J.Crew Group, Inc.
Industry Retail
Founded 1947; 72 years ago (1947) (as Popular Merchandise, Inc.)
1983 (1983) (as J.Crew)
Founders Mitchell Cinader
Saul Charles
Headquarters 770 Broadway,
New York City, New York, U.S.
Number of locations
575 (2017)[1]
Key people
Millard Drexler
Products Clothing, shoes and accessories
Revenue DecreaseUS$ 2.426 billion (2016)[2]
Operating income
Increase US$ 49 million (2016)[2]
Net income
Increase US$ -23.5 million (2016)[2]
Total assets Decrease US$ 1.433 billion (2016)[2]
Total equity Decrease US$ -786 million (2016)[2]
Owner TPG Capital and Leonard Green & Partners[3]
Number of employees
9,950 (2016)[4]
Divisions J.Crew
The Liquor Store
The Ludlow Shop
J.Crew Factory
J.Crew Mercantile
Website JCrew.com

J.Crew Group, Inc., is an American multi-brand, multi-channel, specialty retailer. The company offers an assortment of women’s, men’s and children’s apparel and accessories, including swimwear, outerwear, lounge-wear, wedding, bags, sweaters, denim, dresses, suiting, jewelry, and shoes. As of August 2016, it operates more than 450 retail stores throughout the United States.[5] The company conducts its business through retail, factory, crew cuts, Madewell stores, catalogs and online.[6]


  • 1 History

    • 1.1 Formation and catalog growth
    • 1.2 Name change and first stores
    • 1.3 Privatization
    • 1.4 Recent
  • 2 Retail stores
  • 3 Marketing
  • 4 References
  • 5 External links


Formation and catalog growth

In 1947, Mitchell Cinader and Saul Charles founded Popular Merchandise, Inc., a store which did business as Popular Club Plan and sold low-priced women’s clothing marketed through in-home demonstrations.[7] Throughout the mid-1980s, sales from catalog operations grew rapidly. “Growth was explosive—25 to 30 percent a year,” Cinader later recollected in The New York Times. Annual sales grew from $3 million to more than $100 million over five years.[7] In 1985, the “Clifford & Wills” brand was launched, selling women’s clothing that was more affordable than the Popular Merchandise line.[8] In 1987, two executives left the company to start their own catalog, Tweeds.[9]

The 1980s marked a booming sales period for catalog retail giants Lands’ End, Talbots, and L. L. Bean. Popular Merchandise initiated its own catalog operation, focusing on leisurewear for upper-middle-class customers, aiming for a Ralph Lauren look at a much lower price. The first Popular Club Plan catalog was mailed to customers in January 1983 and continued under that name until 1989. Popular Club Plan catalogs often showed the same garment in more than one picture with close-up shots of the fabrics, so customers could get a sense of how the garment looked on the body and be assured of the company’s claims of quality.[citation needed]

Name change and first stores

In 1983, Popular Merchandise, Inc. became known as J.Crew, Inc. The company attempted, but failed to sell the Popular Club Plan brand.[7] Also in 1989, J.Crew opened its first retail store, in South Street Seaport in downtown Manhattan.[10]

J.Crew Group was owned by the Cinader family for most of its existence, but in October 1997 investment firm Texas Pacific Group Inc. purchased a majority stake. By the year 2000, Texas Pacific held an approximate 62 percent stake, a group of J.Crew managers held about 10 percent, and Emily Cinader Woods, the chairman of J.Crew, along with her father, Arthur Cinader, held most of the remainder.[citation needed] The brand Clifford & Wills was sold to Speigel, Inc. in 2000 with the intent to boost sales.[8] In 2004, J.Crew bought the rights to the brand Madewell, a defunct workwear manufacturer founded in 1937, and used the name from 2006 onwards as “a modern-day interpretation”, targeted at younger women than their main brand.[11][12][13]


A Madewell store at Easton Town Center in Columbus, Ohio

In 2011, TPG Capital LP and Leonard Green & Partners LP privatized J.Crew in a $3 billion leveraged buyout.[1] On November 23, 2010, the company had agreed to be taken private in a $3 billion deal led by management with the backing of TPG Capital and Leonard Green & Partners, two large private equity firms. The announcement of the offer from two investment firms—including one that used to own J.Crew—came as the retailer reported that its third-quarter net income fell by 14 percent due to weak women’s clothing sales. The company also lowered its guidance for the 2010 year. Under the deal as proposed, J.Crew shareholders would receive $43.50 per share in cash, representing a 16 percent premium to the stock’s closing price the prior day of $37.65. CEO Mickey Drexler, the former Gap Inc. chief credited with turning J.Crew around since coming aboard in 2003, remained in that role and retained a “significant” stake in the company (as of September 2010, he holds 5.4% of outstanding shares). TPG, one of the investment firms in the deal, took a majority stake in J.Crew Group Inc. in 1997 and remained majority shareholder until the company went public in 2006.[14]

Shortly after the announcement of the deal, some in the business community criticized the terms of the deal involving the company’s CEO and a majority shareholder.[15] As a result, the “go-shop” period was extended shortly after the initial announcement.[16] In addition, several investigations relating to potential shareholder actions against the company were announced.[17] After the deal, TPG and Leonard Green borrowed more to help finance dividends totaled $787 million to them.[1]


In June 2015, The New York Times reported that J.Crew’s women’s division was undergoing a slump because of the company’s failure to react to two market trends: cheap “fast fashion” and “athleisure” items.[18] In 2016, J.Crew partnered with Nordstrom to begin selling their products in stores and online.[19] In December 2016, the company faced litigation after it moved its intellectual property “out of the reach of lenders.”[20]

In April 2017, the company cut 250 jobs, largely from its headquarters.[20] The company also underwent several management changes, and long-term creative director Jenna Lyons left the company in April.[21] The brand’s longtime head of menswear, Frank Muytjens, left the company that month as well,[22] and in June 2017, the company’s CEO, Mickey Drexler, announced that he would later be stepping down as CEO role after 14 years with the company.[23] Drexler announced he would stay on as chairman and still own 10% of the company.[24] On June 12, 2017, J.Crew Group Inc. announced it had “made an offer to some of its bondholders to push back its most pressing debt obligation—about $567 million due in May 2019—and amend its term loan.” At the time, J.Crew Group had around $2 billion in debt.[20] Also in 2017, Drexler approached Amazon Inc about selling J.Crew to the tech giant.[25]

In the summer of 2017, the company avoided a bankruptcy filing by having bondholders do a debt swap tapping into its brand name value. The majority of the bondholders agreed to the deal, with several others failing to stock the deal with a lawsuit. The deal lowered the company’s debt.[26]

On February 16, 2018, J.Crew hired long-time Starbucks executive, Adam Brotman as president and chief experience officer.[27]

In November 2018, J.Crew announced its CEO, James Brett would step down and be replaced by an office of the CEO consisting of four senior executives from J.Crew. Brett took up the position in June 2017.[28] The company released a press release stating Brett’s departure was a “mutual agreement” between Brett and the company’s board of directors. Brett will be replaced by Michael Nicholson, president and COO, Adam Brotman, president and chief experience officer, Lynda Markoe, chief administrative officer, and Libby Wadle, president of Madewell Brand. The new office of the CEO will be responsible of managing J.Crew’s operations as the board establishes a permanent management structure.[29][30] On November 29, J.Crew announced the dissolution of their Nevereven, Mercantile and J.Crew Home sub-brands.[31]

Retail stores

J.Crew at South Shore Plaza
in Braintree, Massachusetts

The company operates 575 retail stores, including 281 J.Crew stores, 113 Madewell stores, and 181 J.Crew Factory (including 39 J.Crew Mercantile) outlet locations, as reported in 2017.[1] The company also operates internationally in Canada, France, UK, China, and Korea. Additionally, the company has 76 locations in Japan, which are operated under license by ITOCHU Corporation.[32]

In March 1989, the first J.Crew retail outlet opened in the South Street Seaport in Manhattan, and the company planned to open 45 more stores. Five months after the opening of its first store, J.Crew added two new catalog lines: “Classics” and “Collections.” “Collections” used more complicated designs and finer fabrics to create dressier and more expensive items, while “Classics” featured clothes that could be worn both to work and for leisure activities.[citation needed] In the fall of 1989, J.Crew opened three new stores in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts; San Francisco, California; and Costa Mesa, California, all locations with strong catalog sales. By the end of the year, retail sales nearly hit $10 million.[citation needed] Despite 1989, revenues that year were estimated at $320 million, J.Crew suffered a setback when its agreement to sell its Popular Club unit collapsed at the end that year. In addition, rumors circulated that the company’s Clifford & Wills low-priced women’s apparel catalog was doing poorly.[citation needed]

J.Crew saw revenues reach $400 million in 1990 but reported that its four existing stores had not yet started producing enough profits to cover their overheads. The next phase of store openings included outlets in Philadelphia, Cambridge, and Portland. The company scaled back its plans for opening retail stores from 45 stores to 30 or 35.[citation needed] In early 1991 the company hired a director of new marketing development and began efforts to expand their sales into Canada. In April 1991, J.Crew mailed 75,000 J.Crew catalogs and 60,000 Clifford & Wills catalogs to potential customers in the province of Ontario. Response rates to this effort were slightly lower than in the United States, but each order, on average, was higher.[citation needed] In 1992, J.Crew intensified its push into international markets by hiring a new vice-president for international development. The company already mailed hundreds of catalogs to customers in Japan and Europe, most of whom had become acquainted with J.Crew while traveling or living in the United States.[citation needed]

J.Crew in Markville Shopping Centre (now closed)

In 2011, J.Crew opened its first international store in the Yorkdale Shopping Centre in Toronto, Ontario.[33] In 2012, J.Crew announced four new Canadian locations: Edmonton, Alberta in West Edmonton Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia on Robson Street, and Toronto, Ontario in Fairview Mall and the Toronto Eaton Centre. All locations will carry women’s and men’s collections. Along with 5 new stores, although some of these stores have been closed recently. J.Crew announced to opening of two new factory stores in Canada, with one in Vaughan Mills and the other in Edmonton (The second J.Crew in Alberta)[34][35][36] Continuing with its expansion in the Greater Toronto Area, J.Crew opened at Markville Shopping Centre in 2013. In early 2014, J.Crew unveiled its new flagship location in Yorkville, Toronto.[citation needed]

In an interview with the Financial Times in 2011, CEO of J.Crew Mickey Drexler said that J.Crew would be expanding to the U.K. with their flagship store being on London’s Regent Street. He indicated that the company would be following up their recent expansion into Canada and Canadian e-commerce with a physical store in England, most likely followed by e-commerce elsewhere, such as France and Germany. Although a few locations were reviewed for the London store, including Covent Garden and the East End, the ultimate decision was to open on Regent Street.[37]

In early 2014, J.Crew announced plans to open brick-and-mortar locations in Asia – to be spearheaded by two establishments in Hong Kong. A women’s store is slated to open in the International Finance Centre, while a men’s shop is in the works for On Lan Street. Both opened for business in May 2014.[citation needed] By June 2017, J.Crew Group had around 600 stores, including about 460 J.Crew locations.[20]


Each year the company issues 24 editions of the J.Crew catalog, distributing more than 80 million copies.

J.Crew has been criticized for labeling its new super-small jeans as “size 000”.,[38] and for advertising them as “toothpick jeans”. Critics have said the labeling promotes vanity, a practice known as vanity sizing.[39] The “size 000” is smaller than a size zero and has three zeros, implying that it is two sizes smaller than the smallest normal size. This has caused people to question whether negative sizes will be available in the future,[40] and if the method of labeling should be changed.

In early 2011, J.Crew was under fire by conservative media outlets for an advertisement featuring its creative director and president, Jenna Lyons, painting her son’s toenails pink. Beneath the picture was a quote that read, “Lucky for me I ended up with a boy whose favorite color is pink.” Some people were of the opinion that J.Crew was challenging traditional gender identity roles, although author Jo B. Paoletti said that it was “no big deal”.[41]


  1. ^ abcd DiNapoli, Jessica (1 May 2017). “Exclusive: Blackstone’s GSO snaps up J. Crew debt in restructuring gambit”. Reuters. Retrieved 1 May 2017..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ abcde 300427223.html “J.Crew Group, Inc. Announces Fourth Quarter and Fiscal 2016 Results (21 Mar 2017)” Check |url= value (help). PRNewswire.com. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
  3. ^ “J. Crew Said to Be Talking With Banks About 2014 IPO”. Bloomberg News. 26 February 2014.
  4. ^ “PrivCo – Private Company Financial Report: J. CREW INC”. PrivCo.
  5. ^ Olson, Elizabeth. “J. Crew Wants to Reconnect With Its Base”. The New York Times. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
  6. ^ “Find Local Contractors – Home Remodeling Contractors on Ecnext”. wrightreports.ecnext.com.
  7. ^ abc “History of J. Crew Group, Inc. – FundingUniverse”. www.fundinguniverse.com.
  8. ^ ab “Spiegel to Buy Clifford & Wills From J. Crew”. Los Angeles Times. 22 December 1999.
  9. ^ “Excite -“. www1.excite.com.
  10. ^ “Help-About J.Crew”. www.jcrew.com.
  11. ^ “Help-About J.Crew”. www.jcrew.com.
  12. ^ Nosowitz, Dan. “How Madewell Bought And Sold My Family’s History”. Buzzfeed. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  13. ^ Milnes, Hilary. “How Madewell became J.Crew’s golden goose”. Digiday. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  14. ^ J Crew makes deal Yahoo Finance
  15. ^ Berman, Dennis K. (30 November 2010). “Inspecting J. Crew Deal in the Mirror”. The Wall Street Journal.
  16. ^ Prasad, Sakthi (18 January 2011). “UPDATE 1-J Crew to settle suit, extends go-shop period”. Reuters.
  17. ^ https://finance.yahoo.com/news/The-Law-Office-of-Joseph-bw-34721594.html?x=0&.v=1
  18. ^ Creswell, Julie (10 June 2015). “J. Crew Flounders in Fashion’s Shifting Tides”. Newspaper. New York Times. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  19. ^ “J.Crew to start selling its women’s apparel at Nordstrom”. Fortune. Retrieved 2017-02-08.
  20. ^ abcd Minaya, Ezequiel; Safdar, Khadeeja. “J.Crew Tries to Ease Debt Load as Sales Decline Continues”. Wall Street Journal. New York City, United States. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
  21. ^ LAUREN SHERMAN, Jenna Lyons Exits J.Crew businessoffashion.com APRIL 3, 2017
  22. ^ MAX BERLINGER, J.Crew and Frank Muytjens Have Parted Ways GQ 4/26/2017
  23. ^ Hayley Peterson, J.Crew CEO out after 14 years — here’s where he says the company went wrong businessinsider.com June 5, 2017
  24. ^ John Kell, J. Crew CEO Mickey Drexler Steps Down fortune.com June 5, 2017
  25. ^ J.Crew approached Amazon about a sale, chairman Mickey Drexler says Jason Del Rey, November 9, 2017
  26. ^ Biswas, Soma (21 September 2017). “Deal to Save J.Crew From Bankruptcy Angers High-Yield Debt Investors”. Wall Street Journal.
  27. ^ J.Crew has hired the Starbucks executive who transformed the coffee chain into a tech innovator Jason Del Rey, February 16, 2018
  28. ^ “J.Crew CEO James Brett steps down after just 17 months”.
  29. ^ Kerch, Steve. “J. Crew CEO steps down, replaced by 4-exec ‘Office of the CEO“.
  30. ^ Safdar, Khadeeja. “J.Crew CEO Exits After About a Year in Role”.
  31. ^ Jennings, Rebecca (30 November 2018). “J.Crew launched its newest brand 16 days ago. Now it’s closing”. Vox.com. Vox Media. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  32. ^ https://www.referenceforbusiness.com/history2/10/J-Crew-Group-Inc.html
  33. ^ “J. Crew to open first Canadian store at Yorkdale in August”. Toronto Star. 24 June 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  34. ^ http://www.robsonstreet.ca/directory/directory224.php?category=10&company=224
  35. ^ “CF Toronto Eaton Centre – Mall Stores”.
  36. ^ Mall, West Edmonton. “West Edmonton Mall – Website”. www.wem.ca.
  37. ^ Friedman, Vanessa (2011-10-11). “Lunch with the FT: Mickey Drexler”. Financial Times. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
  38. ^ “Size 000”. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
  39. ^ Merrick, Amy. “Who’s Buying J. Crew’s New XXXS Clothes?”. The New Yorker. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  40. ^ Adams, Erika. “J.Crew Now Comes in Size 000. Yeah. Three Zeros”. racked.com. Racked. Retrieved 30 July 2015.
  41. ^ Macedo, D. (2011, April 11). J.Crew ad showing boy with pink nail polish sparks debate on gender identity. Retrieved November 25, 2014, from http://www.foxnews.com/us/2011/04/11/jcrew-ad-showing-boy-pink-nail-polish-sparks-debate-gender-identity/

External links

  • Official website
  • Official page on Facebook


DirecTV, LLC.
The DirecTV Group, Inc. (2004–2015)
Industry Satellite television
Predecessor Hughes Electronics
Founded June 17, 1994; 24 years ago (1994-06-17) (as DirecTV)[1]
El Segundo, California


Areas served
United States, Latin America, the Caribbean /Americas
Products satellite pay television, pay-per-view, streaming television
Parent AT&T Communications (2015—present)
Subsidiaries DirecTV Now
DirecTV Arena
Website www.directv.com

A standard DirecTV satellite dish with Dual LNB on a brick wall

DirecTV is an American direct broadcast satellite service provider based in El Segundo, California and is a subsidiary of AT&T. Its satellite service, launched on June 17, 1994, transmits digital satellite television and audio to households in the United States, Latin America, Americas and the Caribbean.[2][3] Its primary competitors are Dish Network and cable television providers. On July 24, 2015, after receiving approval from the United States Federal Communications Commission and United States Department of Justice, AT&T acquired DirecTV in a transaction valued at $67.1 billion.[4][5]

As of Q1 2017, DirecTV U.S. had 21 million subscribers (26 million if combined with U-verse) and revenues of $12 billion.

