to do a number of interesting climbs in a single day. The rocks are all composed of quartz monzonite, a very rough type of granite made even more so as there is no snow or ice to polish it as in places like Yosemite.

Some routes are permanently closed while others are closed temporarily to protect sensitive wildlife in certain seasons. Climbing and bouldering routes that are permanently closed include Energy Crisis, the Schwarzenegger Wall, Zombie Woof Rock, the Maverick Boulder formation, Pictograph Boulder, Shindig, Lonely Stones Area #3, The Shipwreck formation, Indian Wave Boulders (except for Native Arete), and Wormholes. As of March 14, 2018[update], seasonal closures include the Slatanic Area, Towers of Uncertainty, Patagonia Pile, and Jerry’s Quarry.[31]

Driving

The paved main road allows visitors to drive to major attractions and through the park. The unpaved roads may require a vehicle with high ground clearance, and four-wheel drive. An example is the Geology Tour Road in the center of the park. Visitors with a four-wheel drive vehicle can use this road for a self-guided tour with stops that describe the region’s geology.[32]

Birdwatching

Lost Horse Valley

More than 250 bird species inhabit or visit the park including resident desert birds such as the greater roadrunner, cactus wren, northern mockingbird, LeConte’s thrasher, verdin, and Gambel’s quail. About 78 species nest and raise their young within the park. Many migrating species spend only a short time feeding and resting at Joshua Tree, mainly in the winter months, as the park lies along an inland stretch of the Pacific Flyway. Other species descend from their usual habitats in the mountains to escape winter snows.[33]

Birdwatching spots include fan palm oases, the Barker Dam, and Smith Water Canyon. Queen Valley and Lost Horse Valley also provide good birdwatching, with a different range of species due to the lack of water, including the ladder-backed woodpecker and oak titmouse. A USGS bird checklist from 2006 contained 239 species in the park.[34]

Astronomy

The park offers naturally dark views of the night sky, as seen in this 30-second exposure showing the Milky Way behind a silhouetted Joshua tree (July 2017)

Joshua Tree is a popular observing site in Southern California for amateur astronomy and stargazing,[35] along with nearby Anza-Borrego Desert State Park. The park is well known for its naturally dark night skies, which are far away from and largely free of the light pollution typical in the urban areas. The park’s elevation and dry desert air, along with the relatively stable atmosphere in the region, often make for excellent seeing conditions.

On clear nights around new moon, the sky darkness of Joshua Tree is rated a Class 2–4 on the Bortle scale.[36][37] This ranges from an “average dark sky” (Class 2) in the easternmost region of the park to a sky quality typical of a rural/suburban transition (Class 4) in the western regions near Palm Springs.[37][38] In the easternmost regions of the park, visitors with optimal vision can expect to see the Andromeda (M31) and Triangulum (M33) galaxies with unaided eyes. The central Milky Way appears highly structured to the naked eye from this site, and zodiacal light appears as a faint yellowish glow when visible.[38] In the western regions of the park, the Andromeda Galaxy is still visible, and only the brightest structures around the Galactic Center of the Milky Way can be distinguished; zodicial light is visible halfway to the zenith.[38]

Wildlife

Teddy-bear cholla (Cylindropuntia bigelovii) at the Cholla Cactus Garden, Joshua Tree National Park

Many animals make their homes in Joshua Tree. Birds, lizards, and ground squirrels are most likely to be seen because they are largely active during the day. However, it is at night that desert animals come out to roam. Mostly nocturnal animals include snakes, bighorn sheep, kangaroo rats, coyotes, lynx, and black-tailed jackrabbits.[39]

Animals that thrive in Joshua Tree often have special adaptations for dealing with limited water and high summer temperatures. The smaller mammals and all reptiles take refuge from the heat underground. Desert mammals make more efficient use of their bodies’ water supply than does the human body. Reptiles are physiologically adapted to getting along with little water, and birds can fly to water sources when they need to drink. Nevertheless, the springs and seeps in the park are necessary to the survival of many animals. Most of the reptiles and many small rodents and insects go into an inactive state of hibernation during the winter. However, winter is the time of greatest bird concentrations in the park, because of the presence of many migrant species.[39] A place to view wildlife is at Barker Dam, a short hike from a parking area near Hidden Valley. Desert bighorn sheep and mule deer sometimes stop by the dam for a drink. Tours of the Barker Dam area are available.

Wildlife of the park includes:

  • The California tree frog, Pseudacris cadaverina, is found in the rocky, permanent water sources created by the Pinto Fault along the northern edge of the park.[40]
  • The red-spotted toad, Bufo punctatus, is a true denizen of the desert, where it spends most of its life underground. Found from one end of the park to the other, it appears after good, soaking rains.[40]
  • Golden eagles hunt in the park regularly.[33]
  • The roadrunner is an easily recognized resident.[33]
  • The call of Gambel’s quail can frequently be heard.[33]
  • The tarantula Aphonopelma iodium, the green darner Anax junius, and the giant desert scorpion Hadrurus arizonensis are arthropods that can grow to be more than 4 inches (10 cm) long.[41]
  • The yucca moth Tegeticula paradoxa is responsible for pollinating the Joshua trees after which the park is named.[41]

Wilderness

Of the park’s total land area of 790,636 acres (1,235.4 sq mi; 3,199.6 km2), 429,690 acres (671.4 sq mi; 1,738.9 km2) are designated wilderness and managed by the National Park Service (NPS) in accordance with the Wilderness Act. The NPS requires registration for overnight camping at specific locations called registration boards. Other requirements include the use of a camp stove (since open campfires are prohibited) and employing Leave No Trace camping techniques (also known as “pack it in, pack it out”).[42] Although bicycles are not allowed in wilderness areas, horses are, but a permit must be obtained in advance for travel in the backcountry. Cellular signals are weak to non-existent and should not be depended on while visiting the park.

Panoramic 360° view of Joshua Tree Park

Panorama of the view south from the Keys View in the Little San Bernardino Mountains. Visible landmarks are the Salton Sea (236 ft (72 m) below sea level) at distant left; towards the center, the Santa Rosa Mountains behind Indio, and the San Jacinto Mountains behind Palm Springs; at distant right is the 11,503 ft (3,506 m) San Gorgonio Mountain; the San Andreas Fault is visible in the valley floor.

Panoramic 360° view of Joshua Tree National Park taken in mid-January near the western entrance station

Vandalism

On April 1, 2015, graffiti artist André was convicted and fined for vandalizing ancient rock formations in the park.[43] André posted photos of his vandalizations on Instagram. The web site Modern Hiker and its readers aided the National Park Service in tracking down and identifying André’s vandalism.[44] Before the conviction, André attempted to silence the reporting with legal threats.[45]

During the 2018–2019 federal government shutdown, reports of vandalism spiked as visitors chopped down Joshua trees, set illegal fires, drove off road, and spray-painted rocks.[46][47][48] Only eight park rangers were on duty during the government shutdown.[49]

In popular culture

In 1972, the album cover photos for Eagles were shot in Joshua Tree National Park.[50]

In 1973, Phil Kaufman attempted to cremate singer/songwriter Gram Parsons’ remains here.[51] To this day, people continue to visit in tribute to Parsons.

