Indianapolis

State capital and Consolidated city-county in United States
Indianapolis, Indiana
State capital and Consolidated city-county
City of Indianapolis and Marion County
From top to bottom, left to right: Downtown Indianapolis skyline, Indiana Statehouse, Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, Indiana World War Memorial Plaza, Butler University, Lucas Oil Stadium, and Indianapolis Motor Speedway

From top to bottom, left to right: Downtown Indianapolis skyline, Indiana Statehouse, Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument, Indiana World War Memorial Plaza, Butler University, Lucas Oil Stadium, and Indianapolis Motor Speedway
Flag of Indianapolis, Indiana
Flag
Official seal of Indianapolis, Indiana
Seal
Nickname(s): 

“Indy”; “Circle City”; “Crossroads of America”; “Naptown”; “Amateur Sports Capital of the World”; “Railroad City”[1]
Location of Indianapolis (in red) in Marion County, Indiana.

Location of Indianapolis (in red) in Marion County, Indiana.
Indianapolis is located in the US

Indianapolis
Indianapolis
Location of Indianapolis in the contiguous United States
Coordinates: 39°46′N 86°9′W / 39.767°N 86.150°W / 39.767; -86.150
Country  United States
State  Indiana
County Marion
Founded January 6, 1821[2]
Incorporated (town) September 3, 1832[2]
Incorporated (city) March 30, 1847[2]
City-county consolidation January 1, 1970[3]
Government

 • Type Mayor–council
 • Body City–County Council of Indianapolis and Marion County
 • Mayor Joe Hogsett (D)
Area

[4]
 • State capital and Consolidated city-county 368.02 sq mi (953.18 km2)
 • Land 361.51 sq mi (936.30 km2)
 • Water 6.52 sq mi (16.88 km2)
Elevation

715 ft (218 m)
Population

(2010)[5][6]
 • State capital and Consolidated city-county 820,445
 • Estimate 

(2017)[7]
863,002
 • Rank 16th in the United States
 • Density 2,365.55/sq mi (913.34/km2)
 • Urban

1,487,483 (US: 33rd)
 • Metro

2,004,230 (US: 34th)
 • CSA

2,386,199 (US: 27th)
Demonym(s) Indianapolitan[8]
Time zone UTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
Area code(s) 317 and 463
FIPS code 18-36003[9]
Website www.indy.gov

Indianapolis (/ˌɪndiəˈnæpəlɪs/)[10][11][12], often shortened to Indy, is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. As of 2017, Indianapolis is the third most populous city in the American Midwest and 16th most populous in the U.S., with an estimated population of 863,002.[13] The Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U.S., with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers 368 square miles (950 km2), making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U.S.

Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to approximately 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary’s.[14] In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana’s state government. The city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile (2.6 km2) grid adjacent to the White River. Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail (1847) later solidified the city’s position as a manufacturing and transportation hub.[15] Two of the city’s nicknames originate from its historical ties to transportation—the “Crossroads of America” and “Railroad City”.[16][17][1]

Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U.S., based primarily on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing, professional and business services, education and health care, government, and wholesale trade.[18] Indianapolis has developed niche markets in amateur sports and auto racing.[19][20] The city is perhaps best known for annually hosting the world’s largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500.[21] Indianapolis has hosted international multi-sport events such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games.

Indianapolis is home to two major sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. The city’s philanthropic community has helped develop its cultural institutions and collections, including the world’s largest children’s museum, one of the nation’s largest privately funded zoos,
historic buildings and sites, and public art.[22][23][24][25] Indianapolis is home to a significant collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties, the most in the U.S. outside of Washington, D.C.[26][27] Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis is considered a “high sufficiency” world city.[28]

Contents

  • 1 History

    • 1.1 Etymology
    • 1.2 Founding
    • 1.3 Civil War and Gilded Age
    • 1.4 Modern Indianapolis
  • 2 Geography

    • 2.1 Cityscape
    • 2.2 Neighborhoods
    • 2.3 Climate
  • 3 Demographics

    • 3.1 Religion
  • 4 Economy
  • 5 Culture and contemporary life

    • 5.1 Visual arts
    • 5.2 Performing arts
    • 5.3 Literature
    • 5.4 Attractions
    • 5.5 Cuisine
  • 6 Sports

    • 6.1 Motorsports
  • 7 Parks and recreation
  • 8 Government and politics

    • 8.1 Public safety
    • 8.2 Crime
    • 8.3 Politics
  • 9 Education

    • 9.1 Colleges and universities
    • 9.2 Schools and libraries
  • 10 Media
  • 11 Transportation

    • 11.1 Roads and highways
    • 11.2 Mass transit
    • 11.3 Airports
    • 11.4 Active and shared mobility
  • 12 Healthcare
  • 13 Utilities
  • 14 Notable people
  • 15 International relations

    • 15.1 Sister cities
    • 15.2 Consulates
  • 16 See also
  • 17 Notes
  • 18 References
  • 19 External links

History

Etymology

The name Indianapolis is derived from the state’s name, Indiana (meaning “Land of the Indians”, or simply “Indian Land”[29]), and polis, the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name.[30] Other names considered were Concord, Suwarrow, and Tecumseh.[31]

Founding

A depiction of 1820 Indianapolis.

The Third Indiana Statehouse (1835–1877).