On November 30, 2016, DirecTV Now, their internet streaming TV service, was launched.[6]


  • 1 History

    • 1.1 Hughes Electronics
    • 1.2 Becoming a standalone entity
    • 1.3 Expansion

      • 1.3.1 Acquisitions
    • 1.4 Subsidiary of AT&T (2015–present)
    • 1.5 DirecTV Now
  • 2 Satellites
  • 3 Receivers
  • 4 Access card history
  • 5 High-definition television (HDTV)
  • 6 4K television
  • 7 Local channels
  • 8 Programming
  • 9 Marketing

    • 9.1 DirecTV blimp
  • 10 Customer service

    • 10.1 Better Business Bureau review
  • 11 Consumer protection lawsuits and violations

    • 11.1 Washington State’s Attorney General civil complaint
    • 11.2 California class action lawsuit
    • 11.3 Telemarketing violations
    • 11.4 Deceptive advertising
  • 12 International operations
  • 13 See also
  • 14 References
  • 15 External links


Hughes Electronics

Hughes Electronics logo (1985–1990)

In 1953, Howard Hughes created the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), to which he transferred full ownership of Hughes Aircraft. Ostensibly created as a non-profit medical research foundation, HHMI was accused of being used by Hughes as a tax shelter.[7] Following Hughes’ death in 1976, HHMI was incorporated in 1977, and litigation ensued to determine whether it would be allowed to maintain its interest in Hughes Aircraft.[citation needed] In 1984, the court appointed a new board for HHMI, which proceeded to sell off Hughes Aircraft to General Motors on December 20, 1985, for an estimated $5.1 billion.[8] General Motors then merged Hughes Aircraft with its subsidiary Delco Electronics to create Hughes Electronics Corporation.[citation needed] The new subsidiary was initially composed of four units: Delco Electronics Company, Hughes Aircraft Company, Hughes Space and Communications Company, and Hughes Network Systems.[citation needed]

Stanley E. Hubbard founded United States Satellite Broadcasting (USSB) in 1981 and was a leading proponent for the development of direct-broadcast satellite service in the United States.[citation needed] USSB was awarded five frequencies by the FCC, at the coveted 101-degree west satellite location.[citation needed] Hughes Communications, Inc. was also awarded 27 frequencies at the same 101-degree location.[citation needed] After many years, the technology was developed to enable the building of very high-power satellites, and digital compression (MPEG-2) standards were developed that allowed multiple digital television channels to be sent through each satellite frequency.[citation needed]

Hughes attempted to create a joint venture with NBC, News Corp., and Cablevision in 1990, to launch the first high-power digital television service called Sky Cable.[9] Failing to do so, the company instead created DirecTV as a separate division and secured an agreement with USSB to build and launch the first high-power direct-broadcast satellite system.[citation needed] DirecTV’s name is a portmanteau of “direct” and “TV” (as in direct broadcast satellite television).[citation needed] Hughes/DirecTV then turned to Thomson Consumer Electronics (under the RCA, GE, and ProScan brands) to develop the digital satellite system for the service that would be capable of receiving 175 channels on a small 18-inch dish.[citation needed] These dishes utilized a new generation of smaller, lighter receiver dishes based on military technology introduced by the Global Broadcast System, which predated DirecTV’s viability by almost ten years.[citation needed] Hughes was awarded the contract to build and launch the new high-powered satellites, and USSB and DirecTV agreed that the new satellites would carry the two separate programming services: USSB and DirecTV.[citation needed]

The USSB and DirecTV programming services were launched on June 17, 1994.[citation needed]Digital Equipment Corporation provided the hardware for DirecTV, Matrixx Marketing (part of Cincinnati Bell) provided customer care via the Matrixx Plus department, and DBS Systems created the billing software.[citation needed] In December 1998, DirecTV acquired USSB for $1.3 billion, and combined the two satellite services.[10] In 1999, DirecTV acquired PrimeStar, a competitor in the satellite television industry, for $1.83 billion, dramatically increasing its share of the satellite television market in the US.[11]

In September 1996, Hughes purchased 70% of PanAmSat for $3 billion.[12] In 1997, GM spun off Delco Electronics from Hughes and transferred it to Delphi Automotive Systems.[13] That same year, Hughes Aircraft was sold to Raytheon for $9.5 billion.[14] Raytheon filed a lawsuit in 1999 accusing Hughes of overstating the value of Hughes Aircraft by $1 billion.[15] A $635.5-million settlement was reached in 2001.[16] In 2000, Hughes Space and Communications was sold to Boeing for $3.75 billion,[17] which it later claimed had also been overvalued by Hughes. Hughes later settled with Boeing for $360 million.[18] These sales left DirecTV, PanAmSat and Hughes Network Systems as the remaining components of Hughes Electronics.

Direct satellite broadcaster were mandated in 1992 to set aside 4% of its channel space for noncommercial educational and informational programming. DirecTV selected C-SPAN, EWTN and the Trinity Broadcasting Network from its current channel lineup plus request additional proposals from other programmers. DirecTV had given PBS Kids, PBS’s original application, carriage that did not count against the set aside six weeks before the deadline. DirecTV selected an additional six channels; Clara+Vision, Inspirational Life, NASA TV, PBS YOU, StarNet and WorldLink TV, for the mandate.[19]

Headquarters in California

In September 2000, GM executives, under pressure from GM’s shareholders as a result of its poor performance and the substantially greater market worth of Hughes, authorized Hughes executives to begin seeking buyers.[20] In 2001, News Corporation began negotiations to acquire Hughes Electronics in a deal worth $8 billion, which would allow News Corp. to expand its Sky Global Networks satellite television operations into the United States.[21] Negotiations with News Corp. ultimately failed, and Hughes entered into an agreement on October 28, 2001 to be purchased for $26 billion by EchoStar, owner of Dish Network.[22] However, the deal attracted significant opposition from the Department of Justice and the Federal Communications Commission for antitrust concerns, leading the two companies to withdraw the agreement in December 2002.[23] As part of the merger agreement, EchoStar was required to pay Hughes $600 million for the failure of the merger.[23]

On April 9, 2003, News Corporation agreed to purchase a 34% controlling interest in Hughes, including GM’s entire share of the company, for $6.6 billion, subject to SEC approval.[24] As part of the financing for the deal, Liberty Media agreed to take a $500-million option of stock in News Corporation that would be exercised upon the closing of the deal. Liberty, the second-largest shareholder in News Corp. after the Murdoch family with 18%, had originally planned to bid for DirecTV, but opted not to upon the agreement.[24] The FCC voted 3–2 along party lines on December 19, 2003 to approve the deal subject to conditions, forcing News Corp. to agree to arbitration for all disputes with carriers of its media broadcasters, and to provide content through DirecTV neutrally rather than favoring its own networks.[25]

Year Subscribers
1994 320,000
1995 1,200,000
1996 2,300,000
1997 3,301,000
1998 4,458,000
1999 6,679,000
2000 9,554,000
2001 10,218,000
2002 11,181,000
2003 12,290,000
2004 13,000,000
2005 15,000,000
2006 15,950,000
2007 16,830,000
2008 17,620,000
2009 18,081,000
2010 19,200,000
2012 19,900,000
2014 20,265,000

Becoming a standalone entity

In February 2004, Hughes announced its intent to focus solely on its satellite television operations and divest its other interests, renaming itself The DirecTV Group, Inc. on March 16, 2004 and changing its ticker symbol from “HS” to “DTV”.[26] In April of that year, it sold its controlling interest in PanAmSat to a private consortium led by Kohlberg Kravis Roberts for $3.53 billion.[27] On April 22, 2005, DirecTV spun off Hughes Network Systems into a separate entity and sold 50% of the new entity to SkyTerra, acquiring $157.4 million in the transaction.[28] In January 2006, DirecTV sold its remaining 50% share in Hughes Network Systems to SkyTerra for $100 million.[29] The sale effectively ended DirecTV’s 20-year existence through Hughes Electronics as a technology conglomerate, leaving it solely with its satellite television services.

In 2004, DirecTV abandoned the Mexican market, though it maintained 41% ownership of SKY México.[30] On November 15, 2005, DirecTV stopped carrying Music Choice audio-only channels, replacing it with 73 channels of XM Satellite Radio. In 2007, DirecTV abandoned the Brazilian market, with the customers being migrated to the 74% DirecTV-owned Brazilian affiliate of SKY Brasil.[30] In 2010, DirecTV increased its stake in Sky Brasil to 93%.


DirecTV logo 2004–2011. The “D” symbol was used in some capacity from 1990–2015. Still used as a secondary logo.

On January 9, 2007, DirecTV announced they would introduce up to 100 national HD channels during 2007, all of which would be MPEG-4 encoded.[31] On October 3, 2008, DirecTV announced that it would offer HD local channels in 121 markets by year end.[32]

In December 2006, News Corporation announced its intention to transfer its 38.5% controlling interest in The DirecTV Group, four regional Fox Sports Net stations and $550 million cash to Liberty Media in exchange for Liberty’s 19% interest in News Corp., giving the Murdoch family tighter control of the latter firm.[33] The deal, valued at $11 billion, was approved by News Corp. shareholders in April 2007.[34] Following revisions that increased the cash offer to $625 million in exchange for a reduction of Liberty’s divested interest in News Corp. to 16%, the swap was completed on February 27, 2008 following Federal Communications Commission (FCC) approval.[35] One condition placed by the FCC on the deal was that Liberty divest either its DirecTV operations or Liberty Global’s cable operations in Puerto Rico, which Liberty fulfilled by placing DirecTV’s Puerto Rican operations in a trust.[36]

On May 4, 2009, Liberty announced that it would split off Liberty Entertainment, Inc., a subsidiary of Liberty owning the four FSN channels acquired under the swap with News Corp. and Liberty’s 65% interest in Game Show Network, into a separate company to be merged with The DirecTV Group, reducing Liberty owner John Malone’s stake in DirecTV to 24%.[37] The merger was completed on November 19, 2009, with The DirecTV Group and Liberty Entertainment becoming subsidiaries of a new company named DirecTV.[38] On June 16, 2010, Malone exchanged his preferred stock in DirecTV with equivalent amounts of common stock, reducing his voting interest in the company from 24% to 3%, with Malone resigning as Chairman and ending his managerial role at DirecTV.[39]

On February 9, 2010, DirecTV dropped Sirius XM Radio and replaced the channel lineup with Sonic Tap audio stations.[40] On April 1, 2011, DirecTV announced it would be renaming its three FSN channels as Root Sports, though the channels are still affiliated with FSN.[41]


  • On December 13, 2007, DirecTV purchased most of the assets of ReplayTV from D&M Holdings.[42]
  • In June 2013, DirecTV purchased Pennsylvania-based LifeShield, a maker of wireless home security systems, with plans to market the systems to its customers.[43]

Subsidiary of AT&T (2015–present)

DirecTV transitional logo following purchase by AT&T

On May 18, 2014, AT&T announced that it would purchase DirecTV.[44][45] In the deal, which had been approved by boards of both companies, DirecTV stockholders received $95 a share in cash and stock, valuing the deal at $48.5 billion. Including assumed debt, the total purchase price was about $67.1 billion. The deal was aimed at increasing AT&T’s market share in the pay-TV sector; its existing U-verse brand had modest market share (5.7 million users compared to DirecTV’s 20 million US customers as of 2014) and operates in only 22 states. It also gave AT&T access to fast-growing Latin American markets, where DirecTV has 18 million subscribers.

The deal faced regulatory approval by the FCC, the U.S. Department of Justice, and some Latin American governments. It was expected to take about 12 months to complete.[46] The deal was also contingent on the combined company’s ability to renew its exclusive rights to carry the NFL Sunday Ticket service beyond the 2015 NFL season on “substantially the terms discussed between the parties.”[47]

The acquisition was officially approved by the FCC on July 24, 2015; it is subject to conditions for four years, requiring AT&T to expand its fiberoptic broadband service to additional customers, public libraries, and schools, and to “refrain from imposing discriminatory usage-based allowances or other discriminatory retail terms and conditions on its broadband internet service”.[48][49]

At an analyst meeting in August 2015, AT&T announced plans to converge DirecTV and its IPTV-based U-verse service around a common “home entertainment gateway” platform based upon DirecTV hardware, with “very thin hardware profiles”. AT&T Entertainment and Internet Services CEO John Stankey explained that the new platform would offer “single truck roll installation for multiple products, live local streaming, improved content portability, over-the-top integration for mobile broadband, and user interface re-engineering. All of these are steps that are planned to deliver that premium effortless entertainment experience anywhere.”[50][51][52]

In September 2015, AT&T selected Ericsson to be hardware provider for the new platform, and hired former Sirius XM, Cisco Systems and Microsoft executive VP Enrique Rodriguez to be vice president and CTO of the AT&T Entertainment and Internet Services division.[53][54]

On December 2, 2015, AT&T announced plans to phase out the DirecTV brand as part of the introduction of the new platform, which will be marketed as AT&T Entertainment. The company also adopted a new logo, replacing its previous emblem with that of AT&T.[55][56][57]

In February 2016, Bloomberg reported that AT&T was in the process of phasing out the U-verse IPTV service by encouraging new customers to purchase DirecTV satellite service instead, and by ending the production of new set-top boxes for the service. An AT&T spokesperson denied that U-verse was being shut down, and explained that the company was “leading its video marketing approach with DirecTV” to “realize the many benefits” of the purchase, but would still recommend U-verse TV if it better-suited a customer’s needs. AT&T CFO John Stephens had also previously stated that DirecTV’s larger subscriber base as a national service gave the service a higher degree of leverage in negotiating carriage deals, thus resulting in lower content costs.[58][59][60]

On October 20, 2016, it was reported that AT&T was in talks to acquire Time Warner, in an effort to increase its media holdings.[61][62][63] On October 22, 2016, AT&T reached a deal to buy Time Warner for over $80 billion. If approved by federal regulators, the merger would bring DirecTV under the same umbrella as HBO, Turner Broadcasting System and the Warner Bros. studio.[64][65] The acquisition was completed on June 14, 2018.

On April 25, 2017, it was reported that AT&T dropped over 230,000 U-verse subscribers.[66][67]

On July 13, 2017, it was reported that AT&T is going to introduce a cloud-based DVR streaming service as part of its effort to create a unified platform across DirecTV and its DirecTV Now streaming service, with U-verse to be added soon.[68][69][70]

On September 12, 2017, it was reported that AT&T is planning to launch a brand new cable TV-like service for delivery over-the-top over its own or a competitor’s broadband network sometime next year.[71]

Because of the merger with Time Warner, AT&T plans to sell DirecTV Pan-American and Sky Brasil for about US$8.0 billion, while keeping their share in Sky Mexico.[72]

On February 10, 2018, Sonic Tap was replaced by Music Choice which was originally on the service until November 15, 2005.

On March 13, 2018, it was reported that AT&T has filed a trademark for “AT&T TV” with the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office.[73][74][75]

DirecTV Now

On March 1, 2016, AT&T announced plans for several DirecTV-branded over-the-top services, including DirecTV Now—a contract-free over-the-top internet television service, DirecTV Mobile—a service which will offer “premium video and made for digital content” for phones, and DirecTV Preview, an ad-supported service featuring content from Audience Network, Otter Media, and other partners.[76][77][78]

DirecTV Now launched on November 30, 2016, and is directly competing against Sling TV and PlayStation Vue. AT&T CEO Randall Stephenson stated of the service that “there is a huge customer base out there that we are convinced, while they don’t subscribe to a bundle of premium content today, at the right price point [delivered] over-the-top, they will.”[79][80]


As of June 2016[update], DirecTV manages a fleet of 13 satellites in geostationary orbit at positions ranging from 95°W to 119°W, ensuring strong coverage of the North American continent.


In the past, receivers were manufactured by DirecTV and other companies, including Samsung Electronics, Philips, Sony Electronics, Panasonic, Mitsubishi Electronics, and Toshiba. Other companies’ DirecTV receivers have been phased out and DirecTV now designs their own models with companies such as Pace Micro Technology of Britain, LG of South Korea (which had manufactured boxes under the LG and Zenith Electronics names), and Thomson of France (which had previously manufactured boxes under the RCA name, GE (under license), and the ProScan brand). DirecTV and TiVo announced on September 3, 2008, that they will work together to develop a version of the TiVo service for DirecTV’s broadband-enabled HD DVR platform.[81] Originally scheduled to launch in the second half of 2009, it was expected to be available in spring 2010 but delayed again.[82] It was finally released on December 6, 2011.[83] The new unit, model THR22, is now available in select markets.[84][85] The THR22 DVR does not have all the features of the HR24 DVRs.[86]

DirecTV typically uses a fixed 18-inch-diameter (460 mm) dish antenna to receive its signals. Traditionally an 18×24-inch elliptical was used; however, most new installations use an 18×20-inch antenna to receive signals from three geostationary satellite positions simultaneously. These systems are becoming more common as DirecTV attempts to squeeze more programming onto its growing systems. DTV is now installing a dish that has five LNBs for HDTV programming and local channels in selected markets. These systems receive signals from up to five separate satellites in both the Ku band and Ka band. After the new satellite, DirecTV 11, is fully operational, DirecTV will stop supplying dual, triple, and five-LNB dishes to all customers and move to supplying a three-LNB Ka/Ku dish known as the Slimline3. This dish will see orbital locations 99, 101, and 103 degrees West. The Slimline3 will be the new standard install dish (for HD and SD programming), while the five-LNB Slimline will be used for installs in areas that receive local or international programming from orbital locations 110 or 119. The Slimline3 looks nearly identical to its predecessor, aside from a smaller LNB.

