Kodak

Eastman Kodak Company
Type
Public
Traded as NYSE: KODK
Russell 2000 Index component
Industry
  • Graphic arts
  • Imaging technology
  • Consumer products
Predecessor The Eastman Dry Plate Company
Founded September 4, 1888; 130 years ago (1888-09-04)[1]
Founders
  • George Eastman
  • Henry A. Strong
Headquarters Kodak Tower
Rochester, New York, US
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
  • Jeffrey J. Clarke (CEO)
  • James V. Continenza (Chairman)
Products Digital imaging, photographic materials, equipment and services
Revenue DecreaseUS$1.798 billion (2015)[2]
Operating income
DecreaseUS$2 million (2015)[2]
Net income
DecreaseUS$16 million (2016)[2]
Total assets DecreaseUS$2.138 billion (2015)[2]
Total equity DecreaseUS$103 million (2015)[2]
Number of employees
5,800 (2018)[3]
Website www.kodak.com

Kodak 35mm film cartridge alongside Asahi Pentax film camera. The shift from film to digital greatly affected Kodak’s business.

Kodacolor II 126 film cartridge, expiring date 1980

The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak /ˈkdæk/) is an American technology company that produces camera-related products with its historic basis on photography. The company is headquartered in Rochester, New York, and is incorporated in New Jersey.[4] Kodak provides packaging, functional printing, graphic communications and professional services for businesses around the world. Its main business segments are Print Systems, Enterprise Inkjet Systems, Micro 3D Printing and Packaging, Software and Solutions, and Consumer and Film.[5][6][7] It is best known for photographic film products.

Kodak was founded by George Eastman and Henry A. Strong on September 4, 1888. During most of the 20th century, Kodak held a dominant position in photographic film. The company’s ubiquity was such that its “Kodak moment” tagline entered the common lexicon to describe a personal event that was demanded to be recorded for posterity.[8] Kodak began to struggle financially in the late 1990s, as a result of the decline in sales of photographic film and its slowness in transitioning to digital photography.[9] As a part of a turnaround strategy, Kodak began to focus on digital photography and digital printing, and attempted to generate revenues through aggressive patent litigation.[10][11]

In January 2012, Kodak filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York.[12][13][14]

In February 2012, Kodak announced that it would stop making digital cameras, pocket video cameras and digital picture frames and focus on the corporate digital imaging market.[15] Digital cameras are still sold under the Kodak brand by JK Imaging Ltd thanks to an agreement with Kodak.

In August 2012, Kodak announced its intention to sell its photographic film, commercial scanners and kiosk operations, as a measure to emerge from bankruptcy, but not its motion picture film operations.[16] In January 2013, the Court approved financing for Kodak to emerge from bankruptcy by mid 2013.[17][18] Kodak sold many of its patents for approximately $525,000,000 to a group of companies (including Apple, Google, Facebook, Amazon, Microsoft, Samsung, Adobe Systems and HTC) under the names Intellectual Ventures and RPX Corporation.[19][20] On September 3, 2013, the company emerged from bankruptcy having shed its large legacy liabilities and exited several businesses.[21] Personalized Imaging and Document Imaging are now part of Kodak Alaris, a separate company owned by the UK-based Kodak Pension Plan.[22][23]

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Contents

  • 1 History

    • 1.1 Rivalry with Fujifilm
    • 1.2 Shift to digital
    • 1.3 New strategy
    • 1.4 Timeline

      • 1.4.1 1880–98
      • 1.4.2 1900–99
      • 1.4.3 2000–09
      • 1.4.4 2010–present
  • 2 Products and services

    • 2.1 Current
    • 2.2 Digital printing and enterprise

      • 2.2.1 Flexo printing
      • 2.2.2 Functional printing
      • 2.2.3 Enterprise professional services
      • 2.2.4 Digital printing solutions
      • 2.2.5 Consumer inkjet ink cartridges
    • 2.3 Graphics, Entertainment and Commercial Films (GECF)

      • 2.3.1 Graphics
      • 2.3.2 Global Technical Services
      • 2.3.3 Entertainment Imaging and Commercial Film
      • 2.3.4 Motion picture and TV production
      • 2.3.5 Technical support and on-site service
      • 2.3.6 Other
    • 2.4 Former

      • 2.4.1 Still film cameras
      • 2.4.2 Instant cameras
      • 2.4.3 Image sensors
      • 2.4.4 Digital cameras and video cameras
      • 2.4.5 Digital picture frames
      • 2.4.6 Kodak Gallery
      • 2.4.7 Document imaging
      • 2.4.8 Photographic film and paper
      • 2.4.9 Photo kiosks
  • 3 Name
  • 4 Operations

    • 4.1 Subsidiaries
    • 4.2 Kodak Research Laboratories
  • 5 Notable people

    • 5.1 Presidents and CEOs
    • 5.2 Scientists
  • 6 Archive donation
  • 7 Controversies

    • 7.1 Better Business Bureau
    • 7.2 Patent litigation
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 Bibliography
  • 11 External links

History

The Kodak factory and main office in Rochester, circa 1910

From the company’s founding by George Eastman in 1888, Kodak followed the razor and blades strategy of selling inexpensive cameras and making large margins from consumables – film, chemicals and paper. As late as 1976, Kodak commanded 90% of film sales and 85% of camera sales in the U.S.[24]

Rivalry with Fujifilm

Japanese competitor Fujifilm entered the U.S. market (via Fuji Photo Film U.S.A.) with lower-priced film and supplies, but Kodak did not believe that American consumers would ever desert its brand.[25] Kodak passed on the opportunity to become the official film of the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics; Fuji won these sponsorship rights, which gave it a permanent foothold in the marketplace. Fuji opened a film plant in the U.S., and its aggressive marketing and price cutting began taking market share from Kodak. Fuji went from a 10% share in the early 1990s to 17% in 1997. Fuji also made headway into the professional market with specialty transparency films such as Velvia and Provia, which competed successfully with Kodak’s signature professional product, Kodachrome, but used the more economical and common E-6 processing machines which were standard in most processing labs, rather than the dedicated machines required by Kodachrome. Fuji’s films soon also found a competitive edge in higher-speed negative films, with a tighter grain structure.

In May 1995, Kodak filed a petition with the US Commerce Department under section 301 of the Commerce Act arguing that its poor performance in the Japanese market was a direct result of unfair practices adopted by Fuji. The complaint was lodged by the United States with the World Trade Organization.[26] On January 30, 1998, the WTO announced a “sweeping rejection of Kodak’s complaints” about the film market in Japan. Kodak’s financial results for the year ending December 1997 showed that company’s revenues dropped from $15.97 billion in 1996 to $14.36 billion in 1997, a fall of more than 10%; its net earnings went from $1.29 billion to just $5 million for the same period. Kodak’s market share declined from 80.1% to 74.7% in the United States, a one-year drop of five percentage points that had observers suggesting that Kodak was slow to react to changes and underestimated its rivals.[9][27][28][28]

Although from the 1970s both Fuji and Kodak recognized the upcoming threat of digital photography, and although both sought diversification as a mitigation strategy, Fuji was more successful at diversification.[25]

Shift to digital

The Kodak ‘K’ logo was introduced in 1971. The version seen here – with the ‘Kodak’ name in a more modern typeface – was used from 1987 until the logo’s discontinuation in 2006. A revised version was reintroduced in 2016.[29]

Kodak logo from 2006 to 2016

Although Kodak developed a digital camera in 1975, the first of its kind, the product was dropped for fear it would threaten Kodak’s photographic film business.[30][31] In the 1990s, Kodak planned a decade-long journey to move to digital technology. CEO George M. C. Fisher reached out[clarification needed] to Microsoft and other new consumer merchandisers. Apple’s pioneering QuickTake consumer digital cameras, introduced in 1994, had the Apple label but were produced by Kodak. The DC-20 and DC-25 launched in 1996. Overall, though, there was little implementation of the new digital strategy. Kodak’s core business faced no pressure from competing technologies, and as Kodak executives could not fathom a world without traditional film there was little incentive to deviate from that course. Consumers gradually switched to the digital offering from companies such as Sony. In 2001 film sales dropped, which was attributed by Kodak to the financial shocks caused by the September 11 attacks. Executives hoped that Kodak might be able to slow the shift to digital through aggressive marketing.[32]

Under Daniel Carp, Fisher’s successor as CEO, Kodak made its move in the digital camera market, with its EasyShare family of digital cameras. Kodak spent tremendous resources studying customer behavior, finding out that women in particular loved taking digital photos but were frustrated in moving them to their computers. This key unmet consumer need became a major opportunity. Once Kodak got its product development machine started, it released a wide range of products which made it easy to share photos via PCs. One of their key innovations was a printer dock, where consumers could insert their cameras into this compact device, press a button, and watch their photos roll out. By 2005, Kodak ranked No. 1 in the U.S. in digital camera sales that surged 40% to $5.7 billion.[33]

Despite the high growth, Kodak failed to anticipate how fast digital cameras became commodities, with low profit margins, as more companies entered the market in the mid-2000s.[34] In 2001 Kodak held the No. 2 spot in U.S. digital camera sales (behind Sony) but it lost $60 on every camera sold, while there was also a dispute between employees from its digital and film divisions.[35] The film business, where Kodak enjoyed high profit margins, fell 18% in 2005. The combination of these two factors resulted in disappointing profits overall.[32] Its digital cameras soon became undercut by Asian competitors that could produce their offerings more cheaply. Kodak had a 27% market-leading share in 1999, that dwindled to 15% by 2003.[35] In 2007 Kodak was No. 4 in U.S. digital camera sales with a 9.6% share, and by 2010 it held 7% in seventh place behind Canon, Sony, Nikon and others, according to research firm IDC.[36] Also an ever-smaller percentage of digital pictures were being taken on dedicated digital cameras, being gradually displaced in the late 2000s by cameras on cellphones, smartphones, and tablets.