In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U.S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.[32] Two years later, under the Treaty of St. Mary’s (1818), the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821.[14] This tract of land, which was called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820.[33]

The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American setters were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840.[34] The first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are generally considered to be the first permanent settlers; however, some historians believe George Pogue and family may have arrived first, on March 2, 1819, and settled in a log cabin along the creek that was later called Pogue’s Run. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, and employees became the first European American settlers in the area, settling near the White River in February 1820.[35]

On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital.[36] The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821.[2] In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement.[37] Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832 when Indianapolis incorporated as a town. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city’s first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council. The city charter continued to be revised as Indianapolis expanded.[38] Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government relocated to Indianapolis from Corydon, Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U.S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.[39]

Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States.[40] A small segment of the ultimately failed Indiana Central Canal was opened in 1839.[41] The first railroad to serve Indianapolis, the Jeffersonville, Madison and Indianapolis Railroad, began operation in 1847, and subsequent railroad connections fostered growth.[42]Indianapolis Union Station was the first of its kind in the world when it opened in 1853.[43]

Civil War and Gilded Age

Confederate POWs at Camp Morton in 1864.

Child laborers in an Indianapolis furniture factory, 1908.

During the American Civil War, Indianapolis was loyal to the Union cause. Governor Oliver P. Morton, a major supporter of President Abraham Lincoln, quickly made Indianapolis a rallying place for Union army troops. On February 11, 1861, president-elect Lincoln arrived in the city, en route to Washington, D.C. for his presidential inauguration, marking the first visit from a president-elect in the city’s history.[44] On April 16, 1861, the first orders were issued to form Indiana’s first regiments and establish Indianapolis as a headquarters for the state’s volunteer soldiers.[45][46] Within a week, more than 12,000 recruits signed up to fight for the Union.[47]

Indianapolis became a major logistics hub during the war, establishing the city as a crucial military base.[48][49] Between 1860 and 1870, the city’s population more than doubled.[42] An estimated 4,000 men from Indianapolis served in 39 regiments, and an estimated 700 died during the war.[50] On May 20, 1863, Union soldiers attempted to disrupt a statewide Democratic convention at Indianapolis, forcing the proceedings to be adjourned, sarcastically referred to as the Battle of Pogue’s Run.[51] Fear turned to panic in July 1863, during Morgan’s Raid into southern Indiana, but Confederate forces turned east toward Ohio, never reaching Indianapolis.[52] On April 30, 1865, Lincoln’s funeral train made a stop at Indianapolis, where an estimated crowd of more than 100,000 people passed the assassinated president’s bier at the Indiana Statehouse.[49][53]

Following the Civil War—and in the wake of the Second Industrial Revolution—Indianapolis experienced tremendous growth and prosperity. In 1880, Indianapolis was the world’s third largest pork packing city, after Chicago and Cincinnati, and the second largest railroad center in the United States by 1888.[54][55] By 1890, the city’s population surpassed 100,000.[42] Some of the city’s most notable businesses were founded during this period of growth and innovation, including L. S. Ayres (1872), Eli Lilly and Company (1876), Madame C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company (1910), and Allison Transmission (1915). Once home to 60 automakers, Indianapolis rivaled Detroit as a center of automobile manufacturing.[56] The city was an early focus of labor organization.[42] The Indianapolis Street Car Strike of 1913 and subsequent police mutiny and riots led to the creation of the state’s earliest labor-protection laws, including a minimum wage, regular work weeks, and improved working conditions.[57] The International Typographical Union and United Mine Workers of America were among several influential labor unions to be based in the city.[42]

Modern Indianapolis

Meridian Street and Washington Street in 1904.

1911 Indianapolis 500, the inaugural running of the race.

Some of the city’s most prominent architectural features and best known historical events date from the turn of the 20th century. The Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument, dedicated on May 15, 1902, would later become the city’s unofficial symbol.[58]Ray Harroun won the inaugural running of the Indianapolis 500, held May 30, 1911, at Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Indianapolis was one of the hardest hit cities in the Great Flood of 1913, resulting in five known deaths[59][60][61] and the displacement of 7,000 families.[62]

As a stop on the Underground Railroad, Indianapolis had a higher black population than any other city in the Northern States, until the Great Migration.[63] Led by D. C. Stephenson, the Indiana Klan became the most powerful political and social organization in Indianapolis from 1921 through 1928, controlling City Council and the Board of School Commissioners, among others. At its height, more than 40% of native-born white males in Indianapolis claimed membership in the Klan. While campaigning in the city in 1968, Robert F. Kennedy delivered one of the most lauded speeches in 20th century American history, following the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr.[64][65][66] As in most U.S. cities during the Civil Rights Movement, the city experienced strained race relations. A 1971 federal court decision forcing Indianapolis Public Schools to implement desegregation busing proved controversial.[67]

The Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument in 1970, the year Unigov was enacted.

