Gary, Indiana

City in Indiana, United States
Gary, Indiana
City
City of Gary
The Genesis Towers (originally the Hotel Gary) and Gary State Bank Building in downtown Gary

The Genesis Towers (originally the Hotel Gary) and Gary State Bank Building in downtown Gary
Official seal of Gary, Indiana
Seal
Nicknames: 

City in Motion, City of the Century, GI, Magic City of Steel, The Steel City, City on the Move
Motto(s): 

We Are Doing Great Things
Location of Gary in Lake County, Indiana.

Location of Gary in Lake County, Indiana.
Coordinates: 41°35′44″N 87°20′43″W / 41.59556°N 87.34528°W / 41.59556; -87.34528Coordinates: 41°35′44″N 87°20′43″W / 41.59556°N 87.34528°W / 41.59556; -87.34528[1]
Country  United States
State  Indiana
County Lake
Townships Calumet and Hobart
Incorporated July 14, 1906
Named for Elbert Henry Gary
Neighborhoods
Government

[2]
 • Type Council-Strong Mayor
 • Mayor Karen M. Freeman-Wilson (D)
 • City Council
 • City Clerk Suzette Raggs (D)
 • City Judge Deidre L. Monroe (D)
Area

[3]
 • Total 57.21 sq mi (148.17 km2)
 • Land 49.72 sq mi (128.78 km2)
 • Water 7.49 sq mi (19.40 km2)
Elevation

[1]
607 ft (185 m)
Population

(2010)[4]
 • Total 80,294
 • Estimate 

(2016)[5]
76,424
 • Density 1,537.06/sq mi (593.46/km2)
Standard of living (2008-12)

[4]
 • Per capita income $15,764
 • Median home value $66,900
Time zone UTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−5 (Central)
ZIP codes
46401-46411
Area code 219
FIPS code 18-27000
GNIS feature ID 2394863[1]
Interstates I-65.svgI-80.svgIndiana Toll Road logo 1968.svgI-90.svgI-94.svg


U.S. Routes US 6.svgUS 12.svgUS 20.svg


State Routes Indiana 51.svgIndiana 53.svgIndiana 55.svgIndiana 912.svg


Airport Gary/Chicago International[6]


Waterways Grand Calumet River
Lake Michigan


South Shore Line stations Adam Benjamin Metro Center
Gary/Chicago Airport – Miller


Public transit Gary Public Transportation Corp.
Website Official website

Gary is a city in Lake County, Indiana, United States, 25 miles (40 km) from downtown Chicago, Illinois. Gary is adjacent to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and borders southern Lake Michigan.[7][8] Gary was named after lawyer Elbert Henry Gary, who was the founding chairman of the United States Steel Corporation. The city is known for its large steel mills, and as the birthplace of the Jackson 5 music group.[9]

The population of Gary was 80,294 at the 2010 census,[10] making it the ninth-largest city in the state of Indiana. It was a prosperous city from the 1920s through the mid-1960s due to its booming steel industry, but overseas competition and restructuring of the steel industry resulted in a decline and a severe loss of jobs.

Since the late 1960s, Gary has suffered drastic population loss, falling by 55 percent from its peak of 178,320 in 1960.[11] The city faces the difficulties of many Rust Belt cities, including unemployment, decaying infrastructure, and low literacy and educational attainment levels. It is estimated that nearly one-third of all houses in the city are unoccupied or abandoned.

Contents

  • 1 History

    • 1.1 Founding and early years
    • 1.2 Post-World War II
    • 1.3 Recent history
    • 1.4 National Register of Historic Places
  • 2 Neighborhoods

    • 2.1 Downtown Gary
    • 2.2 West
    • 2.3 South
    • 2.4 North and East
  • 3 Geography

    • 3.1 Climate
  • 4 Demographics

    • 4.1 2010 census
    • 4.2 2000 census
  • 5 Arts and culture

    • 5.1 Arts and film
    • 5.2 Historic Places on the National Register
    • 5.3 Public libraries
  • 6 Sports
  • 7 Education

    • 7.1 Public schools
    • 7.2 Charter schools
    • 7.3 Higher education
  • 8 Media

    • 8.1 Newspapers
    • 8.2 Television and radio
  • 9 Infrastructure

    • 9.1 Medical facilities
    • 9.2 Police
    • 9.3 Fire department
    • 9.4 Transportation
  • 10 Notable people

    • 10.1 The Jacksons
    • 10.2 Other notable people
  • 11 Sister cities
  • 12 See also
  • 13 References
  • 14 Further reading
  • 15 External links

History

Founding and early years

5th Ave and Broadway in 1908

Gary, Indiana, was founded in 1906 by the United States Steel Corporation as the home for its new plant, Gary Works. The city was named after lawyer Elbert Henry Gary, who was the founding chairman of the United States Steel Corporation.

Gary was the site of civil unrest in the steel strike of 1919. On October 4, 1919, a riot broke out on Broadway, the main north-south street through downtown Gary, between striking steel workers and strike breakers brought in from outside. Three days later, Indiana governor James P. Goodrich declared martial law. Shortly thereafter, over 4,000 federal troops under the command of Major General Leonard Wood arrived to restore order.[12]

The jobs offered by the steel industry provided Gary with very rapid growth and a diverse population within the first 26 years of its founding. According to the 1920 United States Census, 29.7% of Gary’s population at the time was classified as foreign-born, mostly from eastern European countries, with another 30.8% classified as native-born with at least one foreign-born parent. By the 1930 United States Census, the first census in which Gary’s population exceeded 100,000, the city was the fifth largest in Indiana and comparable in size to South Bend, Fort Wayne, and Evansville. At that time, 19.3% of the population was classified as foreign-born, with another 25.9% as native-born with at least one foreign-born parent. In addition to white internal migrants, Gary had attracted numerous African-American migrants from the South in the Great Migration, and 17.8% of the population was classified as black. 3.5% was classified as Mexican (now likely to be identified as Hispanic, as some were likely American citizens in addition to immigrants).

Post-World War II

U.S. Steel’s Gary Works in 1973

Gary’s fortunes have risen and fallen with those of the steel industry. The growth of the steel industry brought prosperity to the community. Broadway was known as a commercial center for the region. Department stores and architecturally significant movie houses were built in the downtown area and the Glen Park neighborhood.

In the 1960s, like many other American urban centers reliant on one particular industry, Gary entered a spiral of decline. Gary’s decline was brought on by the growing overseas competitiveness in the steel industry, which had caused U.S. Steel to lay off many workers from the Gary area. The U.S. Steel Gary Works employed over 30,000 in 1970, declined to just 6,000 by 1990, and further declined to 5,100 in August 2015. Attempts to shore up the city’s economy with major construction projects, such as a Holiday Inn hotel and the Genesis Convention Center, failed to reverse the decline.[13][14]

Rapid racial change occurred in Gary during the late 20th century. These population changes resulted in political change which reflected the racial demographics of Gary: the non-white share of the city’s population increased from 21% in 1930, 39% in 1960, to 53% in 1970. Non-whites were primarily restricted to live in the Midtown section just south of downtown (per the 1950 Census, 97% of the black population of Gary was living in this neighborhood). Gary had one of the nation’s first African-American mayors, Richard G. Hatcher, and hosted the ground-breaking 1972 National Black Political Convention.[15]

Since the 1930s, Gary had developed a reputation as a tough city due to rampant political corruption, racial violence & segregation, labor unrest, and industrial pollution. In the 1960s through the 1980s, surrounding suburban localities such as Merrillville, Crown Point, Hobart and Valparaiso experienced rapid growth, including new homes and shopping districts. Owing to white flight, economic distress, and a perception of skyrocketing crime, many middle-class and affluent residents moved to other cities in the metro area.

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Gary had the highest percentage of African-Americans of U.S. cities with a population of 100,000 or more, 84% (as of the 2000 U.S. census). This no longer applies to Gary since the population of the city has now fallen well below 100,000 residents. As of 2013, the Gary Department of Redevelopment has estimated that one-third of all homes in the city are unoccupied and/or abandoned.[16]

U.S. Steel continues to be a major steel producer, but with only a fraction of its former level of employment. While Gary has failed to reestablish a manufacturing base since its population peak, two casinos opened along the Gary lakeshore in the 1990s, although this has been aggravated by the state closing of Cline Avenue, an important access to the area. Today, Gary faces the difficulties of a Rust Belt city, including unemployment, decaying infrastructure, and low literacy and educational attainment levels.

Recent history

Gary has closed several of its schools within the last ten years. While some of the school buildings have been reused, most remain unused since their closing. As of 2014, Gary is considering closing additional schools in response to budget deficits.[17][18]

Gary chief of police Thomas Houston was convicted of excessive force and abuse of authority in 2008; he died in 2010 while serving a three-year, five-month federal prison sentence.[19][20]

In April 2011, 75-year-old mayor Rudy Clay announced that he would suspend his campaign for reelection as he was being treated for prostate cancer. He endorsed rival Karen Freeman-Wilson, who won the Democratic mayoral primary in May.[21] Freeman-Wilson won election with 87 percent of the vote and her term began in January 2012; she is the first woman elected mayor in the city’s history.[22]

National Register of Historic Places

The following single properties and national historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places:

  • American Sheet and Tin Mill Apartment Building
  • Louis J. Bailey Branch Library-Gary International Institute
  • Combs Addition Historic District
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson School
  • Eskilson Historic District
  • Gary Bathing Beach Aquatorium
  • Gary City Center Historic District
  • Gary Land Company Building
  • Gary Public Schools Memorial Auditorium
  • Jackson-Monroe Terraces Historic District
  • Jefferson Street Historic District
  • Knights of Columbus Building
  • Lincoln Street Historic District
  • Horace Mann Historic District
  • Miller Town Hall
  • Monroe Terrace Historic District
  • Morningside Historic District
  • Polk Street Concrete Cottage Historic District
  • Polk Street Terraces Historic District
  • Theodore Roosevelt High School
  • Barney Sablotney House
  • St. Augustine’s Episcopal Church
  • Van Buren Terrace Historic District
  • West Fifth Avenue Apartments Historic District

Neighborhoods

Lake County, Indiana Superior Court Building

City Hall

Map of Gary, The gray represents the industrial corridor

Lake County Superior Court House and US Steel Gary Works

Downtown Gary

Downtown Gary is separated by Broadway into two distinctive communities. Originally, the City of Gary consisted of The East Side, The West Side, The South Side (the area south of the train tracks near 9th Avenue), and Glen Park, located further South along Broadway. The East Side was demarcated by streets named after the States in order of their acceptance into the Union. This area contained mostly wood-frame houses, some of the earliest in the city, and became known in the 20th century for its ethnic populations from Europe and large families. The single-family houses had repeating house designs that alternated from one street to another, with some streets looking very similar. Among the East Side’s most notable buildings were Memorial Auditorium (a large red-brick and stone civic auditorium and the site of numerous events, concerts and graduations), The Palace Theater, Emerson School, St. Luke’s Church, H.C. Gordon & Sons, and Goldblatt’s Department stores, in addition to the Fair Department Store. All fronted Broadway as the main street that divided Gary.