In 1987, Irish rock band U2 released their fifth studio album, The Joshua Tree, named after a tree with which the band were photographed near Darwin, California. It is a common misconception that the site of this tree is within Joshua Tree National Park, when in fact it is over 200 miles (320 kilometres) away.[citation needed]

In 1994, American Tejano singer Selena recorded her music video for “Amor Prohibido” at Joshua Tree National Park.[52]

The black comedy crime film Seven Psychopaths (2012) was partly filmed in the park,[53] as were many other film and television productions[54] beginning with Borderland (1937), a Hopalong Cassidy feature.[55]

In 2016, Donald Glover (a.k.a. Childish Gambino) performed six sold-out shows in Joshua Tree in promotion of his new album, “Awaken, My Love!”. The three-day event went by the name Pharos.[56]

In 2017, American rock band Walk the Moon recorded the video “One Foot” in the park during that summer’s solar eclipse.[57]

See also

  • Cahuilla
  • California Desert Protection Act of 1994
  • Chemehuevi
  • Johnny Lang
  • Mojave and Colorado Deserts Biosphere Reserve
  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Joshua Tree National Park
  • List of national parks of the United States

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Park Service.

  1. ^ ab Land Resources Division (December 31, 2016). “National Park Service Listing of Acreage (summary)” (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved July 2, 2017..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “NPS Annual Recreation Visits Report”. National Park Service.
  3. ^ Wikisource link to Proclamation 2193: Joshua Tree National Monument, California, lands set apart.. Wikisource. 1936-08-10. 
  4. ^ ab “A Desert Park”. National Park Service. Archived from the original on May 20, 2017. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
  5. ^ ab “Pinto Culture”. National Park Service. February 28, 2015. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  6. ^ Hunter, Charlotte (March 22, 2016). “American Indians”. National Park Service. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  7. ^ Dilsaver 2015, pp. 28–29.
  8. ^ Dilsaver 2015, pp. 31–33.
  9. ^ Eggers 2004, pp. 33–34.
  10. ^ ab “Cowboys”. National Park Service. February 28, 2015. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  11. ^ ab Chappell, Gordon (June 11, 1975). “National Register of Historic Places Inventory – Nomination Form: Barker Dam”. National Park Service. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  12. ^ Dilsaver 2015, p. 33.
  13. ^ abc Dilsaver 2015, pp. 33–39.
  14. ^ abcd Spoo, Melanie (February 28, 2015). “Lost Horse Mine”. National Park Service. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  15. ^ ab Chappell, Gordon (June 10, 1975). “National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Wall Street Mill” (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved July 10, 2017.
  16. ^ Chappell, Gordon (1975). “National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Keys Desert Queen Ranch” (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved July 8, 2017.
  17. ^ Chappell, Gordon (1975). “National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Desert Queen Mine” (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  18. ^ Zarki 2015, pp. 75–76.
  19. ^ Zarki 2015, p. 92.
  20. ^ “Park History”. Joshua Tree National Park, NPS. Retrieved December 17, 2013.
  21. ^ “Operating Hours & Seasons”. Joshua Tree National Park, NPS.
  22. ^ Southern California Plant Communities 15. Joshua Tree woodland
  23. ^ ab Dilsaver 2015, pp. 16–19.
  24. ^ “Geologic Formations”. Joshua Tree National Park. January 4, 2017. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
  25. ^ Trent, D. D. (April 1984). “Geology of the Joshua Tree National Monument”. California Geology. 37. Archived from the original on December 21, 2013. Retrieved December 10, 2013.
  26. ^ “Camping”. Joshua Tree National Park, NPS. Retrieved February 4, 2018.
  27. ^ “California Resort Life”. CaliforniaResortLife.com.
  28. ^ “Hiking”. National Park Service. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
  29. ^ Kaiser 2010, pp. 142–43.
  30. ^ “Graffiti Force Closure Of Joshua Tree Park Sites”. AP. Retrieved April 14, 2013.
  31. ^ “Climbing Closures”. nps.gov. National Park Service. March 14, 2018. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
  32. ^ “Geology Motor Tour”. Joshua Tree National Park, NPS. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
  33. ^ abcd “Birds”. Joshua Tree National Park, NPS. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
  34. ^ “USGS Bird Checklist”. August 3, 2006. Archived from the original on July 31, 2010. Retrieved June 20, 2010.
  35. ^ “Stargazing”. Joshua Tree National Park. NPS. Retrieved August 15, 2011.
  36. ^ “ClearDarkSky Light Pollution Map”. ClearDarkSky.com. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
  37. ^ ab “Light Lollution Map”. lightpollutionmap.info. Retrieved 2018-07-13.
  38. ^ abc “Bortle Dark Sky Scale”. handprint.com. Retrieved 2018-07-13.
  39. ^ ab “Animals”. Joshua Tree National Park, NPS. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
  40. ^ ab “Amphibians”. Joshua Tree National Park, NPS. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
  41. ^ ab “Insects, Spiders, Centipedes, Millipedes”. Joshua Tree National Park, NPS. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
  42. ^ “Backpacking”. Joshua Tree National Park, NPS. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
  43. ^ Template:Citatation
  44. ^ Schreiner, Casey (February 27, 2015). “Is Mr. Andre tagging in Joshua Tree?”. Modern Hiker.
  45. ^ Schreiner, Casey (March 10, 2015). “Mr. Andre issues legal threat to Modern Hiker”. Modern Hiker.
  46. ^ Chiu, Allyson (January 11, 2019). “A Travesty to This Nation’: People Are Destroying Joshua Trees in Joshua Tree National Park”. Washington Post. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  47. ^ Diaz, Andrea (January 12, 2019). “National Park Visitors Cut Down Protected Joshua Trees during Partial Government Shutdown”. CNN. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  48. ^ Wong, Julia Carrie (January 10, 2019). “Joshua Tree National Park Announces Closure after Trees Destroyed amid Shutdown”. The Guardian. Retrieved January 12, 2019.
  49. ^ [1]
  50. ^ Simmons, Bill. “The Eagles’ Greatest Hit”. Grantland. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
  51. ^ “What’s up with the strange end of country-rock pioneer Gram Parsons?” from The Straight Dope
  52. ^ Villarreal, Yezmen. “28 Things You Didn’t Know About Selena”. BuzzFeed. Retrieved August 18, 2015.
  53. ^ “Seven Psychopaths (2012) Filming & Production”. imdb.com. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
  54. ^ “Learn About the Park: History & Culture > Stories > Movies”. nps.gov. National Park Service. January 31, 2017. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
  55. ^ “Earliest Titles With Location Matching ‘Joshua Tree National Park, California, USA'”. imdb.com. Retrieved July 6, 2018.
  56. ^ “A First Person Account of Childish Gambino’s Spectacular Pharos Event”. PigeonsandPlanes. Retrieved 2017-10-26.
  57. ^ Stubblebine, Allison. “Walk the Moon Release High-Energy Single & Video, ‘One Foot’: Watch”. billboard. Retrieved September 28, 2015.

