Toshiba

Toshiba Corporation
Native name
株式会社東芝
Romanized name
Kabushiki-gaisha Tōshiba
Type
Public (K.K.)
Traded as TYO: 6502
Industry Conglomerate
Founded July 1875; 143 years ago (1875-07) (as Tanaka Seisakusho)
1890 (1890) (Hakunetsu-sha & Co)
1939 (1939) (merger of Shibaura Seisaku-sho and Tokyo Denki)
Headquarters
Minato, Tokyo, Japan
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Nobuaki Kurumatani
(Chairman and CEO)
Satoshi Tsunakawa
(President and COO)
Products Electronics
Semiconductors
Social infrastructure
Computer hardware
Revenue Decrease¥5.668 trillion (2016)[1]
Operating income
Decrease¥(708.7) billion (2016)[1]
Net income
Decrease¥(460) billion (2016)[1]
Total assets Decrease¥5.433 trillion (2016)[1]
Total equity Decrease¥328.8 billion (2016)[1]
Number of employees
187,809 (2016)[1]
Subsidiaries Toshiba America, Inc.
Toshiba Asia Pacific Pte., Ltd.
Toshiba China Co., Ltd.
Toshiba of Europe Ltd.
(See full list)
Website toshiba.co.jp

Toshiba Corporation (株式会社東芝, Kabushiki-gaisha Tōshiba, English: /təˈʃbə, tɒ-, t-/[2]), commonly known as Toshiba (stylized in all uppercaps) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. Its diversified products and services include information technology and communications equipment and systems, electronic components and materials, power systems, industrial and social infrastructure systems, consumer electronics, household appliances, medical equipment, office equipment, as well as lighting and logistics.

Toshiba was founded in 1939 as Tokyo Shibaura Denki K.K. through the merger of Shibaura Seisaku-sho (founded in 1875) and Tokyo Denki (founded in 1890). The company name was officially changed to Toshiba Corporation in 1978.

In 2018 the company sold Westinghouse, one of its many prior acquisitions, which had included:

  • Semp in 1977,
  • Westinghouse Electric LLC in 2006,[3],
  • Landis+Gyr in 2011, and
  • IBM’s point-of-sale business in 2012.

Toshiba is organized into four groupings: the Digital Products Group, the Electronic Devices Group, the Home Appliances Group and the Social Infrastructure Group. It is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, where it is a constituent of the Nikkei 225 and TOPIX indices, the Osaka Securities Exchange and the Nagoya Stock Exchange. Toshiba is the ninth largest semiconductor manufacturer in the world.[citation needed]

On 11 April 2017, Toshiba filed unaudited quarterly results because of uncertainties at Westinghouse, which had filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. Toshiba stated that “substantial doubt about the company’s ability to continue as a going concern exists”.[4]

Contents

  • 1 History

    • 1.1 1939 to 2000
    • 1.2 2000 to 2010
    • 1.3 2010 to 2013
    • 1.4 2014 OCZ Storage Solutions Acquisition
    • 1.5 2015 accounting scandal
    • 1.6 2017 US nuclear construction liabilities
  • 2 Operations

    • 2.1 Principal business groupings, divisions and subsidiaries
  • 3 Products, services and standards

    • 3.1 3D television
    • 3.2 4K Ultra HD televisions
    • 3.3 HD DVD
    • 3.4 REGZA
    • 3.5 Chromebook
    • 3.6 3D flash memory
  • 4 Environmental record
  • 5 Slogans
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links

History

1939 to 2000

Toshiba was founded in 1939 by the merger of Shibaura Seisakusho (Shibaura Engineering Works)[5] and Tokyo Denki (Tokyo Electric). Shibaura Seisakusho had been founded as Tanaka Seisakusho by Tanaka Hisashige in July 1875 as Japan’s first manufacturer of telegraph equipment.[6] In 1904, it was renamed Shibaura Seisakusho. Through the first decades of the 20th century, Shibaura Seisakusho had become a major manufacturer of heavy electrical machinery as Japan modernized during the Meiji Era and became a world industrial power. Tokyo Denki was founded as Hakunetsusha in 1890 and had been Japan’s first producer of incandescent electric lamps. It later diversified into the manufacture of other consumer products and in 1899 had been renamed Tokyo Denki. The merger of Shibaura and Tokyo Denki created a new company called Tokyo Shibaura Denki (Tokyo Shibaura Electric) (浦 電気). It was soon nicknamed Toshiba, but it was not until 1978 that the company was officially renamed Toshiba Corporation.

The Toshiba pavilion at Expo ’85.

The group expanded rapidly, driven by a combination of organic growth and by acquisitions, buying heavy engineering and primary industry firms in the 1940s and 1950s. Groups created include Toshiba Music Industries/Toshiba EMI (1960), Toshiba International Corporation (1970s) Toshiba Electrical Equipment (1974), Toshiba Chemical (1974), Toshiba Lighting and Technology (1989), Toshiba America Information Systems (1989) and Toshiba Carrier Corporation (1999).

Toshiba is responsible for a number of Japanese firsts, including radar (1912), the TAC digital computer (1954), transistor television and microwave oven (1959), color video phone (1971), Japanese word processor (1978), MRI system (1982), laptop personal computer (1986), NAND EEPROM (1991), DVD (1995), the Libretto sub-notebook personal computer (1996) and HD DVD (2005).

In 1977, Toshiba acquired the Brazilian company Semp (Sociedade Eletromercantil Paulista), subsequently forming Semp Toshiba through the combination of the two companies’ South American operations.

In 1950, Tokyo Shibaura Denki was renamed to Toshiba. This past logo was used from 1950 to 1969.

In 1950, Tokyo Shibaura Denki was renamed to Toshiba. This past logo was used from 1950-1969.[7]

Past Toshiba logo used from 1969 to 1984.[8]

Current Toshiba logo used since 1984.[8]

In 1987, Tocibai Machine, a subsidiary of Toshiba, was accused of illegally selling CNC milling machines used to produce very quiet submarine propellers to the Soviet Union in violation of the CoCom agreement, an international embargo on certain countries to COMECON countries. The Toshiba-Kongsberg scandal involved a subsidiary of Toshiba and the Norwegian company Kongsberg Vaapenfabrikk. The incident strained relations between the United States and Japan, and resulted in the arrest and prosecution of two senior executives, as well as the imposition of sanctions on the company by both countries.[9] Senator John Heinz of Pennsylvania said “What Toshiba and Kongsberg did was ransom the security of the United States for $517 million.”