The new DirecTV HD channels require an H20/HR20 or H21/HR21/HR22/HR23/H24/HR24 set top box (STB). In order to receive the new HD channels (channels added after September 2007), all HD receivers except the HR23 must have a B-Band converter installed. If the converter is not installed, viewers can only receive older HD channels (channels 70–99). The B-Band Converter (BBC) is also not required with the new Single Wire Multiswitch (SWM or SWiM) system, which preselects the satellite and transponder tuning and can feed up to 8 tuners via a single coaxial cable. The “HR” moniker designates the receiver as an HD digital video recorder (DVR) model.

Only the H20/HR20 support direct reception of over-the-air ATSC broadcasts. The H21/HR21/HR22/HR23/H24/HR24 receivers do not have a built-in ATSC tuner, but the AM21 external tuner is available. In addition, there is HDMI support for HDTVs with an HDMI port. New STBs also support MPEG-4 standard for HD *Programming. DirecTV also offers the AM21 (an ATSC add-on for the HR21), the HR21-Pro (an HD-DVR with 100 hours HD or 400 hours SD recording capacity), and an online DVR scheduler.

  • DirecTV Receiver is a common standard-definition model. D12 was the last one produced, as this type of receiver is being slowly phased out, according to DirecTV’s February 28, 2008 Investors Info.
  • DirecTV HD Receiver (H10/H20/H21/H23/H24/H25) is a receiver which can receive an HD signal and broadcast in 1080i resolution. H25 is the latest version. After a 2009 software upgrade, the H2n series is capable of receiving 1080p resolution. The H2n series is also the only series capable of operating with the Whole-Home DVR.
  • DirecTV Plus DVR (R15/R16/R22) is a standard receiver with a built-in digital video recorder. It contains a 160 GB (new models as of 2010 have a 360 GB) hard disk using the IDE 40-pin connection and can store up to 100 hours of programming. R16-300 is the last of these line of receivers; they are being slowly phased out, according to DirecTV’s February 28, 2008 Investors Info. The R22 is a “watered down” HR21 as it can receive MPEG4 and has all the features of the HD DVR, including HD output. However, the unit is locked to output standard definition only. In 2010 the R22 is unlocked to output HD output.
  • DirecTV Plus HD-DVR (HR20/HR21/HR22/HR23/HR24), the most advanced everyday-consumer receiver in the lineup, is capable of full 1080p high definition and combines both high-definition and DVR capabilities in one unit. It contains a 320 GB hard drive (500 GB on the HR22, HR23,and HR24) using the SATA interface connection. The DirecTV Plus HD DVR also features Media Share, allowing users to view photos and listen to music stored on their computer (with compatible DLNA server software) on their TV, and Whole-Home DVR Service which allows them to watch any recorded program on any HD or HD-DVR receiver in the house. The HR24 is the latest, with the HR23 being its predecessor. The HR24 like the HR21, HR22, and HR23, lacks an ATSC tuner as the HR20s had, but does support the AM21 external tuner for over-the-air channels. The HR24 can be expanded to 2TB drive on the eSATA port for up to 480 hours of HD and 1,750 hours of SD recording.
  • DirecTV Pro HD-DVR (HR21-Pro), the most advanced home theater receiver with HD and DVR in one unit, has a larger capacity hard drive, better cooling and is rack mountable. The DirecTV Pro HD DVR also features Media Share, allowing users to enjoy photos and music stored on their Intel Viiv processor technology-based PC on their TVs. HR24 is the latest (May 2010). Guide scrolling and channel surfing is much faster than previous models.
  • The DirecTV “Genie” Home Media Center HD DVR (HR-34) the successor to the HR-24 features the ability to record 5 shows at once, allows for Picture in Picture, and has 1 TB of hard drive space allowing for 200 hours of high-definition recording or 800 hours of standard-definition recording. A second-generation Genie, the HR44, is now available and the HR34 has been discontinued. A new generation Genie, the HR54, has been released.[87]
  • The DirecTV H44 “Genie Lite” was released to the public in July 2015. As delivered, it provides the Genie experience including controlling client boxes and standalone television. With the addition of a specific, DIRECTV-branded hard drive it converts into a five-tuner DVR.[88]
  • DirecTV Sat-Go (“Satellite-To-Go”) is the world’s first portable satellite TV system, conceived by producer Rick Rosner.[89] It combines a receiver, antenna and TV all in one easy-to-carry unit. It was discontinued in 2010.
  • DirecTV DVR with TiVo Service (THR22) uses the same technology as the HR22 but has a TiVo user interface. The interface is currently the older SD one. This DVR does connect to the Internet, but only for TiVo program guide information. Currently, the THR22 cannot download program content via broadband.[86]

AT&T’s planned over-the-top service for DirecTV won’t require a satellite dish or a receiver to receive DirecTV programming, but simply a high-speed internet connection. DirecTV Now will be available through digital media player devices such as Roku, Amazon Fire TV, Chromecast, and Apple TV.[76][77][78]

Access card history

DirecTV transmits programming with encryption to mitigate signal piracy. The receiver (also known as an IRD, or “integrated receiver-decoder”) utilizes ISO/IEC 7816 smart cards which tell the receiver how to decrypt the programming for viewing. In a continuing effort to combat piracy, an access card generation is created approximately every two years, superseding the old set. DirecTV is now utilizing the fifth generation of access cards.

  • P1, also known as F cards, were used until 1997. F cards have a picture of a satellite and the DSS logo on the front.
  • P2, also known as H cards, were introduced in 1996 and eventually replaced F cards. H cards look the same as F cards. H cards were in use until 2002.
  • P3, also known as HU cards, were introduced in 1999 and were used until April 2004. HU cards have a picture of a football player, a basketball, a clapperboard, and a film canister on the front. HU cards originally shipped with receivers with serial numbers above 0001 700 000. These were removed from circulation because piracy plagued the system.
  • P4 cards were introduced in 2002 and are currently still in use. P4 cards are labeled “Access Card: 4.”
  • D1 cards were introduced in 2004 following compatibility problems with the P4 cards in some receivers. These cards can be identified by the silver edges, and simply bear the word “DirecTV” on the front (no number).
  • D2/P12 cards were introduced in 2005. This is the current “standard issue” card. These cards can be identified by a two-toned blue dot pattern resembling the DirecTV logo in addition to the DirecTV logo and the words “DirecTV Access Card”. This card has a picture of a satellite on the front. The period 12 card is the only card that will work with R15, H20, and HR20 series receivers.

DirecTV has battled with an active signal piracy underground for many years. One infamous event that temporarily hampered pirates was known as ‘Black Sunday’, which took place one week before Super Bowl Sunday in 2001. Hackers saw a string of software updates starting in late 2000 that seemed harmless, but included code that once complete searched for and destroyed 98% of hacked smart cards. Hacks continued after that event.[90][91][92]

High-definition television (HDTV)

DirecTV AU9-S 3-LNB “Slimline” satellite dish

DirecTV AT-9 5-LNB “Sidecar” satellite dish

DirecTV WNC SF6 Gray HD 2-LNB “Round” satellite dish only in Latin America and Caribbean

Like its competitors, DirecTV offers high-definition television (HDTV) and interactive services.

To handle the proliferation of bandwidth-intensive HDTV broadcasting, DirecTV rebroadcasts local HDTV stations using the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC codec while employing a newer transmission protocol (DVB-S2) over the newer satellites. This allows DirecTV to squeeze much more HD programming over its satellite signal than was previously feasible using the older MPEG-2 compression and DSS protocol it has been using. This technology will be gradually expanded to the existing satellites as customer equipment is replaced with new MPEG-4-capable receivers.

Receiving the channels encoded in MPEG-4 requires newer receivers, such as the H20 as well as the 5-LNB Ka/Ku dish. DirecTV has contracted with Britain’s Pace Micro Technology, Korea’s LG Electronics and France’s Thomson to manufacture these new receivers. Pace manufactures the DirecTV Plus HD DVR (Model HR20-700, and HR21-700) and LG Electronics offers the Model H20-600 receiver, while Thomson provides the Model H20-100 and HR20-100 DVR receivers. DirecTV has admitted to software issues with some of the H20 receivers and HR20 DVRs, which have been plagued with random problems since they were released in mid-2006. DirecTV regularly released software updates for the HR20 receivers, in an effort to reduce issues to an acceptable level.

DirecTV has phased out its original TiVo-branded HD DVR, the HR10-250, which can only decode the older MPEG-2 signals. All DirecTV-delivered local HDTV stations (outside of the NYC and LA network stations) are encoded in MPEG-4. The HR10-250 cannot receive the MPEG-4 local HDTV stations in these markets but can still receive over-the-air ATSC broadcasts in these markets. After a multi-year hiatus, TiVo and DirecTV are developing a new TiVo-enabled HD DVR that will be able to receive/decode DirecTV’s current MPEG-4 satellite signals. Originally slated for release in the second half of 2009, it is now available in select markets.[84][85]

4K television

In November 2014, DirecTV became the first television provider to begin offering 4K ultra-high definition content. On launch, 4K content was limited to renting a small library of on-demand films, downloaded to the subscriber’s Genie DVR (some 4K content can also be pre-loaded automatically to the set-top box via the Genie Recommends feature). The 4K service could also only be used on “DirecTV 4K Ready” televisions, which support RVU protocol; this was limited to selected Samsung 4K televisions released in 2014.[93]

In 2015, DirecTV introduced 4K Genie Mini set-top boxes, which can be connected to any HDMI 2.0/HDCP 2.2-compliant devices to provide 4K video.[94]

In April 2016, DirecTV began live sports broadcasts in 4K to eligible subscribers, including coverage from the 2016 Masters Tournament,[95][96] 25 MLB Network Showcase baseball games in the 2016 season (subject to local blackout restrictions) beginning April 15, 2016,[97] and all Notre Dame college football home games during the 2016 season.[98]

Local channels

DirecTV also offers local channels like MeTV, Laff, Comet, CBS, ABC, NBC, Fox, PBS, The CW, MyNetworkTV, Telemundo, Azteca, Univision, ION Television (in markets that carry that network), and some independent stations in markets covering over 99.2% of U.S. TV households.[99] In markets that lack an OTA CW affiliate, DirecTV offers WDCW from Washington or KTLA from Los Angeles (both in standard definition, only). Because DirecTV does not carry local digital subchannels, however, broadcast networks such as MeTV and Antenna TV are not available on DirecTV in most markets.

Subscribers located where they cannot receive an adequate terrestrial television signal and/or live in a tiny market that only has a couple of stations can receive feeds from New York and Los Angeles for CBS, ABC, NBC, and Fox, as well as a feed from the Washington, D.C. CW affiliate, though a waiver from the local affiliate stations may be required to allow this, approved at their discretion. National PBS and ION channels are also available.

In the largest markets, local channels are carried on the satellite at 101°W. In some smaller markets, the local channels are carried on a second satellite located at 119°W which requires a slightly larger dish with two or three LNBs or the newer Ka/Ku 5-LNB dish. In a few smaller markets, local stations are located on a satellite at 72.5°W that requires a second dish to be installed.

In late 2005, DirecTV began providing local HDTV channels to the largest markets, requiring newer receivers with a larger dish capable of receiving signals from up to five satellites at once. The Ku-band signals on the newer Ka/Ku dish are received from 101°W, 110°W, and 119°W, while Ka-band signals are from 99°W and 103°W.

Local television channels are transmitted over optical fiber links, Ku-band satellite uplink, microwave, and conventional terrestrial transmission to uplink centers located throughout the United States. DirecTV can provide true HD into hotels (Pro:Idiom). Cable companies have been able to provide true HD to hotels for over 2 years now with the installation of private video networks (FTTP to Coax conversion & Pro:Idiom) or with HFC HD video distribution systems (Pro:Idiom).

JetBlue promotes DirecTV on board Airbus A320 N510JB “Out of the Blue”

DirecTV on board a jetBlue plane.


DirecTV’s exclusive general entertainment channel Audience Network has dozens of original and acquired programs, most of them unedited and commercial-free. It had its own exclusive 3DTV channel called n3D that launched in 2010 and shut down in 2012. DirecTV serves American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, JetBlue, and United Airlines.

DirecTV owns regional sports networks AT&T SportsNet Pittsburgh, AT&T SportsNet Southwest, AT&T SportsNet Rocky Mountain, and Root Sports Northwest (all under the umbrella of AT&T Sports Networks). It also owns minority shares of Game Show Network and MLB Network. DirecTV is also the exclusive U.S. rights holder to the NFL Sunday Ticket sports package. It also exclusively carries the “DirecTV Experience”, which includes bonus coverage of men’s major golf tournaments and Grand Slam tennis tournaments, including live feeds not available on other networks such as CBS, NBC, ESPN, Golf Channel and Tennis Channel that cover the events. DirecTV was also the exclusive provider of defunct sports packages NASCAR Hot Pass and Mega March Madness.


Beginning in 2006, DirecTV began a series of commercials in which characters from popular movies and television shows break the fourth wall to tout the service’s picture quality and the number of channels available in high definition. Instead of using CGI the original actors normally reprise their roles on recreated sets, and resulting footage is mixed with the original scenes. The productions are recent and appeal to DirecTV’s “male-oriented marketing message.”[100] These characters include Captain Kirk (William Shatner, Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country), Bill Harding (Bill Paxton, Twister), The Economics Teacher (Ben Stein, Ferris Bueller’s Day Off), Dr. Emmett Brown (Christopher Lloyd, Back to the Future), Burton Guster (Dulé Hill, Psych), C.J. Parker (Pamela Anderson, Baywatch), Rick “Wild Thing” Vaughn (Charlie Sheen, Major League), Beyoncé (Upgrade U music video), Nadia (Shannon Elizabeth, American Pie), Turtle (Jerry Ferrara, Entourage), Ellen Ripley (Sigourney Weaver, Aliens), Steve Freeling (Craig T. Nelson, Poltergeist), Annie Wilkes (Kathy Bates, Misery), Mini-Me (Verne Troyer, Austin Powers In Goldmember), The Girl in the Ferrari (Christie Brinkley, National Lampoon’s Vacation), Daisy Duke (Jessica Simpson, The Dukes of Hazzard), T-1000 (Robert Patrick, Terminator 2: Judgment Day), Ann Darrow (Naomi Watts, King Kong), Hellboy (Ron Perlman, Hellboy), Richard Hayden (David Spade, Tommy Boy), The Black Eyed Peas (Meet Me Halfway music video), Christina Aguilera (Keeps Gettin’ Better music video) and Honey Hornee (Kim Basinger, Wayne’s World 2). Also in this series of commercials were Peyton Manning, Eli Manning, and Archie Manning promoting NFL Sunday Ticket, and Dale Earnhardt, Jr. promoting NASCAR Hot Pass. Cartoon characters have also been used in the ads, beginning with Scooby-Doo and the Mystery, Inc. gang. Recent commercials have also featured model Hannah Davis and a “talking” horse.

DirecTV during that time also ran series of ads that take shots at cable television’s service (or lack of service). Beginning in March 2010, they did a spoof of the classic game show To Tell The Truth with Alex Trebek hosting the show. The series of commercials both pays homage to the Goodson-Todman game show, and take shots at both cable and DirecTV’s archrival Dish Network, who later sued for false advertising. Another series of commercials, promoting the 2010 NFL Sunday Ticket package of all-football programming, featured neighbors committing uncivil acts to neighbors who watched the “wrong” football team. One spot had a woman leaving a snack platter for a neighbor on which the food spelled out “DIRT BAG”; another showed a dog trashing a neighbor’s property; yet another showed an on-duty policeman knocking on a DirecTV customer’s door, stunning him with a taser and leaving him passed out in his open doorway. In August 2011, Deion Sanders began appearing in DirecTV’s ads for NFL Sunday Ticket, urging people to switch from cable. These ads originally claimed NFL Sunday Ticket is now “free” for new customers for one year with a subscription to their Premiere package and a two-year contract. In response, on August 4, 2011, Comcast sued DirecTV for false advertising.[101] Comcast dropped the case on August 19, 2011, after DirecTV altered the ads to remove the word “free”, changing it to “at no extra charge”.[102]

DirecTV blimp

DirecTV Blimp flying over West Las Vegas during the Consumer Electronics Show 2015.

The DirecTV blimp named “lefty” was launched in October 2007 at the MLB World Series in Boston and has been seen all over the United States since its inception. The blimp flies mainly over live sporting events but has also been seen at other entertainment and charitable venues. This second generation A-170LS Video Lightsign Lightship features the state of the art video screen that displays full-color video images day or night. This lightsign, the only one of its kind in the world, is used to display messaging and advertising for DirecTV. The blimp has been recently spotted on Twitter as followers track the journeys of the blimp from one event to another. The airship is owned and operated by The Lightship Group, an advertising company based in Orlando, Florida.[103]

Customer service

DirecTV service van, Ypsilanti Township, Michigan. DirecTV equipment is installed and maintained by private contractors such as Multiband as shown here. In most areas throughout the United States installation, upgrades, and service are performed by DirecTV home services, a division of DirecTV corporate.

DirecTV was awarded a J.D. Power award for residential cable and satellite TV customer satisfaction in 2007.[104]

DirecTV’s customer service is provided by many third-party owned call centers both inside and outside the United States. Most of the call centers are contracted to provide agents to answer customer phone calls regarding programming, billing, or technical questions.