New strategy

Kodak’s main headquarters in Rochester, New York

Kodak then began a strategy shift: Previously Kodak had done everything in-house, but CEO Antonio Pérez shut down film factories and eliminated 27,000 jobs as it outsourced its manufacturing.[37] Pérez invested heavily in digital technologies and new services that capitalized on its technology innovation to boost profit margins.[32] He also spent hundreds of millions of dollars to build up a high-margin printer ink business to replace shriveling film sales. Kodak’s ink strategy rejected the razor and blades business model used by the dominant market leader Hewlett-Packard in that Kodak’s printers were expensive but the ink was cheaper.[38] As of 2011, these new lines of inkjet printers were said to be on verge of turning a profit, although some analysts were skeptical as printouts had been replaced gradually by electronic copies on computers, tablets, and smartphones.[38] Home photograph printers, high-speed commercial inkjet presses, workflow software, and packaging were viewed as the company’s new core businesses, with sales from those four businesses projected to double to nearly $2 billion in revenue in 2013 and account for 25% of all sales. However, while Kodak named home printers as a core business as late as August 2012, at the end of September declining sales forced Kodak to announce an exit from the consumer inkjet market.[39]

Kodak has also turned to litigation in order to generate revenue.[10][11] In 2010, it received $838 million from patent licensing that included a settlement with LG.[9]

In 2011, despite the turnaround progress, Kodak rapidly used up its cash reserves, stoking fears of bankruptcy; it had $957 million in cash in June 2011, down from $1.6 billion in January 2001.[40] In 2011, Kodak reportedly explored selling off or licensing its vast portfolio of patents in order to stave off bankruptcy.[40] By January 2012, analysts suggested that the company could enter bankruptcy followed by an auction of its patents, as it was reported to be in talks with Citigroup to provide debtor-in-possession financing.[13][41] This was confirmed on January 19, 2012, when the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection and obtained a $950 million, 18-month credit facility from Citigroup to enable it to continue operations.[12][13][14] Under the terms of its bankruptcy protection, Kodak had a deadline of February 15, 2013 to produce a reorganization plan.[42]

In April 2013, Kodak showed its first Micro Four Thirds camera, to be manufactured by JK Imaging.[43][44]

On September 3, 2013, Kodak announced that it emerged from bankruptcy as a technology company focused on imaging for business.[21] Its main business segments are Digital Printing & Enterprise and Graphics, Entertainment & Commercial Films.[5]

On March 12, 2014, Kodak announced that Jeffrey J. Clarke had been named as chief executive officer and a member of its board of directors.[45][46][47]

On January 1, 2015, Kodak announced a new five business division structure; Print Systems, Enterprise Inkjet Systems, Micro 3D Printing and Packaging, Software and Solutions, and Consumer and Film.[7][48]

In October 2018, the company added a licensee to AMB Media to create the KODAK Digitizing Box.[49][50]

Timeline

1880–98

An original Kodak camera, complete with box, camera, case, felt lens plug, manual, memorandum and viewfinder card

An advertisement from The Photographic Herald and Amateur Sportsman (November 1889)

Advertisement for a folding “pocket” Kodak camera (August 1900)

  • April 1880: George Eastman leased the third floor of a building on State Street in Rochester N.Y. and began the commercial manufacture of dry plates.
  • January 1, 1881: Eastman and businessman Henry A. Strong formed a partnership called the Eastman Dry Plate Company.[51] Eastman resigned his position at the Rochester Savings Bank in order to work full-time at the Eastman Dry Plate Company.
  • 1884: The Eastman-Strong partnership was dissolved and the Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company formed with 14 shareowners. The Eastman Dry Plate Company was responsible for the first cameras suitable for non expert use.
  • 1885: George Eastman bought David Houston’s patents for roll film and developed them further. These were the basis for the invention of motion picture film, as used by early filmmakers and Thomas Edison.
  • September 4, 1888: Eastman registered the trademark Kodak.[52]
  • 1888: The first model of the Kodak camera appeared. It took round pictures 6.4 cm (2.5 in) in diameter, was of the fixed focus type, and carried a roll of film enough for 100 exposures. Its invention practically marked the advent of amateur photography, as before that time both apparatus and processes were too burdensome to classify photography as recreation. The roll film used in the first model of the Kodak camera had a paper base but was soon superseded by a film with a cellulose base, a practical transparent flexible film.[53] The first films had to be loaded into the camera and unloaded in the dark room, but the film cartridge system with its protecting strip of opaque paper made it possible to load and unload the camera in ordinary light. The Kodak Developing Machine (1900) and its simplified successor, the Kodak Film Tank, provided the means for daylight development of film, making the dark room unnecessary for any of the operations of amateur photography. The earlier types of the Kodak cameras were of the box form and of fixed focus, and as various sizes were added, devices for focusing the lenses were incorporated.[53]
  • 1889: The Eastman Company was formed.[1]
  • 1891: George Eastman began to produce a second line of cameras, the Ordinary range.[54]
  • 1892: It was renamed the Eastman Kodak Company in 1892. Eastman Kodak Company of New York was organized.[1] He coined the advertising slogan, “You Press the Button, We Do the Rest.”[55] The Kodak company thereby attained its name from the first simple roll film cameras produced by Eastman Dry Plate Company, known as the “Kodak” in its product line.
  • Early 1890s: The first folding Kodak cameras were introduced. These were equipped with folding bellows that permitted much greater compactness.
  • 1895: The first pocket Kodak camera, the $5 Pocket Kodak, was introduced.[56] It was of the box form type, slipping easily into an ordinary coat pocket, and producing negatives 1½ x 2 inches.
  • 1897: The first folding pocket Kodak camera was introduced,[53] and was mentioned in the novel Dracula, published the same year.
  • 1898: George Eastman purchased the patent for Velox photographic paper from Leo Baekeland for $1,000,000. After this time, Velox paper was then sold by Eastman Kodak.

1900–99

A Brownie No 2. camera

Eastman Kodak Non Curling 116 Film (Expired: 1925)

  • 1900: The Brownie camera was introduced, creating a new mass market for photography.
  • 1901: The present company, Eastman Kodak Company of New Jersey, was formed under the laws of that state. Eventually, the business in Jamestown was moved in its entirety to Rochester, and the plants in Jamestown were demolished.
  • By 1920: An “Autographic Feature” provided a means for recording data on the margin of the negative at the time of exposure. This feature was supplied on all Kodak cameras with the exception of a box camera designed for making panoramic pictures[53] and was discontinued in 1932.
  • 1920: Tennessee Eastman was founded as a wholly owned subsidiary. The company’s primary purpose was the manufacture of chemicals, such as acetyls, needed for Kodak’s film photography products.
  • 1930: Eastman Kodak Company was added to the Dow Jones Industrial Average index on July 18, 1930. The company remained listed as one of the DJIA companies for the next 74 years, ending in 2004.[57]

Kodak Camera Center, Tennessee, ca. 1930-1945

  • 1932: George Eastman dies at age 77, taking his own life with a gun shot. The suicide note he leaves behind reads, “My work is done. Why wait?”[citation needed]

Kodachrome II – Film for color slides

  • 1935: Kodak introduced Kodachrome, a color reversal stock for movie and slide film.
  • 1936: Kodak branches out into manufacture of hand-grenades.
  • 1940-1944: Eastman Kodak ranked 62nd among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts.[58]
  • 1934-1956: Kodak introduces the Retina Series 35mm Camera

    Kodak Retina Series Cameras were produced between 1949 until 1956. It also had the KodaChrome Technology

  • 1959: Kodak introduced the Starmatic camera, the first automatic Brownie camera, which sold 10 million units over the next five years.
  • 1963: Kodak introduced the Instamatic camera, an inexpensive, easy-to-load, point-and-shoot camera.
  • 1970: Kodak scientists disclose the continuous wave tunable dye laser.[59] This becomes a product for several high-tech companies but not at Kodak.
  • 1975: Steven Sasson, then an electrical engineer at Kodak, invented a digital camera.[60]
  • 1976: The Bayer Pattern color filter array (CFA) was invented by Eastman Kodak researcher Bryce Bayer. The order in which dyes are placed on an image sensor photosite is still in use today. The basic technology is still the most commonly used of its kind to date.
  • 1976: Kodak introduced the first Kodamatic, instant picture cameras, using a similar film and technology to that of the Polaroid company.
  • 1976: The company sold 90% of the photographic film in the US along with 85% of the cameras.[9]
  • 1978: Kodak introduces the Ektachem clinical chemistry testing system. The system employs dry film technology, and within 5 years was being used by most hospitals in the country.
  • 1981: Kodak was sued by Polaroid for infringement of its Instant Picture patents. The suit ran for five years, the court finally finding in favour of Polaroid in 1986.
  • 1982: Kodak launched the Kodak Disc film format for consumer cameras. The format ultimately proved unpopular and was later discontinued.
  • 1986: Kodak scientists created the world’s first megapixel sensor, capable of recording 1.4 million pixels and producing a photo-quality 12.5 cm × 17.5 cm (4.9 in × 6.9 in) print.
  • 1987: Ching W. Tang, a senior research associate, and his colleague, Steven Van Slyke, developed the first multi-layer OLEDs at the Kodak Research Laboratories, for which he later became a Fellow of the Society for Information Display (SID)
  • 1988: Kodak buys Sterling Drug for $5.1 Billion[61]
  • 1988: Kodak scientists introduce the coumarin tetramethyl laser dyes[62] also used in OLED devices. These become a successful product until the line of fine chemicals is sold.
  • 1991: The Kodak Professional Digital Camera System or DCS, the first commercially available digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera. A customized camera back bearing the digital image sensor was mounted on a Nikon F3 body and released by Kodak in May; the company had previously shown the camera at photokina in 1990.
  • 1993: Eastman Chemical, a Kodak subsidiary founded by George Eastman in 1920 to supply Kodak’s chemical needs, was spun off as a separate corporation. Eastman Chemical became a Fortune 500 company in its own right.[63][64]
  • 1994: Apple Quicktake, a consumer digital camera was debuted by Apple Computer. Some models were manufactured by Kodak.

2000–09

  • 2003: Kodak introduced the Kodak EasyShare LS633 Digital Camera, the first camera to feature an AMOLED display, and the Kodak EasyShare Printer Dock 6000, the world’s first printer-and-camera dock combination.
  • November 2003: Kodak acquired the Israel-based company Algotec Systems, a developer of advanced picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), which enable radiology departments to digitally manage and store medical images and information.[65]
  • January 2004: Kodak announced that it would stop selling traditional film cameras in Europe and North America, and cut up to 15,000 jobs (around a fifth of its total workforce at the time).[10][66][67]
  • April 8, 2004: Kodak was delisted from the Dow Jones Industrial Average index, having been a constituent for 74 consecutive years.[57]
  • May 2004: Kodak signed an exclusive long-term agreement with Lexar Media, licensing the Kodak brand for use on digital memory cards designed, manufactured, sold, and distributed by Lexar.[68]
  • January 2005: The Kodak EasyShare-One Digital Camera, the world’s first Wi-Fi consumer digital camera capable of sending pictures by email, was unveiled at the 2005 CES.
  • January 2005: Kodak acquired the Israel-based company OREX Computed Radiography, a provider of compact computed radiography systems that enable medical practitioners to acquire patient x-ray images digitally.[69]
  • January 2005: Kodak acquired the Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada-based company Creo.
  • January 2006: Kodak unveiled the Kodak EasyShare V570 Dual Lens Digital Camera, the world’s first dual-lens digital still camera and smallest ultra-wide-angle optical zoom digital camera, at the CES. Using proprietary Kodak Retina Dual Lens technology, the V570 wrapped an ultra-wide angle lens (23 mm) and a second optical zoom lens (39 – 117 mm) into a body less than 2.5 cm (an inch) thick.
  • April 2006: Kodak introduced the Kodak EasyShare V610 Dual Lens Digital Camera, at that time the world’s smallest 10× (38–380 mm) optical zoom camera at less than 2.5 cm (an inch) thick.[70][71]
  • August 1, 2006: Kodak agreed to divest its digital camera manufacturing operations to Flextronics, including assembly, production and testing.[72][73] As part of the sale it was agreed that Flextronics would manufacture and distribute consumer digital cameras for Kodak, and conduct some design and development functions for it. Kodak kept high-level digital camera design in house, continued to conduct research and development in digital still cameras, and retained all intellectual property and patents. Approximately 550 Kodak personnel transferred to Flextronics.
  • January 10, 2007: Kodak agreed to sell Kodak Health Group to Onex Corporation for $2.35 billion in cash, and up to $200 million in additional future payments if Onex achieved specified returns on the acquisition.[74] The sale was completed May 1.[75] Kodak used part of the proceeds to fully repay its approximately $1.15 billion of secured term debt. Around 8,100 employees transferred to Onex, and Kodak Health Group was renamed Carestream Health. Kodak Health Group had revenue of $2.54 billion for the 12 months to September 30, 2006.
  • April 19, 2007: Kodak announced an agreement to sell its light management films business, which produced films designed to improve the brightness and efficiency of liquid crystal displays, to Rohm and Haas. The divested business comprised 125 workers. As part of the transaction Rohm and Haas agreed to license technology and purchase equipment from Kodak, and lease Building 318 at Kodak Park. The sale price was not disclosed.[76]
  • May 25, 2007: Kodak announced a cross-licensing agreement with Chi Mei Optoelectronics and its affiliate Chi Mei EL (CMEL), enabling CMEL to use Kodak technology for active matrix OLED modules in a variety of small to medium size display applications.[77]
  • June 14, 2007: Kodak announced a two to fourfold increase in sensitivity to light (from one to two stops) compared to current sensor designs. This design was a departure from the classic “Bayer filter” by adding panchromatic or “clear” pixels to the RGB elements on the sensor array. Since these pixels are sensitive to all wavelengths of visible light, they collect a significantly higher proportion of the light striking the sensor. In combination with advanced Kodak software algorithms optimized for these new patterns, photographers benefited from an increase in photographic speed (improving performance in low light), faster shutter speeds (reducing motion blur for moving subjects), and smaller pixels (higher resolutions in a given optical format) while retaining performance. The technology was credited to Kodak scientists John Compton and John Hamilton.[78]
  • September 4, 2007: Kodak announced a five-year extension of its partnership with Lexar Media.[79]
  • November 2008: Kodak released the Kodak Theatre HD Player, allowing photos and videos stored on a computer to be displayed on an HDTV. Kodak licensed technology from Hillcrest Labs for the interface and pointer, which allowed a user to control the player with gestures.[80]
  • January 2009: Kodak posted a $137 million fourth-quarter loss and announced plans to cut up to 4,500 jobs.[81]
  • June 22, 2009: Kodak announced that it would cease selling Kodachrome color film by the end of 2009, ending 74 years of production, after a dramatic decline in sales.[82][83]
  • December 4, 2009: Kodak sold its organic light-emitting diode (OLED) business unit to LG Electronics, resulting in the lay-off of 60 people.[84]