The West Side of Gary, or West of Broadway, the principal commercial street, had streets named after the presidents of the United States in order of their election. Lytton’s, Hudson’s ladies store, J.C. Penney, and Radigan Bros Furniture Store developed on the west side of Broadway. Developed later, this side of town was known for its masonry or brick residences, its taller and larger commercial buildings, including the Gary National Bank Building, Hotel Gary (now Genesis Towers), The Knights of Columbus Hotel & Building (now a seniors building fronting 5th Avenue), the Tivoli Theater (demolished), the U.S. Post Office, Main Library, Mercy and Methodist Hospitals and Holy Angels Cathedral and School. The West Side also had a secondary principal street, Fifth Avenue, which was lined with many commercial businesses, restaurants, theaters, tall buildings, and elegant apartment buildings. The West Side was viewed as having wealthier residents. The houses dated from about 1908 to the 1930s. Much of the West Side’s housing were for executives of U.S. Steel and other prominent businessmen. Notable mansions were 413 Tyler Street and 636 Lincoln Street. Many of the houses were on larger lots. By contrast, a working-class area was made up of row houses made of poured concrete were arranged together and known as “Mill Houses”; they were built to house steel mill workers.

The areas known as Emerson and Downtown West combine to form Downtown Gary. It was developed in the 1920s and houses several pieces of impressive architecture, including the Moe House , designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, and another, the Wynant House (1917), which was destroyed by fire. A significant number of older structures have been demolished in recent years because of the cost of restoration. Restructuring of the steel and other heavy industry in the late 20th century resulted in a loss of jobs, adversely affecting the city.

Abandoned buildings in the downtown area include historic structures such as Union Station, the Palace Theater, and City Methodist Church. A large area of the downtown neighborhood (including City Methodist) was devastated by a major fire on October 12, 1997.[23][24] Interstate 90 was constructed between downtown Gary and the United States Steel plant.

West

Ambridge Mann is a neighborhood located on Gary’s near west side along 5th Avenue. Ambridge was developed for workers at the nearby steel plant in the 1910s and 1920s. It is named after the American Bridge Works, which was a subsidiary of U.S. Steel. The neighborhood is home to a huge stock of prairie-style and art deco homes. The Gary Masonic Temple is located in the neighborhood, along with the Ambassador apartment building. Located just south of Interstate 90, the neighborhood can be seen while passing Buchanan Street.

Gary Centennial Landmark

Brunswick is located on Gary’s far west side. The neighborhood is located just south of Interstate 90 and can also be seen from the expressway. The Brunswick area includes the Tri-City Plaza shopping center on West 5th Avenue (U.S. 20). The area is south of the Gary Chicago International Airport.

Downtown West is located in north-central Gary on the west side of Broadway just south of Interstate 90. The Genesis Convention Center, the Gary Police Department, the Lake Superior Court House, and the Main Branch of the Gary Public Library are located along 5th Avenue. A new 123-unit mixed-income apartment development was built using a HUD Hope VI grant in 2006. The Adam Benjamin Metro Center is located just north of 4th Avenue. It is operated by the Gary Public Transportation Corporation and serves as a multi-modal hub. It serves both as the Downtown Gary South Shore train station and an intercity bus stop.

Tolleston is one of Gary’s oldest neighborhoods, predating much of the rest of the city. It was platted by George Tolle in 1857, when the railroads were constructed to this area. This area is west of Midtown and south of Ambridge Mann. Tarrytown is a subdivision located in Tolleston between Whitcomb Street and Clark Road.

South

Black Oak is located on the far southwest side of Gary, in the vicinity of the Burr Street exit to the Borman Expressway. It was annexed in the 1970s. Prior to that, Black Oak was an unincorporated area informally associated with Hammond, and the area has Hammond telephone numbers. After three referendums, the community voters approved annexation, having been persuaded by Mayor Hatcher that they would benefit more from services provided by the city than from those provided by the county. In the 20th-century, it is the only majority-white neighborhood in Gary.

Glen Park is located on Gary’s far south side and is made up mostly of mid-twentieth-century houses. Glen Park is divided from the remainder of the city by the Borman Expressway. The northern portion of Glen Park is home to Gary’s Gleason Park Golf Course and the campus of Indiana University Northwest. The far western portion of Glen Park is home to the Village Shopping Center. Glen Park includes the 37th Avenue corridor at Broadway.

Midtown is located south of Downtown Gary, along Broadway. In the pre-1960s days of de facto segregation, this developed historically as a “black” neighborhood as African Americans came to Gary from the rural South in the Great Migration to seek jobs in the industrial economy.

North and East

Old Miller School, District #8

Wells Street Beach in Miller

Aetna is located on Gary’s far east side along the Dunes Highway. Aetna predates the city of Gary. This company town was founded in 1881 by the Aetna Powder Works, an explosives company. Their factory closed after the end of World War I.

The Town of Aetna was annexed by Gary in 1928, around the same time that the city annexed the Town of Miller. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, Gary’s prosperous industries helped generate residential and other development in Aetna, resulting in an impressive collection of art deco architecture. The rest of the community was built after World War II and the Korean War in the 1950s, in a series of phases. On its south and east, Aetna borders the undeveloped floodplain of the Little Calumet River.

Emerson is located in north-central Gary on the east side of Broadway. Located just south of Interstate 90, Gary City Hall is located in Emerson, along with the Indiana Department of Social Services building and the Calumet Township Trustee’s office. A 6,000-seat minor league baseball stadium for the Gary SouthShore RailCats, U.S. Steel Yard, was constructed in 2002, along with contiguous commercial space and minor residential development.

Miller Beach, also known as Miller Station or simply as Miller, is on Gary’s far east side. Incorporated as an independent town in 1907, Miller was annexed by the city of Gary in 1918. Miller developed around the old stagecoach stop and train station known by the 1840s as Miller’s Junction.

Miller Beach is racially and economically diverse. It attracts investor interest due to the many year-round and summer homes within walking distance of Marquette Park and Lake Michigan. Prices for lakefront property are affordable compared to those in Illinois suburban communities. Lake Street provides shopping and dining options for Miller Beach visitors and residents. East Edge, a development of 28 upscale condominium, townhome, and single-family homes, began construction in 2007 at the eastern edge of Miller Beach along County Line Road, one block south of Lake Michigan.[25]

Geography

The city is located at the southern end of the former lake bed of the prehistoric Lake Chicago, and the current Lake Michigan. Most of the city’s soil, to nearly one foot below the surface, is pure sand. The sand beneath Gary, and on its beaches, is of such high quality that in years past it was mined for the manufacture of glass.

According to the 2010 census, Gary has a total area of 57.18 square miles (148.10 km2), of which 49.87 square miles (129.16 km2) (or 87.22%) is land and 7.31 square miles (18.93 km2) (or 12.78%) is water.[26]

Gary is “T” shaped, with its northern border on Lake Michigan. At the northwesternmost section, Gary borders Hammond and East Chicago. Miller Beach, its easternmost neighborhood, borders Lake Station and Portage. Gary’s southernmost section borders Griffith, Hobart, Merrillville, and unincorporated Ross.[citation needed] Gary is about 40 miles (64 km) from the Chicago Loop.[27]

Climate

Gary is listed by the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system as humid continental (Dfa). In July and August, the warmest months, high temperatures average 84 °F (29 °C) and peak just above 100 °F (38 °C), and low temperatures average 63 °F (17 °C). In January and February, the coldest months, high temperatures average around 29 °F (−2 °C) and low temperatures average 13 °F (−11 °C), with at least a few days of temperatures dipping below 0 °F (−18 °C).

The weather of Gary is greatly regulated by its proximity to Lake Michigan. Weather varies yearly. In summer months Gary is humid. The city’s yearly precipitation averages about 40 inches. Summer is the rainiest season. Winters vary but are predominantly snowy. Snowfall in Gary averages approximately 25 inches per year. Sometimes large blizzards hit because of “lake effect snow”, a phenomenon whereby large amounts of water evaporated from the lake deposit onto the shoreline areas as inordinate amounts of snow.

Climate data for Gary, Indiana
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 70
(21)
70
(21)
81
(27)
92
(33)
100
(38)
106
(41)
104
(40)
102
(39)
103
(39)
92
(33)
84
(29)
67
(19)
106
(41)
Average high °F (°C) 31.5
(−0.3)
35.2
(1.8)
44.7
(7.1)
58.4
(14.7)
69.1
(20.6)
79.6
(26.4)
83.8
(28.8)
82.5
(28.1)
75.5
(24.2)
64.6
(18.1)
48.5
(9.2)
35.8
(2.1)
59.1
(15.1)
Average low °F (°C) 16.5
(−8.6)
19.9
(−6.7)
29.0
(−1.7)
40.0
(4.4)
49.7
(9.8)
59.9
(15.5)
64.9
(18.3)
63.9
(17.7)
56.0
(13.3)
45.7
(7.6)
33.2
(0.7)
21.9
(−5.6)
41.7
(5.4)
Record low °F (°C) −22
(−30)
−10
(−23)
−6
(−21)
17
(−8)
25
(−4)
36
(2)
46
(8)
43
(6)
33
(1)
20
(−7)
−1
(−18)
−17
(−27)
−22
(−30)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.8
(46)
1.7
(43)
3.3
(84)
3.7
(94)
3.8
(97)
4.5
(110)
3.5
(89)
3.4
(86)
3.9
(99)
2.6
(66)
2.5
(64)
3.0
(76)
37.8
(960)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 7.8
(20)
5.4
(14)
3.0
(7.6)
0.7
(1.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.2
(0.51)
1.7
(4.3)
5.9
(15)
24.7
(63)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9 9 11 12 12 10 9 8 9 8 10 9 116
Source #1: Weatherbase[28]
Source #2: [29]

Demographics

The change in the economy and resulting loss of jobs has caused a drop in population by more than half since its peak in 1960.