2000 to 2010

In 2001, Toshiba signed a contract with Orion Electric, one of the world’s largest OEM consumer video electronic makers and suppliers, to manufacture and supply finished consumer TV and video products for Toshiba to meet the increasing demand for the North American market. The contract ended in 2008, ending seven years of OEM production with Orion.

In December 2004, Toshiba quietly announced it would discontinue manufacturing traditional in-house cathode-ray tube (CRT) televisions. In 2006, Toshiba terminated production of in-house plasma TVs. To ensure its future competitiveness in the flat-panel digital television and display market, Toshiba has made a considerable investment in a new kind of display technology called SED. Before World War II, Toshiba was a member of the Mitsui Group zaibatsu (family-controlled vertical monopoly). Today Toshiba is a member of the Mitsui keiretsu (a set of companies with interlocking business relationships and shareholdings), and still has preferential arrangements with Mitsui Bank and the other members of the keiretsu. Membership in a keiretsu has traditionally meant loyalty, both corporate and private, to other members of the keiretsu or allied keiretsu. This loyalty can extend as far as the beer the employees consume, which in Toshiba’s case is Asahi.

In July 2005, BNFL confirmed it planned to sell Westinghouse Electric Company, then estimated to be worth $1.8 billion (£1 billion).[10] The bid attracted interest from several companies including Toshiba, General Electric and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and when the Financial Times reported on 23 January 2006 that Toshiba had won the bid, it valued the company’s offer at $5 billion (£2.8 billion). The sale of Westinghouse by the Government of the United Kingdom surprised many industry experts, who questioned the wisdom of selling one of the world’s largest producers of nuclear reactors shortly before the market for nuclear power was expected to grow substantially; China, the United States and the United Kingdom are all expected to invest heavily in nuclear power.[11] The acquisition of Westinghouse for $5.4 billion was completed on 17 October 2006, with Toshiba obtaining a 77 percent share, and partners The Shaw Group a 20 percent share and Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. a 3 percent share.

In late 2007, Toshiba took over from Discover Card as the sponsor of the top-most screen of One Times Square in New York City.[12] It displays the iconic 60-second New Year’s countdown on its screen, as well as messages, greetings, and advertisements for the company.

In January 2009, Toshiba acquired the HDD business of Fujitsu.[13][14]

2010 to 2013

Toshiba announced on 16 May 2011, that it had agreed to acquire all of the shares of the Swiss-based advanced-power-meter maker Landis+Gyr for $2.3 billion.[15] In 2010 the company released a series of television models including the WL768, YL863, VL963 designed in collaboration with Danish designer Timothy Jacob Jensen.[16]

Toshiba Television WL768

In April 2012, Toshiba agreed to acquire IBM’s point-of-sale business for $850 million, making it the world’s largest vendor of point-of-sale systems.[17][18]

In July 2012, Toshiba was accused of fixing the prices of LCD panels in the United States at a high level. While such claims were denied by Toshiba,[19] they have agreed to settle alongside several other manufacturers for a total of $571 million.[20]

In December 2013, Toshiba completed its acquisition of Vijai Electricals Limited plant at Hyderabad and set up its own base for manufacturing of transmission and distribution products (transformers and switchgears) under the Social Infrastructure Group in India as Toshiba Transmission & Distribution Systems (India) Private Limited.

2014 OCZ Storage Solutions Acquisition

Ocz logo 2color clear.png

In January 2014, Toshiba completed its acquisition of OCZ Storage Solutions.[21] OCZ Technology stock was halted on 27 November 2013. OCZ then stated they expected to file a petition for bankruptcy and that Toshiba Corporation had expressed interest in purchasing its assets in a bankruptcy proceeding.[22][23] On 2 December 2013, OCZ announced Toshiba had agreed to purchase nearly all of OCZ’s assets for $35 million.[24] The deal was completed on 21 January 2014 when the assets of OCZ Technology Group became a new independently-operated subsidiary of Toshiba named OCZ Storage Solutions.[25] OCZ Technology Group then changed its name to ZCO Liquidating Corporation;[26] on 18 August 2014, ZCO Liquidating Corporation and its subsidiaries were liquidated.[27]OCZ Storage Solutions was dissolved on 1 April 2016 and absorbed into Toshiba America Electronic Components, Inc.,[28][29] with OCZ becoming a brand of Toshiba.

In March 2014, Toshiba sued SK Hynix accusing the company for stealing technology of their NAND flash memory.[30]

In October 2014, Toshiba and United Technologies agreed a deal to expand their joint venture outside Japan.[31]

Toshiba announced in early 2015 that they would stop making televisions in its own factories. From 2015 onward, Toshiba televisions will be made by Compal for the U.S., or by Vestel and other manufacturers for the European market.

In January 2016, Toshiba’s security division unveiled a new bundle of services for schools that use its surveillance equipment. The program, which is intended for both K-12 and higher education, includes education discounts, alerts and post-warranty support, among other features, on its IP-based security gear.[32]

As of March 2016, Toshiba is preparing to start construction on a cutting-edge new semiconductor plant in Japan that will mass-produce chips based on the ultra-dense flash variant. Toshiba expects to spend approximately 360 billion yen, or $3.2 billion, on the project through May 2019.[33]

In April 2016, Toshiba recalled 100,000 faulty laptop lithium-ion batteries, which are made by Panasonic, that can overheat, posing burn and fire hazards to consumers, according to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Toshiba first announced the recall in January, and said it was recalling the batteries in certain Toshiba Notebook computers sold since June 2011.[34]

In September 2016, Toshiba announced the first wireless power receiver IC using the Qi 1.2.2 specification, developed in association with the Wireless Power Consortium.[35]

In late December 2016 Toshiba announced losses in the Westinghouse subsidiary from nuclear plant construction would lead to a write-down of several billion dollars.[36]

In January 2017, a person with direct knowledge of the matter reported that the company plans on making its chip division a separate business.[37]

2015 accounting scandal

Toshiba first announced in May 2015 that it was investigating an accounting scandal and it might have to revise its profits for the previous three years.[38][39] On 21 July 2015, CEO Hisao Tanaka announced his resignation amid an accounting scandal that he called “the most damaging event for our brand in the company’s 140-year history”. Profits had been inflated by $1.2 billion over the previous seven years.[40] Eight other senior officials also resigned, including the two previous CEOs.[41] Chairman Masashi Muromachi was appointed acting CEO.[42] Following the scandal, Toshiba Corp. was removed from a stock index showcasing Japan’s best companies. That was the second reshuffle of the index, which picks companies with the best operating income, return on equity and market value.[43]