2010–present

  • December 2010: Standard & Poor’s removed Kodak from its S&P 500 index.[85]
  • September 2011: Kodak hired law firm Jones Day for restructuring advice and its stock dropped to an all-time low of $0.54 a share.[86] During 2011, Kodak shares fell more than 80 percent.[87]
  • January 2012: Kodak received a warning from the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) notifying it that its average closing price was below $1.00 for 30 consecutive days and that over the next 6 months it must increase the closing share price to at least $1 on the last trading day of each calendar month and have an average closing price of at least $1 over the 30 trading-days prior or it would be delisted. From the $90 range in 1997, Kodak shares closed at 76 cents on January 3, 2012. On January 8, 2012, Kodak shares closed over 50% higher after the company announced a major restructuring into two main divisions, one focused on products and services for businesses, and the other on consumer products including digital cameras.[88][89]
  • January 19, 2012: Kodak filed for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Protection.[13][14][90] The company’s stock was delisted from NYSE and moved to OTC exchange. Following the news it ended the day trading down 35% at $0.36 a share.
  • February 7, 2012: The Image Sensor Solutions (ISS) division of Kodak was sold to Truesense Imaging Inc.[91]
  • February 9, 2012: Kodak announced that it would exit the digital image capture business, phasing out its production of digital cameras.[92][93] Kodak sees home photo printers, high-speed commercial inkjet presses, workflow software and packaging with GlobalVision software integrated, as the core of its future business. Once the digital camera business is phased out, Kodak said its consumer business will focus on printing. It will seek a company to license its EasyShare digital camera brand.
  • August 24, 2012: Kodak announced that it plans to sell its film, commercial scanner and kiosk divisions.[94]
  • September 10, 2012: Kodak announced plans to cut another 1,000 jobs by the end of 2012 and that it is examining further job cuts as it works to restructure its business in bankruptcy.[95]
  • September 28, 2012: Kodak announced that it is exiting the inkjet printer business.[39]
  • December 20, 2012 Kodak announced that it plans to sell its digital imaging patents for about $525 million to some of the world’s biggest technology companies, thus making a step to end bankruptcy.[96]
  • April 29, 2013 Kodak announced an agreement with the U.K. Kodak Pension Plan (KPP) to spin off Kodak’s Personalized Imaging and Document Imaging businesses and settle $2.8 Billion in KPP claims.[97]
  • September 3, 2013 Kodak announces that it has emerged from Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Protection[98] as a company focused on serving commercial customers.[21]
  • October 17, 2013 Kodak brings European headquarters and the entire EAMER Technology Centre under one roof in Eysins, Switzerland. The relocation brings together the company’s European headquarters and Inkjet demo facilities, which were based in Gland, Switzerland, and the Kodak EAMER Technology and Solutions Centre, which was based in La Hulpe, Belgium.[99]
  • March 12, 2014 Kodak names Jeffrey J. Clarke as its new Chief Executive Officer.[46][47][100]
  • July 30, 2014 Kodak is negotiating with movie studios for an annual movie film order guarantee to preserve the last source of movie film manufacturing in the United States.[101]
  • December 2014, Kodak announced its first phone, the Kodak Ektra smartphone made by Bullitt Group.[102] The phone was expected to become available in December 2016, initially in Europe.[103]
  • January 2016, Kodak shows off a prototype of the new Super 8 Camera at CES.[104]
  • January 2017, Kodak announced it was bringing back its Ektachrome film.[105]
  • May 2017, Kodak released the Ektra smartphone to the US market.[106]
  • June 2017, Kodak announced plans to release 7″ and 10″ tablets with ARCHOS in Europe.[107]
  • September 2018, Kodak announced that the 35 mm format of Ektachrome was made available again.[108]

Products and services

Current

Kodak provides packaging, functional printing, graphic communications and professional services for businesses around the world.[6] Its main business segments are Print Systems, Enterprise Inkjet Systems, Micro 3D Printing and Packaging, Software and Solutions, and Consumer and Film.[7]

In January 2018, Kodak announced plans to launch KodakCoin, a photographer-oriented blockchain cryptocurrency.[109]

Digital printing and enterprise

Kodak provides high-speed, high-volume commercial inkjet, and color and black-and-white electrophotographic printing equipment and related consumables and services.[110]
It has an installed base of more than 5,000 units.

Its Prosper platform uses Stream inkjet technology, which delivers a continuous flow of ink that enables constant and consistent operation, with uniform size and accurate placement, even at very high print speeds.[111] Applications for Prosper include publishing, commercial print, direct mail, and packaging. The business also includes the customer base of Kodak VersaMark products.[112]

The NexPress platform is used for printing short-run, personalized print applications for purposes such as direct mail, books, marketing collateral and photo products. The Digimaster platform uses monochrome electrophotographic printing technology to create high-quality printing of statements, short-run books, corporate documentation, manuals and direct mail.[111][113][114]

Flexo printing

Kodak designs and manufactures products for flexography printing. Its Flexcel[115] line of flexo printing systems allow label printers to produce their own digital plates for customized flexo printing and flexible printed packaging.

Functional printing

The company currently has strategic relationships with worldwide touch-panel sensor leaders, such as the partnerships with UniPixel announced on April 16, 2013 and Kingsbury Corp. launched on June 27, 2013.[116][117][118]

Enterprise professional services

Enterprise professional services offers print and managed media services, brand protection solutions and services, and document management services to enterprise customers, including government, pharmaceuticals, and health, consumer and luxury good products, retail and finance.

Digital printing solutions

In 1997, Heidelberg Printing Machines AG and Eastman Kodak Co. had created the Nexpress Solutions LLC joint venture to develop a digital color printing press for the high-end market segment. Heidelberg acquired Eastman Kodak Co.’s Office Imaging black and white digital printing activities in 1999. In 2000, they had launched Digimaster 9110 – Black & White Production Printer and NexPress 2100 Digital Color Press.

In March 2004, Heidelberg transferred its Digital Print division to Eastman Kodak Co.[119] under mutual agreement. Kodak continues to research and develop Digital Printing Systems and introduced more products.

At present, Kodak has commercial Web-fed presses, commercial imprinting systems – Prosper, VersaMark and commercial sheet-fed press – NexPress digital production color press, DIGIMASTER HD digital black and white production printer.[120]

Consumer inkjet ink cartridges

Kodak entered into consumer inkjet photo printers in a joint venture with manufacturer Lexmark in 1999 with the Kodak Personal Picture Maker.

In February 2007, Kodak re-entered the market with a new product line of All-In-One (AiO) inkjet printers that employ several technologies marketed as Kodacolor Technology. Advertising emphasizes low price for ink cartridges rather than for the printers themselves.[121]

Kodak announced plans to stop selling inkjet printers in 2013 as it focuses on commercial printing, but will still sell ink.[122]

Graphics, Entertainment and Commercial Films (GECF)

Graphics

Kodak’s graphics business consists of computer to plate (CTP) devices, which Kodak first launched in 1995 when the company introduced the first thermal CTP to market. In CTP, an output device exposes a digital image using SQUAREspot laser imaging technology directly to an aluminum surface (printing plate), which is then mounted onto a printing press to reproduce the image. Kodak’s Graphics portfolio includes front-end controllers, production workflow software, CTP output devices, and digital plates.

Global Technical Services

Kodak’s Global Technical Services (“GTS”) for Commercial Imaging is focused on selling service contracts for Kodak products, including the following service categories: field services, customer support services, educational services, and professional services.

Entertainment Imaging and Commercial Film

Kodak’s Entertainment Imaging and Commercial Film group (“E&CF”) encompasses its motion picture film business, providing motion imaging products (camera negative, intermediate, print and archival film), services and technology for the professional motion picture and exhibition industries.

E&CF also offers Aerial and Industrial Films including KODAK Printed Circuit Board film, and delivers external sales for the company’s component businesses: Polyester Film, Specialty Chemicals, Inks and Dispersions and Solvent Recovery.

Motion picture and TV production

The Kodak company played a role in the invention and development of the motion picture industry. Many cinema and TV productions are shot on Kodak film stocks.[123]

The company helped set the standard of 35mm film, and introduced the 16mm film format for home movie use and lower budget film productions.

The home market-oriented 8mm and Super 8 formats were also developed by Kodak. Kodak also entered the professional television production video tape market, briefly in the mid-1980s, under the product portfolio name of Eastman Professional Video Tape Products. In 1990, Kodak launched a Worldwide Student Program working with university faculty throughout the world to help nurture the future generation of film-makers. Kodak formed Educational Advisory Councils in the US, Europe and Asia made up of deans and chairs of some of the most prestigious film schools throughout the world to help guide the development of their program.

Kodak previously owned the visual effects film post-production facilities Cinesite in Los Angeles and London and also LaserPacific in Los Angeles. Kodak sold Cinesite to Endless LLP, an independent British private equity house.[124]

Kodak previously sold LaserPacific and its subsidiaries Laser-Edit, Inc, and Pacific Video, Inc., in April 2010 for an undisclosed sum to TeleCorps Holdings, Inc.

Kodak also sold Pro-Tek Media Preservation Services, a film storage company in Burbank, California, in October 2013.[125]

Technical support and on-site service

Aside from technical phone support for its products, Kodak offers onsite service for other devices such as document scanners, data storage systems (optical, tape, and disk), printers, inkjet printing presses, microfilm/microfiche equipment, photograph kiosks, and photocopiers, for which it despatches technicians who make repairs in the field.