Works cited

  • Dilsaver, Lary M. (March 2015). Joshua Tree National Park: A History of Preserving the Desert (PDF). National Park Service. OCLC 912308073. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
  • Eggers, Margaret (2004). Mining History and Geology of Joshua Tree National Park. San Diego Association of Geologists. ISBN 978-0-916251-70-3.
  • Kaiser, James (2010). Joshua Tree: The Complete Guide (4th ed.). Destination Press. ISBN 978-0-9825172-3-9.
  • Zarki, Joseph W. (2015). Images of America: Joshua Tree National Park. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4671-3281-7.

Further reading

  • Birds, Joshua Tree National Park Association
  • “Joshua Tree” (2001), California’s Gold. VHS videorecording by Huell Howser Productions, in association with KCET/Los Angeles.
    OCLC 655384402

External links

  • Official website Edit this at Wikidata of the National Park Service
  • Map of Joshua Tree National Park (archive)
  • Geologic Travel Guide: article by the American Geological Institute
  • “Keys Ranch: Where Time Stood Still”, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan
  • Joshua Tree National Park Bird Checklist with seasonal info.
  • U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Hidden Valley
  • Geographic data related to Joshua Tree National Park at OpenStreetMap


Hollywood Black Friday

Hollywood Black Friday or “Bloody Friday”[1] is the name given, in the history of organized labor in the United States, to October 5, 1945. On that date, a six-month strike by the set decorators represented by the Conference of Studio Unions (CSU) boiled over into a bloody riot at the gates of Warner Brothers’ studios in Burbank, California. The strikes helped the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947 and led to the eventual breakup of the CSU and reorganization of the then-rival International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees (IATSE) leadership.[2]

Contents

  • 1 Background
  • 2 Strike
  • 3 Black Friday
  • 4 Aftermath
  • 5 References
  • 6 Notes
  • 7 External links

Background

The Conference of Studio Unions was, at the time, an International union belonging to the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners and represented the carpenters, painters, cartoonists, and several other crafts working for the studios in Hollywood.

Seventy-seven set decorators broke away from IATSE to form the Society of Motion Picture Interior Decorators (SMPID) and negotiated an independent contract with the producers in 1937. The SMPID joined the CSU in 1943, and the CSU represented the SMPID in their contract negotiations. After the producers stalled the negotiations for nine months, IATSE questioned CSU jurisdiction over the set decorators, which led to a further five-month delay while the CSU and IATSE fought over jurisdiction. When the producers refused to acknowledge an independent arbitrator appointed by the War Labor Board’s assessment that the CSU had jurisdiction over the set decorators in February 1945, it set the stage for the strike.

Strike

An estimated 10,500 CSU workers went on strike in March 1945 and began picketing all the studios resulting in delays of several films, including Selznick’s epic Duel in the Sun and the Cole Porter story Night and Day. Unfortunately for CSU, the studios had some 130 films on the shelves at the time and were able to comfortably sit out a strike for the time being. Regardless, Disney, Monogram and several independents bargained with CSU while Columbia, Fox, MGM, Paramount, RKO, Universal, and Warner did not.

Despite orders from their leadership and threatened with fines and revocation of their cards, many members of IATSE refused to cross the picket lines or do work normally filled by members of the CSU.

Black Friday

By October, money and patience were running low as some 300 strikers gathered at Warner Brothers’ main gate on October 5, 1945. Temperatures were abnormally warm for the already hot LA autumn. When non-strikers attempted to report for work at 6:00 in the morning, the barricades went up and tensions flared. As replacement workers attempted to drive through the crowd, their cars were stopped and overturned.

Reinforcements arrived on both sides as the picket increased to some 1,000 people and Glendale and Los Angeles Police came to aid the Burbank Police and Warner Security attempting to maintain the peace. When more replacement workers attempted to break through to the gate, a general melee ensued as strikers mobbed them and strikebreakers responded by attacking the strikers with chains, hammers, pipes, tear gas, and night sticks. Warner security rained more tear gas down from the roofs of the buildings adjoining the entrance. Warner firefighters sprayed the strikers with fire hoses. By the end of the day, some 300 police and deputy sheriffs had been called to the scene and over 40 injuries were reported.

The picketers returned the following Monday with an injunction barring the police from interfering with the strike while Warner retaliated with its own injunction limiting the number of pickets at the gate. Although the violence would continue through the week, national exposure forced the parties back to the bargaining table and resulted in an end to the strike one month later but the CSU victory was a Pyrrhic one, where contentions over wording dictated by an AFL arbitration team would lead to further questioning as to CSU and IATSE jurisdiction on the set.

Aftermath

After meetings between IATSE and representatives of the studios in early September 1946 guaranteed IATSE workers to fill the positions of existing CSU employees, the studios came up with a plan to force CSU out of the studios once and for all. On September 23, the studios reassigned all the CSU members from construction supervisors, foremen and maintenance men to work as journeymen carpenters on “hot set”, a position many of these men hadn’t worked in many years and a violation of their job descriptions and cause for a union grievance.

These men protested and refused at which point they were given preprepared paychecks for their time and effectively sent home and subsequently locked out. Naturally, the pickets went back up, and the CSU was forced to assume the crushing burden of another strike.

Despite a walk-out by members of IATSE 683 film laboratory technicians in solidarity with CSU, open fighting between CSU members and studio security forces and a vote by the Screen Actors Guild to effectively turn their back on CSU hampered the CSU’s efforts. This was a strike that the CSU would never recover from, lasting some 13 months before it voted to permit long-unemployed, impoverished members and supporters to cross the picket line and return to work. The CIO also came to the aid of the struggling CSU members and assisted them in finding jobs in other CIO industries.

The disorder in Hollywood helped prompt the Taft-Hartley bill which was passed in part with the studios’ lobby and accusations of Herb Sorrell’s (the leader of the CSU during the time of the strike) alleged Communist Party membership which prompted Sorrell and CSU’s slow descent into obscurity.

Thomas Pynchon later would use some of these events as backstory in his novel Vineland.

References

  • Gerald Horne; Class Struggle in Hollywood 1930–1950 (University of Texas Press, 2001 .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    ISBN 0-292-73137-X)
  • George H Dunne; Hollywood Labor Dispute: A Study in Immorality (Conference Publishing Co., 1950 ASIN B0007FXSCU)

Notes

  1. ^ “bloody-friday” “OCTOBER 5, “BLOODY FRIDAY“. iatse.net/timeline. Retrieved 2015-07-27.
  2. ^ “Class Struggle in Hollywood 1930–1950”. University of Texas Press. 2001. Retrieved 2015-07-27.