In September 2015, Toshiba shares fell to their lowest point in two and a half years. The firm said in a statement that its net losses for the quarterly period were 12.3 billion yen ($102m; £66m). The company noted poor performances in its televisions, home appliances and personal computer businesses.[44]

In December 2015, Muromachi said the episode had wiped about $8 billion off Toshiba’s market value. He forecast a record 550 billion yen (about US $4.6 billion) annual loss and warned the company would have to overhaul its TV and computer businesses. Toshiba would not be raising funds for two years, he said. The next week, a company spokesperson announced Toshiba would in early 2016 seek 300 billion yen ($2.5 billion), taking the company’s indebtedness to more than 1 trillion yen (about $8.3 billion).[45]

In May 2016, it was announced that Satoshi Tsunakawa, the former head of Toshiba’s medical equipment division, was named CEO. This appointment came after the accounting scandal that occurred.[46][47]

2017 US nuclear construction liabilities

In February 2017, Toshiba revealed unaudited details of a 390 billion yen ($3.4 billion) corporate wide loss, mainly arising from its majority owned US based Westinghouse nuclear construction subsidiary which was written down by 712 billion yen ($6.3 billion). On 14 February 2017, Toshiba delayed filing financial results, and chairman Shigenori Shiga, formerly chairman of Westinghouse, resigned.[48][49][50]

Construction delays, regulatory changes and cost overruns at Westinghouse built nuclear facilities Vogtle units 3 and 4 in Waynesboro, Georgia and VC Summer units 2 and 3 in South Carolina, are cited as the main causes of the dramatic fall in Toshiba’s financial performance and collapse in share price. Fixed priced construction contracts negotiated by Westinghouse with Georgia Power have left Toshiba with uncharted liabilities that will likely result in the sale of key Toshiba operating subsidiaries to secure the company’s future.[51]

Westinghouse filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on 29 March 2017.[52][53] It was estimated this would cost 9 billion dollar annual net loss.[54]

On 11 April 2017, Toshiba filed unaudited quarterly results. Auditors PricewaterhouseCoopers had not signed of the accounts because of uncertainties at Westinghouse. Toshiba stated that “substantial doubt about the company’s ability to continue as a going concern exists”.[4][55] On 25 April 2017, Toshiba announced its decision to replace its auditor after less than a year. Earlier in April, the company filed twice-delayed business results without an endorsement from auditor PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC).[54][56]

On 20 September 2017, Toshiba’s board approved a deal to sell its memory chip business to a group led by Bain Capital for US$18 billion, with financial backing by companies such as Apple, Dell Technologies, Hoya Corporation, Kingston Technology, Seagate Technology, and SK Hynix.[57][58] On 15 November 2017, Hisense reached a deal to acquire 95% of Toshiba Visual Solutions for US$113.6 million.[59]

Later that month, the company announced that it would pull out of its long-standing sponsorships of the Japanese television programs Sazae-san, Nichiyō Gekijo, and the video screens topping out One Times Square in New York City. The company cited that the value of these placements were reduced by its exit from consumer-oriented lines of business.[60]

On 6 April 2018 Toshiba announced the completion of the sale of Westinghouse’s holding company to Brookfield Business Partners and some partners.[61]

Operations

The Toshiba research and development facility in Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan

Toshiba Europe offices in Neuss, Germany

Toshiba is headquartered in Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan and has operations worldwide. It had around 210,000 employees as of 31 March 2012.[62]

Toshiba is organised into four main business groupings: the Digital Products Group, the Electronic Devices Group, the Home Appliances Group and the Social Infrastructure Group.[62] In the year ended 31 March 2012, Toshiba had total revenues of ¥6,100.3 billion, of which 25.2 percent was generated by the Digital Products Group, 24.5 percent by the Electronic Devices Group, 8.7 percent by the Home Appliances Group, 36.6 percent by the Social Infrastructure Group and 5 percent by other activities. In the same year, 45 percent of Toshiba’s sales were generated in Japan and 55 percent in the rest of the world.[62]

Toshiba has 39 R&D facilities worldwide, which employ around 4,180 people.[62] Toshiba invested a total of ¥319.9 billion in R&D in the year ended 31 March 2012, equivalent to 5.2 percent of sales.[62] Toshiba registered a total of 2,483 patents in the United States in 2011, the fifth-largest number of any company (after IBM, Samsung Electronics, Canon and Panasonic).[62]

Principal business groupings, divisions and subsidiaries

Toshiba is organized into the following principal business groupings, divisions and subsidiaries:

  • Digital Products Group
  • Digital Products and Services Company
  • Network & Solution Control Center
  • Toshiba TEC Corporation
  • Electronic Devices Group
  • Semiconductor & Storage Products Company
  • Discrete Semiconductor Division
  • Analog & Imaging IC Division
  • Logic LSI Division
  • Memory Division
  • Storage Products Division
  • Center For Semiconductor Research & Development
  • Optical Disc Drive Division (Formed partnership with optical disc drive division of Samsung Electronics as Toshiba Samsung Storage Technology Corporation (TSST))[63][64][65]
  • Toshiba Mobile Display Co., Ltd. (This company will be merged with Hitachi Displays, Ltd. and Sony Mobile Display Corporation to form Japan Display Inc. in Spring of 2012.[66])
  • Social Infrastructure Group
  • Power Systems Company (Combined-cycle gas power plants, nuclear power plants, hydro-electric power plants, and associated components)
  • Nuclear Energy Systems & Services Division
  • Westinghouse Electric Company (Acquired October 2006)
  • Thermal & Hydro Power Systems & Services Division
  • Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Center
  • Social Infrastructure Systems Company[67]
  • Transmission & Distribution Systems Division
  • Railway & Automotive Systems Division
  • Railway Systems Division
  • Automotive Systems Division
  • Motor & Drive Systems Division
  • Automation Products & Facility Solution Division
  • Defense & Electronic Systems Division
  • Environmental Systems Division
  • Toshiba Elevator and Building Systems Corporation
  • Toshiba Solutions Corporation
  • Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation
  • Toshiba America Information Systems
  • Home Appliances Group
  • Toshiba Home Appliances Corporation
  • Toshiba Lighting & Technology Corporation
  • Harison Toshiba Lighting Corporation
  • Toshiba Carrier Corporation
  • Others
  • New Lighting Systems Division
  • Smart Community Division
  • Materials & Devices Division