Other

Kodak markets Picture CDs and other photo products such as calendars, photo books and photo enlargements through retail partners such as CVS, Walmart and Target and through its Kodak Gallery online service, formerly known as Ofoto.

Former

A Kodak Instamatic 104

Still film cameras

On January 13, 2004, Kodak announced it would stop marketing traditional still film cameras (excluding disposable cameras) in the United States, Canada and Western Europe, but would continue to sell film cameras in India, Latin America, Eastern Europe and China.[10] By the end of 2005, Kodak ceased manufacturing cameras that used the Advanced Photo System. Kodak licensed the manufacture of Kodak branded cameras to Vivitar in 2005 and 2006. After 2007 Kodak did not license the manufacture of any film camera with the Kodak name.

Instant cameras

After losing a patent battle with Polaroid Corporation, Kodak left the instant camera business on January 9, 1986. The Kodak instant camera included models known as the Kodamatic and the Colorburst.

Polaroid was awarded damages in the patent trial in the amount of $909,457,567, a record at the time. (Polaroid Corp. v. Eastman Kodak Co., U.S. District Court District of Massachusetts, decided October 12, 1990, case no. 76-1634-MA. Published in the U.S. Patent Quarterly as 16 USPQ2d 1481). See also the following cases: Polaroid Corp. v. Eastman Kodak Co., 641 F.Supp. 828 [228 USPQ 305] (D. Mass. 1985), stay denied, 833 F.2d 930 [5 USPQ2d 1080] (Fed. Cir.), aff’d, 789 F.2d 1556 [229 USPQ 561] (Fed. Cir.), cert. denied, 479 U.S. 850 (1986).[126]

Kodak was the exclusive supplier of negatives for Polaroid cameras from 1963 until 1969, when Polaroid chose to manufacture its own instant film.

Image sensors

As part of its move toward higher end products, Kodak announced on September 15, 2006 that the new Leica M8 camera incorporates Kodak’s KAF-10500 image sensor. This was the second recent partnership between Kodak and the German optical manufacturer. In 2011, Kodak sold its Image Sensor Solutions business to Platinum Equity, which subsequently renamed it Truesense Imaging, Inc.[127]

Digital cameras and video cameras

A Kodak Easyshare Z1015 IS digital camera

Many of Kodak’s early compact digital cameras were designed and built by Chinon Industries, a Japanese camera manufacturer. In 2004, Kodak Japan acquired Chinon and many of its engineers and designers joined Kodak Japan.

The Kodak DCS series of digital single-lens reflex cameras and digital camera backs were released by Kodak in the 1990s and 2000s, and discontinued in 2005. They were based on existing 35mm film SLRs from Nikon and Canon and the range included the original Kodak DCS, the first commercially available digital SLR.

In July 2006, Kodak announced that Flextronics would manufacture and help design its digital cameras.

Digital picture frames

Kodak first entered the digital picture frame market with the Kodak Smart Picture Frame in the fourth quarter of 2000. It was designed by Weave Innovations and licensed to Kodak with an exclusive relationship with Weave’s StoryBox online photo network.[128] Smart Frame owners connected to the network via an analog telephone connection built into the frame. The frame could hold 36 images internally and came with a six-month free subscription to the StoryBox network.[129]

Kodak re-entered the digital photo frame market at CES in 2007 with the introduction of four new EasyShare-branded models that were available in sizes from 200 to 280 mm (7.9 to 11.0 in), included multiple memory card slots, and some of which included Wi-Fi capability to connect with the Kodak Gallery—that gallery functionality has now been compromised due to gallery policy changes (see below).

Kodak Gallery

In June 2001, Kodak purchased the photo-developing website Ofoto, later renamed Kodak Gallery. The website enables users to upload their photos into albums, publish them into prints, and create mousepads, calendars, etc. On March 1, 2012, Kodak announced that it sold Kodak Gallery to Shutterfly for $23.8 million.[130]

Document imaging

Kodak provides scanning technology. Historically this industry began when George Eastman partnered with banks to image checks in the 1920s. Through the development of microfilm technology, Eastman Kodak was able to provide long term document storage. Document imaging was one of the first imaging solutions to move to “digital imaging” technology. Kodak manufactured the first digital document scanners for high speed document imaging. Today Kodak has a full line of document scanners for banking, finance, insurance,[131] healthcare and other vertical industries. Kodak also provides associated document capture software and business process services. Eastman Kodak acquired the Bowe Bell & Howell scanner division in September 2009.

Photographic film and paper

Kodak continues to produce specialty films and film for newer and more popular consumer formats, but it has discontinued the manufacture of film in older and less popular formats.

Kodak is a leading producer of silver halide (AgX) paper used for printing from film and digital images. Minilabs located in retail stores and larger central photo lab operations (CLOs) use silver halide paper for photo printing. In 2005 Kodak announced it would stop producing black-and-white photo paper.[132]

Photo kiosks

A Kodak NexPress 2500 digital printing press

Kodak is a manufacturer of self-service photo kiosks that produce “prints in seconds” from multiple sources including digital input, scanned prints, Facebook, the Kodak Gallery and orders placed on-line using thermosublimation printers. The company has placed over 100,000 Picture Kiosks in retail locations worldwide.[133] Employing similar technology, Kodak also offers larger printing systems with additional capabilities including duplex greeting cards, large format poster printers, photobooks and calendars under the brand name “APEX”.[134]

Name

1900 Kodak ad

The letter k was a favorite of Eastman’s; he is quoted as saying, “it seems a strong, incisive sort of letter.”[135]

He and his mother devised the name Kodak with an Anagrams set. Eastman said that there were three principal concepts he used in creating the name: it should be short, easy to pronounce, and not resemble any other name or be associated with anything else.[136]

Operations

Subsidiaries

  • Kodak Limited (UK)

    • the company’s sales and marketing headquarters are located in Watford, UK, with Kodak Alaris operating in Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire
    • manufacturing facilities used to be sited at Harrow in north-west London (closed in 2016), Kirkby near Liverpool (closed in 2007) and Annesley in Nottinghamshire (closed in 2005).
  • FPC, Inc.

    • FPC, US/Canada
    • FPC Italy

Kodak Research Laboratories

The Kodak Research Laboratories were founded in 1912 with Kenneth Mees as the first director.[137] Principal components of the Kodak Research Laboratories were the Photographic Research Laboratories and then the Imaging Research Laboratories. Additional organizations included the Corporate Research Laboratories. Over nearly a century, scientists at these laboratories produced thousands of patents and scientific publications.[138]

Notable people

Presidents and CEOs

George Eastman

Name Title Tenure
Henry A. Strong President 1884 – July 26, 1919
George Eastman President 1921 – April 7, 1925
William G. Stuber President 1925–1934
Frank W. Lovejoy President 1934–1941
Thomas J. Hargrave President 1941–1952
Albert K. Chapman President 1952–1960
William S. Vaughn President and CEO 1960 – December 31, 1968
Louis K. Eilers President and CEO January 1, 1969 – May 17, 1972
Gerald B. Zornow President then Chairman 1970–1984
Walter A. Fallon President and CEO May 18, 1972 – 1983
Colby H. Chandler CEO May 1983 – June 1990
Kay R. Whitmore CEO June 1990 – October 27, 1993
George M. C. Fisher CEO October 28, 1993 – December 31, 1999
Daniel A. Carp CEO January 1, 2000 – May 31, 2005
Antonio M. Pérez Chairman and CEO June 1, 2005 – 2014
Jeff Clarke CEO March 12, 2014 – present

Scientists

  • Bryce Bayer, color scientist (1929–2012)
  • Harry Coover, polymer chemist (1917–2011)
  • F. J. Duarte, laser physicist and author (left in 2006)
  • Loyd A. Jones, camouflage physicist (1884–1954)
  • Maurice Loyal Huggins, polymer scientist (1897–1981)
  • Rudolf Kingslake, optical designer (1903–2003)
  • David MacAdam, color scientist (1910–1998)
  • Kenneth Mees, film scientist and founder of the research laboratories (1882–1960)
  • Perley G. Nutting, physicist and founder of OSA (1873–1949)
  • Steven Sasson, electrical engineer
  • Steven Van Slyke, OLED scientist (left in 2010)
  • Warren J. Smith, optical engineer (1922–2008)
  • Ching W. Tang, OLED scientist (left in 2006)
  • Arthur Widmer, Special Effects Film Pioneer and receiver of an Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Award of Commendation (1914-2006)

Archive donation

In 2005, Kodak Canada donated its entire historic company archives to Ryerson University in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Ryerson University Library also acquired an extensive collection of materials on the history of photography from the private collection of Nicholas M. & Marilyn A. Graver of Rochester, New York.[139] The Kodak Archives, begun in 1909, contain the company’s Camera Collection, historic photos, files, trade circulars, Kodak magazines, price lists, daily record books, equipment, and other ephemera. It includes the contents of the Kodak Heritage Collection Museum, a museum established in 1999 for Kodak Canada’s centennial that Kodak closed in 2005 along with the company’s entire ‘Kodak Heights’ manufacturing campus in Mount Dennis, Toronto.[140] See also: George Eastman House.

Controversies

Better Business Bureau

On March 26, 2007, the Council of Better Business Bureaus (CBBB) announced that Eastman Kodak was resigning its national membership in the wake of expulsion proceedings initiated by the CBBB board of directors.[141]
In 2006, Kodak notified the BBB of Upstate New York that it would no longer accept or respond to consumer complaints submitted by them. In prior years, Kodak responded by offering consumers an adjustment or an explanation of the company’s position. The BBB file contains consumer complaints of problems with repairs of Kodak digital cameras, as well as difficulty communicating with Kodak customer service. Among other complaints, consumers say that their cameras broke and they were charged for repairs when the failure was not the result of any damage or abuse. Some say their cameras failed again after being repaired.

Kodak said its customer service and customer privacy teams concluded that 99% of all complaints forwarded by the BBB already were handled directly with the customer. Brian O’Connor, Kodak chief privacy officer, said the company was surprised by the news release distributed by the Better Business Bureau:

.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}

It is inaccurate in the facts presented as well as those the BBB chose to omit. Ironically, we ultimately decided to resign our membership because we were extremely unhappy with the customer service we received from the local office of the BBB. After years of unproductive discussions with the local office regarding their Web site postings about Kodak, which in our view were consistently inaccurate, we came to the conclusion that their process added no value to our own. Our commitment to our customers is unwavering. That will not change. What has changed is that, for us, the BBB’s customer complaint process has become redundant, given the multiple and immediate ways that customers have to address their concerns directly with Kodak.[142]

Patent litigation

In 2010, Apple filed a patent-infringement claim against Kodak. On May 12, 2011, Judge Robert Rogers rejected Apple’s claims that two of its digital photography patents were being violated by Kodak.[143]

On July 1, 2011, the U.S. International Trade Commission partially reversed a January decision by an administrative law judge stating that neither Apple nor Research in Motion had infringed upon Kodak’s patents. The ITC remanded the matter for further proceedings before the ALJ.[144]

See also

  • List of products manufactured by Kodak
  • Motion Picture Patents Company
  • Kodak Heights
  • Kodak Vision Award

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Bibliography

  • ACKERMAN, Carl William, George Eastman: founder of Kodak and the photography business, Beard Books, Washington, D. C., 2000.
  • BINANT, Philippe, Au coeur de la projection numérique, Actions, 29, 12-13, Kodak, Paris, 2007.