External links

  • Excerpt from Class Struggle in Hollywood
  • IATSE History with mention of CSU strike
  • SAG History with mention of CSU strike
  • Hollywood Reporter article of Hollywood strikes


Montague Airport (California)

Montague Airport-Yreka Rohrer Field

Montague Air Force Auxiliary Field
Montague Airport - California.jpg

2006 USGS Photo
  • IATA: ROF[1]
  • ICAO: none
  • FAA LID: 1O5
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner City of Montague, California
Location Montague, California
Elevation AMSL 2,527 ft / 770 m
Coordinates 41°43′49″N 122°32′44″W / 41.73028°N 122.54556°W / 41.73028; -122.54556Coordinates: 41°43′49″N 122°32′44″W / 41.73028°N 122.54556°W / 41.73028; -122.54556
Map
ROF is located in California

ROF
ROF
Location of Montague Airport
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
14/32 3,360 1,024 Asphalt
05/23 2,080 634 Grass

The Montague Airport (IATA: ROF), also known as Yreka Rohrer Field (IATA: ROF, FAA LID: 1O5), is located on the west side of Montague, California.[2] It is owned by the City of Montague.

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 See also
  • 3 References
  • 4 External links

History

The municipal airport at Montague was created at its present location in 1928. The maintenance hangar and a small weather observatory building were built in 1928. Civilian Conservation Corps funds helped to bring in large quantities of gravel to stabilize the landing area in the early 1930s. Originally the airport was only a north-south dirt strip. A crosswind runway was added in the 1930s. A small amount of paving was added to the south end of the original strip in the 1950s to accommodate drag racing by automobiles, not aircraft.

During World War II, the airport was designated as Montague Air Force Auxiliary Field, and was an auxiliary training airfield for Hamilton Field, California.

The airport returned to civil control in 1945 after the war. The last major improvement consisted of lengthening the runway by six hundred feet to its present 3360 feet in 1982.

See also

  • Siskiyou County Airport – also located in Montague
  • California World War II Army Airfields

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.

  1. ^ “Airline and Airport Code Search”. IATA. Retrieved 6 April 2016..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “Montague-Yreka Rohrer Field”. Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-04.

External links

  • Resources for this airport:
    • FAA airport information for 1O5
    • AirNav airport information for 1O5
    • ASN accident history for RKC
    • FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker
    • SkyVector aeronautical chart for 1O5

California State Route 263

State Route 263 marker

State Route 263

Map of Siskiyou County in northern California with SR 263 highlighted in red
Route information
Defined by Streets and Highways Code § 563
Maintained by Caltrans
Length 8.125 mi[1] (13.076 km)
Major junctions
South end SR 3 in Yreka
North end SR 96 near Yreka
Location
Counties Siskiyou
Highway system
  • State highways in California
  • Interstate
  • U.S.
  • State

    • Pre-1964
  • History
  • Unconstructed
  • Deleted
  • Freeway
  • Scenic
SR 262 SR 265

State Route 263 (SR 263) is a state highway in the U.S. state of California in Siskiyou County. It is also part of Business Loop 5 due to being a parallel route of Interstate 5 to the west. Route 263 connects Route 3 near the north city limits of Yreka to Route 96 eight miles (13 km) north. It was once part of U.S. Route 99.

Contents

  • 1 Route description
  • 2 Major intersections
  • 3 See also
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links

Route description

SR 263 at Pioneer Bridge

Southern terminus of SR 263 (northbound view)

The road begins at a junction with State Route 3 just north of Yreka. The highway then heads northward through Siskiyou County, roughly lying parallel to the Shasta River. The road is also roughly aligned with nearby Interstate 5 as it passes through hilly terrain. The road ends at State Route 96, which continues northward to meet up with Interstate 5.[2]

SR 263 is part of the National Highway System,[3] a network of highways that are considered essential to the country’s economy, defense, and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration.[4]

Major intersections

Except where prefixed with a letter, postmiles were measured on the road as it was in 1964, based on the alignment of U.S. Route 99 as it existed at that time, and do not necessarily reflect current mileage. R reflects a realignment in the route since then, M indicates a second realignment, L refers an overlap due to a correction or change, and T indicates postmiles classified as temporary (for a full list of prefixes, see the list of postmile definitions).[1] Segments that remain unconstructed or have been relinquished to local control may be omitted. The entire route is in Siskiyou County.

Location Postmile
[1][5][6]
Destinations
[7]
Notes
Yreka 49.07 SR 3 (Montague Road, North Main Street) / Tebbe Street – Montague, Etna South end of I-5 Bus. overlap; south end of SR 263
57.20 SR 96 (Klamath River Highway) to I-5 North end of I-5 Bus. overlap; north end of SR 263
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

  •       Concurrency terminus

See also

  • Business routes of Interstate 5

See also

  • California 1.svg California Roads portal

References

  1. ^ abc California Department of Transportation. “State Truck Route List”. Sacramento: California Department of Transportation. Archived from the original (XLS file) on June 30, 2015. Retrieved June 30, 2015..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Microsoft; Nokia (2011-01-26). “SR 263” (Map). Bing Maps. Microsoft. Retrieved 2011-01-26.
  3. ^ Federal Highway Administration (March 25, 2015). National Highway System: Redding, CA (PDF) (Map). Scale not given. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved September 3, 2017.
  4. ^ Natzke, Stefan; Neathery, Mike & Adderly, Kevin (June 20, 2012). “What is the National Highway System?”. National Highway System. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved July 1, 2012.
  5. ^ California Department of Transportation (July 2007). “Log of Bridges on State Highways”. Sacramento: California Department of Transportation.
  6. ^ California Department of Transportation, All Traffic Volumes on CSHS, 2005 and 2006
  7. ^ DeLorme California Atlas and Gazetteer: Page 25

External links

Route map:

Template:Attached KML/California State Route 263
KML is from Wikidata
  • California @ AARoads.com – State Route 263
  • Caltrans: Route 263 highway conditions
  • California Highways: SR 263

Weaverville, California

Census designated place in California, United States
Weaverville
Census designated place
Location in Trinity County and the state of California

Location in Trinity County and the state of California
Weaverville is located in the US

Weaverville
Weaverville
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 40°44′12″N 122°56′10″W / 40.73667°N 122.93611°W / 40.73667; -122.93611Coordinates: 40°44′12″N 122°56′10″W / 40.73667°N 122.93611°W / 40.73667; -122.93611
Country  United States
State  California
County Trinity
Area

[1]
 • Total 10.424 sq mi (26.999 km2)
 • Land 10.424 sq mi (26.999 km2)
 • Water 0 sq mi (0 km2)  0%
Elevation

[2]
2,051 ft (625 m)
Population

(2010)
 • Total 3,600
 • Density 350/sq mi (130/km2)
Time zone UTC−8 (Pacific)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−7 (PDT)
ZIP code
96093
Area code 530
FIPS code 06-83794
GNIS feature IDs 1652649, 2409537

Weaverville is a census designated place and the county seat of Trinity County, California in the United States. The population was 3,600 at the 2010 census, up from 3,554 at the 2000 census.