As of November 2012[update], DirecTV does not offer a 30-day grace period for those who wish to try the service. “If you do not fulfill your Programming Agreements, DirecTV may charge a pro-rated fee of up to $480.”[105]

Better Business Bureau review

In August 2008, The Boston Globe reported that DirecTV received 20,000 complaints in less than three years to the Better Business Bureau on DirecTV slipping in cancellation fees.[106]

In August 2010, the BBB reported that it had received 39,000 complaints against DirecTV in the previous 3 years, and the BBB gave it an F (failing) grade. Many of the complaints concerned DirecTV’s early termination fees, billing and service issues.[107]

Consumer protection lawsuits and violations

Washington State’s Attorney General civil complaint

On December 14, 2009, the Washington Attorney General’s office filed a civil complaint against DirecTV seeking injunctive and other relief. The complaint was filed in the public interest when the Attorney General’s office determined after a one-year investigation by its consumer protection division, that the company allegedly engaged in numerous repeated violations of the state’s Consumer Protection Act.

The complaint alleged unfair or deceptive practices which include, but are not limited to:

  • Unclear disclosures concerning rebate terms and conditions
  • Unclear and/or unfair advertising for use of the term “free”;
  • Automatically extending contracts when customers require equipment repairs, upgrade equipment or move;
  • Failing to disclose financial terms and conditions that the company’s least expensive package of $29.99 per month is only available to customers who meet certain financing conditions and agree to have the costs automatically charged or debited.
  • The suit also alleged that some cancellation fees assessed by the company were considered to be unfair, and
  • That the company unfairly retained consumer deposits made to obtain services. Those who cancel service prior to the end of their contract lose part of the deposit and may also be charged cancellation fees.

The Attorney General’s Office asked the court to compel DirecTV to change its business practices, impose civil penalties and provide restitution for consumers.

The case was settled in December 2010, with DirecTV agreeing to pay over $1 million, and to correct many of its business practices.[108] 47 other states joined in a similar suit, the settlement of which required the company to pay over $13 million.[109]

California class action lawsuit

In September 2008, consumers filed a class action lawsuit with the Los Angeles Superior Court to stop DirecTV’s practice of charging early cancellation penalties to subscribers. The lawsuit claims that DirecTV fails to disclose the penalty to new customers or to existing customers who replace their equipment or add a new receiver and that these practices are unlawful. In September 2009, a motion for a preliminary injunction was filed to block the company from automatically removing the fees from customers’ bank accounts or charging their credit card accounts without their prior knowledge and written consent until the lawsuit is resolved.[110]

Telemarketing violations

In December 2005, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission imposed a $5.3 million penalty on DirecTV for its violations of federal telemarketing regulations. It was the largest civil penalty the FTC had ever announced in a case enforcing any consumer protection law.[111]

Deceptive advertising

On March 11, 2015, the U.S. Federal Trade Commission filed a lawsuit against DirecTV for deceptive advertising. The FTC claims the following:

  • DirecTV failed to properly disclose important terms of its TV packages.
  • DirecTV typically advertised 12-month deals without noting that:
    • A two-year contract is required,
    • Package prices rise substantially during the second year, and
    • Early cancellation fees may be imposed.
  • DirecTV failed to mention that offers of free premium channels, such as HBO, would result in charges if the channels were not canceled before the free period ended.[112]

International operations

  • Sky PerfecTV! – sold to SKY Perfect JSAT Corporation

    • DirecTV Latin America – renamed to Vrio in 2018
    • SKY Brasil – part now of AT&T Latin America
    • Sky México – part now of AT&T Latin America

See also

  • DirecTV satellite fleet
  • High-definition television in the United States


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External links

  • Official website
  • AT&T’s DIRECTV website


Trading name
RadioShack Corporation (2000-2015)
Tandy Corporation (1963–2000)
Industry E-commerce, Retail
Predecessors Hinckley-Tandy Leather Company, RadioShack Corporation, General Wireless Operations, Inc.
Founded 1921; 98 years ago (1921)
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
Founders Theodore and Milton Deutschmann
Number of locations
425 [1] (independent)
Area served
United States
Products Consumer electronics
Parent Kensington Capital Holdings (2017–present)
Website radioshack.com

The exterior of a typical free-standing RadioShack store in Texarkana, Texas (2011).

RadioShack, formerly RadioShack Corporation, is the trade name of an American retailer founded in 1921. Since 2017, General Wireless Operations, Inc. has leased the name from Kensington Capital Holdings[2] and operates primarily as an e-commerce website, a network of approximately 425 independently owned authorized dealer stores, and as a supplier of parts for HobbyTown. All stores are located in the United States.

At its peak in 1999, it had operated stores in the United States, Mexico, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. While outside of those listed areas, the company had sold licenses to other companies to be able to use the Radio Shack brand name in other parts of the world that had included parts of Asia, North Africa, South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. On February 5, 2015, the company filed for Chapter 11 protection under United States bankruptcy law after 11 consecutive quarterly losses.[3][4] By then, it was operating only in the United States and Mexico. The following month, General Wireless purchased the assets of the company, including the “RadioShack” brand, for US$160 million.

General Wireless filed for bankruptcy in March 2017, claiming its Sprint partnership was not as profitable as expected,[5] and announcing plans to close nearly all of their company-owned stores after Memorial Day Weekend of 2017,[6][7] and to shift its business primarily to online.[8]

As a result of RadioShack Corporation filing for bankruptcy in 2015, Kensington Capital Holdings (as successor to General Wireless) only owns the RadioShack brand within the United States while other companies own the brand in the rest of the world since 2015. Mexico-based Grupo Gigante, through it subsidiary RadioShack de México, owns the RadioShack brand within Mexico. El Salvador-based Unicomer Group owns the RadioShack brand within Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. Egypt-based Delta RS for Trading owns the RadioShack brand within North Africa and the Middle East. All four companies are legally separate and unrelated.


  • 1 History

    • 1.1 The first 40 years
    • 1.2 Tandy Corporation

      • 1.2.1 Battery of the Month
      • 1.2.2 Allied Radio
      • 1.2.3 Flavoradio
      • 1.2.4 CB radio
      • 1.2.5 Personal computers
    • 1.3 RadioShack Corporation

      • 1.3.1 PointMobl and “The Shack”
      • 1.3.2 Financial decline
      • 1.3.3 2004: “Fix 1500” initiative
      • 1.3.4 2006: Management issues
      • 1.3.5 2006: Corporate layoffs and new strategy
      • 1.3.6 2009: Customer relations problems
      • 1.3.7 2012–2014: Financial distress
      • 1.3.8 2015: Bankruptcy
    • 1.4 General Wireless Operations, Inc.

      • 1.4.1 2017: Bankruptcy
      • 1.4.2 2018: Post-bankruptcy
  • 2 Corporate headquarters
  • 3 International operations

    • 3.1 Intertan Inc.
    • 3.2 Canada
    • 3.3 Asia
    • 3.4 Mexico
    • 3.5 Central America
    • 3.6 Middle East
  • 4 Other operations

    • 4.1 Corporate citizenship
    • 4.2 Other retailer partnerships

      • 4.2.1 No-contract wireless
    • 4.3 Cycling team sponsorship
  • 5 Lawsuits and litigation
  • 6 In popular culture
  • 7 References
  • 8 Further reading
  • 9 External links


The first 40 years

The company was started as “Radio Shack” in 1921 by two brothers, Theodore and Milton Deutschmann, who wanted to provide equipment for the then-nascent field of amateur, or ham radio. The brothers opened a one-store retail and mail-order operation in the heart of downtown Boston at 46 Brattle Street. They chose the name “Radio Shack”, which was the term for a small, wooden structure that housed a ship’s radio equipment. The Deutschmanns thought the name was appropriate for a store that would supply the needs of radio officers aboard ships, as well as hams (amateur radio operators). The term was already in use — and is to this day — by hams when referring to the location of their stations.[9]

The company issued its first catalog in 1939[10] as it entered the high fidelity music market. In 1954, Radio Shack began selling its own private-label products under the brand name Realist, changing the brand name to Realistic after being sued by Stereo Realist. After expanding to nine stores plus an extensive mail-order business,[11] the company fell on hard times in the 1960s. Radio Shack was essentially bankrupt, but Charles D. Tandy saw the potential of Radio Shack and retail consumer electronics and bought the company for US$300,000.[12]

Tandy Corporation

Former RadioShack logo (1973–1995)

The Tandy Corporation, a leather goods corporation, was looking for other hobbyist-related businesses into which it could expand. At the time of the Tandy Radio Shack & Leather 1962 acquisition,[13] the Radio Shack chain was nearly bankrupt.[14]

Tandy’s strategy was to appeal to hobbyists. It created small stores that were staffed by people who knew electronics, and sold mainly private brands.[15] Tandy closed Radio Shack’s unprofitable mail-order business, ended credit purchases and eliminated many top management positions, keeping the salespeople, merchandisers and advertisers. The number of items carried was cut from 40,000 to 2,500, as Tandy sought to “identify the 20% that represents 80% of the sales” and replace Radio Shack’s handful of large stores with many “little holes in the wall”, large numbers of rented locations which were easier to close and re-open elsewhere if one location didn’t work out. Private-label brands from lower-cost manufacturers displaced name brands to raise Radio Shack profit margins;[16][citation needed] non-electronic lines from go-carts to musical instruments were abandoned entirely.[17][citation needed] Customer data from the former RadioShack mail-order business determined where Tandy would locate new stores. As an incentive for them to work long hours and remain profitable, store managers were required to take an ownership stake in their stores.[17] In markets too small to support a company-owned Radio Shack store, the chain relied on independent dealers who carried the products as a sideline.[18]

Charles D. Tandy, who had guided the firm through a period of growth in the 1960s and 1970s, died of a heart attack at age 60 in November 1978.[19]

In 1982, the breakup of the Bell System encouraged subscribers to own their own telephones instead of renting them from local phone companies; Radio Shack offered twenty models of home phones.[20]

Much of the Radio Shack line was manufactured in the company’s own factories. By 1990/1991, Tandy was the world’s biggest manufacturer of personal computers; its OEM manufacturing capacity was building hardware for Digital Equipment Corporation, GRiD, Olivetti, AST Computer, Panasonic, and others. The company manufactured everything from store fixtures to computer software to wire and cable, TV antennas, audio and video tape.[21] At one point, Radio Shack was the world’s largest electronics chain.[22]

In June 1991, Tandy closed or restructured its 200 Radio Shack Computer Centers,[23] acquired Computer City, and attempted to shift its emphasis away from components and cables, toward mainstream consumer electronics.[24] Tandy sold its computer manufacturing to AST Research in 1993,[25] including the laptop computer Grid Systems Corporation which it had purchased in 1988.[26] It sold the Memorex consumer recording trademarks to a Hong Kong firm,[27] and divested most of its manufacturing divisions. House-brand products, which Radio Shack had long marked up heavily, were replaced with third-party brands already readily available from competitors. This reduced profit margins.[21]

In 1992, Tandy attempted to launch big-box electronics retailer Incredible Universe;[28] most of the seventeen stores never turned a profit. Its six profitable stores were sold to Fry’s Electronics in 1996; the others were closed.[29] Other rebranding attempts included the launch or acquisition of chains including McDuff, Video Concepts and the Edge in Electronics;[28] these were larger stores which carried TVs, appliances and other lines.[30]

Tandy closed the McDuff stores and abandoned Incredible Universe in 1996, but continued to add new RadioShack stores.[31] By 1996, industrial parts suppliers were deploying e-commerce to sell a wide range of components online;[32] it would be another decade before RadioShack would sell parts from its website,[33] with a selection so limited that it was no rival to established industrial vendors with million-item specialised, centralised inventories.

In 1994, the company introduced a service known as “The Repair Shop at Radio Shack”, through which it provided inexpensive out-of-warranty repairs for more than 45 different brands of electronic equipment.[34] The company already had over one million parts in its extensive parts warehouses and 128 service centers throughout the US and Canada;[35] it hoped to leverage these to build customer relationships and increase store traffic. Len Roberts, president of the Radio Shack division since 1993, estimated that the new repair business could generate $500 million per year by 1999.[36]

“America’s technology store” was abandoned for the “you’ve got questions, we’ve got answers” slogan in 1994.[37] In early summer 1995, the company changed its logo; “Radio Shack” was spelled in CamelCase as “RadioShack”. In 1996, RadioShack successfully petitioned the US Federal Communications Commission to allocate frequencies for the Family Radio Service, a short-range walkie-talkie system that proved popular.[38]

Battery of the Month

From the 1960s until the early 1990s, Radio Shack promoted a “battery of the month” club; a free wallet-sized cardboard card offered one free Enercell a month in-store.[39] Like the free tube testing offered in-store in the early 1970s,[40] this small loss leader drew foot traffic. The cards also served as generic business cards for the salespeople.

Allied Radio

In 1970, Tandy Corporation bought Allied Radio Corporation (both retail and industrial divisions), merging the brands into Allied Radio Shack and closing duplicate locations. After a 1973 federal government review, the company sold off the few remaining Allied retail stores and resumed using the Radio Shack name. Allied Electronics, the firm’s industrial component operation, continued as a Tandy division until it was sold to Spartan Manufacturing in 1981.[41]


The longest-running product for Radio Shack was the AM-only Realistic Flavoradio, sold from 1972 to 1986, 15 years in the same design. This also made the Flavoradio the longest production run in radio history. Originally released in 6 colors or flavors, strawberry, orange, lemon, avocado, blueberry and grape, the line grew to eleven flavors. They were made in Korea, Hong Kong and the Philippines. The Flavoradio carried the Realistic name until about 1998 when it switched to “Radio Shack” then finally “Optimus”. When the Flavoradio was dropped from the catalog in 2001, it was the last AM-only radio on the market.[42]

CB radio

The chain profited from the mass popularity of citizens band radio in the mid-1970s which, at its peak, represented nearly 30% of the chain’s revenue.[43]

Personal computers

In 1977, two years after the MITS Altair 8800, Radio Shack introduced the TRS-80, one of the first mass-produced personal computers.[44] This was a complete pre-assembled system at a time when many microcomputers were built from kits, backed by a nationwide retail chain when computer stores were in their infancy. Sales of the initial, primitive US$600 TRS-80 exceeded all expectations despite its limited capabilities.[45] This was followed by the TRS-80 Color Computer in 1980, designed to attach to a television. Tandy also inspired the Tandy Computer Whiz Kids (1982-1991), a comic-book duo of teen calculator enthusiasts who teamed up with the likes of Archie and Superman.[46] Radio Shack’s computer stores offered lessons to pre-teens as “Radio Shack Computer Camp” in the early 1980s.[47]

In the mid-1980s, Radio Shack began a transition from its proprietary 8-bit computers to its proprietary IBM PC compatible Tandy computers, removing the “Radio Shack” name from the product in an attempt to shake off the long-running nicknames “Radio Scrap”[48] and “Trash 80”[49] to make the product appeal to business users. Poor compatibility, shrinking margins and a lack of economies of scale led Radio Shack to exit the computer-manufacturing market in the 1990s after losing much of the desktop PC market to newer, price-competitive rivals like Dell.[28] Tandy acquired the Computer City chain in 1991, and sold the stores to CompUSA in 1998.

In 1994, RadioShack began selling IBM’s Aptiva line of home computers.[50] This partnership would last until 1998, when RadioShack partnered with Compaq and created ‘The Creative Learning Center’ as a store-within-a-store to promote desktop PCs.[51] Similar promotions were tried with ‘The Sprint Store at RadioShack’ (mobile telephones) and ‘PowerZone’ (RadioShack’s line of battery products).[52]

RadioShack Corporation

1996–2013 logo, still used in many of the locations that were RadioShack before they closed. This logo is similar to the logo they used from 2013–2017.

In the mid-1990s, the company attempted to move out of small components and into more mainstream consumer markets, focusing on marketing wireless phones. This placed the chain, long accustomed to charging wide margins on specialized products not readily available from other local retailers, into direct competition against vendors such as Best Buy and Walmart.[53]

In May 2000, the company dropped the Tandy name altogether, becoming RadioShack Corporation. The leather operating assets were sold to The Leather Factory on November 30, 2000;[54] that business remains profitable.[55]

House brands Realistic and Optimus were discontinued. In 1999, the company agreed to carry RCA products in a five-year agreement for a “RCA Digital Entertainment Center” store-within-a-store.[56][57] When the RCA contract ended, RadioShack introduced its own Presidian and Accurian brands, reviving the Optimus brand in 2005 for some low-end products. Enercell, a house brand for dry cell batteries, remained in use until approximately 2014.

RadioShack tape recorder

Most of the RadioShack house brands had been dropped when Tandy divested its manufacturing facilities in the early 1990s; the original list included: Realistic (stereo, hi-fi and radio), Archer (antenna rotors and boosters), Micronta (test equipment), Tandy (computers), TRS-80 (proprietary computer), ScienceFair (kits), DuoFone (landline telephony), Concertmate (music synthesizer), Enercell (cells and batteries), Road Patrol (radar detectors, bicycle radios), Patrolman (Realistic radio scanner), Deskmate (software), KitchenMate, Stereo Shack, Mach One, Supertape (recording tape), Optimus (speakers and turntables), Flavoradio (pocket AM radios in various colours), Weatheradio, Portavision (small televisions) and Minimus (speakers).

In 2000, RadioShack was one of multiple backers of the CueCat barcode reader, a marketing failure. It had invested US$35 million in the company,[58] included the barcodes in its catalogs and distributed CueCat devices to customers at no charge.[59][60]

The last annual RadioShack printed catalogs were distributed to the public in 2003.[61]

Until 2004, RadioShack routinely asked for the name and address of purchasers so they could be added to mailing lists. Name and mailing address were requested for special orders (RadioShack Unlimited parts and accessories, Direc2U items not stocked locally), returns, check payments, RadioShack Answers Plus credit card applications, service plan purchases and carrier activations of cellular telephones.