External links

  • Kodak
  • Kodak Alaris
  • Kodak Camera Catalog Info at Historic Camera


Hewlett-Packard

Coordinates: 37°24′49″N 122°08′42″W / 37.4136°N 122.1451°W / 37.4136; -122.1451

Hewlett-Packard Company
Former type
Public
Traded as NYSE: HPQ
Industry Computer hardware
Computer software
IT services
IT consulting
Fate Renamed as HP Inc.
Successor HP Inc.
Hewlett Packard Enterprise
Founded January 1, 1939; 79 years ago (1939-01-01)
Founders
  • Bill Hewlett
  • David Packard
Defunct November 1, 2015 (2015-11-01) (main company) (For Hewlett Packard Enterprise). Now operating as HP Inc.
Headquarters
Palo Alto, California

,

U.S.
Area served
Worldwide
Products See list of HP products.
Subsidiaries List of subsidiaries
Website www.hp.com/ Edit this on Wikidata

The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP, and stylized as hp) or Hewlett-Packard (/ˈhjuːlɪt ˈpækərd/ HEW-lit PAK-ərd) was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California. It developed and provided a wide variety of hardware components as well as software and related services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) and large enterprises, including customers in the government, health and education sectors.

The company was founded in a one-car garage in Palo Alto by Bill Hewlett and David Packard, and initially produced a line of electronic test equipment. HP was the world’s leading PC manufacturer from 2007 to Q2 2013, after which Lenovo came to rank ahead of HP.[1][2][3] It specialized in developing and manufacturing computing, data storage, and networking hardware, designing software and delivering services. Major product lines included personal computing devices, enterprise and industry standard servers, related storage devices, networking products, software and a diverse range of printers and other imaging products. HP marketed its products to households, small- to medium-sized businesses and enterprises directly as well as via online distribution, consumer-electronics and office-supply retailers, software partners and major technology vendors. HP also had services and consulting business around its products and partner products.

Hewlett-Packard company events included the spin-off of its electronic and bio-analytical measurement instruments part of its business as Agilent Technologies in 1999, its merger with Compaq in 2002, and the acquisition of EDS in 2008, which led to combined revenues of $118.4 billion in 2008 and a Fortune 500 ranking of 9 in 2009. In November 2009, HP announced the acquisition of 3Com,[4] with the deal closing on April 12, 2010.[5] On April 28, 2010, HP announced the buyout of Palm, Inc. for $1.2 billion.[6] On September 2, 2010, HP won its bidding war for 3PAR with a $33 a share offer ($2.07 billion), which Dell declined to match.[7]

Hewlett-Packard split the PC and printers business from its enterprise products and services business on November 1, 2015, resulting in two publicly traded companies: HP Inc. and Hewlett Packard Enterprise.[8] In 2017, Hewlett Packard Enterprise spun-off its Enterprises Services division as DXC Technology and its Software division to Micro Focus.

Contents

  • 1 History

    • 1.1 1960s
    • 1.2 1970s
    • 1.3 1980s
    • 1.4 1990s

      • 1.4.1 Sales to Iran despite sanctions
    • 1.5 2000–2005
    • 1.6 2006–2009
    • 1.7 2010–2012
    • 1.8 2013–2015
  • 2 Facilities
  • 3 Products and organizational structure
  • 4 Staff and culture

    • 4.1 Notable people
  • 5 Corporate social responsibility
  • 6 Brand
  • 7 Controversies

    • 7.1 Restatement
    • 7.2 Spying scandal
    • 7.3 Hardware
    • 7.4 Lawsuit against Oracle
    • 7.5 Takeover of Autonomy
    • 7.6 Israeli settlements
    • 7.7 Bribery
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 External links

History

The garage in Palo Alto where Hewlett and Packard began their company

Hewlett-Packard logo used from 1941 to 1964

Bill Hewlett and David Packard graduated with degrees in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 1935. The company originated in a garage in nearby Palo Alto during a fellowship they had with a past professor, Frederick Terman at Stanford during the Great Depression. Terman was considered a mentor to them in forming Hewlett-Packard.[9] In 1938, Packard and Hewlett begin part-time work in a rented garage with an initial capital investment of US$538. In 1939 Hewlett and Packard decided to formalize their partnership. They tossed a coin to decide whether the company they founded would be called Hewlett-Packard (HP) or Packard-Hewlett.[10] HP incorporated on August 18, 1947, and went public on November 6, 1957.

Of the many projects they worked on, their very first financially successful product was a precision audio oscillator, the Model HP200A. Their innovation was the use of a small incandescent light bulb (known as a “pilot light”) as a temperature dependent resistor in a critical portion of the circuit, the negative feedback loop which stabilized the amplitude of the output sinusoidal waveform. This allowed them to sell the Model 200A for $89.40 when competitors were selling less stable oscillators for over $200. The Model 200 series of generators continued until at least 1972 as the 200AB, still tube-based but improved in design through the years.

One of the company’s earliest customers was Walt Disney Productions which bought eight Model 200B oscillators (at $71.50 each) for use in certifying the Fantasound surround sound systems installed in theaters for the movie Fantasia.

They worked on counter-radar technology and artillery shell fuses during World War II, which allowed Packard (but not Hewlett) to be exempt from the draft.[11]

1960s

The HP200A, a precision audio oscillator, was the company’s very first financially successful product.

HP is recognized as the symbolic founder of Silicon Valley, although it did not actively investigate semiconductor devices until a few years after the “traitorous eight” had abandoned William Shockley to create Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957. Hewlett-Packard’s HP Associates division, established around 1960, developed semiconductor devices primarily for internal use. Instruments and calculators were some of the products using these devices.

HP partnered in the 1960s with Sony and the Yokogawa Electric companies in Japan to develop several high-quality products. The products were not a huge success, as there were high costs in building HP-looking products in Japan. HP and Yokogawa formed a joint venture (Yokogawa-Hewlett-Packard) in 1963 to market HP products in Japan.[12] HP bought Yokogawa Electric’s share of Hewlett-Packard Japan in 1999.[13]

HP spun off a small company, Dynac, to specialize in digital equipment. The name was picked so that the HP logo “hp” could be turned upside down to be a reverse reflect image of the logo “dy” of the new company. Eventually Dynac changed to Dymec, then was folded back into HP in 1959.[14] HP experimented with using Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) minicomputers with its instruments, but after deciding that it would be easier to build another small design team than deal with DEC, HP entered the computer market in 1966 with the HP 2100 / HP 1000 series of minicomputers. These had a simple accumulator-based design, with registers arranged somewhat similarly to the Intel x86 architecture still used today. The series was produced for 20 years, in spite of several attempts to replace it, and was a forerunner of the HP 9800 and HP 250 series of desktop and business computers.

1970s

Hewlett-Packard logo used from 1964 to 1979

The HP 3000 was an advanced stack-based design for a business computing server, later redesigned with RISC technology. The HP 2640 series of smart and intelligent terminals introduced forms-based interfaces to ASCII terminals, and also introduced screen labeled function keys, now commonly used on gas pumps and bank ATMs. The HP 2640 series included one of the first bit mapped graphics displays that when combined with the HP 2100 21MX F-Series microcoded Scientific Instruction Set[15] enabled the first commercial WYSIWYG Presentation Program, BRUNO that later became the program HP-Draw on the HP 3000. Although scoffed at in the formative days of computing, HP would eventually surpass even IBM as the world’s largest technology vendor, in terms of sales.[16]

Introduced in 1968, “The new Hewlett-Packard 9100A personal computer is ready, willing, and able … to relieve you of waiting to get on the big computer.”

Although Programma 101 was the first commercial “desktop computer”, HP is identified by Wired magazine as the producer of the world’s first device to be called a personal computer, the Hewlett-Packard 9100A, introduced in 1968.[17] Programma 101 was called “computer personale” (in Italian), at Fiera di Milano, 1966.[18] HP called it a desktop calculator, because, as Bill Hewlett said, “If we had called it a computer, it would have been rejected by our customers’ computer gurus because it didn’t look like an IBM. We therefore decided to call it a calculator, and all such nonsense disappeared.” An engineering triumph at the time, the logic circuit was produced without any integrated circuits; the assembly of the CPU having been entirely executed in discrete components. With CRT display, magnetic-card storage, and printer, the price was around $5,000. The machine’s keyboard was a cross between that of a scientific calculator and an adding machine. There was no alphabetic keyboard.

Steve Wozniak, co-founder of Apple, originally designed the Apple I computer while working at HP and offered it to them under their right of first refusal to his work, but they did not take it up as the company wanted to stay in scientific, business, and industrial markets. Wozniak said that HP “turned him down 5 times”, but that his loyalty to HP made him hesitant to start Apple with Steve Jobs.[19]

The company earned global respect for a variety of products. They introduced the world’s first handheld scientific electronic calculator in 1972 (the HP-35), the first handheld programmable in 1974 (the HP-65), the first alphanumeric, programmable, expandable in 1979 (the HP-41C), and the first symbolic and graphing calculator, the HP-28C. Like their scientific and business calculators, their oscilloscopes, logic analyzers, and other measurement instruments have a reputation for sturdiness and usability (the latter products are now part of spin-off Agilent’s product line, which were later spun-off from Agilent as Keysight Technologies).[20] The company’s design philosophy in this period was summarized as “design for the guy at the next bench”.[citation needed]

The 98×5 series of technical desktop computers started in 1975 with the 9815, and the cheaper 80 series, again of technical computers, started in 1979 with the 85.[21] These machines used a version of the BASIC programming language which was available immediately after they were switched on, and used a proprietary magnetic tape for storage. HP computers were similar in capabilities to the much later IBM Personal Computer, although the limitations of available technology forced prices to be high.[citation needed]

1980s

Hewlett-Packard logo used from 1979 to 2010

Logo with the word “invent” on the bottom

In 1984, HP introduced both inkjet and laser printers for the desktop. Along with its scanner product line, these have later been developed into successful multifunction products, the most significant being single-unit printer/scanner/copier/fax machines. The print mechanisms in HP’s tremendously popular LaserJet line of laser printers depend almost entirely on Canon Inc.’s components (print engines), which in turn use technology developed by Xerox. HP develops the hardware, firmware, and software that convert data into dots for the mechanism to print.[citation needed]

On March 3, 1986, HP registered the HP.com domain name, making it the ninth Internet .com domain ever to be registered.[22]

In 1987, the Palo Alto garage where Hewlett and Packard started their business was designated as a California State historical landmark.

1990s

In the 1990s, HP expanded their computer product line, which initially had been targeted at university, research, and business users, to reach consumers. HP also grew through acquisitions. It bought Apollo Computer in 1989 and Convex Computer in 1995.

Later in the decade, HP opened hpshopping.com as an independent subsidiary to sell online, direct to consumers; in 2005, the store was renamed “HP Home & Home Office Store.”

From 1995 to 1998, Hewlett-Packard were sponsors of the English football team Tottenham Hotspur.

In 1999, all of the businesses not related to computers, storage, and imaging were spun off from HP to form Agilent Technologies. Agilent’s spin-off was the largest initial public offering in the history of Silicon Valley.[23] The spin-off created an $8 billion company with about 30,000 employees, manufacturing scientific instruments, semiconductors, optical networking devices, and electronic test equipment for telecom and wireless R&D and production.