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Weaverville Joss House State Historic Park
  • 3 Geography and climate
  • 4 Demographics

    • 4.1 2010
    • 4.2 2000
  • 5 Government
  • 6 Events
  • 7 Cultural references
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links

History

Founded in 1850, Weaverville is a historic California Gold Rush town. Located at the foot of the current Trinity Alps Wilderness Area, Weaverville was once home to approximately 2,000 Chinese gold miners, and had its own Chinatown.
Logging and tourism were the economic mainstays of Weaverville for many years. The regional economy has been in steady decline for many years, with only a small uplift brought about by the global real estate bubble. As of April, 2009 Trinity County’s unemployment rate stood at 20.9% (NY Times).

Weaverville Joss House State Historic Park

The Weaverville Joss House (also called “The Temple of the Forest Beneath the Clouds”), a Taoist temple, was built in 1874 and is California’s best preserved example of a Gold Rush-era Chinese place of worship. The temple is now the Weaverville Joss House State Historic Park, and its interior, including an intricately carved wooden altar, can be viewed by visitors.

Geography and climate

Weaverville is located at 40°44′12″N 122°56′10″W / 40.73667°N 122.93611°W / 40.73667; -122.93611 (40.736687, -122.936208).[3]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 10.4 square miles (27 km2), all of it land.

Weaverville has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csa, bordering on Csb) though owing to its inland valley location the town is wetter and observes much larger diurnal temperature variations, creating colder mornings, than considered prototypical for the climate type. The National Weather Service has had a cooperative weather station in Weaverville since 1894. Based on those records, average January temperatures are a maximum of 47.2 °F or 8.4 °C and a minimum of 27.4 °F or −2.6 °C, whilst July temperatures average a maximum of 94.1 °F or 34.5 °C and a minimum of 49.1 °F or 9.5 °C. There are an average of 77.3 afternoons with highs of 90 °F or 32.2 °C or higher, plus an average of 126.8 mornings with lows of 32 °F or 0 °C or lower, although only two afternoons every three years fail to top freezing and only one morning every three years will fall to or below 0 °F or −17.8 °C. The record high temperature was 116 °F (46.7 °C) on August 4, 1932, and the record low temperature was −10 °F (−23.3 °C) on December 9, 1972.

Average annual precipitation is 35.45 inches or 900.4 millimetres, with an average of 83 days annually with measurable precipitation. The most precipitation in one month was 20.86 inches (529.8 mm) in December 2005, whilst the wettest “rain year” was from July 1982 to June 1983 with at least 65.82 inches or 1,671.8 millimetres (several days missing) and the driest from July 1990 to June 1991 with 19.02 inches (483.1 mm)[4] – although the 1976–77 “rain year” with many days in May missing had a recorded total of only 12.73 inches or 323.3 millimetres. The most precipitation in 24 hours was 5.50 inches on January 4, 1982. Average annual snowfall is 22.5 inches or 0.57 metres. The most snowfall in one month was 75.3 inches (1.91 m) in January 1950.[5]

Climate data for Weaverville
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 75
(24)
82
(28)
90
(32)
94
(34)
106
(41)
113
(45)
113
(45)
116
(47)
111
(44)
104
(40)
89
(32)
85
(29)
116
(47)
Average high °F (°C) 47.3
(8.5)
54.0
(12.2)
59.6
(15.3)
67.0
(19.4)
76.2
(24.6)
84.7
(29.3)
94.1
(34.5)
93.2
(34.0)
86.9
(30.5)
74.2
(23.4)
56.7
(13.7)
46.6
(8.1)
70.0
(21.1)
Daily mean °F (°C) 37.4
(3.0)
41.7
(5.4)
45.4
(7.4)
50.7
(10.4)
57.9
(14.4)
64.7
(18.2)
71.6
(22.0)
70.2
(21.2)
64.3
(17.9)
54.7
(12.6)
44.4
(6.9)
38.0
(3.3)
53.4
(11.9)
Average low °F (°C) 27.6
(−2.4)
29.4
(−1.4)
31.3
(−0.4)
34.4
(1.3)
39.7
(4.3)
44.9
(7.2)
49.2
(9.6)
47.3
(8.5)
41.6
(5.3)
35.3
(1.8)
32.0
(0.0)
29.3
(−1.5)
36.8
(2.7)
Record low °F (°C) −7
(−22)
0
(−18)
12
(−11)
16
(−9)
22
(−6)
28
(−2)
32
(0)
29
(−2)
23
(−5)
11
(−12)
0
(−18)
−10
(−23)
−10
(−23)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 6.76
(172)
5.37
(136)
3.85
(98)
2.35
(60)
1.41
(36)
0.80
(20)
0.17
(4.3)
0.26
(6.6)
0.64
(16)
2.35
(60)
4.88
(124)
6.61
(168)
35.45
(900.9)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 9.2
(23)
4.1
(10)
2.2
(5.6)
0.4
(1.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
1.6
(4.1)
4.9
(12)
22.4
(55.7)
Average precipitation days 12 11 10 8 6 3 1 1 2 6 10 12 82
Source: Western Regional Climate Center[5]

Demographics

One of many spiral staircases in Weaverville

2010

The 2010 United States Census[6] reported that Weaverville had a population of 3,600. The population density was 345.4 people per square mile (133.3/km²). The racial makeup of Weaverville was 3,162 (87.8%) White, 11 (0.3%) African American, 152 (4.2%) Native American, 41 (1.1%) Asian, 1 (0.0%) Pacific Islander, 38 (1.1%) from other races, and 195 (5.4%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 255 persons (7.1%).

The Census reported that 3,473 people (96.5% of the population) lived in households, 61 (1.7%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 66 (1.8%) were institutionalized.

There were 1,513 households, out of which 440 (29.1%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 622 (41.1%) were married couples living together, 185 (12.2%) had a female householder with no husband present, 112 (7.4%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 145 (9.6%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 12 (0.8%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 473 households (31.3%) were made up of individuals and 196 (13.0%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30. There were 919 families (60.7% of all households); the average family size was 2.80.

The population was spread out with 842 people (23.4%) under the age of 18, 247 people (6.9%) aged 18 to 24, 734 people (20.4%) aged 25 to 44, 1,109 people (30.8%) aged 45 to 64, and 668 people (18.6%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.4 males.

There were 1,675 housing units at an average density of 160.7 per square mile (62.0/km²), of which 908 (60.0%) were owner-occupied, and 605 (40.0%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.8%; the rental vacancy rate was 6.8%. 2,089 people (58.0% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 1,384 people (38.4%) lived in rental housing units.

2000

As of the census[7] of 2000, there were 3,554 people, 1,513 households, and 960 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 100.4 people per square mile (38.8/km²). There were 1,653 housing units at an average density of 46.7 per square mile (18.0/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 91.5% White, 0.3% African American, 2.9% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.2% from other races, and 3.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.3% of the population.

There were 1,513 households out of which 27.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.5% were non-families. 31.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.85.

In the CDP, the population was spread out with 24.2% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 23.0% from 25 to 44, 28.0% from 45 to 64, and 18.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.7 males.

The median income for a household in the CDP was $30,319, and the median income for a family was $37,813. Males had a median income of $34,091 versus $24,722 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $18,297. About 13.2% of families and 16.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.6% of those under age 18 and 5.3% of those age 65 or over.