Products, services and standards

Toshiba has a range of products and services, including air conditioners,[68] consumer electronics (including televisions and DVD and Blu-ray players),[69] control systems (including air-traffic control systems, railway systems, security systems and traffic control systems),[70] electronic point of sale equipment,[71] elevators and escalators,[72] home appliances (including refrigerators and washing machines),[68] IT services,[73] lighting,[68][74] materials and electronic components,[75] medical equipment (including CT and MRI scanners, ultrasound equipment and X-ray equipment),[76] office equipment,[71][77] business telecommunication equipment[78] personal computers,[69] semiconductors,[79] power systems (including electricity turbines, fuel cells and nuclear reactors)[80] power transmission and distribution systems,[70] and TFT displays.[81]

3D television

In October 2010, Toshiba unveiled the Toshiba Regza GL1 21″ LED backlit LCD TV glasses-free 3D prototype at CEATEC 2010. This system supports 3D capability without glasses (utilising an integral imaging system of 9 parallax images with vertical lenticular sheet). The retail product was released in December 2010.[82]

4K Ultra HD televisions

4K Ultra HD (3840×2160p) televisions provides four times the resolution of 1080p Full HD televisions. Toshiba’s 4K HD LED televisions are powered by a CEVO 4K Quad + dual-core processor.[83]

HD DVD

Hd dvd logo.png

On 19 February 2008, Toshiba announced that it would be discontinuing its HD DVD storage format following defeat in a format “war” against Blu-ray.[84] The HD DVD format had failed after most of the major US film studios backed the Blu-ray format, which was developed by Sony, Panasonic, Philips and Pioneer Corporation. Conceding the abandonment of HD DVD, Toshiba’s President, Atsutoshi Nishida said “We concluded that a swift decision would be best [and] if we had continued, that would have created problems for consumers, and we simply had no chance to win”.[85]

Toshiba continued to supply retailers with machines until the end of March 2008, and continued to provide technical support to the estimated one million people worldwide who owned HD DVD players and recorders. Toshiba announced a new line of stand-alone Blu-ray players as well as drives for PCs and laptops, and subsequently joined the BDA, the industry body which oversees development of the Blu-ray format.[86]

REGZA

REGZA logo.svg

REGZA (Real Expression Guaranteed by Amazing Architecture) is a unified television brand owned and manufactured by Toshiba. In 2010 REGZA name disappeared from the North American market, and from March 2015[87] new TVs carrying the Toshiba name are designed and produced by Compal Electronics, a Taiwanese company, which Toshiba has licensed its name to. REGZA is also used in Android-based smartphones that were developed by Fujitsu Toshiba Mobile Communications.

Chromebook

In October 2014, Toshiba released the Chromebook 2, a new version with a thinner profile and a much-improved display. The Chromebook runs exclusively on Chrome OS and gives users free Google Drive storage and access to a collection of apps and extensions at the Chrome Web Store.[88]

3D flash memory

In March 2015, Toshiba announced the development of the first 48-layer, three-dimensional flash memory. The new flash memory is based on a vertical stacking technology that Toshiba calls BiCS (Bit Cost Scaling), stores two bits of data per transistor and can store 128Gbits (16GB) per chip.[89]

Environmental record

Toshiba has been judged as making “low” efforts to lessen their impact on the environment. In November 2012, they came second from the bottom in Greenpeace’s 18th edition of the Guide to Greener Electronics that ranks electronics companies according to their policies on products, energy and sustainable operations.[90] Toshiba received 2.3 of a possible 10 points, with the top company (WIPRO) receiving 7.1 points. “Zero” scores were received in the categories “Clean energy policy advocacy”, “Use of recycled plastics in products” and “Policy and practice on sustainable sourcing of fibres for paper”.

In 2010, Toshiba reported that all of its new LCD TVs comply with the Energy Star standards and 34 models exceed the requirements by 30% or more.[91]

Toshiba also partnered with China’s Tsinghua University in 2008 in order to form a research facility to focus on energy conservation and the environment.[92] The new Toshiba Energy and Environment Research Center is located in Beijing where forty students from the university will work to research electric power equipment and new technologies that will help stop the global warming process.[92] Through this partnership, Toshiba hopes to develop products that will better protect the environment and save China.[92] This contract between Tsinghua University and Toshiba originally began in October 2007 when they signed an agreement on joint energy and environment research.[92] The projects that they conduct work to reduce car pollution and to create power systems that don’t negatively affect the environment.[92]

On 28 December 1970 Toshiba began the construction of unit 3 of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant[93] which was damaged in the Fukushima I nuclear accidents on 14 March 2011. In April 2011, CEO Norio Sasaki declared nuclear energy would “remain as a strong option” even after the Fukushima I nuclear accidents.[94]

In late 2013, Toshiba (Japan) entered the solar power business in Germany, installing PV systems on apartment buildings.[95]

Slogans

  • “Ello Tosh, Gotta Toshiba?” (1985- UK)
  • “In Touch With Tomorrow” (1984–2008)
  • “Dunia Mengakuinya” (English: “The World Acknowledges It”, 1984–2008, Indonesia only)
  • “Leading Innovation” (2008–present)

See also

  • List of Toshiba subsidiaries
  • List of Texas companies (T)