In July 1999, HP appointed Carly Fiorina, formerly of AT&T and Lucent, as the first female CEO of a Fortune-20 company in the Dow Jones Industrial Average.[24] Fiorina received a larger signing offer than any of her predecessors.[25] Fiorina served as CEO during the technology downturn of the early 2000s and led the merger with Compaq that was “disastrous”, according to CNN and led to the firing of 30,000 U.S. employees.[26] Under her leadership, the company doubled in size. Her tenure as CEO was beset by damaging leaks.[27] The HP Board of Directors asked Fiorina to step down in 2005 following a boardroom disagreement, and she resigned on February 9, 2005.[28]

Sales to Iran despite sanctions

In 1997, HP sold over $120 million worth of its printers and computer products to Iran through a European subsidiary and a Dubai-based East distributor, despite U.S. export sanctions prohibiting such deals imposed by Bill Clinton’s executive orders issued in 1995.[29][30][31] The story was initially reported by The Boston Globe,[32] and it triggered an inquiry by the SEC. HP responded that products worth US$120 million were sold in fiscal year 2008[33] for distribution by way of Redington Gulf, a company based in the Netherlands, and that as these sales took place through a foreign subsidiary, HP had not violated sanctions.[29]

HP named Redington Gulf “Wholesaler of the Year” in 2003, which in turn published a press release stating that “[t]he seeds of the Redington-Hewlett-Packard relationship were sowed six years ago for one market — Iran.”[29] At that time, Redington Gulf had only three employees whose sole purpose was to sell HP products to the Iran market.[32] According to former officials who worked on sanctions, HP was using a loophole by routing their sales through a foreign subsidiary.[29] HP ended its relationship with Redington Gulf after the SEC inquiry.[29]

2000–2005

Hewlett-Packard Deskjet 3845 printer

On September 3, 2001, HP announced that an agreement had been reached with Compaq to merge the two companies.[34] In May 2002, after passing a shareholder vote, HP officially merged with Compaq. Prior to this, plans had been in place to consolidate the companies’ product teams and product lines.[35]

Compaq had already taken over Digital Equipment Corporation in 1998. HP therefore still offers support for the former Digital Equipment products PDP-11, VAX and AlphaServer.

The merger occurred after a proxy fight with Bill Hewlett’s son Walter, who objected to the merger. Compaq itself had bought Tandem Computers in 1997 (which had been started by ex-HP employees), and Digital Equipment Corporation in 1998. Following this strategy, HP became a major player in desktops, laptops, and servers for many different markets. After the merger with Compaq, the new ticker symbol became “HPQ”, a combination of the two previous symbols, “HWP” and “CPQ”, to show the significance of the alliance and also key letters from the two companies Hewlett-Packard and Compaq (the latter company being famous for its “Q” logo on all of its products).

In 2004, HP released the DV 1000 Series, including the HP Pavilion dv 1658 and 1040 two years later in May 2006, HP began its campaign, “The Computer is Personal Again”. The campaign was designed to bring back the fact that the PC is a personal product. The campaign utilized viral marketing, sophisticated visuals and its own website (www.hp.com/personal). Some of the ads featured Pharrell,[36]Petra Nemcova, Mark Burnett, Mark Cuban, Alicia Keys,[37]Jay-Z,[38]Gwen Stefani, and Shaun White.[citation needed]

In January 2005, following years of under performance, which included HP’s Compaq merger that fell short,[39] and disappointing earning reports,[40] the board asked Fiorina to resign as chair and chief executive officer of the company. Following the news of Fiorina’s departure, HP’s stock jumped 6.9 percent.[41] Robert Wayman, chief financial officer of HP, served as interim CEO while the board undertook a formal search for a replacement.[42]

Mark Hurd of NCR Corporation was hired to take over as CEO and president, effective 1 April 2005. Hurd was the board’s top choice given the revival of NCR that took place under his leadership.[39]

2006–2009

A sign marking the entrance to the HP corporate headquarters in Palo Alto, California, 2006

iPAQ 112 Pocket PC from 2008

In 2006, HP unveiled several new products including desktops, enhanced notebooks, a workstation and software to manage them, OpenView Client Configuration Manager 2.0.[43] In the same year, HP’s share price skyrocketed due to consistent results in the last couple quarters of the year with Hurd’s plan to cutback HP’s workforce and lower costs.[44]

In July 2007, HP signed a definitive agreement to acquire Opsware in a cash tender deal that values the company at $14.25 per share. This combined Opsware software with the Oracle enterprise IT management software.[45]

In the first few years of Hurd’s new role, HP’s stock price more than doubled. By the end of Fiscal 2007, HP hit the $100 Billion mark for the first time. The company’s annual revenue reached $104 Billion, allowing HP to overtake competitor IBM.[46]

On May 13, 2008, HP and Electronic Data Systems (EDS) announced[47] that they had signed a definitive agreement under which HP would purchase EDS. On June 30, HP announced[48] that the waiting period under the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act of 1976 had expired. “The transaction still requires EDS stockholder approval and regulatory clearance from the European Commission and other non-U.S. jurisdictions and is subject to the satisfaction or waiver of the other closing conditions specified in the merger agreement.” The agreement was finalized on August 26, 2008 at $13 billion, and it was publicly announced that EDS would be re-branded “EDS a HP company.” The first targeted layoff of 24,600 former EDS workers was announced on September 15, 2008.[49] (The company’s 2008 Annual Report gave the number as 24,700, to be completed by end of 2009.[50]) This round was factored into purchase price as a $19.5 billion liability against goodwill. As of September 23, 2009, EDS is known as HP Enterprise Services.

On November 11, 2009, 3Com and Hewlett-Packard announced that Hewlett-Packard would be acquiring 3Com for $2.7 billion in cash.[51] The acquisition is one of the biggest in size among a series of takeovers and acquisitions by technology giants to push their way to become one-stop shops. Since the beginning of the financial crisis in 2007, tech giants have constantly felt the pressure to expand beyond their current market niches. Dell purchased Perot Systems recently to invade into the technology consulting business area previously dominated by IBM. Hewlett-Packard’s latest move marked its incursion into enterprise networking gear market dominated by Cisco.

2010–2012

A Hewlett-Packard Mini 1000 netbook computer, a type of notebook computer

On April 28, 2010, Palm, Inc. and Hewlett-Packard announced that HP would buy Palm for $1.2 billion in cash and debt.[52] Before this announcement, it was rumored that either HTC, Dell, Research in Motion or HP would buy Palm. Adding Palm handsets to the HP product line created some overlap with the iPAQ series of mobile devices but was thought to significantly improve HP’s mobile presence as iPAQdevices had not been selling well. Buying Palm gave HP a library of valuable patents, as well as the mobile operating platform known as webOS. On July 1, 2010, the acquisition of Palm was final.[53] The purchase of Palm’s webOS began a big gamble – to build HP’s own ecosystem.[54] On July 1, 2011, HP launched its first tablet named HP TouchPad, bringing webOS to tablet devices. On September 2, 2010, HP won its bidding war for 3PAR with a $33 a share offer ($2.07 billion) which Dell declined to match. After HP’s acquisition of Palm, it phased out the Compaq brand.

On August 6, 2010, CEO Mark Hurd resigned amid controversy and CFO Cathie Lesjak assumed the role of interim CEO. Hurd had turned HP around and was widely regarded as one of Silicon Valley’s star CEOs. Under his leadership, HP became the largest computer company in the world when measured by total revenue.[55] Accused of sexual harassment against a colleague, the allegations were deemed baseless. The investigation led to questions concerning between $1000 and $20000 of his private expenses and his lack of disclosure related to the friendship.[56][57] Some observers have argued that Hurd was innocent, but the board asked for his resignation to avoid negative PR.[58] Public analysis was divided between those who saw it as a commendable tough action by HP in handling expenses irregularities, and those who saw it as an ill-advised, hasty and expensive reaction, in ousting a remarkably capable leader who had turned the business around.[56][57][59] At HP, Hurd oversaw a series of acquisitions worth over $20 billion. This allowed the company to expand into services of networking equipment and smartphones.[60] Shares of HP dropped by 8.4% in after-hours trading, hitting a 52-week low with $9 billion in market capitalization shaved off.[61]Larry Ellison publicly attacked HP’s board for his ousting, stating that the HP board had “made the worst personnel decision since the idiots on the Apple board fired Steve Jobs many years ago.”[62]

On September 30, 2010, Léo Apotheker was named as HP’s new CEO and President.[63] Apotheker’s appointment sparked a strong reaction from Oracle chief executive Larry Ellison,[64] who complained that Apotheker had been in charge of SAP when one of its subsidiaries was systematically stealing software from Oracle. SAP accepted that its subsidiary, which has now closed, illegally accessed Oracle intellectual property.[65] Following Hurd’s departure, HP was seen by the market as problematic, with margins falling and having failed to redirect and establish itself in major new markets such as cloud and mobile services.[citation needed] Apotheker’s strategy was broadly to aim at disposing of hardware and moving into the more profitable software services sector. On August 18, 2011, HP announced that it would strategically exit the smartphone and tablet computer business, focusing on higher-margin “strategic priorities of Cloud, solutions and software with an emphasis on enterprise, commercial and government markets”[66] They also contemplated selling off their personal computer division or spinning it off into a separate company,[67] quitting the ‘PC’ business, while continuing to sell servers and other equipment to business customers, was a strategy already undertaken by IBM in 2005.[68]

HP’s stock continued to drop, by about a further 40% (including 25% on one day, August 19, 2011), after the company abruptly announced a number of decisions: to discontinue its webOS device business (mobile phones and tablet computers), the intent to sell its personal computer division (at the time HP was the largest personal computer manufacturer in the world), and to acquire British big data software firm Autonomy for a 79% premium, seen externally as an “absurdly high” price[69] for a business with known concerns over its accounts.[70] Media analysts described HP’s actions as a “botched strategy shift” and a “chaotic” attempt to rapidly reposition HP and enhance earnings that ultimately cost Apotheker his job.[69][71][72] The Autonomy acquisition had been objected to even by HP’s own CFO.[73][74]:3–6

On September 22, 2011, the HP Board of Directors fired Apotheker as chief executive, effective immediately, and replaced him with fellow board member and former eBay chief Meg Whitman,[75] with Raymond J. Lane as executive chairman. Though Apotheker served barely ten months, he received over $13 million in compensation.[76] HP lost more than $30 billion in market capitalization during his tenure. Weeks later, HP announced that a review had concluded their PC division was too integrated and critical to business operations, and the company reaffirmed their commitment to the Personal Systems Group.[77] A year later in November 2012 wrote-down almost $9 billion related to the Autonomy acquisition (see below: Takeover of Autonomy), which became the subject of intense litigation as HP accused Autonomy’s previous management of fraudulently exaggerating Autonomy’s financial position and called in law enforcement and regulators in both countries, and Autonomy’s previous management accused HP of “textbook” obfuscation and finger pointing to protect HP’s executives from criticism and conceal HP culpability, their prior knowledge of Autonomy’s financial position, and gross mismanagement of Autonomy after acquisition.[74]:6

On March 21, 2012, HP said its printing and PC divisions would become one unit headed by Todd Bradley from the PC division. Printing chief Vyomesh Joshi is leaving the company.[78]

On May 23, 2012, HP announced plans to lay off approximately 27,000 employees, after posting a profit decline of 31% in the second quarter of 2012.[79]
The profit decline is on account of the growing popularity of smart phones, tablets, and other mobile devices, that has slowed the sale of personal computers.[80]

On May 30, 2012, HP unveiled its first net zero energy data center. HP data center plans to use solar energy and other renewable sources instead of traditional power grids.[81]