Government

In the California State Legislature, Weaverville is in the 2nd Senate District, represented by Democrat Mike McGuire, and in the 2nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Jim Wood.[8]

In the United States House of Representatives, Weaverville is in California’s 2nd congressional district, represented by Democrat Jared Huffman.[9]

Events

  • Independence Celebration ~july 4 yearly
  • Art Cruise, every 1st saturday
  • Six Hours of Weaverville, mountain bike endurance race, May
  • KALI Spring Enduro, mountain bike stage race, May
  • Lagrange Fall Classic, Northern California Mountain Bike Championship Series Finals, October

Cultural references

  • Junction City (about 8 miles from Weaverville) has a Tibetan Buddhist temple, Rigdzin Ling, part of the Chagdud Gonpa Foundation founded by Chagdud Tulku Rinpoche.
  • The 1938 film Gold Is Where You Find It was filmed in and around Weaverville.[citation needed]
  • The Mary McCaslin song “The Ballad of Weaverville” gives a fictional account of the town’s name as being that of a gambler, Jim Weaver, who had the town named after him as his final bet, after winning all of the town’s gold.[citation needed]

References

  1. ^ “2010 Census U.S. Gazetteer Files – Places – California”. United States Census Bureau..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “Weaverville”. Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
  3. ^ “US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990”. United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  4. ^ National Weather Service, Eureka, CA; NOW Data: NOW Online
  5. ^ ab “WEAVERVILLE, CALIFORNIA (049490): Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary”. Retrieved 4 December 2016.
  6. ^ “2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA – Weaverville CDP”. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  7. ^ “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  8. ^ “Statewide Database”. UC Regents. Retrieved December 6, 2014.
  9. ^ “California’s 2nd Congressional District – Representatives & District Map”. Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved March 1, 2013.

External links

  • links & current events
  • local newspaper
  • Weaverville information
  • Weaverville news
  • historical society & museum
  • A History of Chinese Americans in California: Won Lim Temple – a State Historic Park and a State Historical Landmark


Fort Jones, California

City in California, United States of America
Fort Jones, California
City
City of Fort Jones
Location of Fort Jones in Siskiyou County, California.

Location of Fort Jones in Siskiyou County, California.
Fort Jones, California is located in the US

Fort Jones, California
Fort Jones, California
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 41°36′26″N 122°50′31″W / 41.60722°N 122.84194°W / 41.60722; -122.84194Coordinates: 41°36′26″N 122°50′31″W / 41.60722°N 122.84194°W / 41.60722; -122.84194
Country  United States of America
State  California
County Siskiyou
Incorporated March 16, 1872[1]
Area

[2]
 • Total 0.60 sq mi (1.56 km2)
 • Land 0.60 sq mi (1.56 km2)
 • Water 0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)  0%
Elevation

[3]
2,759 ft (841 m)
Population

(2010)
 • Total 839
 • Estimate 

(2016)[4]
688
 • Density 1,142.86/sq mi (441.06/km2)
Time zone UTC-8 (Pacific (PST))
 • Summer (DST) UTC-7 (PDT)
ZIP code
96032
Area code(s) 530
FIPS code 06-25128
GNIS feature ID 277519, 2410527
Website fortjonesca.org
California Historical Landmark
Reference no. 317[5]

Fort Jones is a city in the Scott Valley area of Siskiyou County, California, United States. The population was 839 at the 2010 census, up from 600 as of the 2000 census.

Contents

  • 1 History

    • 1.1 Scottsburg, Scottsville, Wheelock, Ottitiewa and Fort Jones
    • 1.2 Fort Jones
  • 2 Geography

    • 2.1 Climate
  • 3 Demographics

    • 3.1 2010
    • 3.2 2000
  • 4 Politics
  • 5 Notable people
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 Further reading
  • 9 External links

History

Scottsburg, Scottsville, Wheelock, Ottitiewa and Fort Jones

Fort Jones is registered as a California Historical Landmark.[5] It takes its name from the frontier outpost once located less than a mile to the south of the city’s corporate limits. The town was originally named Scottsburg (c. 1850), but was changed to Scottsville shortly afterward. In 1852, the site was again renamed Wheelock, this time in honor of Mr. O. C. Wheelock who, with his partners, established the area’s first commercial enterprise. In 1854, a post office was established and the town was renamed again, becoming known as Ottitiewa, the Indian name for the Scott River branch of the Shasta tribe. The name remained unchanged until 1860 when local citizens successfully petitioned the postal department to change the name to Fort Jones, a name that is retained to the present day.[6]

The earliest permanent building at the town site was built in 1851 by two Messrs. Brown and Kelly. It was purchased soon after construction by O. C. Wheelock, Captain John B. Pierce, and two other unknown partners. Wheelock and his partners established a trading post, a bar, and a brothel at this site, which primarily served the troopers stationed at the fort. Near the end of the 1850s, the nearby mining camps of Hooperville and Deadwood began to disband as a result of the dwindling stores of placer gold, epidemic illness and devastating fires.

The mines around Scott Valley attracted many immigrants from many parts of the United States and the world, attracted to the area by news of the California Gold Rush of the 1850s. Irish and Portuguese immigrants remained as ranchers in the area after making enough on the gold fields to purchase property tracts in the valley. In the early years of the Twentieth Century, the northern Scott River tributaries of Moffitt and McAddams creeks were extensively settled by the Portuguese. The Irish surname Marlahan lives on after that family received a shipment of British hay seed infected with the seed of a plant known as Dyers Woad.[7] Those seeds spread their spawn throughout Scott Valley, culturing a plant known in the area as Marlahan Mustard. The plant has a beautiful, canary plume in the spring which matures to small, black, hard seeds. Unfortunately, the herbivore beasts of burden will not eat hay in which this plant exists, and ever since it has been a scourge on the ranchers of Scott Valley.

On December 14, 1894, Billy Dean, a Native American accused of shooting co-worker William Baremore near Grinder Creek outside of Happy Camp, California on December 5, 1894 was lynched by unknown persons while in the custody of Constable Fred Dixon. Constable Dixon and Dean were staying at a hotel in Happy Camp while on their way the Yreka, California jail, where Dean would be safe from vigilantes in Happy Camp. Baremore’s friends were tailing the pair and waited for their moment. At two in the morning on December 14, 1894, a dozen masked men stormed the room and disarmed Constable Dixon. They tied Dean’s hands and carried him to the Wheeler Building which was under construction where they strung him up by the neck from a derrick. His body was left hanging until 11:00 a.m. That day’s headlines in the Scott Valley News boasted, “He Is Now A Good Indian. Billy Dean Kills a White Man Without Cause and Is Summarily Hoisted to the Happy Hunting Ground.”[8]

Fort Jones

Located at 41°35′46″N 122°50′31″W / 41.59611°N 122.84194°W / 41.59611; -122.84194, the post of Fort Jones was established on October 18, 1852, by its first commandant, Captain (brevet Major) Edward H. Fitzgerald, E Company, 1st U.S. Dragoons. Fort Jones was named in honor of Colonel Roger Jones, who had been the Adjutant General of the Army from March 1825 to July 1852.[9]

Such military posts were to be established in the vicinity of major stage routes, which would have meant locating the post in the vicinity of Yreka, sixteen miles to the Northeast.[9] The areas around Yreka did not contain sufficient resources, including forage for their animals, so Capt. Fitzgerald located his troop some sixteen miles to the southwest, in what was then known as Beaver Valley.[9] Fort Jones would continue to serve Siskiyou County’s military needs until the order was received to evacuate some six years later on June 23, 1858.[9]

Among the officers stationed at Fort Jones who would attain national prominence in ensuing years were Phil Sheridan (Union Army); William Wing Loring (Confederate); John B. Hood (Confederate); George Crook (Union), who would become one of the greatest leaders of the Grand Army of the Republic less than a decade later; and George Pickett (Confederate). Ulysses S. Grant later a (Union) commander was ordered to Fort Jones, but was Absent Without Leave for whatever his tenure would have been.