Under the mayoral administration of Richard Lugar, the city and county governments restructured, consolidating most public services into a new entity called Unigov. The plan removed bureaucratic redundancies, captured increasingly suburbanizing tax revenue, and created a Republican political machine that dominated Indianapolis politics until the 2000s decade.[68][69] Unigov went into effect on January 1, 1970, increasing the city’s land area by 308.2 square miles (798 km2) and population by 268,366 people.[70][71] It was the first major city-county consolidation to occur in the United States without a referendum since the creation of the City of Greater New York in 1898.[72]

Amid the changes in government and growth, the city invested in an aggressive strategy to brand Indianapolis as a sports tourism destination. Under the administration of the city’s longest-serving mayor, William Hudnut (1976–1992), millions of dollars were poured into sport facilities.[20] Throughout the 1980s, $122 million in public and private funding built the Indianapolis Tennis Center, Major Taylor Velodrome, Indiana University Natatorium, Carroll Track and Soccer Stadium, and Hoosier Dome.[20] The latter project secured the 1984 relocation of the NFL Baltimore Colts and the 1987 Pan American Games.[20] The economic development strategy succeeded in revitalizing the central business district through the 1990s, with the openings of the Indianapolis Zoo, Canal Walk,[41]Circle Centre Mall, Victory Field, and Conseco Fieldhouse.

During the 2000s, the city continued investing heavily in infrastructure projects, including two of the largest building projects in the city’s history: the $1.1 billion Col. H. Weir Cook Terminal and $720 million Lucas Oil Stadium, both opened in 2008.[73][74] A $275 million expansion of the Indiana Convention Center was completed in 2011.[75] Construction began that year on DigIndy, a $1.9 billion project to correct the city’s combined sewer overflows (CSOs) by 2025.[76]

Geography

Landsat simulated-color image of the Indianapolis metropolitan area.

Indianapolis is located in the East North Central region of the Midwestern United States, in central Indiana. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the Indianapolis (balance) encompasses a total area of 368.2 square miles (954 km2), of which 361.5 square miles (936 km2) is land and 6.7 square miles (17 km2) is water. The consolidated city boundaries are coterminous with Marion County, with the exception of the autonomous municipalities of Beech Grove, Lawrence, Southport, and Speedway.[42][77] Indianapolis is the 16th largest city by land area in the U.S.

Indianapolis is situated within the Tipton Till Plain, a flat to gently sloping terrain underlain by glacial deposits known as till.[78] The lowest point in the city is about 650 feet (198 m) above mean sea level, with the highest natural elevation at about 900 feet (274 m) above sea level.[78] Few hills or short ridges, known as kames, rise about 100 feet (30 m) to 130 feet (40 m) above the surrounding terrain.[78] The city lies just north of the Indiana Uplands, a region characterized by rolling hills and high limestone content. The city is also situated within the EPA’s Eastern Corn Belt Plains ecoregion, an area of the U.S. known for its fertile agricultural land.[79]

Topographic relief slopes gently toward the White River and its two primary tributaries, Fall and Eagle creeks. In total, there are about 35 streams in the city, including Indian Creek and Pogue’s Run.[80] Major bodies of water include Indian Lake, Geist Reservoir, and Eagle Creek Reservoir.

Cityscape

Panorama of the downtown Indianapolis skyline in 2016.

The Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument was dedicated in 1902.

Alexander Ralston’s “Plat of the Town of Indianapolis,” today known as the Mile Square.

The Indiana World War Memorial Plaza Historic District includes the American Legion (left) and Scottish Rite Cathedral (right).

Indianapolis is a planned city. On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital, appointing Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham to survey and design a town plan for Indianapolis. Ralston had been a surveyor for the French architect Pierre L’Enfant, assisting him with the plan for Washington, D.C. Ralston’s original plan for Indianapolis called for a town of 1 square mile (2.6 km2), near the confluence of the White River and Fall Creek.[81]

The plan, known as the Mile Square, is bounded by East, West, North, and South streets, centered on a traffic circle, called Monument Circle (originally Governor’s Circle), from which Indianapolis’s “Circle City” nickname originated.[82] Four diagonal streets radiated a block from Monument Circle: Massachusetts, Virginia, Kentucky, and Indiana avenues.[83] The city’s address numbering system begins at the intersection of Washington and Meridian streets.[84] Before its submersion into a sanitary tunnel, Pogue’s Run was included into the plan, disrupting the rectilinear street grid to the southeast.

Noted as one of the finest examples of the City Beautiful movement design in the United States, the seven-block Indiana World War Memorial Plaza Historic District began construction in 1921 in downtown Indianapolis.[85][86] The National Historic Landmark includes the Neoclassical American Legion and Central Library buildings, Depew Memorial Fountain, several sculptures and memorials, and open space, hosting many annual civic events.[86]

After completion of the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument, an ordinance was passed in 1905 restricting building heights on the traffic circle to 86 ft (26 m) to protect views of the 284 ft (87 m) monument.[87] The ordinance was revised in 1922, permitting buildings to rise to 108 ft (33 m), with an additional 42 ft (13 m) allowable with a series of setbacks.[87] A citywide height restriction ordinance was instituted in 1912, barring structures over 200 ft (61 m).[88] Completed in 1962, the City-County Building was the first skyscraper in the city, surpassing the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument in height by nearly 100 ft (30 m).[89] A building boom, lasting from 1982 to 1990, saw the construction of six of the city’s ten tallest buildings.[90][91] The tallest is Salesforce Tower, completed in 1990 at 811 ft (247 m).[92]Indiana limestone is the signature building material in Indianapolis, widely included in the city’s many monuments, churches, academic, government, and civic buildings.[90]

Compared with similar-sized American cities, Indianapolis is unique in that it contains some 200 farms covering thousands of acres of agricultural land within its municipal boundaries.[93] Horse farms and corn and soybean fields interspersed with suburban development are commonplace on the city’s periphery, especially in Franklin Township. The stark contrast between Indianapolis’s urban neighborhoods and rural villages is a result of the 1970 city-county consolidation, which expanded the city’s incorporated boundary to be coterminous with Marion County.[94]

Neighborhoods

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Single-family homes in Irvington Terrace (top) and contemporary high-rise apartments Downtown (bottom).