On July 10, 2012, HP’s Server Monitoring Software was discovered to have a previously unknown security vulnerability.[82] A security warning was given to customers about two vulnerabilities, and a patch released.[83] One month later, HP’s official site of training center was hacked and defaced by a Pakistani hacker known to as ‘Hitcher’ to demonstrate a web vulnerability.[84]

On September 10, 2012, HP revised their restructuring figures; they are now cutting 29,000 jobs. HP had already cut 3,800 jobs – around 7 percent of the revised 29,000 figure – as of July 2012.[85]

2013–2015

On December 31, 2013, HP revised the amount of jobs cut from 29,000 to 34,000 up to October 2014. The current amount of jobs cut until the end of 2013 was 24,600.[86][87][88] At the end of 2013 the company had 317,500 employees. On May 22, 2014 HP announced it would cut a further 11,000 to 16,000 jobs, in addition to the 34,000 announced in 2013. “We are gradually shaping HP into a more nimble, lower-cost, more customer and partner-centric company that can successfully compete across a rapidly changing IT landscape,” CEO Meg Whitman said at the time.[89]


In June 2014, during the HP Discover customer event in Las Vegas, Meg Whitman and Martin Fink announced a project for a radically new computer architecture called The Machine. Based on memristors and silicon photonics, The Machine is supposed to come in commercialization before the end of the decade, meanwhile representing 75% of the research activity in HP Labs.[90]

On October 6, 2014, Hewlett-Packard announced it was planning to split into two separate companies, separating its personal computer and printer businesses from its technology services. The split, which was first reported by The Wall Street Journal and confirmed by other media, would result in two publicly traded companies: Hewlett Packard Enterprise and HP Inc. Meg Whitman would serve as chairman of HP Inc. and CEO of Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Patricia Russo would be chairman of the enterprise business, and Dion Weisler would be CEO of HP, Inc.[91][92][93]

On October 29, 2014, Hewlett-Packard announced their new Sprout personal computer.[94]

In May 2015, the company announced it would be selling its controlling 51 percent stake in its Chinese data-networking business to Tsinghua Unigroup for a fee of at least $2.4 billion.[95]

On November 1, 2015, as previously announced, Hewlett-Packard changed its name to HP Inc. and spun off Hewlett Packard Enterprise as a new publicly traded company. Because of this, HP Inc. retains Hewlett-Packard’s stock price history and its stock ticker symbol, HPQ, while Hewlett Packard Enterprise trades under its own symbol, HPE.[96][97]

Facilities

The research center of Hewlett-Packard in the Paris-Saclay cluster, France.

HP’s global operations are directed from its headquarters in Palo Alto, California, USA. Its U.S. operations are directed from its facility in unincorporated Harris County, Texas, near Houston. Its Latin America offices are in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida, U.S., near Miami; Its Europe offices are in Meyrin, Switzerland, near Geneva, but it has also a research center in the Paris-Saclay cluster, 20 km south of Paris, France. Its Asia-Pacific offices are in Singapore.[98][99][100][101][100][102][103]

It also has large operations in Leixlip, Ireland;[104]Austin, Texas; Boise, Idaho; Corvallis, Oregon; Fort Collins, Colorado; Roseville, California; Saint Petersburg, Florida; San Diego, California; Tulsa, Oklahoma; Vancouver, Washington; Conway, Arkansas; and Plano, Texas (the former headquarters of EDS, which HP acquired). In the UK, HP is based at a large site in Bracknell, Berkshire with offices in various UK locations, including a landmark office tower in London, 88 Wood Street. Its recent acquisition of 3Com will expand its employee base to Marlborough, Massachusetts.[105] The company also has a large workforce and numerous offices in Bucharest, Romania and at Bangalore, India, to address their back end and IT operations. MphasiS, which is headquartered at Bangalore, also enabled HP to increase their footprint in the city as it was a subsidiary of EDS which the company acquired.

Products and organizational structure

HP office in Japan

HP produces lines of printers, scanners, digital cameras, calculators, PDAs, servers, workstation computers, and computers for home and small-business use; many of the computers came from the 2002 merger with Compaq. HP as of 2001[update] promotes itself as supplying not just hardware and software, but also a full range of services to design, implement, and support IT infrastructure.

HP’s Imaging and Printing Group (IPG) was described by the company in 2005 as “the leading imaging and printing systems provider in the world for printer hardware, printing supplies and scanning devices, providing solutions across customer segments from individual consumers to small and medium businesses to large enterprises”.[106]

HP Presario F700 F767CL

iPAQ h4150 Pocket PC from 2003

Products and technology associated with IPG include:

  • Inkjet and LaserJet printers
  • consumables and related products
  • Officejet all-in-one multifunction printer/scanner/faxes
  • Designjet and Scitex Large Format Printers
  • Indigo Digital Press
  • HP Web Jetadmin printer management software
  • HP Output Management suite of software
  • LightScribe optical recording technology
  • HP Photosmart digital cameras and photo printers
  • HP SPaM
  • Snapfish by HP, a photo sharing and photo products service.

On December 23, 2008, HP released iPrint Photo for iPhone, a free downloadable software application that allows the printing of 4″ x 6″ photos.[107]

HP’s Personal Systems Group (PSG) claims to be “one of the leading vendors of personal computers (“PCs”) in the world based on unit volume shipped and annual revenue.”[106] PSG deals with:

  • business PCs and accessories
  • consumer PCs and accessories, (e.g., HP Pavilion, Compaq Presario, VoodooPC)
  • handheld computing (e.g., iPAQ Pocket PC)
  • digital “connected” entertainment (e.g., HP MediaSmart TVs, HP MediaSmart Servers, HP MediaVaults, DVD+RW drives)

HP resold the Apple iPod until November 2005.[106]

HP Enterprise Business (EB) incorporates HP Technology Services, Enterprise Services (an amalgamation of the former EDS, and what was known as HP Services), HP Enterprise Security Services oversees professional services such as network security, information security and information assurance/ compliancy, HP Software Division, and Enterprise Servers, Storage and Networking Group (ESSN). The Enterprise Servers, Storage and Networking Group (ESSN) oversees “back end” products like storage and servers. HP Networking (former ProCurve) is responsible for the NW family of products. They are a business unit of ESSN.

An HP camera with an SDIO interface, designed for use in conjunction with a Pocket PC

HP Software Division is the company’s enterprise software unit. For years,[when?] HP has produced and marketed its brand of enterprise-management software, HP OpenView. From September 2005 HP purchased several software companies as part of a publicized, deliberate strategy to augment its software offerings for large business customers.[108] HP Software sells several categories of software, including:

  • business service management software
  • application lifecycle management software
  • mobile apps
  • big data and analytics
  • service and portfolio management software
  • automation and orchestration software
  • enterprise security software
    • ArcSight
    • Fortify Software
    • Atalla
    • TippingPoint

HP Software also provides software as a service (SaaS), cloud computing solutions, and software services, including consulting, education, professional services, and support.

HP’s Office of Strategy and Technology[109] has four main functions:

  1. steering the company’s $3.6 billion research and development investment
  2. fostering the development of the company’s global technical community
  3. leading the company’s strategy and corporate development efforts,[110]
  4. performing worldwide corporate marketing activities

Under the Office of Strategy and Technology comes HP Labs, the research arm of HP. Founded in 1966, HP Labs aims to deliver new technologies and to create business opportunities that go beyond HP’s current strategies. Examples of recent HP Labs technology includes the Memory spot chip of 2006. HP IdeaLab further provides a web forum on early-state innovations to encourage open feedback from consumers and the development community.[111]

HP also offers managed services by which they provide complete IT-support solutions for other companies and organizations. Some examples of these include:

  • offering “Professional Support” and desktop “Premier Support” for Microsoft in the EMEA marketplace. This is done from the Leixlip campus near Dublin, Sofia and Israel. Support is offered on the line of Microsoft operation systems, Exchange, Sharepoint and some office-applications.[112]
  • outsourced services for companies like Bank of Ireland, some UK banks, the U.S. defense forces.
  • the computerisation project at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.

Staff and culture

The founders developed a management style that came to be known as “The HP Way.” In Hewlett’s words, the HP Way is “a core ideology … which includes a deep respect for the individual, a dedication to affordable quality and reliability, a commitment to community responsibility, and a view that the company exists to make technical contributions for the advancement and welfare of humanity.”[113] The following are the tenets of The HP Way:[114]

  1. We have trust and respect for individuals.
  2. We focus on a high level of achievement and contribution.
  3. We conduct our business with uncompromising integrity.
  4. We achieve our common objectives through teamwork.
  5. We encourage flexibility and innovation.

Notable people

  • Michael Capellas (Compaq CEO/Chairman – HP President)[115]
  • Barney Oliver, founder and director of HP laboratories
  • Steve Wozniak[116]
  • Tom Perkins
  • Carly Fiorina, 2016 Republican presidential candidate
  • Matt Shaheen, management consultant executive at HP Enterprise Services in Plano, Texas; Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives
  • John Schultz (HP Lawyer – Oracle Lawsuit)[117]

Corporate social responsibility

In July 2007, the company announced that it had met its target, set in 2004, to recycle one billion pounds of electronics, toner and ink cartridges.[118] It set a new goal of recycling a further two billion pounds of hardware by the end of 2010. In 2006, the company recovered 187 million pounds of electronics, 73 percent more than its closest competitor.[119]

In 2008, HP released its supply chain emissions data — an industry first.[120]

In September 2009, Newsweek ranked HP No. 1 on its 2009 Green Rankings of America’s 500 largest corporations.[121] According to environmentalleader.com, “Hewlett-Packard earned its number one position due to its greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction programs, and was the first major IT company to report GHG emissions associated with its supply chain, according to the ranking. In addition, HP has made an effort to remove toxic substances from its products, though Greenpeace has targeted the company for not doing better.”[122]

HP took the top spot on Corporate Responsibility Magazines 100 Best Corporate Citizens List for 2010.[123] The list is cited by PR Week as one of America’s most important business rankings. HP beat out other Russell 1000 Index companies because of its leadership in seven categories including environment, climate changes and corporate philanthropy. In 2009, HP was ranked fifth.[124]

Fortune magazine named HP one of the World’s Most Admired Companies in 2010, placing it No. 2 in the computer industry and No. 32 overall in its list of the top 50. This year in the computer industry HP was ranked No. 1 in social responsibility, long-term investment, global competitiveness, and use of corporate assets.[125]

In May 2011, HP released a Global Responsibility report covering accomplishments during 2010.[126] The report, the company’s tenth, provides a comprehensive view of HP’s global citizenship programs, performance, and goals and describes how HP uses its technology, influence, and expertise to make a positive impact on the world. The company’s 2009 report won best corporate responsibility report of the year.[127] The 2009 reports claims HP decreased its total energy use by 9 percent compared with 2008. HP recovered a total of 118,000 tonnes of electronic products and supplies for recycling in 2009, including 61 million print cartridges.[128]

In an April 2010 San Francisco Chronicle article, HP was one of 12 companies commended for “designing products to be safe from the start, following the principles of green chemistry.” The commendations came from Environment California, an environmental advocacy group, who praised select companies in the Golden State and the Bay Area for their efforts to keep our planet clean and green.[129]

In May 2010, HP was named one of the World’s Most Ethical Companies by Ethisphere Institute. This is the second year in a row HP has made the list. Ethisphere reviewed, researched and analyzed thousands of nominations in more than 100 countries and 35 industries to create the 2010 list. HP was one of only 100 companies to earn the distinction of top winner and was the only computer hardware vendor to be recognized. Ethisphere honors firms that promote ethical business standards and practices by going beyond legal minimums, introducing innovative ideas that benefit the public.[130]