Historical population
Census Pop.
1910 16,802
1920 55,378 229.6%
1930 100,666 81.8%
1940 111,719 11.0%
1950 133,911 19.9%
1960 178,320 33.2%
1970 175,415 −1.6%
1980 151,968 −13.4%
1990 116,646 −23.2%
2000 102,746 −11.9%
2010 80,294 −21.9%
Est. 2017 76,008 [30] −5.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[31]
2010 Estimate[32]

2010 census

As of the census[4] of 2010, there were 80,294 people, 31,380 households, and 19,691 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,610.1 inhabitants per square mile (621.7/km2). There were 39,531 housing units at an average density of 792.7 per square mile (306.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 84.8% African American, 10.7% White, 0.3% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 1.8% from other races, and 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 5.1% of the population. Non-Hispanic Whites were 8.9% of the population in 2010,[33] down from 39.1% in 1970.[34]

There were 31,380 households of which 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 25.2% were married couples living together, 30.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.7% had a male householder with no wife present, and 37.2% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.23.

The median age in the city was 36.7 years. 28.1% of residents were under the age of 18; 8.6% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 21.8% were from 25 to 44; 27.1% were from 45 to 64; and 14.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 46.0% male and 54.0% female.

2000 census

As of the census of 2000, there were 102,746 people, 38,244 households, and 25,623 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,045.5 people per square mile (789.8/km²). There were 43,630 housing units at an average density of 868.6 per square mile (335.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 84.03% African American, 11.92% White, 0.21% Native American, 0.14% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.97% from other races, and 1.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 4.93% of the population.

There were 38,244 households out of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.2% were married couples living together, 30.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.0% were non-families. 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.28.

In the city, the population was spread out with 29.9% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 25.1% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, and 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $27,195, and the median income for a family was $32,205. Males had a median income of $34,992 versus $24,432 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,383. About 22.2% of families and 25.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.9% of those under age 18 and 14.1% of those age 65 or over.

Arts and culture

Arts and film

A Nightmare on Elm Street being filmed in Gary

Meredith Willson’s 1957 Broadway musical The Music Man featured the song “Gary, Indiana”, in which lead character (and con man) Professor Harold Hill wistfully recalls his purported hometown, then prosperous. Hill claims to be an alumnus of “Gary Conservatory of Music, Class of ’05,” but this is later revealed to be another of his lies. The City of Gary was not founded until 1906. Willson’s musical, set in 1912, was adapted both as a film of the same name released in 1962, and as a television film, produced in 2003.

The 1996 urban movie Original Gangstas was filmed in the city. The movie starred Gary native Fred Williamson, Pam Grier, Jim Brown, Richard Roundtree, and Isabel Sanford, among others. Since the early 2000s, Gary has been the setting for numerous films made by Hollywood filmmakers. In 2009, scenes for the remake of A Nightmare on Elm Street were filmed in Gary.[35] Scenes from Transformers: Dark of the Moon wrapped up filming on August 16, 2010.[36]

The History Channel documentary Life After People was filmed in Gary, exploring areas that have deteriorated or been abandoned because of the loss of jobs and residents.[37]

Historic Places on the National Register

Public libraries

Downtown Library

The Gary Public Library System consists of the main library at 220 West 5th Avenue and several branches: Brunswick Branch, W. E. B. DuBois Branch, J. F. Kennedy Branch, Tolleston Branch, and Woodson Branch.[38] In March 2011, the Gary Library Board voted to close the main library on 5th Avenue and the Tolleston branch in what officials said was their best economic option. The main library closed at the end of 2011. The building now houses a museum.[39]

Lake County Public Library operates the Black Oak Branch at 5921 West 25th Avenue in the Gary city limits.[40] In addition, Indiana University Northwest operates the John W. Anderson Library on its campus.[41]

Sports

The U.S. Steel Yard, home of the Gary SouthShore RailCats

The following sports franchises are based in Gary:

  • The Gary SouthShore RailCats are an American Association, professional baseball team. The team plays in Gary’s U.S. Steel Yard baseball stadium. The RailCats played in the Northern League from 2002 until 2010. They now play in the modern American Association. The team won league championships in 2005, 2007, and 2013.[42][43]
  • Gary has hosted two professional basketball franchises. The Gary Splash played in the International Basketball League from 2010 to 2013, at the Genesis Convention Center. Previously, the Gary Steelheads played in the Genesis Convention Center as part of the IBL (1999-2001), CBA, USBL, and IBL.

Education

Three school districts serve the city, and multiple charter schools are located within the city.

Public schools

Most public schools in Gary are administered by the Gary Community School Corporation. The other public schools within the city are administered by Lake Ridge Schools Corporation, which is the school system for the Black Oak neighborhood and unincorporated Calumet Township. Due to annexation law, Black Oak residents retained their original school system and were not required to attend Gary public schools.

Charter schools

Charter schools in Indiana, including those in Gary, are granted charters by one of a small number of chartering institutions. Indiana charter schools are generally managed in cooperation between the chartering institution, a local board of parents and community members, salaried school administrators, and a management company. Charter schools in Gary as of 2011 include Thea Bowman Leadership Academy, Charter School of the Dunes, Gary Lighthouse Charter School (formerly, Blessed Sacrament Parish and Grade School), and 21st Century Charter.

Higher education

Gary is home to two regional state college campuses:

  • Indiana University Northwest
  • Ivy Tech Community College Northwest

Media

Newspapers

Gary is served by two major newspapers based outside the city, and by a Gary-based, largely African-American interest paper. These papers provide regional topics, and cover events in Gary.

  • The Post-Tribune, originally the Gary Post-Tribune, is now based in Merrillville, a suburb of Gary.
  • The Times, previously known as the Hammond Times. Offices and facilities for The Times are in nearby Munster.
  • The Gary Crusader, based in Gary and largely focused on African-American interests and readership.
  • The INFO Newspaper, based in Gary and largely focused on African-American interests and readership.
  • The Chicago Tribune and the Chicago Sun-Times, based in Chicago, are also distributed in Gary.

Television and radio

Gary is served by five local broadcasters plus government access and numerous Chicago area radio and TV stations, and by other nearby stations in Illinois and Indiana.

  • WPWR-TV (Channel 50) is the Chicago CW and MyNetworkTV affiliate, but is licensed to Gary. Studios and transmitters are co-located with WFLD’s in Chicago, and are also owned by Fox Television Stations.
  • WYIN (Channel 56) is a PBS affiliate licensed to Gary. Their studios are in Merrillville.
  • WGVE (FM 88.7) is owned by the Gary Community School Corporation, and is used primarily as a teaching facility. Programming is maintained by students in the broadcast program at the Gary Career Center. WGVE also carries limited NPR programming.
  • WLTH (AM 1370) carries syndicated talk programming.
  • WWCA (AM 1270) is a Relevant Radio owned-and-operated radio station, carrying programming from the Catholic-oriented Relevant Radio network.

Infrastructure

Medical facilities

  • Gary Community Health Center
  • Methodist Hospital

Police

Gary is served by the Gary Police Department and the Lake County Sheriff.

Fire department

Historical photo of the Gary Fire Department in 1914

The Gary Fire Department (GFD) provides fire protection and emergency medical services to the city of Gary.[44]

Transportation

  • Gary Public Transportation Corporation (GPTC) a commuter bus system that offers service to numerous stops throughout the city and neighboring suburbs. GPTC also has express service to locations outside the city, including connections to Chicago transit. Front-door pickup is available for disabled citizens at no extra cost.
  • Gary/Chicago International Airport is operating as the “third airport” for the Chicago area. With a new runway,[9] it is undergoing much federally funded expansion, and the administration is courting airlines aggressively. Boeing bases its corporate fleets here.[citation needed] The National Guard is intending to base its Chicago area air operation there as well.[45]
  • Interstate 90 (Indiana Toll Road), Interstate 80, Interstate 94, and Interstate 65 run through Gary, as well as U.S. Routes 12 and 20, and Indiana State Road 912/Cline Avenue. A former stretch of Indiana State Road 312 has been decommissioned.
  • Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District (NICTD) operates the South Shore Line, a commuter rail system between Chicago and South Bend. It is one of the last original operating interurban railway systems in the US.

Notable people

The Jacksons

Michael Jackson’s childhood home in Gary, Indiana, shortly after the singer’s death in 2009

Gary is the hometown of The Jackson 5, a family of musicians who influenced the sound of modern popular music. In 1950, Joseph and Katherine Jackson moved from East Chicago, Indiana[46] into their two-bedroom house at 2300 Jackson Street. They had married on November 5, 1949. Their entertainer children later recorded a song entitled “2300 Jackson Street” (1989). The Jackson children include:

  • Maureen Reillette “Rebbie” Jackson (born May 29, 1950)
  • Sigmund Esco “Jackie” Jackson (born May 4, 1951)
  • Toriano Adaryll “Tito” Jackson (born October 15, 1953)
  • Jermaine La Jaune Jackson (born December 11, 1954)
  • La Toya Yvonne Jackson (born May 29, 1956)
  • Marlon David Jackson (born March 12, 1957)
  • Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009)
  • Steven Randall “Randy” Jackson (born October 29, 1961)
  • Janet Damita Jo Jackson (born May 16, 1966)

Other notable people

Frank Borman, former astronaut for NASA and a retired United States Air Force Colonel