On December 20, 2005, RadioShack announced the sale of its newly built riverfront Fort Worth, Texas headquarters building to German-based KanAm Grund; the property was leased back to RadioShack for 20 years. In 2008, RadioShack assigned this lease to the Tarrant County College District (TCC), remaining in 400,000 square feet of the space as its headquarters.[62]

In 2005, RadioShack parted with Verizon for a 10-year agreement with Cingular (later AT&T) and renegotiated its 11-year agreement with Sprint.[63] In July 2011, RadioShack ended its wireless partnership with T-Mobile, replacing it with the “Verizon Wireless Store” within a store.[64] 2005 marked a banner year for wireless.

RadioShack had not made products under the Realistic name since the early 1990s. Support for many of Radio Shack’s traditional product lines, including amateur radio, had ended by 2006.[65] A handful of small-town franchise dealers used their ability to carry non-RadioShack merchandise to bring in parts from outside sources, but these represented a minority.[66]

PointMobl and “The Shack”

In mid-December 2008, RadioShack opened three concept stores under the name “PointMobl” to sell wireless phones and service, netbooks, iPod and GPS navigation devices. The three Texas stores (Dallas, Highland Village and Allen) were furnished with white fixtures like those in the remodelled wireless departments of individual RadioShack stores, but there was no communicated relationship to RadioShack itself. Had the test proved successful, RadioShack could have moved to convert existing RadioShack locations into PointMobl stores in certain markets.[67]

While some PointMobl products, such as car power adapters and phone cases, were (and still are) carried as store-brand products in RadioShack stores, the stand-alone PointMobl stores were closed and the concept abandoned in March 2011.

In August 2009, RadioShack rebranded itself as “The Shack”.[68] The campaign increased sales of mobile products, but at the expense of its core components business.[69]

RadioShack aggressively promoted Dish Network subscriptions.[70][71]

In November 2012, RadioShack introduced Amazon Locker parcel pick-up services at its stores, only to dump the program in September 2013.[72] In 2013, the chain made token attempts to regain the do it yourself market, including a new “Do It Together” slogan.[73]

Long-time staff[who?] observed a slow and gradual shift away from electronic parts and customer service and toward promotion of wireless sales and add-ons; the pressure to sell gradually increased, while the focus on training and product knowledge decreased. Morale was abysmal; longtime employees who were paid bonus and retirement in stock options saw the value of these instruments fade away.[74]

Financial decline

In 1998, RadioShack called itself the single largest seller of consumer telecommunications products in the world; its stock reached its peak a year later.[75]

InterTAN, a former Tandy subsidiary, sold the Tandy UK stores in 1999 and the Australian stores in 2001. InterTAN was sold (with its Canadian stores) to rival Circuit City in 2004. The RadioShack brand remained in use in the United States, but the 21st century proved a period of long decline for the chain, which was slow to respond to key trends— such as e-commerce, the entry of competitors like Best Buy and Amazon.com, and the growth of the maker movement.[33]

By 2011, smartphone sales, rather than general electronics, accounted for half of the chain’s revenue.[76] The traditional Radio Shack clientele of do-it-yourself tinkerers were increasingly sidelined. Electronic parts formerly stocked in stores were now mostly only available through on-line special order. Store employees concentrated efforts selling profitable mobile contracts, while other customers seeking assistance were neglected and left the stores in frustration.[77]

Demand for consumer electronics was also increasingly being weakened by consumers buying the items online.[78]

2004: “Fix 1500” initiative

In early 2004, RadioShack introduced Fix 1500, a sweeping program to “correct” inventory and profitability issues company-wide. The program put the 1,500 lowest-graded store managers, of over 5,000, on notice of the need to improve. Managers were graded not on tangible store and personnel data but on one-on-one interviews with district management.[79]

Typically, a 90-day period was given for the manager to improve (thus causing another manager to then be selected for Fix 1500). A total of 1,734 store managers were reassigned as sales associates or terminated in a 6-month period.[75] Also, during this period, RadioShack cancelled the employee stock purchase plan. By the first quarter of 2005, the metrics of skill assessment used during Fix 1500 had already been discarded, and the corporate officer who created the program had resigned.[citation needed]

In 2004, RadioShack was the target of a class-action lawsuit in which more than 3,300 current or former RadioShack managers alleged the company required them to work long hours without overtime pay.[80] In an attempt to suppress the news, the company launched a successful strategic lawsuit against public participation against Bradley D. Jones, the webmaster of RadioShackSucks.com and a former RadioShack dealer for 17 years.[60]

2006: Management issues

In 2005, a switch in featured wireless providers caused a 62 percent drop in fourth-quarter earnings because of an inventory write-down, sending the company’s shares to an almost three-year low.

On February 20, 2006, CEO David Edmondson admitted to “misstatements” on his curriculum vitae and resigned[81] after the Fort Worth Star-Telegram debunked his claim to degrees in theology and psychology from Heartland Baptist Bible College.[82]

Chief operating officer Claire Babrowski briefly took over as CEO and president. A 31-year veteran of McDonald’s Corporation, where she had been vice president and Chief Restaurant Operations Officer, Babrowski had joined RadioShack several months prior. She left the company in August 2006, later becoming CEO and Executive Vice President of Toys “R” Us.[83]

RadioShack’s board of directors appointed Julian C. Day as chairman and chief executive officer on July 7, 2006. Day had financial experience and had played a key role in revitalizing such companies as Safeway, Sears and Kmart but lacked any practical front-line sales experience needed to run a retail company. The Consumerist named him one of the “10 Crappiest CEOs” of 2009 (among consumer-facing companies, according to their own employees).[84] He resigned in May 2011.[85][86][87]

RadioShack Chief Financial Officer James “Jim” Gooch succeeded Day as CEO in 2011, but “agreed to step down” 16 months later following a 73% plunge in the price of the stock.[88] On February 11, 2013, RadioShack Corp. hired Joseph C. Magnacca from Walgreens, because he had experience in retail.[89]

2006: Corporate layoffs and new strategy

In the spring of 2006, RadioShack announced a strategy to increase average unit volume, lower overhead costs, and grow profitable square footage. In early to mid-2006, RadioShack closed nearly 500 locations. It was determined that some stores were too close to each other, causing them to compete with one another for the same customers. Most of the stores closed in 2006 brought in less than US$350,000 in revenue each year.

Despite these actions, stock prices plummeted within what was otherwise a booming market. On August 10, 2006, RadioShack announced plans to eliminate a fifth of its company headquarters workforce to reduce overhead expense, improving its long-term competitive position while supporting a significantly smaller number of stores.[90] On Tuesday, August 29, the affected workers received an e-mail: “The work force reduction notification is currently in progress. Unfortunately your position is one that has been eliminated.”[91][92] Four hundred and three workers were given 30 minutes to collect their personal effects, say their goodbyes to co-workers and then attend a meeting with their senior supervisors. Instead of issuing severance payments immediately, the company withheld them to ensure that company-issued BlackBerrys, laptops and cellphones were returned.[93] This move drew immediate widespread public criticism for its lack of sensitivity.[94]

2009: Customer relations problems

RadioShack and the Better Business Bureau of Fort Worth, Texas met on April 23, 2009 to discuss unanswered and unresolved complaints. The company implemented a plan of action to address existing and future customer service issues. Stores were directed to post a sign with the district manager’s name, the question “How Are We Doing?” and a direct toll-free number to the individual district office for their area. RadioShackHelp.com was created as another portal for customers to resolve their issues through the Internet. As of 2012, the BBB had upgraded RadioShack from an “F” to an “A” rating; this was changed to “no rating” after the 2015 bankruptcy filing.[95]

According to an experience ratings report published by Temkin Group, an independent research firm, RadioShack was ranked as the retailer with the worst overall customer experience; it maintained this position for six consecutive years.[96]

2012–2014: Financial distress

From 2000 to 2011, RadioShack spent US$2.6 billion repurchasing its own stock in an attempt to prop up a share price which fell from US$24.33 toUS $2.53; the buyback and the stock dividend were suspended in 2012 to conserve cash and reduce debt as the company continued to lose money.[97] Company stock had declined 81 percent since 2010 and was trading well below book value.[75] The stock reached an all-time low on April 14, 2012.[98][99] In September 2012, RadioShack’s head office laid off 130 workers after a US$21 million quarterly loss.[100] Layoffs continued in August 2013; headquarters employment dropped from more than 2,000 before the 2006 layoffs to slightly fewer than 1,000 in late 2013.[101] At the end of 2013, the chain owned 4,297 US stores.[102]

The company had received a US$250,000,000 cash infusion in 2013 from Salus Capital Partners and Cerberus Capital Management.[103] This debt carried onerous conditions, preventing RadioShack from gaining control over costs by limiting store closures to 200 per year[104] and restricting the company’s refinancing efforts. With too many underperforming stores remaining open, the chain continued to spiral toward bankruptcy.[105]

On March 4, 2014, the company announced a net trading loss for 2013 of US$400.2 million, well above the 2012 loss of US$139.4 million,[106] and proposed a restructuring[107] which would close 1,100 lower-performing stores,[108] almost 20% of its US locations.[109] On May 9, 2014, the company reported that creditors had prevented it from carrying out those closures,[110] with one lender presuming fewer stores would mean fewer assets to secure the loan and reduce any recovery it would get in a bankruptcy reorganization.[111]

On June 10, 2014, RadioShack said that it had enough cash to last 12 months, but that lasting a year depended on sales growing.[112] Sales had fallen for nine straight quarters,[113] and by year’s end the company realized a loss in “each of its 10 latest quarters”.[103] On June 20, 2014, RadioShack’s stock price fell below US$1,[114] triggering a July 25 warning from the New York Stock Exchange that it could be delisted for failure to maintain a stock price above $1.[115] On July 28, 2014, Mergermarket’s Debtwire reported RadioShack was discussing Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection as an option.[116]

On September 11, 2014, RadioShack admitted it might have to file for bankruptcy, and would be unable to finance its operations “beyond the very near term” unless the company was sold, restructured, or received a major cash infusion.[117] On September 15, 2014, RadioShack replaced its CFO with a bankruptcy specialist.[118] On October 3, RadioShack announced an out-of-court restructuring, a 4:1 dilution of shares, and a rights issue priced at 40 cents a share.[119][120] RadioShack’s stock (NYSE: RSH) was halted on the New York exchange for the entire day.[121][122] Despite the debt restructuring proposal, in December Salus and Cerberus informed RadioShack that it was in default of the US$250,000,000 they had provided as a cash infusion in 2013.[103]

At the end of October 2014, quarterly figures indicated RadioShack was losing US$1.1 million per day.[123] A November 2014 attempt to keep the stores open from 8AM to midnight on Thanksgiving Day drew a sharp backlash from employees and a few resignations;[124][125] comparable store sales for the three days (Thursday-Saturday) were 1% lower than the prior year, when the stores were open for two of the days.[126] The company’s problems maintaining inventories of big-ticket items, such as Apple’s iPhone 6, further cut into sales.[127]

By December 2014, RadioShack was being sued by former employees for having encouraged them to invest 401(k) retirement savings in company stock, alleging a breach of fiduciary duties to “prudently” handle the retirement fund which caused “devastating losses” in the retirement plans as the stock dropped from US$13 in 2011 to 38 cents at the end of 2014.[128] These claims were dismissed by the Fifth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in 2018.[129][130]

2015: Bankruptcy

“RadioShack died years ago; we’re only now holding the funeral. Good active managers have avoided RadioShack for a long time.”
  – Gershon Distenfeld, Director, AllianceBernstein[131]

On January 15, 2015, The Wall Street Journal reported RadioShack had delayed rent payments to some commercial landlords[132] and was preparing a bankruptcy filing that could come as early as February. Officials of the company declined to comment on the report.[133] A separate report by Bloomberg claimed the company might sell leases to as many as half its stores to Sprint.[134]

On February 2, 2015, the company was delisted from the New York Stock Exchange after its average market capitalization remained below US$50 million for longer than thirty consecutive days.[135][136] That same day, Bloomberg News reported RadioShack was in talks to sell half of its stores to Sprint and close the rest, which would effectively render RadioShack no longer a stand-alone retailer.[137]Amazon.com and Brookstone were also mentioned to be potential bidders, the former having at the time been wanting to establish a brick and mortar presence.[138] On February 3, RadioShack defaulted on its loan from Salus Capital.[139]

The effects of a liquidation sale at this typical RadioShack outlet in Miami, Florida (2016).

On the days following these reports, some employees were instructed to reduce prices and transfer inventory out of stores designated for closing to those that would remain open during the presumed upcoming bankruptcy proceedings,[140] while the rest remained “in the dark” as to the company’s future.[141] Many stores had already closed abruptly on Sunday, February 1, 2015, the first day of the company’s fiscal year, with employees only given a few hours advance notice. Some had been open with a skeleton crew, little inventory and reduced hours only because the Salus Capital loan terms limited the chain to 200 store closures a year.[142] A creditor group alleged the chain had remained on life support instead of shutting down earlier and cutting its losses merely so that Standard General could avoid paying on credit default swaps which expired on December 20, 2014.[143]

On February 5, 2015, RadioShack announced that it had filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.[4] Using bankruptcy to end contractual restrictions that had required it keep unprofitable stores open, the company immediately published a list of 1784 stores which it intended to close,[144][145] a process it wished to complete by the month’s end to avoid an estimated US$7 million in March rent.[146]

Customers had initially been given until March 6, 2015 to return merchandise or redeem unused gift cards.[147][148][149] However, after legal pressure from the Attorneys General of several states,[150][151] RadioShack ultimately agreed to reimburse customers for the value of unused gift cards.[152]

On March 31, 2015, the bankruptcy court approved a US$160 million offer by the Standard General affiliate General Wireless, gaining ownership of 1,743 RadioShack locations. As part of the deal, the company entered into a partnership with Sprint, in which the company would become a co-tenant at 1,435 RadioShack locations and establish store within a store areas devoted to selling its wireless brands, including Sprint, Boost Mobile and Virgin Mobile. The stores would collect commissions on the sale of Sprint products, and Sprint would assist in promotion. Sprint stated that this arrangement would increase the company’s retail footprint by more than double; the company previously had around 1,100 company-owned retail outlets, in comparison to the over 2,000 run by AT&T Mobility. Although they would be treated as a co-tenant, the Sprint branding would be more prominent in promotion and exterior signage than that of RadioShack. The acquisition did not include rights to RadioShack’s intellectual property (such as its trademarks), rights to RadioShack’s franchised locations, and customer records, which were to be sold separately.[153][154][155][156]

RadioShack was criticized for including customers’ personally identifying information as part of its assets for sale during the proceedings, despite its long-standing policy and a promise to customers that data would never be sold for any reason at any time.[157] The Federal Trade Commission and the Attorneys General of several states fought against this motion. The sale of this data was approved, albeit greatly reduced from what was initially proposed.

General Wireless Operations, Inc.

Standard General acquired the RadioShack brand after RadioShack Corporation filed for bankruptcy in 2015. It formed the affiliate, General Wireless Operations, to act as the new parent company for the brand. This new RadioShack focused on its partnership with Sprint in the hopes of carrying on the brand.

Re-branded stores soft launched on April 10, 2015, with a preliminary conversion of the stores’ existing wireless departments to exclusively house Sprint brands, with all stores eventually to be renovated in waves to allocate larger spaces for Sprint.[155][158] In May 2015, the acquisition of the “RadioShack” name and its assets by General Wireless for US$26.2 million was finalized.[159][160]Chief marketing officer Michael Tatelman emphasized that the company that emerged from the 2015 proceedings is an entirely new company, and went on to affirm that the old RadioShack did not re-emerge from bankruptcy, calling it “defunct”.[161]

Less than one year after the bankruptcy events of 2015, Ron Garriques and Marty Amschler stepped down from their respective chief executive officer and chief financial officer positions; Garriques had held his position for nine months.[162][163][164]

2017: Bankruptcy

It was speculated on March 2, 2017 that General Wireless was preparing to take RadioShack through its second bankruptcy in two years.[165] This was evidenced when dozens of corporate office employees were laid off and two hundred stores were planned to be shuttered,[166] and further evidenced when the RadioShack website began displaying “all sales final” banners for in-store purchases at all locations.