Geography

Fort Jones is located at 41°36′26″N 122°50′31″W / 41.60722°N 122.84194°W / 41.60722; -122.84194 (41.607303, -122.841817).[10]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.6 square miles (1.6 km2), all of it land.

Climate

This region experiences warm (but not hot) and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Fort Jones has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated “Csb” on climate maps.[11]

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1890 266
1900 356 33.8%
1910 316 −11.2%
1920 331 4.7%
1930 302 −8.8%
1940 360 19.2%
1950 525 45.8%
1960 483 −8.0%
1970 515 6.6%
1980 544 5.6%
1990 639 17.5%
2000 660 3.3%
2010 839 27.1%
Est. 2016 688 [4] −18.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[12]

2010

The 2010 United States Census[13] reported that Fort Jones had a population of 839. The population density was 1,393.1 people per square mile (537.9/km²). The racial makeup of Fort Jones was 650 (77.5%) White, 33 (3.9%) African American, 61 (7.3%) Native American, 8 (1.0%) Asian, 0 (0.0%) Pacific Islander, 23 (2.7%) from other races, and 64 (7.6%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 103 persons (12.3%).

The Census reported that 710 people (84.6% of the population) lived in households, 0 (0%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 129 (15.4%) were institutionalized.

There were 304 households, out of which 88 (28.9%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 130 (42.8%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 30 (9.9%) had a female householder with no husband present, 23 (7.6%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 32 (10.5%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 0 (0%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 94 households (30.9%) were made up of individuals and 34 (11.2%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34. There were 183 families (60.2% of all households); the average family size was 2.91.

The population was spread out with 168 people (20.0%) under the age of 18, 65 people (7.7%) aged 18 to 24, 266 people (31.7%) aged 25 to 44, 230 people (27.4%) aged 45 to 64, and 110 people (13.1%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 136.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 146.7 males.

There were 344 housing units at an average density of 571.2 per square mile (220.5/km²), of which 182 (59.9%) were owner-occupied, and 122 (40.1%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.7%; the rental vacancy rate was 5.4%. 426 people (50.8% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 284 people (33.8%) lived in rental housing units.

2000

As of the census[14] of 2000, there were 660 people, 298 households, and 185 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,096.7 people per square mile (424.7/km²). There were 328 housing units at an average density of 545.0 per square mile (211.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 88.64% White, 0.15% African American, 3.18% Native American, 0.45% Pacific Islander, 1.52% from other races, and 6.06% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.03% of the population.

There were 298 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.6% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.6% were non-families. 33.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.81.

In the city, the population was spread out with 23.6% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, and 22.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $21,563, and the median income for a family was $25,625. Males had a median income of $31,058 versus $16,875 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,301. About 23.3% of families and 26.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.1% of those under age 18 and 14.5% of those age 65 or over.

Politics

In the state legislature Fort Jones is in the 1st Senate District, seat currently vacant,[15] and the 1st Assembly District, represented by Republican Brian Dahle.[16]

Federally, Fort Jones is in California’s 1st congressional district, represented by Republican Doug LaMalfa.[17]

Notable people

  • Norman F. Cardoza, (September 3, 1930 – ) a journalist at the Reno Evening Gazette and Nevada State Journal, earned the Pulitzer Prize “for editorials challenging the power of a local brothel keeper”. He was born in Yreka, California, son of John C. and Emily S. Cardoza, and attended Moffett Creek School and Fort Jones High School.[18]
  • Lauran Paine, born Lawrence Kerfman Duby Jr., (February 25, 1916 – December 1, 2001) authored more than 1000 books[19] including hundreds of Western stories under various pseudonyms,[20] including Mark Carrel, Clay Allen, A. A. Andrews, Dennis Archer, John Armour, Carter Ashby, Harry Beck, Will Benton, Frank Bosworth, Concho Bradley, Claude Cassady, Clint Custer, James Glenn, Will Houston, Troy Howard, Cliff Ketchum, Clint O’Conner, Jim Slaughter and Buck Standish among others.[21] He was a long-term resident of Fort Jones.[22] At least one of his stories was made into a motion picture.[22]
  • John King Luttrell (June 27, 1831 – October 4, 1893) was a U.S. Representative from California. He moved to Siskiyou County in 1858 and purchased a ranch near Fort Jones. He engaged in agricultural pursuits, mining, and the practice of law. He was appointed United States Commissioner of Fisheries and special agent of the United States Treasury for Alaska in 1893. He died in Sitka, Alaska at age 62, and was interred in Fort Jones Cemetery.[23]

See also

  • Fort Jones Mount Oliver, Pennsylvania

References

  1. ^ “California Cities by Incorporation Date”. California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Archived from the original (Word) on November 3, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2014..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jul 19, 2017.
  3. ^ “Fort Jones”. Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved November 2, 2014.
  4. ^ ab “Population and Housing Unit Estimates”. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  5. ^ ab “Fort Jones”. Office of Historic Preservation, California State Parks. Retrieved 2012-10-14.
  6. ^ Frickstad, Walter N., A Century of California Post Offices 1848-1954, Philatelic Research Society, Oakland, CA. 1955, pp.184-193.
  7. ^ Ed Marlahan, 1965
  8. ^ Kulczyk,David. (2008). California Justice: Shootouts, Lynching and Assassinations in the Golden State. Word Dancer Press. P58
    ISBN 1-884995-54-3
  9. ^ abcd The California State Military Museum, Historic California Posts: Fort Jones (Siskiyou County)
  10. ^ “US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990”. United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  11. ^ Climate Summary for Fort Jones, California
  12. ^ “Census of Population and Housing”. Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  13. ^ “2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA – Fort Jones city”. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  14. ^ “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  15. ^ “Senators”. State of California. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
  16. ^ “Members Assembly”. State of California. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
  17. ^ “California’s 1st Congressional District – Representatives & District Map”. Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
  18. ^ Heinz-Dietrich Fischer; Erika J. Fischer (1990). The Pulitzer Prize Archive: Political editorial, 1916-1988. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 295–. ISBN 978-3-598-30174-2.
  19. ^ Ouse, David (September 16, 2013). “Forgotten Duluthian Lauran Paine”. Zenith City Online, Duluth Minnesota. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
  20. ^ Paul Varner (September 20, 2010). Historical Dictionary of Westerns in Literature. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-7486-2.
  21. ^ Whitehead, David, Lauran Paine, Keith Chapman’s Black Horse Extra
  22. ^ ab Bernita Tickner; Gail Fiorini-Jenner (March 1, 2006). The State of Jefferson. Arcadia Publishing. pp. 90–. ISBN 978-0-7385-3096-3.
  23. ^

    • United States Congress. “Fort Jones, California (id: L000522)”. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.