References

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  35. ^ “Toshiba Announces Industry’s First Qi v1.2 Certified 15W Wireless Power Receiver IC”. Business Wire. 16 September 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
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  39. ^ Ando, Ritsuko; Sano, Hideyuki; Desai, Umesh (14 May 2015). “Toshiba eyes three-year profit markdown in accounts probe; impact seen limited, shares up”. Reuters. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  40. ^ “Toshiba CEO quits over $1.2 billion accounting scandal”. CNN. 22 July 2015.
  41. ^ “Toshiba CEO resigns over faked profits”. CNN Money. 21 July 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
  42. ^ Ritsuko Ando (21 July 2015). “Toshiba CEO quits over accounting scandal”. Reuters. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  43. ^ Kitanaka, Anna; Sano, Nao (7 August 2015). “Japan Shame Index Dumps Toshiba After Scandal, Adds Olympus”. Bloomberg Business. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  44. ^ BBC News. “Toshiba troubles continue with new losses and falling sales”. 14 September 2015. 22 September 2015.
  45. ^ Alpeyev, Pavel; Amano, Takashi (29 December 2015). “Toshiba Seeks $2.5 Billion Credit Line to Pay for Reforms”. Bloomberg. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
  46. ^ “Toshiba nominates new CEO in bid to put accounting scandal behind it”. Business Insider. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  47. ^ Mochizuki, Takashi; Fukase, Atsuko (6 May 2016). “Toshiba Announces New Chief Executive After Accounting Scandal”. Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
  48. ^ Makiko Yamazaki, Taiga Uranaka (14 February 2017). “Delays, confusion as Toshiba reports $6.3 billion nuclear hit and slides to loss”. Reuters. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  49. ^ “Toshiba chairman quits over nuclear loss”. BBC News. 14 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  50. ^ Karishma Vaswani (14 February 2017). “Toshiba: Why troubled Japanese firms survive”. BBC News. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  51. ^ Crooks, Ed (17 February 2016). “Toshiba brought to its knees by two US nuclear plants”. Financial Times. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  52. ^ Tom Hals, Makiko Yamazaki, Tim Kelly (30 March 2017). “Huge nuclear cost overruns push Toshiba’s Westinghouse into bankruptcy”. Reuters. Retrieved 31 March 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
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  66. ^ INCJ, Hitachi, Sony and Toshiba Sign Definitive Agreements Regarding Integration of Small- and Medium-Sized Display Businesses
  67. ^ “Toshiba : Management Structure”. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
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  85. ^ “Toshiba Gives Up On HD DVD; To Be Out By End Of March”. Forbes. 19 Feb 2008. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
  86. ^ “Toshiba joins Blu-ray disc camp”. BBC News. 10 August 2009. Retrieved 6 January 2010.
  87. ^ https://www.toshiba.co.jp/about/ir/en/news/20150129_1.pdf
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  93. ^ “Nuclear Reactor Maps: Fukushima-Daiichi”. Nuclear Transparency in the Asia Pacific. Archived from the original on 15 February 2005. Retrieved 21 March 2011.
  94. ^ Yasu, Mariko; Maki Shiraki (22 April 2011). “Silver lining in sight for makers of solar panels”. The Japan Times online. Archived from the original on 23 April 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011. For Toshiba, Japan’s biggest maker of nuclear reactors, atomic energy still has the edge over other power sources. “Even if we hypothetically say an accident occurs once in every 30 years and that we need to consider the cost for radiation leak problems, we’re also left with an issue of reducing carbon dioxide”, Toshiba President Norio Sasaki said in Tokyo last week. “Nuclear power will remain as a strong option.”
  95. ^ “Renewables 2014 Global Status Report, page 50” (PDF). Retrieved 30 December 2016.

External links

  • Toshiba Worldwide portal
    • Business data for Tōshiba (TOSYY): Google Finance
    • Yahoo! Finance
    • Bloomberg
    • Reuters
    • SEC filings

    for US traded stock

    • Business data for Tōshiba (TOSBF): Google Finance
    • Yahoo! Finance
    • Bloomberg
    • Reuters

    for US traded stock

  • Business data for Tōshiba (TYO:6502) at Tokyo Stock Exchange, Inc.
  • Business data for Tōshiba (NAG:6502) at Nagoya Stock Exchange, Inc.


Acer Inc.

Taiwanese hardware and electronics corporation

Acer Inc.
宏碁股份有限公司
Native name
宏碁股份有限公司
Formerly
Multitech (1976–1987)
Type
Public
Traded as TWSE: 2353
LSE: ACID
Industry Computer hardware
Electronics
Founded 1 August 1976; 42 years ago (1976-08-01)
Founder Stan Shih
Carolyn Yeh
George Huang
Headquarters Xizhi, New Taipei, Taiwan
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
  • Stan Shih (Honorary Chairman)
  • George Huang (Chairman)
  • Jason Chen (CEO and President)
Products Desktops, laptops, netbooks, servers, smartphones, tablet computers, storage, handhelds, monitors, televisions LED, LCD & Plasma, video projectors, e-business
Revenue IncreaseNT$237.275 billion (2017)[1]
Operating income
Increase NT$3.670 billion (2017)
Net income
Decrease NT$2.797 billion (2017)
Total assets Decrease NT$157.613 billion (2017)
Total equity Decrease NT$57.319 billion (2017)
Number of employees
7,967 (2015)[2]
Subsidiaries Gateway, Inc. (now-defunct)
Packard Bell
eMachines (now-defunct)
Escom (now-defunct)
Website www.acer.com

Acer Inc. (/ˈsər/ AY-sər; Chinese: 宏碁股份有限公司; pinyin: Hóngjī Gǔfèn Yǒuxiàn Gōngsī, lit. Hongji Corporation Ltd.; commonly known as Acer and stylized as acer) is a Taiwanese multinational hardware and electronics corporation, specializing in advanced electronics technology, headquartered in Xizhi, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Acer’s products include desktop PCs, laptop PCs (clamshells, 2-in-1s, convertibles and Chromebooks), tablets, servers, storage devices, virtual reality devices, displays, smartphones and peripherals.

Acer also sells gaming PCs and accessories under its Predator brand. In the early 2000s, Acer implemented a new business model, shifting from a manufacturer to a designer, marketer and distributor of products, while performing production processes via contract manufacturers.[3] In 2015, Acer was the sixth-largest personal computer vendor in the world.[4] Currently, in addition to its core IT products business, Acer also has a new business entity that focuses on the integration of cloud services and platforms, and the development of smartphones and wearable devices with value-added IoT applications.[5]

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 2013 Re-Organisation
  • 3 Acquisitions and joint ventures
  • 4 Operations

    • 4.1 Australia
    • 4.2 Europe
    • 4.3 India
    • 4.4 Indonesia
    • 4.5 North America
  • 5 Notable product lines
  • 6 Brands
  • 7 Corporate social responsibility
  • 8 Sponsorships
  • 9 See also
  • 10 References
  • 11 External links

History

Acer was founded by Stan Shih (施振榮), his wife Carolyn Yeh, and a group of five others as Multitech in 1976, headquartered in Hsinchu City, Taiwan.

The company began with eleven employees and US$25,000 in capital. Initially, it was primarily a distributor of electronic parts and a consultant in the use of microprocessor technologies. It produced the Micro-Professor MPF-I training kit, then two Apple II clones; the Microprofessor II and III before joining the emerging IBM PC compatible market, and becoming a significant PC manufacturer. The company was renamed Acer in 1987.

In 1998, Acer reorganized into five groups: Acer International Service Group, Acer Sertek Service Group, Acer Semiconductor Group, Acer Information Products Group, and Acer Peripherals Group. To dispel complaints from clients that Acer competed with its own products and to alleviate the competitive nature of the branded sales vs. contract manufacturing businesses, in 2000 the company spun off the contract business, renaming it Wistron Corporation. The restructuring resulted in two primary units: brand name sales and contract manufacturing. In 2001 the company got rid of its manufacturing units, BenQ and Wistron to focus resources on design and sales.