  • Charles Adkins (1932-1993), boxer, gold medalist at 1952 Helsinki Olympics
  • Forddy Anderson, basketball coach, Michigan State, Drake and Bradley
  • Orsten Artis, NCAA champion with the historic Texas Western Miners basketball team
  • Dick Barnett (born 1936), basketball player, two-time NBA champion with New York Knicks
  • Dan Barreiro, sports radio talk show host
  • Bob Benoit (1927–2008), Hollywood Park Racetrack chief executive
  • Albert M. Bielawski, early 20th Century Michigan politician
  • Frank Borman (born 1928), astronaut on Gemini 7 and Apollo 8, former CEO of Eastern Air Lines
  • Lyman Bostock (1950–78), Major League Baseball player for California Angels and Minnesota Twins
  • John Brim (1922–2003), bluesman
  • Donna Britt, Washington Post journalist and author
  • Avery Brooks (born 1948), actor, director, best known for Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (born in Evansville)
  • Vic Bubas (born 1927), head basketball coach at Duke University 1959-69
  • Vivian Carter (1921–1989), music producer, co-founder of Vee-Jay Records label
  • John Chickerneo (1917–1995), NFL player
  • Rudy Clay (1935-2013), Mayor of Gary 2006-12
  • Alan Roger Currie (born 1963), author, public speaker, radio personality
  • Branden Dawson (born 1993), basketball player
  • Larry Demic (born 1957), basketball player, New York Knicks, ninth pick of 1979 NBA draft
  • Tony DeSantis (1914–2007), founder of Drury Lane theaters
  • Polly Draper (born 1955), actress, Thirtysomething
  • Bianca Ferguson (born 1955), actress, General Hospital
  • Harry Flournoy (1943-2016), basketball player
  • Tellis Frank (born 1965), basketball player
  • Karen Freeman-Wilson (born 1960), Mayor of Gary, former Indiana Attorney General
  • Winston Garland (born 1964), basketball player
  • Joe Gates (1954-2010), baseball player
  • Freddie Gibbs (born 1982), rapper
  • A. J. Hammons (born 1992), basketball player
  • Tom Harmon (1919–1990), 1940 Heisman Trophy winner for Michigan, sportscaster, father of actor Mark Harmon
  • Richard G. Hatcher (born 1933), Mayor of Gary 1968-87
  • LaTroy Hawkins (born 1972), MLB pitcher for 21 years
  • Eric Hillman (born 1966), MLB and Japan pitcher
  • Gerald Irons (born 1949), NFL linebacker for Oakland Raiders and Cleveland Browns 1970-79
  • Johnny Jackson (1951–2006), drummer for Jackson 5; murdered in Gary in 2006
  • Tim Jankovich, basketball head coach, SMU
  • Jason Johnson (born 1965), NFL player
  • Tank Johnson (born 1981), NFL player
  • Alex Karras (1935–2012), winner of Outland Trophy, member of College Football Hall of Fame, NFL player and actor (Blazing Saddles, Webster)
  • Lou Karras (born 1927), NFL player 1950-52
  • Ted Karras Jr. (born 1964), football player and coach
  • Ted Karras Sr. (1934-2016), NFL player 1958-66
  • Robert Kearns (1927–2005), inventor of intermittent windshield wiper systems, subject of Flash of Genius
  • Ron Kittle (born 1958), Chicago White Sox outfielder and 1983 American League Rookie of the Year
  • Milo Komenich (1920-1977), basketball player for 1943 national champion Wyoming
  • Bob Kuechenberg (born 1947), NFL lineman, two-time Super Bowl champion with Miami Dolphins
  • Barney Liddell (1921-2003), trombonist in the Lawrence Welk Orchestra, 1948-1982
  • Karl Malden (1912–2009), Academy Award-winning actor; born in Chicago, raised in Gary
  • William Marshall (1924-2003), stage and film actor
  • Kym Mazelle (born 1960), singer
  • Willie McCarter (born 1946), NBA player, Los Angeles Lakers
  • Lloyd McClendon (born 1959), professional baseball player, manager of Pittsburgh Pirates, Seattle Mariners[47]
  • James McCracken, opera singer
  • Robert A. McDonald (born 1953), CEO of Procter & Gamble, Secretary of Veterans Affairs under Barack Obama
  • Larry Moffett (1954-2011), basketball player
  • Brandon Moore (born 1980), NFL player
  • Sista Monica Parker (1956–2014), electric blues, gospel and soul singer, songwriter, producer[48]
  • Jerilynn Patton, known as Jlin, electronic musician
  • Jon Petrovich (1947–2011), television executive, CNN
  • Dan Plesac (born 1962), MLB pitcher with 18-year career, MLB Network analyst
  • Jesse Powell (born 1971), recording artist
  • Elizabeth Brown Pryor (1951–2015), author and diplomat
  • Jimmy Reed (1925-1976), musician, Blues Hall of Fame
  • Glenn Robinson (born 1973), NBA player and league’s No. 1 draft pick, father of Glenn Robinson III
  • Glenn Robinson III (born 1994), NBA player
  • Paul Samuelson (1915–2009), economist, recipient of John Bates Clark Medal (1947) and Nobel Prize (1970)
  • Jerry Shay (born 1944), NFL player 1966-71
  • Helene Stanley (1929-1990), film actress
  • Joseph Stiglitz (born 1943), economist, recipient of John Bates Clark Medal (1979) and Nobel Prize (2001)
  • Hank Stram (1923–2005), NFL head coach 1960–1977, member of Pro Football Hall of Fame
  • Jeanne Stunyo (born 1936), diver, Olympic silver medalist
  • George Taliaferro (born 1927), quarterback in College Football Hall of Fame
  • Ernest Lee Thomas (born 1949), actor (What’s Happening!!)
  • Deniece Williams (born 1950), Grammy Award-winning R&B artist
  • Fred Williamson (born 1938), NFL player, linebacker for Kansas City Chiefs in Super Bowl I, 3-time AFL All-Star, actor, director, producer
  • Tony Zale (1913–1997), twice middleweight champion, member of International Boxing Hall of Fame

Sister cities

  • Fuxin, Liaoning, China[49]
  • Lagos, Nigeria[50][51]

See also

  • List of tallest buildings in Gary
  • Northwest Indiana
  • Neighborhoods in Gary, Indiana
  • Magnitogorsk, a city modeled after Gary

References

  1. ^ abc U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: City of Gary
  2. ^ “2014 Public Officials Directory”. Lake County Board of Elections and Voter’s Registration. Retrieved 2014-06-30..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ “2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jul 28, 2017.
  4. ^ abc “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  5. ^ “Population and Housing Unit Estimates”. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  6. ^ City of Gary (2008). City of Gary, Indiana Comprehensive Plan (PDF). p. 58.
  7. ^ Stephanie Smith; Steve Mark (2006). “Alice Gray, Dorothy Buell, and Naomi Svihla: Preservationists of Ogden Dunes”. The South Shore Journal. 1: 15–21. ISSN 1933-8163. Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved May 20, 2018.
  8. ^ Smith, Stephanie. “The Historical Roots of The Nature Conservancy in the Northwest Indiana/Chicagoland Region: From Science to Preservation”. South Shore Journal. Archived from the original on January 1, 2016. Retrieved 2015-11-22.
  9. ^ ab Donley, Brendan (August 22, 2017). “A Day at the Beach in, Yes, Gary, Indiana”. The New York Times. Retrieved August 22, 2017.
  10. ^ “American FactFinder – Results”. US Bureau of the Census. Retrieved 2014-04-05.
  11. ^ Engel, Pamela (2013-06-20). “Gary, Indiana Is Deteriorating So Much That It May Cut Off Services To Nearly Half Of Its Land”. Business Insider. Retrieved 2014-04-06.
  12. ^ O’Hara, S. Paul (2011). Gary, the most American of all American cities. Bloomington, Ind. [u.a.]: Indiana Univ. Press. ISBN 9780253222886.
  13. ^ “The Sheraton Hotel of Gary, Indiana”. Sometimes Interesting. 2013-06-08.
  14. ^ Chris Bentley (2015-02-26). “How Gary, Indiana, Got Serious About Tackling Blight”. City Lab.
  15. ^ Puente, Michael (March 9, 2012). “Gary’s National Black Political Convention, 40 years on”. WBEZ. Retrieved October 7, 2016.
  16. ^ “Harper’s Index”. Harper’s. Harper’s Foundation. 327 (1, 962): 17. November 2013. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
    (subscription required)
  17. ^ Carlson, Carole (February 17, 2014). “Gary ponders closing schools to save money”. Post Tribute. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
  18. ^ Kirk, Chelsea. “For sale: 11 schools, slightly used in Gary”. Indiana Economic Digest. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
  19. ^ #08-870: Gary, Indiana Former Police Chief Convicted on Federal Civil Rights Violation (September 30, 2008). Justice.gov. Retrieved on 2011-03-22.
  20. ^ Kwiatkowski, Marisa (November 27, 2010). “Former Gary police chief dies”. The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
  21. ^ Guzzardi, Will (April 8, 2011). “Gary, Indiana Mayor Rudy Clay Not Seeking Re-Election Due To Illness”. Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
  22. ^ “Democrat Karen Freeman-Wilson easily wins election as Gary’s first woman mayor”. Daily Reporter. Associated Press. August 11, 2011. Retrieved August 11, 2011.
    [permanent dead link]
  23. ^ “Indiana Historic Architecture Editorials”. Preserveindiana.com. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
  24. ^ “Blaze Hits Downtown Gary”. Chicago Tribune. October 13, 1997. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
  25. ^ “It’s Miller’s time in Lake County”. Indiana Economic Digest. April 16, 2006. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
  26. ^ “G001 – Geographic Identifiers – 2010 Census Summary File 1”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-28.
  27. ^ Havill, Adrian. “NYC to Washington and Back.”, Robert Philip Hanssen: The Spy who Stayed out in the Cold. Crime Library. Retrieved on April 12, 2012.
  28. ^
    “Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Gary, Indiana”. Weatherbase. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
  29. ^ “Gary Weather | Gary IN | Conditions, Forecast, Average”. Idcide.com. Retrieved 2015-11-22.
  30. ^ “Population and Housing Unit Estimates”. Retrieved May 26, 2018.
  31. ^ “U.S. Decennial Census”. Census.gov. Archived from the original on April 22, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
  32. ^ “Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013”. Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 22, 2014. Retrieved July 11, 2014.
  33. ^ “Gary (city), Indiana”. State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 3, 2012.
  34. ^ “Indiana – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990”. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012.
  35. ^ “Featured Articles from the Chicago Tribune”. Chicago Tribune.
    [dead link]
  36. ^ ‘Transformers’ set in Gary explosive. Nwitimes.com (August 17, 2010). Retrieved on 2011-03-22.
  37. ^ “Shows”. HISTORY.
  38. ^ “Locations & Hours Archived January 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.” Gary Public Library System. Retrieved on January 21, 2009.
  39. ^ Christin Nance Lazerus (March 31, 2011). “Gary’s main library closing”. Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 31, 2011.
  40. ^ [1] Archived December 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ “Library – Indiana University Northwest”. Iun.edu. Archived from the original on October 4, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
  42. ^ Osipoff, Michael. “RailCats not afraid of Wichita for championship series” Archived October 20, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, Chicago Sun-Times 11 October 2013. Retrieved on 03 September 2014.
  43. ^ American Association Baseball “RailCats Claim 2013 Championship” Archived September 3, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, 14 September 2013. Retrieved on 03 September 2014.
  44. ^ “Gary Fire Department provides a high quality emergency fire rescue and emergency medical service”. Gary.in.us. Retrieved 2015-11-22.
  45. ^ Benman, Keith. (October 27, 2009) National Guard armory ready to serve at Gary airport. Nwitimes.com. Retrieved on 2011-03-22.
  46. ^ Jackson, Katherine; Rich Wiseman (1990). My Family, the Jacksons. St. Martin’s Paperbacks. ISBN 0-312-92350-3.
  47. ^ “Lloyd McClendon Stats”. Baseball Almanac. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  48. ^ Richard Skelly. “Sista Monica Parker | Biography & History”. AllMusic. Retrieved 2015-11-22.
  49. ^ “Mayor Clay’s Statement on Gary’s 1st Trade Mission to China: Press Statement” (PDF). May 22, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 9, 2009. Retrieved January 14, 2010.
  50. ^ “Gary Indiana” (PDF). US Sister Cities by State with Affiliated African Countries. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
  51. ^ “State”. The Kokomo Tribune from Kokomo, Indiana. November 25, 1991: 21.