Further reading

  • Lauran Paine, ed., Preface and The Fort and Its Dependencies, The Siskiyou Pioneer, Vol. III, No. 3. Yreka, CA: Siskiyou County Historical Society, 1960.
  • Michael Hendryx; Orsola Silva; Richard Silva; Siskiyou County Historical Society (2003). Historic Look at Scott Valley. Siskiyou County Historical Society.
  • Gary D. Stumpf (1979). Gold mining in Siskiyou County, 1850-1900. Siskiyou County Historical Society.

External links

  • Fort Jones Museum


Montague, California

City in California, United States of America
Montague, California
City
City of Montague
Location in Siskiyou County and the state of California

Location in Siskiyou County and the state of California
Montague, California is located in the US

Montague, California
Montague, California
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 41°43′38″N 122°31′35″W / 41.72722°N 122.52639°W / 41.72722; -122.52639Coordinates: 41°43′38″N 122°31′35″W / 41.72722°N 122.52639°W / 41.72722; -122.52639
Country  United States of America
State  California
County Siskiyou
Incorporated January 28, 1909[1]
Named for S. S. Montague
Area

[2]
 • Total 1.79 sq mi (4.64 km2)
 • Land 1.78 sq mi (4.60 km2)
 • Water 0.01 sq mi (0.04 km2)  0.85%
Elevation

[3]
2,539 ft (774 m)
Population

(2010)
 • Total 1,443
 • Estimate 

(2016)[4]
1,399
 • Density 786.84/sq mi (303.83/km2)
Time zone UTC-8 (Pacific Time Zone)
 • Summer (DST) UTC-7 (PDT)
ZIP code
96064
Area code 530
FIPS code 06-48690
GNIS feature IDs 277557, 2411140
Website ci.montague.ca.us

Montague is a city in Siskiyou County, California, United States. The population was 1,443 at the 2010 census, down from 1,456 at the 2000 census.

Contents

  • 1 Name
  • 2 Geography

    • 2.1 Climate
  • 3 Demographics

    • 3.1 2010
    • 3.2 2000
  • 4 Government
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links

Name

When the Southern Pacific Railroad extension was built from Dunsmuir, California to the state line in 1886-87, the station was named for S.S. Montague, chief engineer of the Central Pacific Railroad.[5]

Geography

Montague is located at 41°43′38″N 122°31′35″W / 41.72722°N 122.52639°W / 41.72722; -122.52639 (41.727168, -122.526468).[6]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.8 square miles (4.6 km²), 99.15% of it land and 0.85% of it water.

Located 6 miles east of Interstate 5 at Yreka along California State Route 3, this is also the site of the interchange between the Yreka Western Railroad and the Central Oregon and Pacific Railroad. General aviation is served at Montague Airport, which also serves Yreka.

Climate

This region experiences warm (but not hot) and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Montague has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated “Csb” on climate maps.[7]

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1890 250
1910 274
1920 453 65.3%
1930 507 11.9%
1940 463 −8.7%
1950 579 25.1%
1960 782 35.1%
1970 890 13.8%
1980 1,285 44.4%
1990 1,415 10.1%
2000 1,456 2.9%
2010 1,443 −0.9%
Est. 2016 1,399 [4] −3.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[8]

2010

The 2010 United States Census[9] reported that Montague had a population of 1,443. The population density was 804.8 people per square mile (310.7/km²). The racial makeup of Montague was 1,251 (86.7%) White, 4 (0.3%) African American, 67 (4.6%) Native American, 8 (0.6%) Asian, 1 (0.1%) Pacific Islander, 17 (1.2%) from other races, and 95 (6.6%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 107 persons (7.4%).

The Census reported that 1,425 people (98.8% of the population) lived in households, 18 (1.2%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 0 (0%) were institutionalized.

There were 576 households, out of which 198 (34.4%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 255 (44.3%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 86 (14.9%) had a female householder with no husband present, 31 (5.4%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 64 (11.1%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 1 (0.2%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 159 households (27.6%) were made up of individuals and 49 (8.5%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47. There were 372 families (64.6% of all households); the average family size was 2.95.

The population was spread out with 368 people (25.5%) under the age of 18, 119 people (8.2%) aged 18 to 24, 382 people (26.5%) aged 25 to 44, 390 people (27.0%) aged 45 to 64, and 184 people (12.8%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.2 males.

There were 633 housing units at an average density of 353.0 per square mile (136.3/km²), of which 371 (64.4%) were owner-occupied, and 205 (35.6%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.4%; the rental vacancy rate was 10.4%. 886 people (61.4% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 539 people (37.4%) lived in rental housing units.

2000

As of the census[10] of 2000, there were 1,456 people, 560 households, and 390 families residing in the city. The population density was 815.3 people per square mile (314.1/km²). There were 609 housing units at an average density of 341.0 per square mile (131.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 89.01% White, 0.07% African American, 5.08% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 2.20% from other races, and 3.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.43% of the population.

There were 560 households out of which 36.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.4% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.2% were non-families. 25.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.07.

In the city, the population was spread out with 28.7% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 27.0% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, and 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $22,991, and the median income for a family was $28,672. Males had a median income of $30,455 versus $22,250 for females. The per capita income for the city was $12,661. About 19.6% of families and 24.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.0% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over.

Government

In the California State Legislature, Montague is in the 1st Senate District, seat currently vacant,[11] and the 1st Assembly District, represented by Republican Brian Dahle.[12]

In the United States House of Representatives, Montague is in California’s 1st congressional district, represented by Republican Doug LaMalfa.[13]

References

  1. ^ “California Cities by Incorporation Date”. California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Archived from the original (Word) on October 17, 2013. Retrieved August 25, 2014..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jun 28, 2017.
  3. ^ “Montague”. Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
  4. ^ ab “Population and Housing Unit Estimates”. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  5. ^ Gudde, Erwin G. (1998). California place names : the origin and etymology of current geographical names (4th ed., rev. and enl. ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 245. ISBN 0520213165.
  6. ^ “US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990”. United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  7. ^ Climate Summary for Montague, California
  8. ^ “Census of Population and Housing”. Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  9. ^ “2010 Census Interactive Population Search: CA – Montague city”. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
  10. ^ “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  11. ^ “Senators”. State of California. Retrieved March 10, 2013.
  12. ^ “Members Assembly”. State of California. Retrieved March 2, 2013.
  13. ^ “California’s 1st Congressional District – Representatives & District Map”. Civic Impulse, LLC. Retrieved March 1, 2013.

External links

  • Official website Edit this at Wikidata