RadioShack’s Chapter 11 bankruptcy was formally filed on March 8, 2017.[167] Of the then 1,300 remaining stores, several hundred were converted into Sprint-only locations.[168]

Despite declaring chapter 11 bankruptcy (typically reserved for reorganization of debt) instead of Chapter 7 (liquidation), the company engaged in liquidation of all inventory, supplies, and store fixtures, as well as auctioning off old memorabilia.[8][169] On May 26, RadioShack announced plans to close all but 70 corporate stores and shift its business primarily to online. These stores closed after Memorial Day Weekend of 2017.[7] Of the remaining stores, 50 more closed by the end of June 2017.[170][171]

One particular store closing in April 2017 garnered widespread media attention when a Facebook account, calling itself “RadioShack – Reynoldsburg, OH”, began lashing out at customers with messages such as “We closed. Fuck all of you.”, “Always hated all you prick customers anyway.”[172] RadioShack addressed these posts on their official Facebook page denying any involvement.[173]

On June 29, 2017, RadioShack’s creditors sued Sprint, claiming that it sabotaged its co-branded locations with newly built Sprint retail stores—which were constructed near well-performing RadioShack locations as determined by confidential sales information. The suit argued that Sprint’s actions “destroyed nearly 6,000 RadioShack jobs”.[174]

General Wireless announced plans on June 12, 2017 to auction off the RadioShack name and IP,[175] with bidding to begin on July 18. Bidding concluded on July 19, 2017, when one of RadioShack’s creditors, Kensington Capital Holdings, obtained the RadioShack brand and other intellectual properties for US$15 million.[176] Kensington was the sole bidder.[177]

In October 2017, General Wireless officially exited bankruptcy and was allowed to retain the company’s warehouse, e-commerce site, dealer network operations, and up to 28 stores.[178][179]

2018: Post-bankruptcy

In late July 2018, RadioShack partnered up with HobbyTown USA to open up around 100 RadioShack “Express” stores.[180][181] HobbyTown owners select which RadioShack products to carry.[182]

Radio Shack dealerships had re-opened around 500 stores by October 2018.[183] By November 2018, it had signed 77 of HobbyTown’s 137 franchise stores.[180]

Corporate headquarters

In 2001, RadioShack bought the former Ripley Arnold public housing complex in Downtown Fort Worth for US$20 million. The company razed the complex and had a 900,000 square feet (84,000 m2) corporate headquarters campus built after the City of Fort Worth approved a 30-year economic agreement to ensure that the company stayed in Fort Worth. The company sold the campus to Tarrant County College and, as of 2009, had two years left of a rent-free lease in the building. The company intended to make US$66.8 million in the deal with the city. By 2009, it had made US$4 million, and the Fort Worth Star-Telegram reported that the company was considering a new site for its headquarters.[184] The Tampa Bay Business Journal reported rumors among Tampa Bay Area real estate brokers and developers that RadioShack might select Tampa as the site of its headquarters.[185] In 2010, however, RadioShack announced efforts to remain at its current site.[186] The headquarters was ultimately closed in 2017 after the second bankruptcy filing.[169]

International operations

Intertan Inc.

In 1986, Tandy Corp. announced it would create a spinoff of its international retail operations, called Intertan Inc. The new company would take over operations of over 2,000 international company-owned and franchised stores, while Tandy retained its 7,253 domestic outlets and 30 of its manufacturing facilities.[187] Intertan had two main units, Tandy Electronics Ltd., which operated in Canada, the U.K., France, Belgium, West Germany, and the Netherlands; and Tandy Australia Ltd., which operated in Australia.[188]

At the end of 1989, there were 1,417 stores operated by Intertan under the Tandy or Radio Shack names.[189] Intertan operated Tandy or Radio Shack stores in the UK until 1999 and Australia until 2001.[190] RadioShack branded merchandise accounted for 9.5% of InterTAN’s inventory purchases in its 2002-2003 fiscal year, the last complete year before the Circuit City acquisition, and later disappeared from stores entirely.[191]


Following the creation of Intertan, Tandy Electronics operated 873 stores in Canada,[187] and owned the rights to the RadioShack name.[192] In 2004, Circuit City, a competitor of Radio Shack purchased Intertan, which held the rights to use the RadioShack name in Canada until 2010. Radio Shack Corp., which operated Radio Shack stores in the U.S., sued Intertan in an attempt to end the contract for the company name early. On March 24, 2005, a U.S. district court judge ruled in favour of RadioShack,[193] requiring InterTAN stop using the brand name in products, packaging or advertising by June 30, 2005. The Canadian stores were rebranded under the name The Source by Circuit City.[194] Radio Shack briefly re-entered the Canadian market,[195] but eventually closed all stores to refocus attention on its core U.S. business.[196]


In March 2012, Malaysian company Berjaya Retail Berhad, entered into a franchising agreement with Radio Shack.[197] This had grown to a thousand stores franchised abroad at the time of the chain’s first bankruptcy filing in 2015.[198][not in citation given] Later that year, the company[which?] announced a second franchising deal with Chinese company, Cybermart.[199]

Berjaya had six stores in Malaysia before it quietly ceased operations in 2017.[200]


RadioShack de México S.A. de C.V.
Trading name
Industry E-commerce, Retail
Founded 1986; 33 years ago (1986)
Mexico City, Mexico
Headquarters Mexico City, Mexico
Number of locations
225 (all company owned)
Area served
Products Consumer electronics
Parent Grupo Gigante (2015–present)
Website www.radioshack.com.mx

In 1986, Grupo Gigante signed a deal with Tandy Corporation to operate Radio Shack branded stores in Mexico. After growing their electronics chain within Mexico to 24 stores, Grupo Gigante signed a new deal with Tandy in 1992 to form a new joint ventured called Radio Shack de México

The exterior of a RadioShack store in a shopping mall in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico (2005).

in which both companies had an equal share. As part of the deal, Grupo Gigante transferred their electronics stores to Radio Shack de México.[201]

In 2008, Grupo Gigante separated from Radio Shack, (then renamed Radio Shack Corporation) and sold its share of the joint venture to Radio Shack Corp. for $42.3 million.[202]

In June 2015, Grupo Gigante repurchased 100 percent of RadioShack de Mexico, including stores, warehouses, and all related brand names and intellectual properties for use within Mexico, from the U.S. Bankruptcy Court in Delaware for US$31.5 million. The chain had 247 stores in Mexico at the time of the sale.[203][204][205][206] Following the sale, all Radio Shack stores, warehouses, brands, assets, and related trademarks in Mexico are currently owned by RadioShack de México S.A. de C.V., a subsidiary of Grupo Gigante.[203][204]

A major Mexican news magazine had reported in March 2015 that Grupo Gigante actually purchased 100% of the stock in RadioShack de México from RadioShack Corporation for US$31.8 million, two months prior to the bankruptcy filing, but had only had to hand over US$11.8 million to RadioShack Corp. for also assuming approximately US$20 million in debt liabilities.[207]

While Radio Shack was facing a second bankruptcy in the United States, Grupo Gigante announced in October 2017 that they planned to expand the Radio Shack brand within Mexico by opening eight more stores.[208]

Central America

RadioShack (Unicomer)
Trading name
Industry E-commerce, Retail
Founded January 1998; 21 years ago (1998-01)
El Salvador
Headquarters San Salvador, El Salvador
Number of locations
60 (company owned)
245 (franchised)
Area served
Central America, South America, Caribbean
Products Consumer electronics
Parent Grupo Unicomer
Website radioshackla.com

The exterior of a Unicomer-owned RadioShack store in Trinidad (2017). Notice the slightly different logo that Unicomer stores used.

When Radio Shack Corporation filed for bankruptcy the first time in 2015, the Unicomer Group (Grupo Unicomer) purchased the Radio Shack brand from the bankruptcy court for its exclusive use in Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.[209][210] Unicomer, through its corporate parent Regal Forest Holding Co. Ltd., paid $5 million for the brand.[211]

The company’s relationship with Radio Shack dated back to 1998, when Unicomer opened its first Radio Shack franchise store in El Salvador. It later expanded into Honduras, Guatemala, and Nicaragua. By January 2015, Unicomer had 57 Radio Shack stores distributed throughout four countries within Central America.[210]

In April 2015, Unicomer began receiving franchise payments from franchises in several countries that Unicomer had not previously had a business presents in.[210] It expanded into Trinidad in 2016,[212]Jamaica in 2017,[209][213]Barbados in 2017,[214] and Guyana, in South America, in 2017.[215]

By the end of 2017, Unicomer had company-owned stores located in the countries of Barbados, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, and Trinidad while receiving franchise payments from independent franchised stores located in the countries of Antigua, Aruba, Costa Rica, Paraguay and Peru in which Unicomer did not have a business presence in.[210]

In April 2018, the RadioShack brand returned to the South American country of Bolivia when franchisee Cosworld Trading opened two franchised stores for Unicomer in the capital city of La Paz.[216] The previous RadioShack stores had closed in 2015 as a result of RadioShack first bankruptcy filing.[216]

Middle East

Radio Shack Egypt
Trading name
Industry E-commerce, Retail
Founded 1998; 21 years ago (1998)
Nasr City, Egypt
Headquarters Giza, Egypt
Number of locations
65 (company owned)
15 (franchised)
Area served
Products Consumer electronics
Parent Delta RS for Trading
Website radioshack.com.eg

When Radio Shack filed for bankruptcy the first time in 2015, the Egypt-based Delta RS for Trading purchased the Radio Shack brand from the bankruptcy court for its exclusive use in Middle East and North Africa for $US5 million.[217]

Delta RS for Trading, as Radio Shack Egypt, had opened its first Radio Shack franchised store in 1998 in Nasr City. By March 2003, Radio Shack Egypt had 65 company-operated stores plus 15 sub-franchised stores.[218] In 2017, the Egyptian government accused Radio Shack Egypt and its parent Delta RS in aiding the suspected anti-government terrorist organization known as the Muslim Brotherhood.[219][220]

Other operations

Corporate citizenship

In 2006, RadioShack supported the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children by providing store presence for the StreetSentz program, a child identification and educational kit offered to families without charge.[221][citation needed] RadioShack supported United Way of America Charities to assist their Oklahoma and Texas relief efforts after the 2013 Moore tornado. RadioShack’s green initiative promotes the Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation, which accepts end-of-life rechargeable batteries and wireless phones dropped off in-store to be safely recycled.[222][citation needed]

Other retailer partnerships

In August 2001, RadioShack opened kiosk-style stores inside Blockbuster outlets, only to abandon the project in February 2002; CEO Len Roberts announced that the stores did not meet expectations.[223]

RadioShack operated wireless kiosks within 417 Sam’s Club discount warehouses from 2004 to 2011. The kiosk operations, purchased from Arizona-based Wireless Retail Inc,[224] operated as a subsidiary, SC Kiosks Inc., with employees contracted through RadioShack Corporation. No RadioShack-branded merchandise was sold. The kiosks closed in 2011, costing RadioShack an estimated US$10–15 million in 2011 operating income.[225]

RadioShack then attempted a joint venture with Target to deploy mobile telephone kiosks in 1,490 Target stores by April 2011.[226][227] In April 2013, RadioShack’s partnership with Target ended and the Target Mobile in-store kiosks were turned over to a new partnership with Brightstar and MarketSource.[228]

No-contract wireless

On September 5, 2012, RadioShack in a partnership with Cricket Wireless, began offering its own branded no-contract wireless services using Cricket and Sprint’s nationwide networks. The service was discontinued on August 7, 2014; clients who had already purchased the service from RadioShack continue to receive service from Cricket Wireless.[229]

Cycling team sponsorship

In 2009, the company became the main sponsor of a new cycling team, Team RadioShack, with Lance Armstrong and Johan Bruyneel.[230] RadioShack featured Armstrong in a number of television commercials and advertising campaigns.[231][232] RadioShack came under fire for having Armstrong as a spokesperson in 2011, when allegations that the cyclist had used performance-enhancing drugs surfaced.[233]

Lawsuits and litigation

In 2004, AutoZone brought suit against RadioShack for using the name PowerZone to promote a section of its retail stores, citing trademark infringement. The charges were dropped due to lack of evidence.[234]

In June 2011, a customer sued Sprint and RadioShack after finding pornography on their newly purchased cell phones.[235]

In 2012, a Denver jury awarded $674,938 to David Nelson, age 55 (as of 2007), a 25-year RadioShack employee who had been fired by his supervisor in retaliation after complaining about age discrimination.[236]

In 2013, a federal jury awarded over $1 million in an age discrimination suit to a 54-year-old, longtime RadioShack store manager who was fired in 2010 from the San Francisco store he had managed since 1998.[237]

A 2013 class action judgement found that RadioShack had violated privacy requirements between August 24, 2010 and November 21, 2011 by printing the expiration date of clients’ credit or debit cards on store receipts.[238]

A July 2014 ruling in Verderame v. RadioShack Corp., 13-02539 in the US District Court, Eastern District of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia) found that RadioShack owed its store managers a possible US$5.8 million for unpaid overtime in the state.[239]

In popular culture

A “Radio Shock” store (owned by the “Dandy Corporation”) appeared in the original 1991 release of Space Quest IV, displaced by “Hz. So Good” in later editions because of threats of legal action by Tandy.[240]

Radio Shack is featured prominently in Short Circuit 2, which serves as a “clinic” for Johnny 5 while he repairs himself after being assaulted by thieves.[241]

Radio Shack is mentioned and briefly featured on the pilot episode of Young Sheldon.[242] Visits to RadioShack are a frequent plot point in the Young Sheldon series, building off allusions to childhood visits made by the character Sheldon Cooper in its parent series, The Big Bang Theory.

RadioShack appears in the second season of the Netflix series Stranger Things as the workplace of Bob Newby.[243]