Further reading

  • Lane, James (1978). City of the Century”: A History of Gary, Indiana. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-11187-0.
  • Lane, James (2006). Gary’s First Hundred Years: A Centennial History of Gary, Indiana 1906-2006. Valparaiso, Indiana: Home Mountain Printing. ISBN 0-9773511-1-4.
  • Lane, James B.; Cohen, Ronald D. (2003). Gary, Indiana : a pictorial history. Virginia Beach, VA: Donning Co. Publishers. ISBN 9781578642106.
  • Mohl, Raymond A.; Betten, Neil (1986). Steel city : urban and ethnic patterns in Gary, Indiana, 1906-1950. New York: Holmes & Meier. ISBN 978-0841910775.
  • O’Hara, S. Paul (2011). Gary, the most American of all American cities. Bloomington, Ind. [u.a.]: Indiana Univ. Press. ISBN 9780253222886.

External links

  • Official website


Michigan City, Indiana

City in Indiana, United States
City of Michigan City
City
Street scene of Michigan City

Street scene of Michigan City
Location of Michigan City in LaPorte County, Indiana.

Location of Michigan City in LaPorte County, Indiana.
Coordinates: 41°42′34″N 86°53′13″W / 41.70944°N 86.88694°W / 41.70944; -86.88694Coordinates: 41°42′34″N 86°53′13″W / 41.70944°N 86.88694°W / 41.70944; -86.88694
Country United States
State Indiana
County LaPorte
Townships Michigan, Coolspring
Government

 • Mayor Ron Meer (D)
Area

[2]
 • Total 22.93 sq mi (59.38 km2)
 • Land 19.66 sq mi (50.93 km2)
 • Water 3.27 sq mi (8.46 km2)
Elevation

627 ft (191 m)
Population

(2010)[1]
 • Total 31,479
 • Estimate 

(2016)[5]
31,157
 • Density 1,584.55/sq mi (611.81/km2)
Time zone UTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP codes
46360-46361
Area code(s) 219
FIPS code 18-48798[3]
GNIS feature ID 0439078[4]
Website http://www.emichigancity.com

Michigan City is a city in LaPorte County, Indiana, United States. It is one of the two principal cities of the Michigan City-La Porte, Indiana Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City Combined Statistical Area.

Located in the region known to locals as Michiana, it is approximately 50 miles east of Chicago and 40 miles west of South Bend. The city had a population of 31,479 at the 2010 census.

Michigan City is noted for both its proximity to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and for bordering Lake Michigan. Due to this, Michigan City receives a fair amount of tourism during the summer months, especially by residents of Chicago and of nearby cities in Northern Indiana. The lighthouse is a notable symbol for the city and is incorporated in the heading of Michigan City’s sole newspaper, The News Dispatch, and the city’s official seal. Michigan City hosted the sailing events at the 1987 Pan American Games.

Contents

  • 1 Geography
  • 2 Demographics

    • 2.1 2010 census
    • 2.2 2000 census
  • 3 Climate and weather
  • 4 History
  • 5 Points of interest
  • 6 Government
  • 7 Education
  • 8 Media

    • 8.1 Paper
    • 8.2 Broadcast

      • 8.2.1 Radio
      • 8.2.2 Television
  • 9 Transportation

    • 9.1 Rail
    • 9.2 Bus
    • 9.3 Air
  • 10 Notable people

    • 10.1 Actors
    • 10.2 Journalist/Writers
    • 10.3 Politicians
    • 10.4 Sports
    • 10.5 Artists
  • 11 Notes
  • 12 References
  • 13 External links

Geography

Michigan City is located at 41°42′34″N 86°53′13″W / 41.70944°N 86.88694°W / 41.70944; -86.88694 (41.709389, -86.886928).[6]

According to the 2010 census, Michigan City has a total area of 22.855 square miles (59.19 km2), of which 19.59 square miles (50.74 km2) (or 85.71%) is land and 3.265 square miles (8.46 km2) (or 14.29%) is water.[7]

Michigan City is also home to the stream Trail Creek which flows into Lake Michigan.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 999
1860 3,320 232.3%
1870 3,985 20.0%
1880 7,366 84.8%
1890 10,773 46.3%
1900 14,850 37.8%
1910 19,027 28.1%
1920 19,457 2.3%
1930 26,735 37.4%
1940 26,476 −1.0%
1950 28,395 7.2%
1960 36,653 29.1%
1970 39,369 7.4%
1980 36,850 −6.4%
1990 33,822 −8.2%
2000 32,900 −2.7%
2010 31,479 −4.3%
Est. 2016 31,157 [5] −1.0%
Source: US Census Bureau

2010 census

As of the census[1] of 2010, there were 31,479 people, 12,136 households, and 7,147 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,606.9 inhabitants per square mile (620.4/km2). There were 14,435 housing units at an average density of 736.9 per square mile (284.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 64.9% White, 28.1% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 2.1% from other races, and 3.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.9% of the population.

There were 12,136 households of which 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.4% were married couples living together, 19.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.5% had a male householder with no wife present, and 41.1% were non-families. 34.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.05.

The median age in the city was 37.1 years. 23.5% of residents were under the age of 18; 8.9% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 27.8% were from 25 to 44; 26.2% were from 45 to 64; and 13.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 51.4% male and 48.6% female.

2000 census

As of the census[3] of 2000, there were 32,900 people, 12,550 households, and 7,906 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,678.6 inhabitants per square mile (648.1/km²). There were 14,221 housing units at an average density of 725.6 per square mile (280.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 69.45% White, 26.31% African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.10% from other races, and 2.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.15% of the population.

There were 12,550 households out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.0% were married couples living together, 18.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.0% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.02.

In the city, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $33,732, and the median income for a family was $39,520. Males had a median income of $32,194 versus $23,125 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,995. About 10.4% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.2% of those under age 18 and 9.5% of those age 65 or over.

Climate and weather

Michigan City, Indiana
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
2.7
 
 
31
18
 
 
2.4
 
 
35
21
 
 
2.9
 
 
46
30
 
 
3.6
 
 
59
40
 
 
4
 
 
70
50
 
 
4.2
 
 
79
60
 
 
4.3
 
 
82
64
 
 
4.3
 
 
81
63
 
 
3.6
 
 
74
55
 
 
3.7
 
 
62
44
 
 
4
 
 
48
34
 
 
3.2
 
 
35
23
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[8]

The highest recorded temperature was 104 °F in 1953. The lowest recorded temperature was -23 °F in 1994.[8]

The city has a usual weather pattern for a temperate region, with thunderstorms in the summer and snow during winter. Summers are often warm and humid. Due to its location next to Lake Michigan the city frequently experiences lake-effect snows and rain showers.

History

Michigan City’s origins date to 1830, when the land for the city was first purchased by Isaac C. Elston, a real estate speculator who had made his fortune in Crawfordsville, Indiana. He paid about $200 total for 160 acres (¼ square mile) of land. Elston Middle School, formerly Elston High School, is named after the founder.[9]

The city was incorporated in 1836, by which point it had 1,500 residents, along with a post office, a newspaper, a church, a commercial district and ten hotels. In these six years the town had grown to a size of 15 square miles. That same year, the State Bank of Indiana opened a branch in town.

Points of interest

Michigan City East Light on Lake Michigan, one of the few remaining lighthouses in Indiana.

Michigan City is the home of the Old Michigan City Light, one of Indiana’s few lighthouses.

The Pullman-Standard rail car plant was located in Michigan City. Marquette Mall, constructed in 1965, is Michigan City’s sole conventional shopping mall. St. Anthony Memorial Health Center is Michigan City’s sole hospital.[10]

Michigan City also houses a zoo, and art center, and also is the home of the Indiana State Prison.[11]

Michigan City also has one of the nation’s oldest active municipal bands. Free concerts are performed for the public every Thursday evening at the Guy F. Foreman Amphitheatre located in Washington Park.

The eastern edge of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore is also located in Michigan City. Features include Mount Baldy, a large wandering dune. A larger dune, Hoosier Slide, sat at the site of the current electrical generating station.[12] This dune was mined for its sand in the late 19th century. The sand found on the beaches in and near Michigan City is nicknamed “singing sand” because of the sound it produces.[13][14]

Michigan City Power Plant lies along the shore of Lake Michigan west of the downtown core. The cooling tower of the coal burning plant is visible for miles around and is often mistaken for a nuclear power plant.

Blue Chip is Indiana’s largest riverboat casino.

Michigan City is home to the largest riverboat casino in Indiana, the Blue Chip Casino. In 2009, the Blue Chip complex added a 22-story hotel, which is the biggest building in of northwest Indiana.[15] Michigan City has also added a new skatepark at Pullman Field to its tourism offerings.[11]

In the 2000s and 2010s, Michigan City has been working on revitalizing much of its north end, which contains the oldest portions of the city. One plan that has been discussed is the Andrews Plan,[16][17] which won the 2008 CNU Charter Award of Excellence.[18] Most of the discussion centers on maintaining and expanding open and accessible park areas on Lake Michigan and along Trail Creek.

The Barker House, John H. Barker Mansion, Elston Grove Historic District, First Congregational Church of Michigan City, Franklin Street Commercial Historic District, Garrettson-Baine-Bartholomew House, Haskell and Barker Historic District, Michigan City East Pierhead Light Tower and Elevated Walk, Michigan City Light, Michigan City Post Office, MUSKEGON Shipwreck Site, and Washington Park are listed in the National Register of Historic Places.[19][20][21][22]

Government

Michigan City Courthouse

Michigan City City Hall

The mayor is Ron Meer.[23] Michigan City has a Council with nine members. Six are elected from geographic wards and three are elected as at-large members.[24]

City Council members are (as of January 2019):

  • Bryant Dabney, First Ward, Council Vice President
  • Candice Silvas, Second Ward
  • Ron Hamilton Jr., Third Ward
  • Sean Fitzpatrick, Fourth Ward
  • Sharon Carnes, Fifth Ward
  • Gene Simmons, Sixth Ward
  • Johnny Stimley, Councilman-at-Large
  • Tim Bietry, Councilman-at-Large
  • Donald Przybylinkski, Councilman-at-Large, Council President

Education

Michigan City Area Schools, the city’s public school system, includes one high school (Michigan City High School), two middle schools, and eight elementary schools. Michigan City previously also had three parochial high schools – Marquette, La Lumiere, and Duneland Lutheran but, due to a lack of funds, Duneland Lutheran closed down at the end of the 2008/2009 school year. There are several parochial elementary schools in the city, including St. Paul Lutheran School, St. Stanislaus Kostka School, Queen Of All Saints School, and Notre Dame Catholic School.