Acer increased worldwide sales while simultaneously reducing its labor force by identifying and using marketing strategies that best utilized their existing distribution channels. By 2005, Acer employed a scant 7,800 people worldwide. Revenues rose from US$4.9 billion in 2003[6] to US$11.31 billion in 2006.

Acer’s North American market share has slipped over the past few years, while in contrast, the company’s European market share has risen.[7]

In the mid-2000s years, consumer notebooks have been almost the sole growth drivers for the PC industry, and Acer’s exceptionally low overheads and dedication to the channel had made it one of the main beneficiaries of this trend.[8] Acer grew quickly in Europe in part by embracing the use of more traditional distribution channels targeting retail consumers when some rivals were pursuing online sales and business customers. In 2007 Acer bought Gateway in the USA and Packard Bell in Europe and became the Number 3 world provider of computers and number 2 for notebooks, and achieved significant improvement in profitability. Acer has been striving to become the world’s largest PC vendor, in the belief that the goal can help it achieve economy of scale and garner higher margin.[9] But such a reliance on the high-volume, low-value PC market made Acer exposed when buying habits changed.

2013 Re-Organisation

In November 2013 Chairman and CEO J.T. Wang, and President Jim Wong, both resigned due to the company’s poor financial performance. Wang had been reportedly due to leave Acer at year end, and was supposed to have been succeeded by Wong. Acer co-founder Stan Shih took over as board chairman and interim president after the departure of Wang and Wong and began to search for new candidates to assume the roles of CEO and president. On 23 December, Acer named Jason Chen, vice president of worldwide sales and marketing at Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing, as its new president and CEO, effective 1 January.[10]

Acquisitions and joint ventures

  • In 1988, Acer acquired Counterpoint Computers.
  • In 1990, Acer acquired Altos Computer Corporation.
  • In 1993, Acer acquired the PC division of Commodore International.[11]
  • In 1997, Acer acquired Texas Instruments notebook computer business.
  • On 27 August 2007, Acer announced plans to acquire its US-based rival Gateway, Inc. for US$710 million. Acer’s former chairman, J.T. Wang, stated that the acquisition “completes Acer’s global footprint, by strengthening our United States presence”.[12] Included in this acquisition was the eMachines brand.
  • In January 2008, Acer announced that it had acquired a controlling interest of 75% of Packard Bell.[13]
  • In March 2008, Acer acquired: E-TEN.
  • In 2009, Acer acquired 29.9% of Olidata.
  • In August 2010, Acer and Founder Technology signed a memorandum of mutual understanding to strengthen their long term PC business cooperation.
  • In July 2011, Acer Inc. bought iGware Inc. for $320 million to try to enter the potentially lucrative cloud market.[14] iGware creates cloud software and infrastructure tools for devices.[15]
  • In September 2015, Acer acquired GPS cycling computer brand Xplova.[16]
  • In September 2015, Acer invested in robotics start-up company Jibo.[17]
  • In March 2016, Acer made an equity investment in grandPad, a provider of technology solutions specifically designed for senior citizens.[18]
  • In June 2016, Acer’s Board of Directors approved the establishment of a joint venture with Starbreeze AB to design, manufacture, promote, market and sell StarVR Virtual Reality Head-Mounted Displays.[19]
  • In 2016, Acer acquired wireless pet camera maker Pawbo.[20]
  • In 2017, Acer became largest corporate shareholder of AOPEN Inc.[21]

Operations

Acer has 7,000+ employees worldwide, operates in 70 countries, and has approximately 95,000 retail locations spread throughout 160+ countries.

Australia

The Australian subsidiary of Acer is Acer Computer Australia (ACA). The subsidiary was established in 1990, and is currently Australia’s third-largest personal computer vendor, behind Hewlett-Packard Australia and Dell Australia and New Zealand. Acer Computer Australia has Australia’s highest overall market share in notebook PC and tablet PC sales. The company is also Australia’s leading PC vendor in government and education markets. Acer Computer Australia has 480 employees as of 2006.

The company repairs, assembles and manufacturers laptops and desktops in Sydney.[22][23]

Europe

Acer’s EMEA headquarters are located in Lugano, Switzerland. From the late 90’s to mid-2000’s Acer had computer factories in Europe. The business area was the whole EMEA. In the Netherlands under the name of Acer IMS bv there were two factories: Acer laptop factory in Den Bosch and Acer and IBM desktop factory in Tilburg.[24][25] Acer also had facilities in Germany under the name of IMS in Ahrensburg and Hamburg.

India

Acer’s subsidiary in India is Acer India (Pvt) Limited, and was incorporated as a wholly owned subsidiary of Acer Computer International, Ltd. in 1999. It is a notable vendor in key segments such as education, desktop computers and low profile notebooks for education. The headquarters is in Bangalore, India.

Indonesia

PT Acer Indonesia is a wholly owned subsidiary of Acer Inc and distributes their products through their main distributor PT Dragon Computer & Communication. Acer is currently the second largest computer vendor in Indonesia. In Q1 2016, Acer recorded >81% market share in Windows tablet in Indonesia.

North America

Acer America Headquarters in San Jose

Acer America Corporation, headquartered in San Jose, California, is a member of the Acer Group. Acer’s R&D, engineering, manufacturing, and marketing operations in the United States and Canada are handled by Acer America. The U.S. headquarters was opened with a staff of three in 1985, as Multitech Electronics USA, in Mountain View, California. In 1986, the U.S. headquarters was moved to San Jose, California.

Notable product lines

  • Extensa series
  • Acer Iconia
  • Acer Aspire
  • Acer TravelMate
  • Acer Predator
  • Acer Aspire One
  • Acer TimelineX

Brands

  • Acer
  • eMachines (now defunct)
  • Gateway (now defunct)
  • Packard Bell
  • Predator
  • Pawbo
  • Xplova

Corporate social responsibility

In 2005, Acer published its first environmental report, for which the company used the GRI guidelines.[26] All of Acer’s tier-one suppliers have acquired ISO 14001 certification.[27]

In November 2012, Acer was ranked 4th place out of 15 in Greenpeace’s re-launched Guide to Greener Electronics, with a score of 5.1 points out of 10. The Guide ranks electronics makers according to their policies and practices to reduce their impact on the climate, produce greener products, and make their operations more sustainable.[28]

Greenpeace criticized the company for not setting out targets to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as intended in 2010 and for not providing external verification for the GHG emissions it reports for its operations and business travel. It also scored badly on the products criteria receiving no points on product lifecycle while Greenpeace noted that a higher percentage of its products need to meet or exceed Energy Star standards in order for it to score more points.[28]