The city is divided into 99 community areas for statistical purposes, though many smaller neighborhoods exist within these areas.[95]
Indianapolis’s neighborhoods are often difficult to define because the city lacks historical ethnic divisions, as in Chicago, or physical boundaries, seen in Pittsburgh and Cincinnati.[96] Instead, most neighborhoods are subtle in their distinctions.[96] The Indianapolis Historic Preservation Commission recognizes several neighborhoods as historic districts, including: Central Court, Chatham Arch, Golden Hill, Herron-Morton Place, Lockerbie Square, Old Northside, Old Southside and Oliver Johnson’s Woods. Expansion of the interurban system at the turn of the 20th century facilitated growth of several streetcar suburbs, including Broad Ripple, Irvington, University Heights, and Woodruff Place.[96]

The post–World War II economic expansion and subsequent suburbanization had a profound impact on the physical development of the city’s neighborhoods. From 1950 to 1970, 97,000 housing units were built in Marion County.[96] Most of this new construction occurred outside Center Township, expediting out-migration from the city’s urban neighborhoods to suburban areas, such as Castleton, Eagledale, and Nora. Between 1950 and 1990, over 155,000 residents left Center Township, resulting in urban blight and disinvestment.[96] Since the 2000s, Downtown Indianapolis and surrounding neighborhoods have seen increased reinvestment attributed to nationwide demographic trends, driven by empty nesters and millennials.[97] By 2020, Downtown is projected to have 30,000 residential units, compared to 18,300 in 2010.[98]

Renewed interest in urban living has been met with some dispute regarding gentrification and affordable housing.[99][100][101] According to a Center for Community Progress report, neighborhoods like Cottage Home and Fall Creek Place have experienced measurable gentrification since 2000.[102] The North Meridian Street Historic District is among the most affluent urban neighborhoods in the U.S., with a mean household income of $102,599 in 2017.[103]

Climate

Fall foliage (left) and a late-winter snow (right) on the Butler University campus.

Indianapolis has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa), but can be considered a borderline humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa) using the −3 °C (27 °F) isotherm. It experiences four distinct seasons.[104] The city is in USDA hardiness zone 6a.[105]

Typically, summers are hot, humid and wet. Winters are generally cold with moderate snowfall. The July daily average temperature is 75.4 °F (24.1 °C). High temperatures reach or exceed 90 °F (32 °C) an average of 18 days each year,[106] and occasionally exceed 95 °F (35 °C). Spring and autumn are usually pleasant, if at times unpredictable; midday temperature drops exceeding 30 °F or 17 °C are common during March and April, and instances of very warm days (80 °F or 27 °C) followed within 36 hours by snowfall are not unusual during these months. Winters are cold, with an average January temperature of 28.1 °F (−2.2 °C). Temperatures dip to 0 °F (−18 °C) or below an average of 4.7 nights per year.[106]

The rainiest months occur in the spring and summer, with slightly higher averages during May, June, and July. May is typically the wettest, with an average of 5.05 inches (12.8 cm) of precipitation.[106] Most rain is derived from thunderstorm activity; there is no distinct dry season, although occasional droughts occur. Severe weather is not uncommon, particularly in the spring and summer months; the city experiences an average of 20 thunderstorm days annually.[107]

The city’s average annual precipitation is 42.4 inches (108 cm), with snowfall averaging 25.9 inches (66 cm) per season. Official temperature extremes range from 106 °F (41 °C), set on July 14, 1936,[108] to −27 °F (−33 °C), set on January 19, 1994.[108][109]

  • See also: Climate of Indiana

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1840 2,695
1850 8,091 200.2%
1860 18,611 130.0%
1870 48,244 159.2%
1880 75,056 55.6%
1890 105,436 40.5%
1900 169,164 60.4%
1910 233,650 38.1%
1920 314,194 34.5%
1930 364,161 15.9%
1940 386,972 6.3%
1950 427,173 10.4%
1960 476,258 11.5%
1970 744,624 56.3%
1980 700,807 −5.9%
1990 731,327 4.4%
2000 781,926 6.9%
2010 820,445 4.9%
Est. 2017 863,002 [112] 5.2%
[5][113][114]
Racial composition 2016[115] 2010[116] 1990[117] 1970[117]
White 61.6% 61.8% 75.8% 81.6%
—Non-Hispanic 56.5% 58.6% 75.2% 80.9%[118]
Black or African American 28.0% 27.5% 22.6% 18.0%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 9.9% 9.4% 1.1% 0.8%[118]
Asian 2.8% 2.1% 0.9% 0.1%

Map of racial distribution in Indianapolis, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