At one time Michigan City had two public high schools: M.C. Elston High School (Red Devils) (Elston was the name of one of the middle schools located in the city and was located at the former Elston High School), and M.C. Rogers High School (Raiders). The two schools combined after the 1994-1995 school year – the first graduating class was the Class of 1996 – and now constitute the present day Michigan City High School (Wolves). The school is located at the former Rogers High School site. Elston Middle School, along with elementary school Niemann, closed at the end of the 2013/2014 school year.

Michigan City has a lending library, the Michigan City Public Library.[25] In addition, the La Porte County Public Library operates the Coolspring branch library just outside Michigan City city limits.[26]

Media

Paper

The News-Dispatch is Michigan City’s only daily newspaper, covering the city and the surrounding municipalities in LaPorte and Porter counties.[27]The Beacher is a Michigan City-based weekly newspaper that covers Beverly Shores, Michigan City, Long Beach, LaPorte, Michiana and New Buffalo.

The city is also covered by the county newspaper, The LaPorte County Herald-Argus.

Chicago Tribune, Chicago Sun-Times, South Bend Tribune and LaPorte Herald-Argus are distributed throughout Michigan City. Off the Water, a free weekly art and entertainment newspaper published by Niles, Michigan-based Leader Publications, primarily focuses on Niles-Benton Harbor Metropolitan Statistical Area, but it is distributed in downtown Michigan City.

Broadcast

Michigan City is in Chicago’s Area of Dominant Influence. Radio and television broadcasts from both Chicago and South Bend reach most of the population.

Radio

Michigan City also has two FM radio stations, WEFM 95.9FM and WIMS 95.1FM, and one AM radio station, WIMS AM 1420.[28]

Television

The city has one Government-access television (GATV) station, Access LaPorte County,[29] as well as one channel operated by the local school system (MCAS).[30]

Transportation

Rail

A South Shore train passes Cedar Street at 11th.

Michigan City is a major stop along the South Shore Line, one of the last interurban rail lines in the U.S. The train runs directly through on 11th Street (it has no separate right-of-way, and shares the street with automobiles and other road traffic), making two stops in Michigan City’s downtown area (11th Street and Carroll Avenue). A third stop, at Willard Avenue and 10th Street, closed in 1994. This rail line connects Michigan City with downtown Chicago westward as well as the South Bend Regional Airport to the east.

Amtrak serves the city with Wolverine trains, which run from Chicago to Detroit, and Pontiac three times a day in each direction. Under the current schedule, Wolverine fills in several gaps in South Shore Line’s weekday service and augments weekend service. While Wolverine trains are faster, the South Shore Line is cheaper and runs more frequently.

Bus

Michigan City operates a bus service.[31] Officially known as Michigan City Transit, it is made up of four routes that run on Monday-Saturday. All routes originate at Michigan City Public Library and travel around the city in (largely mono-directional) loops until they return to the library. Route 3 connects to Carroll Avenue South Shore Line station, while other routes connect to the 11th street station. In addition, Route 1 passes near the Amtrak station on the way to Washington Park. Michigan City also operates a Dial-a-Bus service.

Coach USA’s Tri-State/United Limo service between The University of Notre Dame and O’Hare airport stops at Michigan City at the Clarion Hotel (5820 Franklin St).[32] The service makes stops at Notre Dame, South Bend, Portage, Highland, Crestwood and O’Hare and Midway airports. Buses run from 4:10 am – 1:10 am (US Central Time). Buses run once every hour in both direction between Michigan City and O’Hare and Midway and once every two hours between Michigan City and Notre Dame.[33]

Air

Michigan City Municipal Airport has a 4,100 foot asphalt runway and averages 118 operations per week.

Options for commercial air service include the Gary/Chicago International Airport in Gary, and the South Bend International Airport in South Bend. The South Shore Line terminates at the South Bend airport, while there is a train stop serving the Gary airport.

Notable people

  • Jean Baptiste Point du Sable is regarded as the first permanent resident of Chicago, Illinois. In 1779, he was living on the site of present-day Michigan City, Indiana, when he was arrested by the British military on suspicion of being an American sympathizer in the American Revolutionary War.
  • Daniel D. Bruce, United States Marine who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for heroism in Vietnam in March 1969
  • Howard G. “Ward” Cunningham, author, software developer and inventor of the word and concept of the “wiki”
  • Marilla Waite Freeman was the first Librarian of the Michigan City Public Library upon its opening in 1897.[34]
  • Allan Spear, eminent U.S. historian and political progressive, author, Black Chicago: The Making of a Negro Ghetto; president Minnesota State Senate, early advocate for gay people

Actors

  • Charles Arnt, actor
  • Anne Baxter, Academy Award-winning actress
  • Rati Gupta, dancer and actress known for her recurring role as Anu, the fiancée of Rajesh Ramayan Koothrappali in the CBS sitcom The Big Bang Theory.

Journalist/Writers

  • Alvera Mickelsen, writer, journalism professor, advocate of Christian feminism, and co-founder of Christians for Biblical Equality (CBE)[35]
  • Achy Obejas, writer and journalist
  • Amy Spindler, fashion critic and style editor of The New York Times Magazine
  • Ted Thorne, Chicago news anchor, local radio host

Politicians

  • Naomi Anderson, a black suffragist
  • John Huppenthal, Republican State Senator in the Arizona Legislature
  • David Lilienthal, Chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority 1941–1946; Chairman, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1947–1949
  • Zeola Hershey Misener, suffragist and one of the first women elected to the Indiana General Assembly
  • Scott Pelath, former Indiana House of Representatives member
  • John L. Sieb, member of the Wisconsin State Assembly, barber

Sports

  • Abe Gibron, Chicago Bears football player and head coach
  • Anita King, racecar driver, actress, and thoroughbred racehorse owner
  • Mike LaRocco, professional Supercross and Motocross racer
  • Don Larsen, Major League Baseball pitcher
  • John Parry, National Football League official

Artists

  • Charles Freeman Lee, jazz trumpeter in the 1950s and 1960s, taught Science at Krueger School in Michigan City after retiring from music

Notes

  1. ^ ab “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-11..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jul 28, 2017.
  3. ^ ab “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  4. ^ “US Board on Geographic Names”. United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  5. ^ ab “Population and Housing Unit Estimates”. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  6. ^ “US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990”. United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  7. ^ “G001 – Geographic Identifiers – 2010 Census Summary File 1”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-29.
  8. ^ ab “Monthly Averages for Michigan City, IN (46360)”. The Weather Channel. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  9. ^ Michigan City Area Schools
  10. ^ State of Indiana, Indiana 2009 Travel Guide. Indianapolis, Indiana; 2009.
  11. ^ ab Indiana 2009 Travel Guide
  12. ^ “Hoosier Slide”. monon.org. Archived from the original on 2013-10-05. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  13. ^ “Best Beach: Washington Park Beach”. Lake Magazine (electronic version). July 2005. Archived from the original on 2007-10-08. Retrieved 2006-04-29.
  14. ^ “404エラー www.bigai.ne.jp”. bigai.ne.jp.
  15. ^ Casino and Hotel[dead link]
  16. ^ “The North End Plan”. cnu.org.
  17. ^ Contact information[dead link]
  18. ^ “North end could be “choice area” – City by the Lake.org, The Voice of Michigan City, Indiana”. citybythelake.org.
  19. ^ National Park Service (2010-07-09). “National Register Information System”. National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  20. ^ “National Register of Historic Places Listings”. Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 9/16/13 through 9/30/13. National Park Service. 2013-10-18.
  21. ^ “National Register of Historic Places Listings”. Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 12/30/13 through 1/03/14. National Park Service. 2014-01-10.
  22. ^ “National Register of Historic Places Listings”. Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 9/29/14 through 10/03/14. National Park Service. 2014-10-10.
  23. ^ “Mayors Office”. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  24. ^ “City Departments – City Counci”. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
  25. ^ “Indiana public library directory” (PDF). Indiana State Library. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  26. ^ “Library Hours & Information”. La Porte County Public Library. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
  27. ^ “The News Dispatch”. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  28. ^ “WIMS”. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  29. ^ “ACCESS LA PORTE COUNTY”. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  30. ^ “MCAS T.V.” Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  31. ^ “eMichiganCity.com – The Official Web Site of the City of Michigan City, Indiana: City Departments – MC Transit”. emichigancity.com.
  32. ^ “Chicago O’Hare Airport, IL to Michigan City, Indiana”. Coach USA. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
  33. ^ “To and From O’Hare and Midway Airport” (PDF). Coach USA. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
  34. ^ “History – Michigan City Public Library”. www.mclib.org. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
  35. ^ Painter, Kristen Leigh (2016-07-20). “Obituary: Professor, nonprofit leader Alvera Mickelsen blended feminism and Christian teaching”. Star Tribune. Retrieved 2016-08-06.

References

  •  Reynolds, Francis J., ed. (1921). “Michigan City” . Collier’s New Encyclopedia. New York: P.F. Collier & Son Company.
  • Wikisource Ripley, George; Dana, Charles A., eds. (1879). “Michigan City” . The American Cyclopædia.

External links

  • City of Michigan City, Indiana website
  • Michigan City, Indiana at Curlie


Beech Grove, Indiana

City in Indiana, United States
Beech Grove, Indiana
City
Motto(s): 

“Where Tradition Welcomes Progress”
Location of Beech Grove in Marion County, Indiana.