HP is listed in Greenpeace’s Guide to Greener Electronics that ranks electronics manufacturers according to their policies on sustainability, energy and climate and green products. In November 2011, HP secured the 1st place (out of 15) in this ranking (climbing up 3 places) with an increased score of 5.9 (up from 5.5). It scored most points on the new Sustainable Operations criteria, having the best program for measuring and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases from its suppliers and scoring maximum points for its thorough paper procurement policy.[131] In the November 2012 report, HP was ranked second, with a score of 5.7.[132]

HP does especially well for its disclosure of externally verified greenhouse gas emissions and its setting of targets for reducing them.[133][third-party source needed] However, Greenpeace reports that HP risks a penalty point in future editions due to the fact that it is a member of trade associations that have commented against energy efficiency standards.[131]

HP has earned recognition of its work in the area of data privacy and security.[134] In 2010 the company ranked No. 4 in the Ponemon Institute’s annual study of the most trusted companies for privacy.[135] Since 2006, HP has worked directly with the U.S. Congress, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and the Department of Commerce to establish a new strategy for federal legislation.[136] HP played a key role in work toward the December 2010 FTC report “Protecting Consumer Privacy in an Era of Rapid Change.”[137]

After winning nine straight annual “Most Respected Company in China” awards from the Economic Observer and Peking University, HP China has added the “10 Year Contribution” award to its list of accolades. The award aims to identify companies doing business in China with outstanding and sustained performance in business operations, development and corporate social responsibility.[138]

In its 2012 rankings of consumer electronics companies on progress relating to conflict minerals, the Enough Project rated HP second out of 24 companies, calling it a “Pioneer of progress”.[139]

Brand

A Hewlett-Packard sponsored Porsche 997 GT3 Cup

The company sponsored the HP Pavilion at San Jose (now SAP Center at San Jose), home to the NHL’s San Jose Sharks.

According to a BusinessWeek Study, HP was the world’s 11th most valuable brand as of 2009.[140]

HP has many sponsorships. One well known sponsorship is Mission: SPACE in Epcot at the Walt Disney World Resort.[141] From 1995 to 1999, and again from 2013, HP has been the shirt sponsor of[142]Premier League club Tottenham Hotspur F.C.[citation needed] From 1997 to 1999 they were sponsors of Australian Football League club North Melbourne Football Club.[citation needed] They also sponsored the BMW Williams Formula 1 team until 2005 (a sponsorship formerly held by Compaq), and as of 2010 sponsor Renault F1.[143] Hewlett-Packard also had the naming rights arrangement for the HP Pavilion at San Jose, home of the San Jose Sharks NHL hockey team until 2013, in which the arena’s naming rights were acquired by SAP AG, renaming the arena to the SAP Center at San Jose.[144] The company also maintains a number of corporate sponsorships in the business sector, including sponsorships of trade organisations including Fespa (print trade exhibitions), and O’Reilly Media’s Velocity (web development) conference.

After the acquisition of Compaq in 2002, HP has maintained the “Compaq Presario” brand on low-end home desktops and laptops, the “HP Compaq” brand on business desktops and laptops, and the “HP ProLiant” brand on Intel-architecture servers. (The “HP Pavilion” brand is used on home entertainment laptops and all home desktops.)[145]

Tandem’s “NonStop” servers are now branded as “HP Integrity NonStop”.[146]

Controversies

Restatement

In March 2003, HP restated its first-quarter cash flow from operations, reducing it 18 percent because of an accounting error. Actual cash flow from operations was $647 million, not $791 million as reported earlier. HP shifted $144 million to net cash used in investing activities.[147]

Spying scandal

On September 5, 2006, Shawn Cabalfin and David O’Neil of Newsweek wrote that HP’s general counsel, at the behest of chairwoman Patricia Dunn, contracted a team of independent security experts to investigate board members and several journalists in order to identify the source of an information leak.[148] In turn, those security experts recruited private investigators who used a spying technique known as pretexting.[149] The pretexting involved investigators impersonating HP board members and nine journalists (including reporters for CNET, The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal) in order to obtain their phone records. The information leaked related to HP’s long-term strategy and was published as part of a CNET article[150] in January 2006. Most HP employees accused of criminal acts have since been acquitted.[151]

Hardware

In November 2007, Hewlett-Packard released a BIOS update covering a wide range of laptops with the intent to speed up the computer fan as well as have it run constantly, whether the computer was on or off.[152] The reason was to prevent the overheating of defective Nvidia graphics processing units (GPUs) that had been shipped to many of the original equipment manufacturers, including Hewlett-Packard, Dell, and Apple.[153] The defect concerned the new packaging material used by Nvidia from 2007 onwards in joining the graphics chip onto the motherboard, which did not perform well under thermal cycling and was prone to develop stress cracks – effectively severing the connection between the GPU and the motherboard, leading to a blank screen.[154] In July 2008, HP issued an extension to the initial one-year warranty to replace the motherboards of selected models.[155] However this option was not extended to all models with the defective Nvidia chipsets despite research showing that these computers were also affected by the fault.[156] Furthermore, the replacement of the motherboard was a temporary fix, since the fault was inherent in all units of the affected models from the point of manufacture, including the replacement motherboards offered by HP as a free ‘repair’.[157][158] Since this point, several websites have been documenting the issue, most notably www.hplies.com,[159] a forum dedicated to what they refer to as Hewlett-Packard’s “multi-million dollar cover up” of the issue, and www.nvidiadefect.com, which details the specifics of the fault and offers advice to the owners of affected computers. There have been several small-claims lawsuits filed in several states, as well as suits filed in other countries. Hewlett-Packard also faced a class-action lawsuit in 2009 over its i7 processor computers. The complainants stated that their systems locked up within 30 minutes of powering on, consistently. Even after being replaced with newer i7 systems, the lockups continued.[160]

Lawsuit against Oracle

On June 15, 2011, HP filed a lawsuit in California Superior Court in Santa Clara, claiming that Oracle Corporation had breached an agreement to support the Itanium microprocessor used in HP’s high-end enterprise servers.[161] On June 15, 2011, HP sent a “formal legal demand” letter to Oracle in an attempt to force the world’s No. 3 software maker to reverse its decision to discontinue software development on Intel Itanium microprocessor[162] and build its own servers.[117] HP won the lawsuit in 2012, requiring Oracle to continue to produce software compatible with the Itanium processor.[163] HP was awarded $3 billion in damages against Oracle on June 30, 2016.[117][164] HP argued Oracle’s canceling support damaged HP Itanium server brand. Oracle has announced it will appeal both the decision and damages.

Takeover of Autonomy

In November 2012, HP recorded a writedown of around $8.8 billion related to its acquisition a year earlier of the UK based Autonomy Corporation PLC. HP accused Autonomy of deliberately inflating the value of the company prior to its takeover. The former management team of Autonomy flatly rejected the charge.

Autonomy specialized in analysis of large scale unstructured “big data”, and by 2010 was the UK’s largest and most successful[71]software business. It maintained an aggressively entrepreneurial marketing approach, and controls described as a “rod of iron”, which was said to include zero tolerance and firing the weakest 5% of its sales force each quarter, while compensating the best sales staff “like rock stars”.[73]

At the time, HP had fired its previous CEO for expenses irregularities a year before, and appointed Léo Apotheker as CEO and President. HP was seen as problematic by the market, with margins falling and having failed to redirect and establish itself in major new markets such as cloud and mobile services. Apotheker’s strategy was to aim at disposing of hardware and moving into the more profitable software services sector.

As part of this strategy, Autonomy was acquired by HP in October 2011. HP paid $10.3 billion for 87.3% of the shares, valuing Autonomy at around $11.7 billion (£7.4 billion) overall, a premium of around 79% over market price. The deal was widely criticized as “absurdly high”, a “botched strategy shift” and a “chaotic” attempt to rapidly reposition HP and enhance earnings,[69][71][72] and had been objected to even by HP’s own CFO.[73][74]:3–6 Within a year, Apotheker himself had been fired, major culture clashes became apparent and HP had written off $8.8 billion of Autonomy’s value.[73]

HP claim this resulted from “accounting improprieties, misrepresentations and disclosure failures” by the previous management, who in turn accuse HP of a “textbook example of defensive stalling”[74]:6 to conceal evidence of its own prior knowledge and gross mismanagement and undermining of the company, noting public awareness since 2009 of its financial reporting issues[74]:3 and that even HP’s CFO disagreed with the price paid.[73][74]:3–6 External observers generally state that only a small part of the write-off appears to be due to accounting mis-statements, and that HP had overpaid for businesses previously.[73][165]

The Serious Fraud Office (United Kingdom), and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission joined the FBI in investigating the potential anomalies. HP incurred much damage with its stock falling to decades’ low.[166][167][168] Three lawsuits were brought by shareholders against HP, for the fall in value of HP shares. In August 2014 a United States district court judge threw out a proposed settlement, which Autonomy’s previous management had argued would be collusive and intended to divert scrutiny of HP’s own responsibility and knowledge, by essentially engaging the plaintiff’s attorneys from the existing cases and redirecting them against the previous Autonomy vendors and management, for a fee of up to $48 million, with plaintiffs agreeing to end any claims against HP’s management and similarly redirect those claims against the previous Autonomy vendors and management.[169][170] In January 2015 the SFO closed its investigation as the likelihood of a successful prosecution was low.[171] The dispute is still being litigated in the US, and is being investigated by the UK and Ireland Financial Reporting Council. On June 9, 2015, HP agreed to pay $100 million to investors who bought HP shares between August 19, 2011, and November 20, 2012 to settle the suite over Autonomy purchase.[172]

Israeli settlements

On October 25, 2012, Richard Falk, the Human Rights Council’s Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Palestinian territories occupied since 1967, called for boycotting HP together with other “businesses that are profiting from Israeli settlements on occupied Palestinian lands until they brought their operations in line with international human rights and humanitarian law”.[173][174] In 2014, the Presbyterian Church voted to move forward with divestment from HP “in protest of Israeli policies toward Palestinians”.[175] In 2015, the City of Portland’s Human Rights Commission requested to place Caterpillar, G4S, Hewlett-Packard, and Motorola Solutions on the City’s “Do Not Buy” list.[176]

Bribery

On April 9, 2014, an administrative proceeding before Securities and Exchange Commission was settled by HP consenting to an order acknowledging that HP had violated the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) when HP subsidiaries in Russia, Poland, and Mexico made improper payments to government officials to obtain or retain lucrative public contracts.[177]

The SEC’s order finds that HP’s subsidiary in Russia paid more than $2 million through agents and various shell companies to a Russian government official to retain a multimillion-dollar contract with the federal prosecutor’s office. In Poland, HP’s subsidiary provided gifts and cash bribes worth more than $600,000 to a Polish government official to obtain contracts with the national police agency. And as part of its bid to win a software sale to Mexico’s state-owned petroleum company, HP’s subsidiary in Mexico paid more than $1 million in inflated commissions to a consultant with close ties to company officials, and money was funneled to one of those officials. HP agreed to pay $108 million to settle the SEC charges and a parallel criminal case.[178][179][180]

See also

  • ArcSight
  • Fortify
  • HP calculators
  • HP Linux Imaging and Printing
  • HP Software & Solutions
  • HP User Group
  • List of acquisitions by Hewlett-Packard
  • List of computer system manufacturers
  • List of Hewlett-Packard products
  • Shortest Path Bridging
  • TippingPoint

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External links

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