The U.S. Census Bureau considers Indianapolis as two entities: the consolidated city and the city’s remainder, or balance. The consolidated city covers an area known as Unigov, coterminous with Marion County, except the independent municipalities of Beech Grove, Lawrence, Southport, and Speedway. The city’s balance excludes the populations of ten semi-autonomous municipalities that are included in totals for the consolidated city.[77] These are Clermont, Crows Nest, Homecroft, Meridian Hills, North Crows Nest, Rocky Ripple, Spring Hill, Warren Park, Williams Creek, and Wynnedale.[3] An eleventh town, Cumberland, is partially included.[119][120]

As of 2016[update], the city’s estimated consolidated population is 867,576 and its balance is 855,164.[121] As of 2010[update], the city’s population density was 2,270 people per square mile (880/km2).[5][citation needed] Indianapolis is the most populous city in Indiana, containing nearly 13% of the state’s total population.[77]

The Indianapolis metropolitan area, officially the Indianapolis–Carmel–Anderson metropolitan statistical area (MSA), consists of Marion County and the surrounding counties of Boone, Brown, Hamilton, Hancock, Hendricks, Johnson, Madison, Morgan, Putnam, and Shelby. As of 2017[update], the metropolitan area’s population was 2,028,614, the most populous in Indiana and home to 30% of the state’s residents.[122] With a population of 2,411,086, the larger Indianapolis–Carmel–Muncie combined statistical area (CSA) covers 18 counties, home to 36% of Indiana residents.[123] Indianapolis is also situated within the Great Lakes Megalopolis, the largest of 11 megaregions in the U.S.

According to the U.S. Census of 2010, 97.2% of the Indianapolis population was reported as one race: 61.8% White, 27.5% Black or African American, 2.1% Asian (0.4% Burmese, 0.4% Indian, 0.3% Chinese, 0.3% Filipino, 0.1% Korean, 0.1% Vietnamese, 0.1% Japanese, 0.1% Thai, 0.1% other Asian); 0.3% American Indian, and 5.5% as other. The remaining 2.8% of the population was reported as multiracial (two or more races).[124] The city’s Hispanic or Latino community comprised 9.4% of the city’s population in the 2010 U.S. Census: 6.9% Mexican, 0.4% Puerto Rican, 0.1% Cuban, and 2% as other.[124]

As of 2010[update], the median age for Indianapolis was 33.7 years. Age distribution for the city’s inhabitants was 25% under the age of 18; 4.4% were between 18 and 21; 16.3% were age 21 to 65; and 13.1% were age 65 or older.[124] For every 100 females, there were 93 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90 males.[125]

The U.S. Census for 2010 reported 332,199 households in Indianapolis, with an average household size of 2.42 and an average family size of 3.08.[124] Of the total households, 59.3% were family households, with 28.2% of these including the family’s own children under the age of 18; 36.5% were husband-wife families; 17.2% had a female householder (with no husband present) and 5.6% had a male householder (with no wife present). The remaining 40.7% were non-family households.[124] As of 2010[update], 32% of the non-family households included individuals living alone, 8.3% of these households included individuals age 65 years of age or older.[124]

The U.S. Census Bureau’s 2007–2011 American Community Survey indicated the median household income for Indianapolis city was $42,704, and the median family income was $53,161.[126] Median income for males working full-time, year-round, was $42,101, compared to $34,788 for females. Per capita income for the city was $24,430, 14.7% of families and 18.9% of the city’s total population living below the poverty line (28.3% were under the age of 18 and 9.2% were age 65 or older).[126]

As of 2015[update], the Indianapolis metropolitan area had the 18th highest percentage of LGBT residents in the U.S., with 4.2% of residents identifying as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender.[127]

Religion

Interior of Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral, head church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Indianapolis.

Of the 42.42% of the city’s residents who identify as religious, Roman Catholics make up the largest group, at 11.31%.[128] The second highest religious group in the city are Baptists at 10.31%, with Methodists following behind at 4.97%. Presbyterians make up 2.13% of the city’s religiously affiliated population, followed by Pentecostals and Lutherans. Another 8.57% are affiliated with other Christian faiths.[128] 0.32% of religiously affiliated persons identified themselves as following Eastern religions, while 0.68% of the religiously affiliated population identified as Jewish, and 0.29% as Muslim.[128] According to the nonpartisan and nonprofit Public Religion Research Institute’s American Values Atlas, 22% of residents identify as religiously “unaffiliated,” consistent with the national average of 22.7%.[129]

Indianapolis is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Indianapolis. Joseph W. Tobin, C.Ss.R., served as archbishop from 2012 to 2017 and was elevated to cardinal in November 2016. On June 13, 2017, Pope Francis announced Charles C. Thompson would replace Tobin, who was reassigned to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark in January 2017.[130] Thompson is currently the youngest American archbishop.[131] The archdiocese also operates Bishop Simon Bruté College Seminary, affiliated with Marian University, while the Christian Theological Seminary is affiliated with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ).

Indianapolis is the seat of the Episcopal Diocese of Indianapolis, based from Christ Church Cathedral. The Indiana-Kentucky Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Indiana Conference of the United Methodist Church are also based in the city.

Economy

Downtown Indianapolis is the largest employment cluster in Indiana, with nearly 43,000 jobs per square mile (17,000/km2).[132]

Based in Indianapolis, Eli Lilly and Company is the city’s largest employer.

FedEx Express cargo plane at Indianapolis International Airport.