Location of Beech Grove in Marion County, Indiana.
Coordinates: 39°43′4″N 86°5′29″W / 39.71778°N 86.09139°W / 39.71778; -86.09139Coordinates: 39°43′4″N 86°5′29″W / 39.71778°N 86.09139°W / 39.71778; -86.09139[1]
Country United States
State Indiana
County Marion
Founded 1906
Government

 • Type Mayor-council
 • Mayor Dennis Buckley (D)
 • City Council[3] Elizabeth Lamping (D, 1st)[2]
Vito Mascari (D, 2nd)
Chris Duffer (R, 3rd)
Kevin Day (R, 4th)
Dave Harrison (D, 5th)
Jim Brooks (D, AL)
Buddy Templin (D, AL)
Area

[4]
 • Total 4.39 sq mi (11.38 km2)
 • Land 4.39 sq mi (11.38 km2)
 • Water 0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)
Elevation

804 ft (245 m)
Population

(2010)[5]
 • Total 14,192
 • Estimate 

(2017)[6]
14,795
 • Density 3,366.33/sq mi (1,299.85/km2)
Time zone UTC-5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC-4 (EDT)
ZIP code
46107
Area code(s) 317
FIPS code 18-04204[7]
GNIS feature ID 0430719[8]
Interstate Spurs I-465
Public transit IndyGo
Website http://www.beechgrove.com/

Beech Grove is an excluded city in Marion County, Indiana, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city’s population is 14,192. The city is located within the Indianapolis metropolitan area.

Contents

  • 1 Geography

    • 1.1 Climate
  • 2 History and notable people
  • 3 Transportation
  • 4 Demographics

    • 4.1 2010 census
    • 4.2 2000 census
  • 5 Government
  • 6 Education
  • 7 Medical institutions
  • 8 Religious institutions
  • 9 Civic institutions
  • 10 Local media
  • 11 Youth activities
  • 12 References
  • 13 External links

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.39 square miles (11.37 km2), all land.[9]

The city’s elevation, measured in feet above sea level, ranges from 766 (the Beech Creek waterway, where it is crossed by South 9th Avenue) to 845 (the northeastern portion of the Amtrak railroad property). It is higher than that of downtown Indianapolis.

The city contains several small non-navigable waterways. Beech Creek, McFarland Creek, Pullman Creek, and Victory Run all feed into Lick Creek, which (after leaving the city limits) feeds into the West Fork of the White River.

The city is located within parts of four of Marion County’s townships. In order of city land size, those townships are Perry, Franklin, Center, and Warren. In order of city population, the list is Perry, Center, and Franklin; the Warren Township section is uninhabited railroad land.

Climate

The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Beech Grove has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated “Cfa” on climate maps.[10]

History and notable people

By the turn of the 20th century, the Beech Grove area was a rural section of Marion County. Notable residents included poet and women’s-rights activist Sarah Tittle (Barrett) Bolton (1814–1893) and Indianapolis financier Francis McClintock Churchman (1833–1891).

Bolton’s farm, “Beech Bank”, and Churchman’s cattle farm, “Beech Grove Farm”, both reflected the abundance of beech trees in this area. This would eventually provide the reason for the city’s name, although an early railroad stop in the area was known as “Ingallstown”. The city’s Sarah T. Bolton Park, situated on some of the former Beech Bank farmland, still contains several large beech trees along its southern boundary.

Amtrak trains are serviced at the Beech Grove Shops in 1980.

The actual city came into existence as a company town for a new railroad repair facility, the Beech Grove Shops, constructed by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis Railroad (nicknamed the “Big Four”). Through acquisitions and mergers over the years, the railroad shops have been run by the New York Central, Penn Central and, presently, Amtrak rail systems. The complex sits on 108 acres (0.44 km2) with 700,000 square feet (65,000 m2) underroof. In 2007, Amtrak had 550 employees working there.[11]
In recognition of the city’s heritage as a railroad town, Amtrak’s business car 10001 is named The Beech Grove[12] and is often used by agency officials when they travel the system.

Although Beech Grove was incorporated in late 1906, it did not see rapid growth until the completion of the railroad facility in 1908; by July 1907, for example, there were only four homes and two businesses in place.

Beech Grove grew with two annexations after World War II, with the final one (1967) taking place just before the Unigov legislation which merged Indianapolis with most of the rest of Marion County, preventing future annexation.

Two famous actors have listed Beech Grove as their birthplace—Clifton Webb (November 19, 1889–1966) and Steve McQueen (March 24, 1930–1980). Webb was born before Beech Grove came into existence as a separate entity, while McQueen was born at the city’s St. Francis Hospital. Both moved away from the area while they were still infants; neither one grew up or lived in Beech Grove.

On October 15, 1948, Beech Grove received the honor of a visit by a sitting President of the United States. Harry S. Truman, a Mason, came to the city’s Masonic Lodge during his legendary ‘whistle stop’ re-election campaign to participate in a ceremony involving a member of his staff who was one of its members.

Within the traditional focus in Indiana on high-school basketball, the Beech Grove Hornets have earned one IHSAA State Championship—that of its girls team, in Class 3A of the 2003 tournament. From that team, senior Katie Gearlds won both the IHSAA’s Patricia Roy Mental Attitude Award (for Class 3A) and the “Miss Basketball” honor for the entire State. She went on to be a four-year starter for Purdue University from 2003 to 2007, and was the first Hornet graduate to play in an American professional sports major league (for the WNBA’s Seattle Storm in the 2007 season). During the non-class years before 1996, the school had earned only three Sectional (equivalent to District in some states) titles (two by the boys’ team in 1966 and 1992, and one by the girls’ team in 1978); since the change to classes in Indiana high-school basketball, the boys’ team has won one Class 3A Sectional title (2008).

The Hornets’ most consistent state-level athletic success has come in wrestling, in which five students have won a total of seven individual state titles (Ralf Edwards and Gary Pierson in 1972, Ethan Harris in 2005, Danny Coyne in 2006, and a three-year unbeaten run by Steven Bradley from 1996 to 1998). The 1972 wrestling team endured the closest-ever runner-up finish in IHSAA wrestling history, ending up a half-point behind Bloomington. 60 Hornet wrestlers have qualified for the IHSAA State Finals (with several appearing two, three or four times), winning 55 placement medals. Also, in swimming, Andy McVey won two IHSAA individual titles in 1986, setting State records for that time; he had come back from a false-start disqualification in the 1985 finals, in which he had been favored to win. Andy won also this Herman F. Keller Mental Attitude Award.

Beech Grove High School’s “Marching Hornets” band program has earned four Indiana State School Music Association (ISSMA) State Band Finals berths in its history, during the long service of former director James Williams. The present band, directed by alumnus Cory Wynn with the help of Scott Bradford and Chad Barton, has sought to return to that level of success, earning their first ISSMA Regional Gold rating in nine years in 2005. The Marching Hornets continue to achieve great levels of success on the marching music field. After 2005, the band has returned to the level of success that they had during the James Williams years. They have grown to become one of ISSMAs Class C “powerhouses” in the South. In 2009, 2010 and 2011, the Marching Hornets returned to the state finals in Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis, for the first time in 19 years, where they placed 5th in Class C on 2009, 7th in Class C in 2010, and 2nd in Class C in 2011. They would continue to reach state finals in Class C in 2012, 2013, 2015, and 2016. During the 2017 season, Beech Grove High School’s growing enrollment reclassified the Marching Hornets as a Class B program. The Marching Hornets would take 5th place in 2017— their inaugural season in Class B[13].

Some Beech Grove streets have been named in honor of notable citizens, such as Byland Drive (Mayor Richard Byland); Fletcher Lane (former Fire Chief, City Councilman, and business owner Robert Fletcher); Killian Drive (Father Peter Killian); Newcomer Lane (Town Board member and businessman W. S. Newcomer); and Ticen Street (Town Board member Willard Ticen). A quartet of parallel streets in the northern part are named, in alphabetical order from south to north, for the cities of Albany, Buffalo, Cleveland and Detroit. In June 2007, a sign post on Hornet Avenue was given in honor of Katie Gearlds, honoring her arrival into the WNBA. In 2015 a new senior housing addition included the street Buckley Drive honoring former Fire Chief and Mayor Dennis Buckley.

Transportation

The city has direct access to the Interstate Highway System as it straddles exit 52 of Interstate 465. It is served by local public bus routes of Indianapolis’ IndyGo system. Routes 12-Minnesota and 13-Raymond serve 17th Avenue (Sherman Drive) from Southern Avenue to Main Street, with select trips serving Albany Street from 17th Avenue to 25th Avenue. Route 14-Prospect serves Emerson Avenue from the Amtrak railroad crossing all the way to Thompson Road, the southern end of Beech Grove. Route 16-Beech Grove serves Albany Street from 25th Avenue to 17th Avenue, 17th from Albany to Main, Main from 17th to Emerson Avenue, and Emerson to Thompson Road. Routes 12, 13, and 14 run seven days a week, while Route 16 runs only Monday through Saturday. There is currently no light rail or streetcar service, although one existed in the past.

Beech Grove maintains an address-numbering system distinct from surrounding Indianapolis. Addresses are numbered as either east/west or north/south from the intersection of Main Street and First Avenue.

The city’s street grid reflects two distinct urban planning styles. The original roadway connecting Beech Grove to Indianapolis was Churchman Avenue, running northwest from Beech Grove. The original city was built to the north of Churchman Avenue, on a north/south grid pattern with alleys, centered on the widened roads of Main Street and Fifth Avenue. While a parkway was planned for both sides of Lick Creek, only a small segment of it was actually established.

With the post-World War II “Baby Boom” population growth, new streets were built south of Churchman Avenue in the modern style of sweeping curves and cul-de-sacs.

The growth of Indianapolis toward Beech Grove led to certain streets changing names at the Beech Grove city limits. Indianapolis’ Troy Avenue becomes Beech Grove’s Albany Street; Indianapolis’ Sherman Drive becomes Beech Grove’s 17th Avenue; and Indianapolis’ Emerson Avenue becomes (in places) Beech Grove’s 1st Avenue.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1910 568
1920 1,459 156.9%
1930 3,552 143.5%
1940 3,847 8.3%
1950 5,612 45.9%
1960 10,973 95.5%
1970 13,559 23.6%
1980 13,196 −2.7%
1990 13,383 1.4%
2000 14,880 11.2%
2010 14,192 −4.6%
Est. 2017 14,795 [6] 4.2%
Source: US Census Bureau

2010 census

As of the census[5] of 2010, there were 14,192 people, 5,898 households, and 3,567 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,232.8 inhabitants per square mile (1,248.2/km2). There were 6,479 housing units at an average density of 1,475.9 per square mile (569.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 91.5% White, 3.2% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 2.1% from other races, and 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.2% of the population.

There were 5,898 households of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.3% were married couples living together, 16.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.2% had a male householder with no wife present, and 39.5% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.98.

The median age in the city was 37.7 years. 24.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 9.2% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25.7% were from 25 to 44; 25.5% were from 45 to 64; and 14.9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 46.5% male and 53.5% female.

2000 census

As of the census[7] of 2000, there were 14,880 people, 6,085 households, and 3,839 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,462.5 people per square mile (1,336.1/km²). There were 6,506 housing units at an average density of 1,513.9 per square mile (584.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 96.24% White, 0.89% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.81% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.78% from other races, and 1.04% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.07% of the population.