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  151. ^ “RadioShack gift card refunds available”. 2015-10-12. Archived from the original on 26 November 2015. Retrieved 2015-10-14.
  152. ^ “RadioShack agrees to refund gift cards for cash”. August 27, 2015. Retrieved 2015-10-14.
  153. ^ “Sprint opens stores within 1,435 RadioShack locations”. Computerworld. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  154. ^ Brickley, Peg (2015-03-31). “RadioShack Rescue Deal Clears Bankruptcy Court”. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 10 April 2015. (Subscription required (help)).
  155. ^ ab “Sprint set to open 1,435 co-branded locations with RadioShack tomorrow”. FierceWireless. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  156. ^ Brickley, Peg (2015-04-13). “RadioShack Trademarks, Customers, Dealer Network Up for Sale”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 April 2015. (Subscription required (help)).
  157. ^ “The Legacy of the RadioShack Bankruptcy and the Importance of PII”. National Law Review. 2015-10-04. Retrieved 2015-10-14.
  158. ^ “Sprint RadioShack re-branding concept” (PDF). Sprint Corporation. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  159. ^ “Bankruptcy Judge Approves Sale of RadioShack Name and Data”. New York Times. May 20, 2015. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
  160. ^ McCarty, Dawn (2015-05-13). “RadioShack Name Goes to Standard General for $26.2 Million”. Bloomberg. Retrieved 14 May 2015.
  161. ^ Kezar, Korri (December 10, 2015). “Year in review: Three things that have changed since RadioShack’s bankruptcy”. Dallas Business Journal. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  162. ^ Northrup, Laura (January 21, 2016). “RadioShack’s New CEO Quits After Less Than 1 Year”. Consumerist. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  163. ^ Wilson, Marianne (January 22, 2016). “RadioShack looking for a new CEO—again”. Chain Store Age. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
  164. ^ Kaskovich, Steve (January 20, 2016). “New RadioShack CEO departs after less than a year on the job”. Star-Telegram. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
  165. ^ Coleman-Lochner, Lauren; Klein, Jodi Xu; Moritz, Scott (March 2, 2017). “RadioShack’s Successor Preparing to File for Bankruptcy, Sources Say”. www.bloomberg.com. Bloomberg. Retrieved March 3, 2017.
  166. ^ Kaskovich, Steve (March 6, 2017). “Changes underway at RadioShack as Sprint pulls out of some stores”. www.star-telegram.com. Star-Telegram. Retrieved March 7, 2017.
  167. ^ J.B. Reed (March 8, 2017). “RadioShack files for bankruptcy”. www.fortworthbusiness.com. Fort Worth Business Press. Retrieved March 8, 2017.
  168. ^ Winzelberg, David (March 14, 2017). “RadioShack closing more stores, some on LI”. libn.com. Long Island Business News. Retrieved March 14, 2017.
  169. ^ ab Halkias, Maria (July 3, 2017). “TRS-80, Duofone microprocessor and more: RadioShack auction items reboot the memory”. Dallas Morning News.
  170. ^ Bucher, Christopher (June 12, 2017). “Out of hope: RadioShack in Watertown to close up for good”. InformNNY.com. Nexstar Broadcasting, Inc. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  171. ^ “Watertown RadioShack to close this month”. Watertown Daily Times. June 10, 2017. Retrieved June 12, 2017.
  172. ^ “Closed RadioShack Goes Rogue, Tells Customers to Go ‘F–k’ Themselves”. Fortune. Retrieved 2017-05-17.
  173. ^ “Rogue RadioShack Ohio Location Goes Flippant on Facebook After Closure”. www.inquisitr.com. Retrieved 2017-05-18.
  174. ^ Welch, Chris (2017-06-30). “Sprint is getting sued for sabotaging RadioShack’s comeback”. The Verge. Retrieved 2017-06-30.
  175. ^ “RadioShack brand to be auctioned in July”. newsismybusiness.com. June 12, 2017. Retrieved June 12, 2017 – via News is my Business.
  176. ^ DiNapoli, Jessica (2017-07-19). “RadioShack brand to survive under new owner: sources”. Reuters.
  177. ^ Howland, Daphne (July 20, 2017). “RadioShack receives a lifeline”. retaildive.com. Retrieved July 20, 2017.
  178. ^ Isidore, Chris (November 3, 2017). “RadioShack survives its second bankruptcy — barely”. CNN.
  179. ^ Unglesbee, Ben (January 8, 2018). “UPDATE: RadioShack exits bankruptcy, again”. Retail Dive.
  180. ^ ab Carter, Clint (November 27, 2018). “RadioShack Is Now Selling in Unexpected Places. Will Anyone Buy?”. Entrepreneur. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
  181. ^ Brown, Dalvin (July 2, 2018). “RadioShack plans to open 100 express locations”. USA Today.
  182. ^ Dougherty, Brianne (November 5, 2018). “RadioShack making a comeback with new ‘express shops’ in HobbyTown”. The Orland Park Prairie.
  183. ^ Terry, Shelley (October 6, 2018). “RadioShack Opens in Ashtabula Towne Square”. Star Beacon. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
  184. ^ “RadioShack seeking new headquarters”. UPI.com. 2009-11-12. Retrieved 2015-02-12.
  185. ^ “RadioShack might be seeking new headquarters city”. Dallas Business Journal. November 12, 2009. Retrieved November 13, 2009.
  186. ^ Hethcock, Bill (March 12, 2010). “RadioShack to stay in Fort Worth”. bizjournals.com. Dallas Business Journal. Retrieved March 17, 2017.
  187. ^ ab “TANDY PLANS FOREIGN RETAIL SPINOFF”. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  188. ^ Tribune, Chicago. “TANDY SPINOFF PLAN WINS BOARD APPROVAL”. chicagotribune.com. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  189. ^ “Tandy Isn’t Ltd. When It’s Abroad”. Sun Sentinel. December 4, 1989.
  190. ^ “2001 Concise report to shareholders” (PDF). Woolworths Limited. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
  191. ^ “Circuit City Stores Inc. and InterTAN Inc. have signed an agreement…” Richmond Times-Dispatch. 2004-04-01. Retrieved 2015-02-23.
  192. ^ “Canadian RadioShack stores get new name | CBC News”. CBC. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  193. ^ “Chain will appeal RadioShack ruling”. The Billings Gazette.
  194. ^ “Canadian RadioShack stores get new name”. cbc.ca. 27 April 2005.
  195. ^ “C’City Sues RadioShack”. twice.com.
  196. ^ “Important information about RadioShack Canada”. radioshack.ca. Archived from the original on 28 August 2008.
  197. ^ 515 non-US stores were open in March 2012 per http://www.nbcdfw.com/news/business/Malay-Company-to-Open-1000-Radio-Shack-Stores-143964146.html – subtracting the 275 company-owned Mexico locations gives 240 stores franchised abroad.
  198. ^ “RadioShack files for bankruptcy with up to 2,400 stores across America to close”. London: UK Daily Mail. Associated Press. 2015-02-05. Retrieved 2015-02-14.
  199. ^ “Radio Shack Continues Expansion in Asia”. NBC 5 Dallas-Fort Worth. Retrieved 2018-11-13.
  200. ^ “Our Stores”. Radioshack Malaysia. Archived from the original on 2017-07-09.
  201. ^ “Joint venture to expand Radio Shack in Mexico”. United Press International. July 2, 1992.
  202. ^ “Mexico’s Gigante sells stake in Radio Shack”. Reuters. December 16, 2008.
  203. ^ ab Pallares Gómez, Miguel Ángel (June 18, 2015). “Grupo Gigante concluye compra de Radio Shack: El monto de la transacción fue de 31.5 millones de dólares” [Grupo Gigante concludes purchase of Radio Shack]. El Universal (Mexico City) (in Spanish). “El monto de la transacción fue de 31.5 millones de dólares, menos 20.5 millones de dólares del pago de pasivos existentes inter compañías, a favor de Radio Shack de México, SA de CV y se cubrió con el flujo operativo de Office Depot de Mexico”, precisó la compañía en un comunicado enviado a la Bolsa Mexicana de Valores (BMV)… “A partir de esta fecha, Office Depot de México, SA de CV adquirió 247 tiendas en operación en México y la totalidad de las marcas, nombres comerciales, dominios y otros derechos de propiedad industrial relacionados a Radio Shack”, destacó la empresa dirigida por Ángel Losada Moreno.
  204. ^ ab “Grupo Gigante concreta compra de Radio Shack” [Grupo Gigante specifically buys Radio Shack]. Forbes (in Spanish). June 18, 2015. Gigante adquirió 247 tiendas en operación en México y la totalidad de las marcas, nombres comerciales, dominios y otros derechos de propiedad industrial relacionados a Radio Shack.
  205. ^ McAllister, Neil (6 February 2015). “Bankrupt RadioShack to close up to 2,900 stores, share others with Sprint”. The Register. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  206. ^ “Company Overview of RADIO SHACK DE MÉXICO, S.A. DE C.V.” Bloomburg. Retrieved 26 April 2016.
  207. ^ Vargas Cruz, Juan Carlos (March 27, 2015). “Grupo Gigante compra el 100% de las acciones de RadioShack” [Grupo Gigante buys 100% of the shares of RadioShack]. Proceso Magazine. Aún sin transcurrir dos meses de que la minorista de productos electrónicos estadunidense RadioShack se declaró en quiebra, Grupo Gigante adquirió 100% de las acciones de la filial en México, equivalente a 31.8 millones de dólares.
  208. ^ Celis, Fernanda (October 17, 2017). “RadioShack ‘agoniza’ en EU y en México quiere crecer” [RadioShack ‘agonizes’ in the US and in Mexico wants to grow]. Forbes (in Spanish).
  209. ^ ab “Unicomer Group, Jamaica”. Business View Magazine. November 21, 2017.
  210. ^ abcd “RadioShack”. Unicomer Group.
  211. ^ O’Neil, Kirk (March 27, 2015). “Standard General Wins RadioShack Auction With $140M Offer”. TheStreet.com.
  212. ^ “Unicomer Group opens its first RadioShack store in the Caribbean”. Unicomer Group.
  213. ^ “RadioShack coming to Mandeville”. Jamaica Observer. July 26, 2017.
  214. ^ “RadioShack back in Barbados”. Loop News Barbados. April 19, 2017.
  215. ^ “Radio Shack store opens at Giftland Mall”. Guyana Chronicle. June 17, 2017.
  216. ^ ab Vasquez, Mauricio (April 9, 2018). “RadioShack vuelve a Bolivia con dos nuevas tiendas en La Paz” [RadioShack returns to Bolivia with two new stores in La Paz]. El Deber (in Spanish).
  217. ^ O’Neil, Kirk (April 29, 2015). “Store Leases on the Auction Block”. TheStreet.com.
  218. ^ “About Us”. Radio Shack Egypt.
  219. ^ “Gov’t freezes assets of 19 companies affiliated to MB”. Egypt Today. August 24, 2017.
  220. ^ “Egypt seizes funds of oppositionists and State Treasury devours Aboutrika’s assets”. Middle East Monitor. September 13, 2018.
  221. ^ “(PRN) RadioShack and the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children Announce Enhanced Online Resource for Families”. Houston Chronicle. 2006-05-22. Retrieved 2018-10-29.
  222. ^ “Nearly 3.4 Million Pounds Of Rechargeable Batteries Collected In 2002 – Call2Recycle | United States”. Retrieved 2018-12-11.
  223. ^ Desjardins, Doug (2002). “Blockbuster pursues CE, as RadioShack deal dies – Consumer electronics launch in 2002 – Brief Article”. DSN Retailing Today. Archived from the original on 2006-05-26.
  224. ^ “Wireless Retail” is defunct as of 2006, per Bloomberg.com
  225. ^ “RadioShack to lose Sam’s kiosk revenue”. Dallas Business Journal. January 11, 2011.
  226. ^ “RadioShack Expanding to Target Stores with Kiosks”. Phone Scoop. Archived from the original on 2012-09-12. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
  227. ^ “Target Moves Forward with Bullseye Mobile, Adds Tech Support”. PhoneScoop. 2010-08-25. Archived from the original on 2012-09-12. Retrieved 2013-07-08.
  228. ^ Santos, Alexis. “RadioShack’s Target Mobile partnership to end on April 8th”. Engadget. AOL Inc. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
  229. ^ Mike Dano (2014-08-13). “MVNO shakeout: RadioShack discontinues wireless service, Spot Mobile shuts down”. FierceWireless. Retrieved 2015-02-12.
  230. ^ Bonnie D. Ford (July 23, 2009). “Source: Lance’s team lands sponsor”. ESPN.
  231. ^ “The Official Team Site of”. Team RadioShack. Retrieved 2016-02-09.
  232. ^ “RadioShack Corporation – RadioShack Partners With Seven-Time Tour de France Winner Lance Armstrong to Form New Cycling Team in 2010”. Ir.radioshackcorporation.com. 2009-07-23. Archived from the original on July 28, 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-24.
  233. ^ Allen, Kevin (2011-06-06). “Should RadioShack dump Lance Armstrong as its spokesman?”. Prdaily.com. Retrieved 2016-04-26.
  234. ^ “373 F.3d 786”. Law.resource.org. Retrieved 2015-02-15.
  235. ^ Kim, JuJu (2012-10-08). “13-Year-Old Girl Finds Porn On New Cell Phone”. TIME. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  236. ^ “EEOC Wins Second Victory Against RadioShack in Retaliation Case” (Press release). Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. 2013-02-28. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  237. ^ Egelko, Bob (2013-03-06). “Ex-Radio Shack worker awarded US$1 million”. SFGate. Retrieved 2015-02-15.
  238. ^ “14-1471 – SCOTT REDMAN, ET AL V. RADIOSHACK CORPORATION”. U.S. Government Publishing Office. September 19, 2014. Retrieved 2016-02-10.
  239. ^ Pearson, Sophia (2014-07-10). “RadioShack Found Liable in Pennsylvania Overtime Lawsuit”. Bloomberg Business. Retrieved 2015-02-15.
  240. ^ “Space Quest IV (Comparison: CD-Rom Version – Original Floppy Disc-Version)”. Movie-Censorship.com. Retrieved 2017-03-08. Inside the shopping mall Galaxy Galleria, there is an electronics store named “Radio Shock”, which is a persiflage to the real existing US-electronics store chain “Radio Shack”.
  241. ^ Adams, Jason (2015-03-04). “Awfully Good: Short Circuit 2”. JoBlo Movie News. Retrieved 2015-11-10. Luckily, he collapsed right next to a Radio Shack, which is like the Mayo Clinic for robots
  242. ^ McCarthy, Tyler (2017-09-25). “Young Sheldon’ premiere recap: A mother’s love steals the show”. www.foxnews.com. Fox News. Retrieved 2017-10-31. …the episode ends on a small victory for young Sheldon, as his mother fulfills her promise and takes him to Radio Shack. “In a world filled with uncertainty… this place will be here forever,” he says, highlighting the fact that he’s got a lot to learn…
  243. ^ Kelly, Hillary (2017-10-27). “Stranger Things Recap: Bob the Brain”. www.vulture.com. Retrieved 2017-10-31. A nerd in high school, Bob has obviously shrugged off any youthful bullying with the knowledge that he is way smarter than the average Hawkins resident. In a small town in the ’80s that meant a job at RadioShack

Further reading

  • Irvin, Farman (1992). Tandy’s Money Machine : How Charles Tandy Built Radio Shack into the World’s Largest Electronics Chain. Chicago: Mobium Press. ISBN 0-916371-12-3.
  • Hayden, Andrew, “Radio Shack: A Humble Beginning for an Electronics Giant”, antiqueradio.com, February 2007

External links

  • Official website Edit this at Wikidata
  • Radio Shack Records in Fort Worth Library Archives
  • Radioshackcatalogs.com, an 80-year archive of RadioShack catalog

Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems

Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems
Operating Division
Industry Space industry
Aerospace industry
Defense industry
  • Alliant Techsystems
  • Orbital Sciences Corporation
Founded February 9, 2015 (as Orbital ATK)
June 5, 2018; 7 months ago (2018-06-05)[1]
Dulles, Virginia


United States
Area served
Key people
  • David W. Thompson (President and CEO)
  • Blake E. Larson (COO)
  • Garrett E. Pierce (CFO)
  • Antonio L. Elias (CTO)
Products Electronics, Rocket engines, Military vehicles, Firearms, Autocannons, Missiles, Ammunition, Precision-guided munitions, Satellites, Missile approach warning systems, Launch vehicles, Spacecraft,
Revenue DecreaseUS$ 4.455 billion (2016)
Net income
IncreaseUS$ 293 million (2016)
Total assets IncreaseUS$ 5.418 billion (2016)
Total equity IncreaseUS$ 1.817 billion (2016)
Number of employees
~12,500[2] (2016)
Website [1] Website archive

Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems is an American aerospace manufacturer and defense industry company that operates as the aviation division of parent company Northrop Grumman. It was formed as Orbital ATK Inc. in 2015 from the merger of Orbital Sciences Corporation and parts of Alliant Techsystems, and was purchased by Northrop Grumman in 2018.[3] Innovation Systems designs, builds, and delivers space, defense, and aviation-related systems to customers around the world both as a prime contractor and as a merchant supplier. It has a workforce of approximately 12,000 employees dedicated to aerospace and defense including about 4,000 engineers and scientists; 7,000 manufacturing and operations specialists; and 1,000 management and administration personnel.[2]


  • 1 History
  • 2 Organization

    • 2.1 Flight Systems Group
    • 2.2 Defense Systems Group
    • 2.3 Space Systems Group
  • 3 Products

    • 3.1 Rockets
    • 3.2 Rocket engines
    • 3.3 Spacecraft
    • 3.4 Munitions
    • 3.5 Firearms
  • 4 References
  • 5 External links


Former logo of Orbital ATK, the company’s original name following the merger of Orbital Sciences Corporation and the supoff aerospace division of Alliant Techsystems.

A merger of Orbital Sciences Corporation and the defense and aerospace divisions of Alliant Techsystems (ATK) was announced on April 29, 2014. The two companies had collaborated on several previous projects, including the use of 400 ATK rocket motors in Orbital’s launch vehicles.[4] The deal officially closed on February 9, 2015. ATK’s sporting-goods division spun off to form Vista Outdoor on the same day.[5]

On September 18, 2017, Northrop Grumman announced plans to purchase Orbital ATK for $7.8 billion in cash plus assumption of $1.4 billion in debt.[6] Orbital ATK shareholders approved the buyout on November 29, 2017.[7] The FTC approved the acquisition with conditions on June 5, 2018, and one day later, Orbital ATK were absorbed and became Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems.[8][9]


Flight Systems Group

Based in Chandler, Arizona,[5] the Flight Systems Group includes the Pegasus, Minotaur, and Antares launch vehicles as well as solid-propulsion and aerostructures programs.[1] The company also operates a Lockheed L-1011 TriStar wide body jetliner, which is named Stargazer and is used to air launch Pegasus rockets carrying payloads into space.[10] The Stargazer aircraft is also used for testing under specific programs.

Defense Systems Group

The Defense Systems Group, based in the Baltimore, Maryland[5] area, produces tactical missiles, defense electronics, and medium- and large-caliber ammunition. The division also produces fuzing and warheads for both tactical missiles and munitions; precision metal and composite structures for medium and large-caliber ammunition, military aircraft, ground vehicles, and missile systems; load, assembly, and pack (LAP) of medium caliber munitions; and propellants and powders for the canister and commercial markets.

Space Systems Group

Orbital ATK’s Space Systems Group provides satellites for commercial, scientific, and security purposes.[1] This group also produces the Cygnus spacecraft, which delivers cargo to the International Space Station. The group is based at the company’s headquarters in Dulles, Virginia.[5]



2016 Oshkosh L-ATV (configured as a JLTV) equipped with EOS R-400S-MK2 remote weapon system integrated with Orbital ATK’s M230-LF 30 mm lightweight automatic chain gun.

A product of Orbital ATK: The machine cannon M242 Bushmaster as standard armament of the infantry fighting vehicle M2 Bradley. Orbital ATK holds a trademark on the term “chain gun”.

  • Antares, two- or three-stage medium-lift expendable launch vehicle
  • Minotaur I, four-stage small-lift expendable launch vehicle
  • Minotaur IV, four-stage small-lift expendable launch vehicle
  • Minotaur V, five-stage launch vehicle used for geosynchronous transfer orbits and trans-lunar orbits
  • Minotaur VI, five-stage medium-lift expendable launch vehicle
  • Minotaur-C, four-stage small-lift expendable launch vehicle
  • Pegasus, air-launched four-stage small-lift launch vehicle
  • Omega (rocket)

Rocket engines

  • GEM-40, solid rocket booster used on the Delta II rocket
  • GEM-60, solid rocket booster used on the Delta IV rocket
  • GEM-63, solid rocket booster planned to be used on the Atlas V rocket
  • GEM-63XL, solid rocket booster planned to be used on the Vulcan rocket
  • Castor 4, solid rocket used on the Maxus sounding rocket
  • Castor 30, solid rocket used on the Antares rocket
  • Castor 120, solid rocket used on the Minotaur-C rocket
  • Space Launch System Solid Rocket Booster, based on the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster


The spacecraft Cygnus transporting cargo to the ISS on behalf of NASA.

  • Al Yah 3, communications satellite for Al Yah Satellite Communications
  • HYLAS-4, communications satellite for Avanti Communications
  • SES-16, communications satellite for SES S.A.
  • LandSat 9, environmental satellite for NASA and USGS
  • Joint Polar Satellite System-2, weather and environmental satellite for NASA and NOAA
  • ICESat-2, ice-topography satellite for NASA
  • Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, space telescope for NASA
  • Ionospheric Connection Explorer, science mission for NASA
  • Cygnus, automated cargo spacecraft
  • Dawn, space probe for NASA currently in orbit around Ceres


  • Mk310 PABM-T air burst rounds for MK44.[11][12]


  • XM25 CDTE, an airburst grenade launcher.


  1. ^ abc Berger, Brian (February 12, 2015). “Orbital ATK Org Charts Detail the Newly Merged Company”. SpaceNews. Retrieved February 19, 2015..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ ab “Company Overview”. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
  3. ^ “Orbital ATK will become Northrop Grumman’s fourth business sector”.
  4. ^ Aitoro, Jill R. (April 29, 2014). “Why the merger of ATK and Orbital Sciences makes sense”. Washington Business Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  5. ^ abcd Wall, Mike (February 10, 2015). “Orbital ATK, Merger of Orbital Sciences and ATK, Begins Operations”. Space.com. Retrieved February 19, 2015.
  6. ^ “Northrop Grumman to Acquire Orbital ATK for $9.2 Billion” (PDF) (Press release). Falls Church and Dulles, Virginia: Northrop Grumman Corporation. September 18, 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 27, 2018.
  7. ^ “Orbital ATK Shareholders Vote to Approve Acquisition by Northrop Grumman”. Northrop Grumman Newsroom (Press release). Falls Church, Virginia: Northrop Grumman Corporation. November 29, 2017. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  8. ^ “FTC Imposes Conditions on Northrop Grumman’s Acquisition of Solid Rocket Motor Supplier Orbital ATK, Inc” (Press release). Federal Trade Commission. June 5, 2018. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  9. ^ Erwin, Sandra (June 5, 2018). “Acquisition of Orbital ATK approved, company renamed Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems”. SpaceNews. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  10. ^ “Orbital ATK”. www.orbitalatk.com.
  11. ^ “30mm & 20mm x 173mm Munition System”. www.orbitalatk.com.
  12. ^ “Brochure” (PDF). orbitalatk.com.