In 2015, the Indianapolis metropolitan area had a gross domestic product (GDP) of $134 billion. The top five industries were: finance, insurance, real estate, rental, and leasing ($30.7B), manufacturing ($30.1B), professional and business services ($14.3B), educational services, health care, and social assistance ($10.8B), and wholesale trade ($8.1B). Government, if it had been a private industry, would have ranked fifth, generating $10.2 billion.[18]

Compared to Indiana as a whole, the Indianapolis metropolitan area has a lower proportion of manufacturing jobs and a higher concentration of jobs in wholesale trade; administrative, support, and waste management; professional, scientific, and technical services; and transportation and warehousing.[133] The city’s major exports include pharmaceuticals, motor vehicle parts, medical equipment and supplies, engine and power equipment, and aircraft products and parts.[16] According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the region’s unemployment rate was 3.4 percent in June 2018.[134]

As of 2018[update], three Fortune 500 companies were based in the city: health insurance company Anthem Inc. (29); pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly (129); and Simon Property Group (493), the largest real estate investment trust in the U.S.[135]Columbus, Indiana-based Cummins (149) opened its Global Distribution Headquarters in downtown Indianapolis in 2017.[136] Three Fortune 1000 companies are located in the city: hydrocarbon manufacturer Calumet Specialty Products Partners (604); automotive transmission manufacturer Allison Transmission (890); and retailer Finish Line (972).[135] Other notable companies based in the Indianapolis metropolitan area include: real estate investment trust Duke Realty;[137] media conglomerate Emmis Communications;[138] financial services holding company OneAmerica;[139] airline holding company Republic Airways;[140]truckload carrier Celadon Group;[141] and restaurant chains Noble Roman’s, Scotty’s Brewhouse, and Steak ‘n Shake.

Like many Midwestern cities, recent deindustrialization trends have had a significant impact on the local economy. Once home to 60 automakers, Indianapolis rivaled Detroit as a center of automobile manufacturing in the early 20th century.[56] Between 1990 and 2012, approximately 26,900 manufacturing jobs were lost in the city, including the automotive plant closures of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors.[142] In 2016, Carrier Corporation announced the closure of its Indianapolis plant, moving 1,400 manufacturing jobs to Mexico.[143] Since 1915, Rolls-Royce Holdings has had operations in Indianapolis.[144] It is the third largest manufacturing employer and thirteenth largest employer overall in the city, with a workforce of 4,300 in aircraft engine development and manufacturing.[145]

Biotechnology, life sciences and health care are major sectors of Indianapolis’s economy. As of 2016[update], Eli Lilly and Company was the largest private employer in the city, with more than 11,000 workers.[146] The North American headquarters for Roche Diagnostics and Dow AgroSciences are also located in the city.[147] A 2014 report by the Battelle Memorial Institute and Biotechnology Industry Organization indicated that the Indianapolis–Carmel–Anderson MSA was the only U.S. metropolitan area to have specialized employment concentrations in all five bioscience sectors evaluated in the study: agricultural feedstock and chemicals; bioscience-related distribution; drugs and pharmaceuticals; medical devices and equipment; and research, testing, and medical laboratories.[148] The regional health care providers of Community Health Network, Eskenazi Health, Franciscan Health, Indiana University Health, and St. Vincent Health have a combined workforce of 43,700.[149]

The city’s central location and extensive highway and rail infrastructure have positioned Indianapolis as an important logistics center, home to 1,500 distribution firms employing some 100,000 workers.[150][151][152] As home to the second largest FedEx Express hub in the world, Indianapolis International Airport ranks as the sixth busiest U.S. airport in terms of air cargo transport, handling over 1 million tons and employing 6,600 in 2015.[153][154] Indianapolis is a hub for CSX Transportation, home to its division headquarters, an intermodal terminal, and classification yard (in the suburb of Avon).[155]Amtrak’s Beech Grove Shops, in the enclave of Beech Grove, serve as its primary heavy maintenance and overhaul facility, while the Indianapolis Distribution Center is the company’s largest material and supply terminal.[156][157]

The hospitality industry is an increasingly vital sector to the Indianapolis economy. According to Visit Indy, 28.6 million visitors generated $5.2 billion in 2016, the sixth straight year of record growth.[158] Indianapolis has long been a sports tourism destination, but has more recently relied on conventions.[159] The Indiana Convention Center (ICC) and Lucas Oil Stadium are considered mega convention center facilities, with a combined 750,000 square feet (70,000 m2) of exhibition space.[160] ICC is connected to 12 hotels and 4,700 hotel rooms, the most of any U.S. convention center.[161] In 2008, the facility hosted 42 national conventions with an attendance of 317,815; in 2014, it hosted 106 for an attendance of 635,701.[159] Since 2003, Indianapolis has hosted Gen Con, one of the largest gaming conventions in North America.[162]

According to real estate tracking firm CBRE Group, Indianapolis ranks among the fastest high-tech job growth areas in the U.S.[163][164] The metropolitan area is home to 28,500 information technology-related jobs at such companies as Angie’s List, Appirio, Formstack, Genesys, Infosys,[165]Ingram Micro, and Salesforce Marketing Cloud.[166][167]

Major shopping malls in the city include Castleton Square, Circle Centre, The Fashion Mall at Keystone, Glendale Town Center, Lafayette Square, and Washington Square.