It received some praise for launching new products which are free from polyvinyl chloride plastic (PVC) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and the company informed Greenpeace
that the majority of its products will be PVC/BFR free in the near future. Acer also scored well on chemical management for lobbying for restrictions on organo-halogens and was commended for reporting on GHG emissions from its first-tier suppliers and investigating its second tier.[28]

In its 2012 report on progress relating to conflict minerals, the Enough Project rated Acer the seventh highest of 24 consumer electronics companies.[29]

Acer has been listed on the DJSI’s Emerging Markets Index since 2014 and on MSCI’s Global Sustainability Indexes since 2015.[30]

Sponsorships

  • Acer sponsored the BAR-Honda Formula One racing team in the year 2000.[31] In 2001, Acer provided sponsorship to the Prost Grand Prix Formula One team, and the team’s Ferrari engines were badged as Acers.
  • Acer sponsored the Ferrari Formula 1 team from 2003 up to 2012 (Official Supplier since 2006) and its Top Sponsor of FC Internazionale – Milano (Inter Milan) Football Club. From 2007 to 2009 Acer has been Official Supplier of FC Barcelona.[32] On 19 March 2007, Acer announced it would sponsor the Factory Fiat Yamaha Team for the 2007 MotoGP World Championship season. Since 2009, Packard Bell (part of Acer Group) has been the sponsor of the Yamaha Factory Racing Team.[33]
  • In 2010, Acer sponsored Army United F.C., a football team in the Thai Premier League.[citation needed]
  • Acer was the worldwide TOP Partners for both the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games and Singapore Youth Olympic Games. Acer was TOP Partner of the London 2012 Summer Olympics.[citation needed]

See also

  • Acer Value Line
  • E-TEN
  • eMachines
  • Packard Bell
  • Gateway, Inc.
  • BenQ, formerly Acer CM
  • ACC (computer company)
  • AOpen, formerly AcerOpen
  • List of companies in Taiwan
  • Microprofessor I, Acer’s first product
  • List of computer system manufacturers
  • ALi, formerly Acer Laboratories Incorporated
  • Wistron, formerly the manufacturing arm of Acer Inc.

References

  1. ^ https://static.acer.com/up/Resource/AcerGroup/Investor_Relations/Annual_Reports/20180529/2017_Acer_AnnualReport_EN.pdf
  2. ^ “Forbes Global 2000 #1131: Acer”. Fortune. April 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations, Bart Sleb, 2005
  4. ^ “Gartner Says Worldwide PC Shipments Declined 8.3 Percent in Fourth Quarter of 2015”. www.gartner.com. Retrieved 2016-02-17.
  5. ^ “Acer Separates New and Core Businesses to Accelerate Corporate Transformation | Business Wire”. www.businesswire.com. Retrieved 2016-12-19.
  6. ^ “Gianfranco Lanci is appointed President of Acer Inc., effective January 2005” (PDF). Acer. 1 September 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 April 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2007.
  7. ^ “PC market surged in 2005, will settle in 2006”. cnet. 18 January 2006. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2007.
  8. ^ “Acer boss throws in the towel – Corporate – News – HEXUS.net”. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  9. ^ “Acer Should Overhaul Its Operation: Stan Shih” Archived 9 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ “Acer names semiconductor veteran as new CEO”. PC World. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  11. ^ PC Dealer and Computer Reseller, Issue 795, Nov. 24, 1993
  12. ^ “Taiwan’s Acer to buy PC maker Gateway – World business”. MSNBC. 27 August 2007. Archived from the original on 5 May 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
  13. ^ “Acer Buys 75 Percent of Packard Bell making it the 2nd largest computer maker in the world”. Washington Post. 31 January 2008. Archived from the original on 17 January 2010. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
  14. ^ “Acer to buy cloud computing firm iGware”. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  15. ^ Don Reisinger, CNET. “Acer to acquire cloud-service provider iGware.” 21 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  16. ^ “Acer acquires GPS firm Xplova | Economics | FOCUS TAIWAN – CNA ENGLISH NEWS”. Retrieved 2016-12-28.
  17. ^ “Acer invests in robotics start-up company Jibo – Taipei Times”. www.taipeitimes.com. Retrieved 2016-12-29.
  18. ^ “grandPad® and Acer Announce Strategic Partnership”. PRWeb. Retrieved 2016-12-28.
  19. ^ “Acer and Starbreeze Boards Approve Definitive Agreement to form Joint Venture for StarVR – Starbreeze”. Starbreeze. 2016-06-25. Retrieved 2016-12-28.
  20. ^ “Acer reveals ‘Pawbo’ pet accessories”. Engadget. Retrieved 2016-12-28.
  21. ^ “AOPEN® & ACER® Gear Up to Expand Global Footprint”. www.aopen.com. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  22. ^ “Nocookies”. The Australian. Retrieved 2018-09-08.
  23. ^ “Inside Acer’s Australian computer facility”. CRN Australia. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
  24. ^ Article in Dutch about moving the last German factory to Tilburg http://www.computable.nl/artikel/nieuws/133960/250449/duitse-pcproductie-acer-naar-tilburg.html
  25. ^ Article in Dutch about the factory in Tilburg “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) is a multi-stakeholder process and independent institution whose mission is to develop and disseminate globally applicable Sustainability Reporting Guidelines.
  27. ^ ISO 14001 was released in 1996 with the intent that companies manage all of the activities, products, and services that can significantly impact the environment
  28. ^ abc “Guide to Greener Electronics – Greenpeace International”. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  29. ^ Lezhnev, Sasha; Alex Hellmuth (Aug 2012). “Taking Conflict Out of Consumer Gadgets: Company Rankings on Conflict Minerals 2012” (PDF). Enough Project. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
  30. ^ “News & Recognition”. www.acer-group.com. Retrieved 2016-12-27.
  31. ^ “Sport and technology: the true spirit of excellence”. www.acer-group.com. Acer Inc. 6 December 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
  32. ^ About Acer – News Release Archived 19 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  33. ^ “Packard Bell sponsor of Yamaha Factory Racing Team Changeover of sponsorship from Acer”. www.acer-group.com. Acer Inc. 2 February 2009. Retrieved 3 June 2014.

External links

  • Official website


Gateway, Inc.