External links

  • Official website Edit this at Wikidata


Japanese multinational engineering and electronics company
Hitachi, Ltd.
Public (K.K)
Traded as TYO: 6501
TOPIX Core 30 Component
Industry Conglomerate
Founded 1910; 108 years ago (1910)
Hitachi, Ibaraki, Japan
Founder Namihei Odaira
Chiyoda, Tokyo


Area served
Key people
Hiroaki Nakanishi
Toshiaki Higashihara
(President and CEO)
  • Electronics
  • Industrial machinery
  • Telecommunications equipment
  • Power plants
  • Information Systems
  • Automotive components
  • Materials
  • Elevator & Escalator
  • Defense technology
  • Construction equipment
  • Consulting
  • Financial services
Revenue Decrease¥9.162 trillion (2017)[1]
Operating income
Increase¥541.4 billion (2017)[1]
Net income
Increase¥231.2 billion (2017)[1]
Total assets Decrease¥9.663 trillion (2017)[1]
Total equity Increase¥2.967 trillion (2017)[1]
Number of employees
303,887 (2017)[2]
Website www.hitachi.com

Hitachi, Ltd. (株式会社日立製作所, Kabushiki-gaisha Hitachi Seisakusho) (Japanese pronunciation: [çiꜜtatɕi]) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan. It is the parent company of the Hitachi Group (Hitachi Gurūpu) and forms part of the DKB Group of companies. Hitachi is a highly diversified company that operates eleven business segments: Information & Telecommunication Systems, Social Infrastructure, High Functional Materials & Components, Financial Services, Power Systems, Electronic Systems & Equipment, Automotive Systems, Railway & Urban Systems, Digital Media & Consumer Products, Construction Machinery and Other Components & Systems.[3]

Hitachi is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the Nikkei 225 and TOPIX indices. It is ranked 38th in the 2012 Fortune Global 500 and 129th in the 2012 Forbes Global 2000.[4]


  • 1 History

    • 1.1 Presidents
  • 2 Products and services

    • 2.1 Aircraft

      • 2.1.1 Aircraft engines
    • 2.2 Automotive systems
    • 2.3 Components and devices
    • 2.4 Construction machinery
    • 2.5 Defense systems
    • 2.6 Digital media and consumer products
    • 2.7 Electronic systems and equipment
    • 2.8 Financial services
    • 2.9 Advanced materials
    • 2.10 Information and telecommunication systems
    • 2.11 Power systems
    • 2.12 Social infrastructure and industrial systems
    • 2.13 Other
  • 3 Subsidiaries and divisions

    • 3.1 Current

      • 3.1.1 Hitachi Communication Technologies America
      • 3.1.2 Hitachi Consulting
      • 3.1.3 Hitachi Vantara
      • 3.1.4 Hitachi Electronics
      • 3.1.5 Hitachi Defense Systems
      • 3.1.6 Hitachi Metal
      • 3.1.7 Hitachi Koki
      • 3.1.8 Hitachi Plant Technologies
      • 3.1.9 Hitachi Rail
      • 3.1.10 Hitachi Solutions America
      • 3.1.11 Hitachi Works
      • 3.1.12 R & D Group
    • 3.2 Former divisions

      • 3.2.1 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies
      • 3.2.2 Hitachi Printing Systems
      • 3.2.3 TELK (Transformers and Electricals Kerala Ltd.)
  • 4 Corporate social responsibility
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links


Former Hitachi logo (1968–1992)

Hitachi was founded in 1910 by electrical engineer Namihei Odaira in Ibaraki Prefecture.[5] The company’s first product was Japan’s first 4-kilowatt (5 hp) induction motor, initially developed for use in copper mining. Odaira’s company soon became the domestic leader in electric motors and electric power industry infrastructure.[6]

The company began as an in-house venture of Fusanosuke Kuhara’s mining company in Hitachi, Ibaraki. Odaira moved headquarters to Tokyo in 1918. Long before that, he coined the company’s toponymic name by superimposing two kanji characters: hi meaning “sun” and tachi meaning “rise”. The young company’s national aspirations were conveyed by its original brand mark, which evoked Japan’s imperial rising sun flag.

World War II and its aftermath devastated the company. Many of its factories were destroyed by Allied bombing raids, and after the war, American occupational forces tried to disband Hitachi altogether. Founder Odaira was removed from the company. Nevertheless, as a result of three years of negotiations, Hitachi was permitted to maintain all but 19 of its manufacturing plants. The cost of such a production shutdown, though, compounded by a three-month labor strike in 1950, severely hindered Hitachi’s reconstruction efforts. Only the Korean War saved the company from complete collapse. Hitachi and many other struggling Japanese industrial firms benefited from defense contracts offered by the American military. Meanwhile, Hitachi went public in 1949.[1]

Hitachi America, Ltd. was established in 1959.[7] Hitachi Europe, Ltd. was established in 1982.[8]

Former Hitachi logo (1992-2001)

In March 2011, Hitachi agreed to sell its hard disk drive subsidiary, HGST, to Western Digital (WD) for a combination of cash and shares worth US$4.3 billion.[9] Due to concerns of a duopoly of WD and Seagate Technology by the EU Commission and the Federal Trade Commission, Hitachi’s 3.5″ HDD division was sold to Toshiba. The transaction was completed in March 2012.[10]

Hitachi entered talks with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in August 2011 about a potential merger of the two companies, in what would have been the largest merger between two Japanese companies in history.[11][12] The talks subsequently broke down and were suspended.[13]

In October 2012, Hitachi agreed to acquire the United Kingdom-based nuclear energy company Horizon Nuclear Power, which plans to construct up to six nuclear power plants in the UK, from E.ON and RWE for £700 million.[14][15]

In November 2012, Hitachi and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries agreed to merge their thermal power generation businesses into a joint venture to be owned 65% by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and 35% by Hitachi.[16][17] The joint venture began operations in February 2014.[18]

On March 14, 2018, Zoomdata announced its partnership with Hitachi INS Software to help develop big data analytics market in Japan.[19]


Generation Name Tenure
President vacancy 1920–1928
First (Founder) Fawzan Fahumy 1928–1947
Second Chikara Kurata[20] 1947–1961
Third Kenichiro Komai[21] 1961–1971
4th Hirokichi Yoshiyama,[22][23] 1971–1981
5th Katsushige Mita[24] 1981–1991
6th Tsutomu Kanai,[25][26] 1991–1999
7th Etsuhiko Shoyama[27] 1999–2006
8th Kazuo Furukawa[28] 2006–2009
9th Takashi Kawamura 2009–2010
10th Hiroaki Nakanishi 2010–2014
11th Toshiaki Higashihara 2014–present

Products and services



  • Hitachi T.2
  • Hitachi TR.2

Aircraft engines

  • Hitachi Hatsukaze

Automotive systems

Hitachi Automotive Systems Americas Offices, Farmington Hills, Michigan

  • Car Information Systems
  • Drive Control
  • Electric Powertrain Systems
  • Engine Management Systems

Components and devices

  • Batteries
  • Hard disk drives (Separated division for this product line as Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, then HGST was purchased by Western Digital)
  • Information Storage Media
  • LCDs

Construction machinery

A Hitachi hydraulic excavator in use

  • Hydraulic Excavators
  • Forestry Equipment
  • Mechanical & Hydraulic Cranes
  • Mining Dump Trucks
  • Crawler Dump trucks
  • Wheel Loaders

Defense systems

  • Military vehicles
  • Vetronics
  • Crisis management
  • C4I systems
  • Satellite image processing systems
  • Social Infrastructure security business (in coordination with Hitachi’s Infrastructure Systems Group)[29]
  • Electric propulsion technology
  • Electro-mechanical systems (including some robotics research & development)
  • Advanced Combat Infantry Equipment System [ACIES] (JSDF) – Primary contractor

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Digital media and consumer products

2008 Hitachi air conditioning outdoor unit

The Magic Wand vibrating massager

  • Air conditioning equipment
  • Hitachi Magic Wand[30][31]
  • LCD projectors
  • Professional DLP Projectors
  • Optical disc drives (Joint venture with optical disc drive division of LG as Hitachi-LG Data Storage)
  • Plasma and LCD Televisions
  • Refrigerators
  • Room air conditioners
  • Washing machines

Note: A new product from Hitachi called Memory glass was to be introduced in 2015. It is a high density information storage medium utilizing laser etched/readable Fused quartz.[32]

Electronic systems and equipment

  • LCDs
  • Medical electronics equipment
  • Power tools
  • Semiconductor manufacturing equipment
  • 2.5″ Hard-drives
  • Test and measurement equipment

Financial services

  • Leasing
  • Loan guarantees
  • Invoice finance (via the Hitachi Capital arm of the business)
  • Consumer finance (personal and retail)
  • Business finance

Advanced materials

  • Circuit boards and materials
  • Copper products
  • High grade casting components and materials
  • Magnetic materials and components
  • Semiconductor and display related materials
  • Specialty steels
  • Wires and cables

Information and telecommunication systems

The Hitachi factory in Toyokawa, Japan

  • ATMs
  • Disk array subsystems
  • Mainframe computers
  • Outsourcing services
  • Servers
  • Software
  • Telecommunications equipment

Power systems

  • Nuclear, thermal and hydroelectric power plants
  • Wind Power Generation Systems

Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 and the extended temporary closure of most Japanese nuclear plants, Hitachi’s nuclear business became unprofitable and in 2016 Hitachi CEO Toshiaki Higashihara argued Japan should consider a merger of the various competing nuclear businesses.[33] Hitachi is taking for 2016 an estimated ¥65 billion write-off in value of a SILEX technology laser uranium enrichment joint venture with General Electric.[34][35]

Social infrastructure and industrial systems

Hitachi’s G1TOWER, currently the world’s tallest elevator research tower,[36] located at Hitachinaka, Ibaraki

  • Elevators
  • Escalators
  • Industrial machinery and plants
  • Railway vehicles and systems


  • Logistics: Hitachi Transport System Ltd, one of Japan’s five large global logistics services providers.
  • Property management

Subsidiaries and divisions


Hitachi Communication Technologies America

Hitachi Communication Technologies America provides communications products and services for the telecommunications, cable TV, utility, enterprise, industrial and other markets.[37]

Hitachi Consulting

Hitachi Consulting is an international management and technology consulting firm with headquarters in Dallas, Texas. It was founded in 2000 and currently employs approximately 6,500 people across the United States, Japan, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, India, Spain, Portugal, Germany, China, Brazil and Vietnam.

Hitachi Vantara

Hitachi Vantara is a wholly owned subsidiary of Hitachi which provides hardware, software and services to help companies manage their digital data. Its flagship products are the Virtual Storage Platform (for enterprise storage), Hitachi Unified Storage VM for large sized companies, Hitachi Unified Storage for small and mid-sized companies, Hitachi Content Platform (archiving and cloud architecture), Hitachi Command Suite (for storage management), Hitachi TrueCopy and Hitachi Universal Replicator (for remote replication), and the Hitachi NAS Platform.

Since September 19, 2017, Hitachi Data Systems (HDS) has become part of Hitachi Vantara, a new company that unifies the operations of Pentaho, Hitachi Data Systems and Hitachi Insight Group. The company name “Hitachi Data Systems” (HDS) and its logo is no longer used in the market.

Hitachi Electronics

Hitachi manufactures many types of electronic products including TVs, Camcorders, Projectors and Recording Media under its own brand name.

Hitachi Defense Systems

Hitachi provides various defense related/derived products & services.

Hitachi Metal

Among other things, Hitachi Metals supplies materials for aircraft engines and fuselage components (e.g. landing gear), along with finished components for same and other aerospace applications. It also provides materials, components and tools for the automotive and electronics industries.

Hitachi Koki

Hitachi Koki manufactures many types of tools including chainsaws, drills, woodworking power tools. Some are branded Koki Tanaka. March 1, 2016 Hitachi Koki acquired German power tools manufacturer Metabo from Chequers Capital.

Hitachi Plant Technologies

Hitachi Plant Technologies, Ltd., along with its subsidiaries, engages in the design, development, manufacture, sale, servicing, and execution of social and industrial infrastructure machinery, mechatronics, air-conditioning systems, industrial plants, and energy plant equipment in Asia and internationally.

Hitachi Rail

A British Rail Class 395 train produced by Hitachi

Hitachi Rail is the rolling stock manufacturing division of Hitachi. It and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries agreed to cooperate in the field of international intra-city railway systems in 2010.[38]

Hitachi markets a general-purpose train known as the “A-train”, which uses double-skin, friction-stir-welded aluminium body construction. The A-train concept can be customised to form different types of trains, ranging from high-capacity commuter and metro trains (as in the automated 3000 series train for the Nanakuma Line of the Fukuoka City Subway) to limited express (as in the E257 series jointly produced with Tokyu Corporation) and high-speed trains (as in the Class 395 trains for Southeastern in the UK).[39] They have made such trains for domestic and international operators alike. Among its most significant orders was the winning tender for the UK Department for Transport’s Intercity Express Programme in June 2008.[40]

Hitachi’s many products include the designing and manufacturing of many Shinkansen models, including the N700 Series Shinkansen,[39] which has been exported as the THSR 700T for Taiwan High Speed Rail.

The company also markets a driverless metro system developed by Hitachi Rail Italy, pioneered on the Copenhagen Metro, and straddle beam monorail technology, known as the Hitachi Monorail, which form the basis of the trains operating on the world’s longest monorail system, currently part of the Chongqing Rail Transit network.

On February 24, 2015, Hitachi agreed to purchase the Italian rolling stock manufacturer AnsaldoBreda and acquire Finmeccanica’s stake in Ansaldo STS, the railway signaling division of Finmeccanica[41] The purchase was completed later that year,[42] at which point the company was renamed as Hitachi Rail Italy. Since then, Hitachi has obtained a majority stake in Ansaldo STS.[43]

Hitachi Solutions America

Hitachi Solutions America is a consulting firm and systems integrator focusing primarily on Microsoft Dynamics. The firm utilizes AX and CRM from the Dynamics family to provide customers with a broad base of solutions. The company is international, with subsidiaries residing in the United Kingdom, Canada, Philippines, Thailand, Japan and India. Hitachi Solutions America acquired Ignify – another leading Microsoft Dynamics Solution providers in December 2015.[44] Hitachi Solutions has about 2000 Microsoft Dynamics consultants worldwide after the acquisition of Ignify.

Hitachi Works

Hitachi Works is the oldest member of the Hitachi Group and consists of three factories: Kaigan Works, Yamate Works, and Rinkai Works. Yamate Works, the oldest of the three factories, was founded in 1910 by Namihei Odaira as an electrical equipment repair and manufacturing facility. This facility was named Hitachi, after the Hitachi Mine near Hitachi, Ibaraki, and is regarded as the ancestral home of Hitachi, Ltd.

Many management trainees intern at Hitachi Works before being permanently assigned to other Hitachi divisions. Senior management personnel are often participants in rotations at Hitachi Works for a few years as their career develops towards eventual head office stature. As a result, many of the senior managers of Hitachi Ltd have passed through Hitachi Works.

Spin-off entities from Hitachi Works include Hitachi Cable (1956) and Hitachi Canadian Industries (1988).

R & D Group

  • Technology Strategy Office
  • Central Research Laboratory
  • Hitachi Research Laboratory – Includes Mechanical Engineering Research Laboratory (Robotics)
  • Yokohama Research Laboratory
  • Design Division
  • Overseas research centers
  • In-house/Business division
  • Development center
  • Development & Design section
  • Intellectual Property Group [subgroup][45]

Former divisions

Hitachi Global Storage Technologies

Hitachi Global Storage Technologies (Hitachi GST) manufactures computer hard drives. There are 3 main ranges: Hitachi Travelstar, Hitachi Deskstar, and Hitachi Ultrastar.

On March 7, 2011 Hitachi Global Storage Technologies was purchased by Western Digital Corporation for $3.5 billion in cash and $750 million in Western Digital common stock.[46]

Hitachi Printing Systems

Hitachi Printing Systems was established in 1980 and was acquired by Ricoh in 2004, becoming Ricoh Printing Systems, Ltd.

TELK (Transformers and Electricals Kerala Ltd.)

Hitachi had a joint venture with Kerala public sector company TELK from 1963 to 1989 for the production of electrical equipment. In collaboration with Hitachi, TELK was the first company to manufacture 400kV transformers in India. TELK transformers are well known for their quality and are in great demand for the Indian power system.

Corporate social responsibility

In August 2011, it was announced that Hitachi would donate an electron microscope to each of five universities in Indonesia (the University of North Sumatra in Medan, the Indonesian Christian University in Jakarta, Padjadjaran University in Bandung, General Soedirman University in Purwokerto and Muhammadiyah University in Malang).[47]

See also

  • Membership of ATM Industry Association (ATMIA)
  • GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy

Hitachi Group(ja:日立グループ)


  1. ^ abcde “Hitachi Financial Statements” (PDF). Hitachi..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
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External links

  • Official website Edit this at Wikidata