Culture and contemporary life

Part of the “Month of May” celebrations, the 500 Festival Parade is one of the nation’s largest, regularly drawing 300,000 spectators.[168]

In 1999, Indianapolis designated six cultural districts to capitalize on cultural institutions within historically significant neighborhoods unique to the city’s heritage. These include Broad Ripple Village, Canal and White River State Park, Fountain Square, Indiana Avenue, Mass Ave, and Wholesale.[169] A seventh cultural district, Market East, was designated in 2014.[170] After 12 years of planning and six years of construction, the Indianapolis Cultural Trail: A Legacy of Gene and Marilyn Glick officially opened in 2013.[171] The $62.5 million public-private partnership, spurred by an initial donation of $15 million by builder/philanthropist Gene B. Glick and his wife, resulted in 8 miles (13 km) of urban bike and pedestrian corridors linking six cultural districts with neighborhoods, IUPUI, and every significant arts, cultural, heritage, sports and entertainment venue downtown.[172][173][174][175][176]

Indianapolis is home to dozens of annual festivals and events showcasing local culture. Notable events include the “Month of May” (a series of celebrations leading to the Indianapolis 500), Indiana Black Expo, Indiana State Fair, Indy Pride Festival, and Historic Irvington Halloween Festival.

Visual arts

Robert Indiana’s iconic LOVE at the Indianapolis Museum of Art.

Founded in 1883, the Indianapolis Museum of Art (IMA) is the ninth oldest[177][note 1] and eighth largest encyclopedic art museum in the U.S.[179][note 2] The permanent collection comprises over 54,000 works, including African, American, Asian and European pieces.[180] In addition to its collections, the museum consists of The Virginia B. Fairbanks Art & Nature Park: 100 Acres; Oldfields, a restored house museum and estate once owned by Josiah K. Lilly, Jr.; and restored gardens and grounds originally designed by Percival Gallagher of the Olmsted Brothers firm.[181] The IMA also owns the Miller House, a Mid-century modern home designed by Eero Saarinen located in Columbus, Indiana.[182] The museum’s holdings demonstrate the institution’s emphasis on the connections among art, design and the natural environment.[178]

October Suite: Grand Canyon by Wilson Hurley at the Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art.

The Indianapolis Art Center, located in Broad Ripple Village, was founded in 1934 by the Works Project Administration. The center opened at its Michael Graves-designed building in 1996, including three public art galleries, 11 studios, a library, auditorium and ArtsPark along the White River.[183] The Indianapolis Museum of Contemporary Art was established in 2001, and is located in The Murphy Art Center in Fountain Square. In 2014, the museum opened a second public gallery in The Alexander Hotel at CityWay in downtown Indianapolis.[184]

Eiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art opened in 1989 at White River State Park as the only Native American art museum in the Midwest.[185]Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) contains the Herron School of Art and Design. Established in 1902, the school’s first core faculty included Impressionist painters of the Hoosier Group: T. C. Steele, J. Ottis Adams, William Forsyth, Richard Gruelle, and Otto Stark. The university’s public art collection is extensive, with more than 30 works.

Performing arts

Opened in 1909, Old National Centre is the oldest performing arts venue in the city.

Indianapolis’s most notable performing arts venues are located in the Mass Ave cultural district or Downtown. The Indiana Theatre opened as a movie palace on Washington Street in 1927 and currently houses the Indiana Repertory Theatre, a regional repertory theatre. Located on Monument Circle since 1916, the 1,786-seat Hilbert Circle Theatre is the current home of the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra (ISO). Founded in 1930, the ISO performed 180 concerts to over 275,000 guests during the 2015–2016 season, generating a record $8.5 million in ticket sales.[186] The Indianapolis Opera, founded in 1975, maintains a collaborative relationship with the ISO.

Madame Walker Theatre Center opened on Indiana Avenue in 1927 as a cultural center for the city’s African American community.[187]

In 1927, Madame Walker Theatre Center opened in the heart of the city’s African-American neighborhood on Indiana Avenue.[188] The theater is named for Madame C.J. Walker, an African American entrepreneur, philanthropist, and activist who began her beauty empire in Indianapolis. Indiana Avenue was home to a notable jazz scene from the 1920s through the 1960s, producing greats such as David Baker, Slide Hampton, Freddie Hubbard, J. J. Johnson, James Spaulding, and the Montgomery Brothers (Buddy, Monk, and Wes).[189] Wes Montgomery is considered one of the most influential jazz guitarists of all time,[189][190] and is credited with popularizing the “Naptown Sound.”[191]

Mass Ave is home to the Old National Centre, Phoenix Theatre, and the Athenæum (Das Deutsche Haus). Old National Centre at the Murat Shrine is the oldest stage house in Indianapolis, opened in 1909.[192] The building is a prime example of Moorish Revival architecture and features a 2,600-seat performing arts theatre, 1,800-seat concert hall, and 600-seat multi-functional room, hosting approximately 300 public and private events throughout the year.[192] The nonprofit Phoenix Theatre focuses on contemporary theatrical productions.[193] The Athenӕum, houses the American Cabaret Theater and Young Actors Theater.