Gateway Inc.
Type
Subsidiary
Industry Computer hardware, software & services
Fate Acquired by Acer Inc. on October 16, 2007
Founded September 5, 1985; 33 years ago (1985-09-05) (as Gateway 2000)
October 31, 1998 (1998-10-31) (as Gateway)
Sioux City, Iowa, U.S.
Headquarters Irvine, California, U.S.
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
  • James Edward Coleman, CEO
  • Rick Snyder, Chairman
  • Ted Waitt, Co-Founder
  • Mike Hammond, Co-Founder
Products Desktops, laptops, servers, monitors
Revenue IncreaseUS$3.980 billion (2006)
Number of employees
2,000
Parent Acer Inc. (2007)
Subsidiaries eMachines (now-defunct)
Website www.gateway.com

Gateway Inc., previously Gateway 2000, was an American computer hardware company based in South Dakota and later California, that developed, manufactured, supported, and marketed a wide range of personal computers, computer monitors, servers, and computer accessories.

It was acquired by Acer in October 2007.[1][2]

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Current and previous products

    • 2.1 Previous hardware
  • 3 See also
  • 4 References
  • 5 External links

History

Gateway logo used from 1985 to 1998.

Gateway logo used from 2002 to 2006.

Gateway was founded on September 5, 1985,[3] on a farm outside Sioux City, Iowa, by Ted Waitt and Mike Hammond.[4] Originally called Gateway 2000, it was one of the first widely successful direct-sales PC companies, utilizing a sales model copied from Dell, and playing up its Iowa roots with low-tech advertisements proclaiming “Computers from Iowa?”

Gateway 2000 was also an innovator in low-end computers with the first sub-$1,000 name-brand PC, the all-in-one Astro.[5]

Gateway built brand recognition in part by shipping computers in spotted boxes patterned after Holstein cow markings. In 1989, Gateway moved its corporate offices and production facilities to North Sioux City, South Dakota. In line with the Holstein cow mascot, Gateway opened a chain of farm-styled retail stores called Gateway Country Stores, mostly in suburban areas across the United States. It dropped the “2000” from its name on October 31, 1998.[6]

AOL acquired Gateway.net, the online component of Gateway, Inc., in October 1999 for US$800 million.[7]

To grow beyond its model of selling high-end PCs by phone, and to attract top management and engineers, Gateway relocated its base of operations to La Jolla, California, in May 1998.[8] In an effort to cut operating costs, Gateway made another move, this time to Poway, California, in October 2001. After acquiring eMachines in 2004, Gateway again relocated its corporate headquarters, to Irvine, California.[9][10][11]

In 2003, the Securities and Exchange Commission filed fraud charges against three former Gateway executives: CEO Jeff Weitzen, former chief financial officer John Todd, and former controller Robert Manza.[12] The lawsuit alleged that the executives engaged in securities violations and misled investors about the health of the company.[12] Weitzen was cleared of securities fraud in 2006, however, Todd and Manza were found liable for inflating revenue in a jury trial which concluded in March 2007.[13]

In 2002, Gateway expanded into the consumer electronics world with products that included plasma screen TVs, digital cameras, DLP projectors, wireless Internet routers, and MP3 players. While the company enjoyed some success in gaining substantial market share from traditional leaders in the space, particularly with plasma TVs and digital cameras, the limited short-term profit potential of those product lines led then-CEO Wayne Inouye to pull the company out of that segment during 2004. Gateway still acts as a retailer selling third-party electronic goods online.

Gateway resourced customer support within North America, priding itself as “100% North America-based support”.[citation needed] Gateway also moved build-to-order desktop, laptop, and server manufacturing back to the United States, with the opening of its Gateway Configuration Center in Nashville, Tennessee, in September 2006. It employed 385 people in that location. By April 2007, Gateway notebook computers were produced in China and its desktops had “made in Mexico” stickers.

On October 16, 2007, Acer completed its acquisition of Gateway.[14]

Current and previous products

Previous hardware

In September 2002, Gateway entered the consumer electronics market with aggressively priced plasma TVs. At the time, Gateway’s US$2,999 price for a 42″ plasma TV undercut name brand competitors by thousands of dollars per unit. In 2003, the company expanded the range of plasma TVs and added digital cameras, MP3 players, and other devices. By early 2004, in terms of volume, Gateway had moved into a leadership position in the plasma TV category in the United States. However, pressure to achieve profits after the acquisition of eMachines led the company to phase Gateway-branded consumer electronics out of their product line.

See also

  • List of computer system manufacturers

References

  1. ^ “Gateway computer co-founder Michael Hammond is dead at 53”. CNN.com. November 4, 2015. Gateway started closing stores, sales stagnated, and the company sold itself to Taiwanese computing giant Acer for $710 million in 2007. Acer still sells a small handful of Gateway-branded PCs as part of its budget computer lineup. Hammond was born on November 28, 1961, in Des Moines, Iowa.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “Acer Inc. – Gateway, Inc.: Completion of Merger”. Acer. Business Wire.
  3. ^ “What Ever Happened To Gateway?”. Starting in 1985, Gateway 2000 was the original moniker of Gateway computers. Shipped in Holstein cow markings boxes to accent the rural …
  4. ^ “Gateway Inc. Co-Founder Mike Hammond Dies at Age 53”. The New York Times. Associated Press. 2 November 2015.
  5. ^ “Hands-On – Gateway Astro”. June 1, 2000. Gateway’s Astro .. affordable and compact .. in a single unit
  6. ^ “Gateway: One awesome ride”. Sioux City Journal. December 16, 2007.
  7. ^ “Gateway closes AOL chapter with stock buyback”. CNET.
  8. ^ Crockett, Roger O. “Gateway Loses the Folksy Shtick: CEO Waitt Looks West to Lure Sophisticated Talent”. BusinessWeek. Retrieved 2009-02-10.
  9. ^ “Technology Briefing, Hardware: Gateway Plans Move”. New York Times. April 1, 2004. Retrieved 2007-06-12.
  10. ^ Freeman, Mike. “Gateway Inc. to leave Poway”. San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2007-06-12.
  11. ^ “Gateway, Inc.: Private Company Information – Bloomberg”. www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2017-08-23.
  12. ^ ab Kawamoto, Dawn (14 November 2003). “Former Gateway CEO, two others charged with fraud”. CNET. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  13. ^ “Ex-Gateway executives found liable in accounting fraud”. Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. 9 March 2007. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  14. ^ http://global.acer.com/about/news.asp?id=6775 About Acer – News Release] Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine.

External links

  • Official website
  • Gateway 2000 at the Wayback Machine (archive index)
  • Gateway 2000 at the Wayback Machine (archive index)
  • eMachines official website