Beech Grove from the air (southeastern part of the city; Amtrak repair yards visible at left center). I-465 is clearly visible in this photo, and its interchange with I-74 is in the northeastern corner

There were 6,085 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with no husband present and 36.9% were non-families. 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.2% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, and 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $41,548 and the median income for a family was $46,944. Males had a median income of $37,500 versus $26,135 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,647. About 4.4% of families and 6.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.1% of those under age 18 and 9.5% of those age 65 or over.

Government

Although geographically completely surrounded by Indianapolis, Beech Grove is an excluded city so it maintains its own police, fire, public works, and parks departments and operates its own senior-citizens’ center.

Beech Grove’s government was first organized as a “Town Board” system on November 12, 1906. The system remained until 1935, consisting of three elected ward representatives and a clerk-treasurer. From 1911 to 1939, Board members were elected as representatives of locally organized political parties (e.g., Progressive, Citizens’s Ticket, Peoples’s Ticket).

Upon legally becoming an Indiana fifth-class city in 1935, its first mayor and four city council members were elected (three district members, and one at-large). Beech Grove achieved Indiana fourth-class city status in 1961. The present city council consists of five district members and two at-large members, plus an elected clerk-treasurer.

The mayors, their political affiliations, and their terms of office, have been:

  • Charles Adams (Progressive, 1935–1938); (Democratic, 1939–1942)
  • E. Allen Hunter (Republican, 1943–1948 and 1952–1955)
  • Richard H. Byland (Democratic, 1948–1951)
  • David D. Finney (Democratic, 1956–1958)
  • Elton H. Geshwiler (Democratic, 1959–1991)
  • J. Warner Wiley (Democratic, 1991–2003)
  • Donald “Joe” Wright (Republican, 2004–2011)
  • John Jennings (Republican, interim, 2011)
  • Terry Dilk (Republican, 2011)
  • Dennis Buckley (Democratic, 2012)

Mayor Joe Wright announced his resignation from the office as of January 14, 2011; city councilman John Jennings was named as interim mayor, until the appointment of Terry Dilk on January 25, 2011 by the Marion County Republican Committee to fill out Wright’s term through the 2011 elections. Dilk was defeated in the November 8, 2011 election by former City fire chief Dennis Buckley, who became the first Mayor to have been the child of a former candidate for the same office (his father, Robert Buckley, was defeated in the 1967 election).

The 1951 Mayoral election featured Democrat Alice Stratton, one of Indiana’s first female candidates for such an office.

The city flag was not adopted until the 1970s, when a competition was held in which citizens were invited to submit designs. The winning designer was Mike Hart. The flag features an orange, black and white logo on a blue field; the logo shows the profile of an old-style railroad locomotive, in orange, with a white circle superimposed in the center. The circle contains a depiction of the tower complex of St. Francis Hospital, and bears the name of the city, the year “1906” and the motto “Where Tradition Welcomes Progress.”

Education

The city has its own school district, the Beech Grove City Schools, but Franklin Township Community School Corporation also serves some of this region. Beech Grove City Schools consists of five facilities (Hornet Park, Central Elementary, South Grove Intermediate, Beech Grove Middle, and Beech Grove High). Its high school athletic teams, the “Hornets” (colors: orange and black) participate as members of the statewide Indiana High School Athletic Association (IHSAA), the Marion County Athletic Association and the Indiana Crossroads Conference.

The city’s first school was opened in 1907 in the upstairs of the Wheat Grocery Store at 423 Main Street. Between 1909 and 1929, a series of school buildings and additions were built on the 1000 block of Main; only the original gymnasium remains from these structures. The high school was begun in 1917 and its first graduating class was in 1922.

A new combined junior high/high school was built in 1955 at 1248 Buffalo Street, just northwest of the existing school site. The previous complex became Central Elementary. The new facility operated on a split-day schedule, with high school students attending in the morning and junior high students attending in the afternoon.

By 1960, the city’s growth to the south prompted the building of South Grove Elementary (later Intermediate) at the 800 block of South 9th Avenue. With the population growth, the present high school was built in 1966 just east of the 4000 block of South Emerson Avenue and the 1955 facility remained as the junior high (later middle) school.

Before the 1990s, the kindergarten education experience was only offered in the city by private specialty schools (past examples being Cassidy’s and Happy Time). As part of the state’s trend to incorporate this age level within the public schools, the city school system joined with the City’s Parks Department in the development of Hornet Park, a dual-use facility built on the grounds of the former Olympia Club (a private swimming/recreation club). Kindergarten (and, added recently, 1st-Grade) classes are held in the south part, while the city offers meeting rooms and exercise facilities in the north part.

At different times in the city schools’ history, certain grade-levels have been moved between schools. Ninth-graders were moved from high school to junior high from 1964 to 1973. Sixth-graders were in elementary school until 1977, when they were moved to middle school level, but were returned to the elementary level in 2004.

Also within the city limits are the Holy Name of Jesus School (Roman Catholic, grades pre-school to 8 only), built in 1922. Many students from Holy Name of Jesus continue their high school studies at Beech Grove High School or the nearby Roncalli High School.

Beech Grove has a public library, a branch of the Indianapolis Public Library.[14] For many years the city maintained its own library, but in April 2016, the boards of the Indianapolis and the Beech Grove public libraries voted to merge, with the Beech Grove library becoming the 23rd branch library of the Indianapolis library system on June 1, 2016.[15]

Medical institutions

Franciscan Health Indianapolis, formerly known as St. Francis Hospital, was founded in Beech Grove by the monastic order of the Sisters of St. Francis of Perpetual Adoration in 1914. The Beech Grove hospital closed in 2012 after most medical services were transferred to a more modern, suburban hospital campus in south Indianapolis.[16]

Religious institutions

Beech Grove’s oldest churches have existed since the earliest days of the city. Father Peter J. Killian established the Blessed Sacrament Parish (Roman Catholic Church) in the upstairs of his home in 1908; its present name of Holy Name of Jesus Parish was taken in 1918. A Methodist Episcopal meeting in the Clapp family home in 1908 eventually led to the present Beech Grove United Methodist Church. A noon-time Christian men’s meeting of “Big Four” railroad employees in 1910 was the genesis of the present Beech Grove Christian Church. In late 1912, the First Baptist Church (since 1937, General Association of Regular Baptist Churches) was organized and is now in its second location within the city.

Churches established in the city in later years include Beech Grove Wesleyan Church (formerly Pilgrim Holiness Church, in the 1920s); Faith Assembly of God (Assemblies of God, 1958); South Emerson Church of God (Reformation Movement, Church of God (Anderson), 1961); Southwood Baptist Church (Southern Baptist Convention, 1962); and Ascension Lutheran Church (Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, 1972). In recent years, independent community churches have appeared (e.g., Body of Christ Fellowship, Church on The Word, Omega Harvest).

The Benedict Inn is a multi-use facility operated by the local Our Lady of Grace Monastery of the Sisters of the Order of St. Benedict. It contains meeting rooms, a gymnasium, and an indoor pool, which were part of the former Our Lady of Grace all-girls Catholic high school.

Civic institutions

Established service groups include chapters of the Lions International and Kiwanis. The local Beech Grove Promoters Club was founded in 1953 as a chapter of the National Exchange Club, but left that organization in 1957 and adopted its present name. It organizes the city’s two main public festivals—the 3rd of July Fireworks and the Fall Festival (since 1959) in September.

The city also contains Lodges of the Free and Accepted Masons, Fraternal Order of Eagles and Loyal Order of Moose. Posts of the American Legion and the Veterans of Foreign Wars are also active.

Past civic organizations which, while no longer in existence, performed service to the city include the Beech Grove Civic League and the Beech Grove Jaycees. The Jaycees organized a “Buck-A-Brick” campaign in the 1950s to build a house-sized Beech Grove Civic Center on South 3rd Avenue, offering meeting rooms to the citizens. (This facility is now the home of the Body of Christ Fellowship.)

Local media

Beech Grove has no daily newspaper, but its news events were mainly covered for many years by a free weekly newspaper headquartered within the city. Titled The Southside Times, the weekly was for most of its existence known as the Perry Township Weekly. The Southside Times left its longtime Main Street home in November 2012 in favor of a house on US 31 South, while the space was filled by Shupe’s Lawn Care company. Past Beech Grove newspapers included the Independent, the Graphic and the Spotlight. The city has no local radio or television station. It is part of the Indianapolis radio/television market and has its own cable TV Government-access television channel available on the Comcast system.

Youth activities

Among the organizations sponsoring youth athletics are the Beech Grove Little League, the Beech Grove Athletic Boosters (football, volleyball, basketball), the Beech Grove Wrestling Club, the Beech Grove Girls Softball Association,[17] the Beech Grove Soccer Club and the Beech Grove Swimming Club. Teams representing Holy Name of Jesus School participate in Indianapolis’ Catholic Youth Organization sports league, in sports such as football, wrestling, kickball, and basketball.

The Scouting movement, both the Boy Scouts of America and the Girl Scouts of the USA, have had a long history within Beech Grove. For many years, Boy Scout Troop 79 was the city’s main unit; present troops are 108. Various Girl Scout and Brownie Troops have existed. Beech Grove, although not a rural community, also has an active chapter of the traditionally-rural 4-H Club.

References

  1. ^ “US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990”. United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “Marion County election guide”. Indianapolis Star. 1 May 2015. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  3. ^ “Beech Grove City Council”. City of Beech Grove. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  4. ^ “2017 U.S. Gazetteer Files”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Dec 30, 2018.
  5. ^ ab “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  6. ^ ab “Population and Housing Unit Estimates”. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  7. ^ ab “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  8. ^ “US Board on Geographic Names”. United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  9. ^ “US Gazetteer files 2010”. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2012-01-24. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  10. ^ “Beech Grove, Indiana Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)”. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  11. ^ Guenzler, Chris. “Amtrak Beech Grove Shop Tour 4/13/2007”. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  12. ^ “RailroadPix.Com Railroad Photos : Amtrak 10001, Beech Grove”. www.railroadpix.com.
  13. ^ http://www.issma.net/statembplacings.php
  14. ^ “Locations & Hours”. Indianapolis Public Library. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  15. ^ “Indy Library Board approves merger of Beech Grove Library”. WISHTV.com. April 28, 2016. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
  16. ^ Rudavski, Shari (October 27, 2016). “Franciscan Health to raze Beech Grove hospital”. The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  17. ^ “Beech Grove Girls Softball Association”. Retrieved October 8, 2018.

External links

  • Official website