Other notable venues include the Indianapolis Artsgarden, a performing arts center suspended over the intersection of Washington and Illinois streets, Clowes Memorial Hall on the Butler University campus, Melody Inn in Butler-Tarkington, Rivoli Theater, and The Emerson Theater in Little Flower.

Indianapolis is home to Bands of America (BOA), a nationwide organization of high school marching, concert, and jazz bands, and the headquarters for Drum Corps International (DCI), a professional drum and bugle corps association.[194] Annual music events include the International Violin Competition of Indianapolis, Midwest Music Summit, and Indy Jazz Fest. The Heartland Film Festival, Indianapolis International Film Festival, Indianapolis Jewish Film Festival, Indianapolis Theatre Fringe Festival and the Indianapolis Alternative Media Festival are annual events held in the city.

Literature

A mural memorializing Kurt Vonnegut stands on Mass Ave. The project was completed by local artist Pamela Bliss in 2011.

Indianapolis was at the center of the Golden Age of Indiana Literature from 1870 to 1920.[195] Several notable poets and writers based in the city achieved national prominence and critical acclaim during this period, including James Whitcomb Riley, Booth Tarkington and Meredith Nicholson.[17] In A History of Indiana Literature, Arthur W. Shumaker remarked on the era’s influence: “It was the age of famous men and their famous books. In it Indiana, and particularly Indianapolis, became a literary center which in many ways rivaled the East.”[196] A 1947 study found that Indiana authors ranked second to New York in the number of bestsellers produced in the previous 40 years.[195] Located in Lockerbie Square, the James Whitcomb Riley Museum Home has been a National Historic Landmark since 1962.

Perhaps the city’s most famous 20th century writer was Kurt Vonnegut, known for his darkly satirical and controversial bestselling novel Slaughterhouse-Five (1969). The Kurt Vonnegut Memorial Library opened in 2010 downtown.[197] Vonnegut became known for including at least one character in his novels from Indianapolis.[198] Upon returning to the city in 1986, Vonnegut acknowledged the influence the city had on his writings:

Indianapolis is the current home to bestselling young adult fiction writer John Green, known for his critically acclaimed 2012 novel The Fault in Our Stars, set in the city.[199]

Attractions

Azy, a male orangutan at the Indianapolis Zoo.

“Bucky,” a juvenile Tyrannosaurus specimen at The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis.

The Benjamin Harrison Presidential Site is a National Historic Landmark.

The Children’s Museum of Indianapolis is the largest of its kind in the world, offering 433,000 square feet (40,227.02 m2) of exhibit space.[200] The museum holds a collection of over 120,000 artifacts, including the Broad Ripple Park Carousel, a National Historic Landmark.[201] Because of its leadership and innovations, the museum is a world leader in its field.[202]Child and Parents magazine have both ranked the museum as the best children’s museum in the U.S.[203] The museum is one of the city’s most popular attractions, with 1.2 million visitors in 2014.[204]

The Indianapolis Zoo is home to nearly 1,400 animals of 214 species and 31,000 plants, including many threatened and endangered species.[205][206] The zoo is a leader in animal conservation and research, recognized for its biennial Indianapolis Prize designation. It is the only American zoo accredited as a zoo, aquarium, and zoological garden by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums.[207] It is the largest privately funded zoo in the U.S. and one of the city’s most visited attractions, with 1.2 million guests in 2014.[24][204]

The Indianapolis Motor Speedway Museum exhibits an extensive collection of auto racing memorabilia showcasing various motorsports and automotive history.[208][209] The museum is the permanent home of the Borg-Warner Trophy, presented to Indianapolis 500 winners.[21] Daily grounds and track tours are also based at the museum.[209] The NCAA Hall of Champions opened in 2000 at White River State Park housing collegiate athletic artifacts and interactive exhibits covering all 23 NCAA-sanctioned sports.[210][211]

Indianapolis is home to several centers commemorating Indiana history. These include the Indiana Historical Society, Indiana State Library and Historical Bureau, Indiana State Museum, and Indiana Medical History Museum. Indiana Landmarks, the largest private statewide historic preservation organization in the U.S., is also located in the city.[212] The Benjamin Harrison Presidential Site, located in the Old Northside Historic District, is open for daily tours and includes archives and memorabilia from the 23rd President of the United States. President Harrison is buried about 3 miles (4.8 km) north of the site at Crown Hill Cemetery, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Other notable graves include three U.S. Vice Presidents and notorious American gangster, John Dillinger.

Two museums and several memorials in the city commemorate armed forces or conflict, including the Colonel Eli Lilly Civil War Museum at the Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument and Indiana World War Memorial Military Museum at the Indiana World War Memorial Plaza. Outside of Washington, D.C., Indianapolis contains the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the nation.[26][27] Other notable sites are the Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument, Crown Hill National Cemetery, the Medal of Honor Memorial, Project 9/11 Indianapolis, and the USS Indianapolis National Memorial.

Cuisine

Indianapolis City Market was founded in 1821.

Indianapolis has an emerging food scene as well as established eateries.[213] Founded in 1821 as the city’s public market, the Indianapolis City Market has served the community from its current building since 1886. Prior to World War II, the City Market and neighboring Tomlinson Hall (since demolished) were home to meat and vegetable vendors. As consumer habits evolved and residents moved from the central city, the City Market transitioned from a traditional marketplace to a food court, a function it retains today.[214]

Opened in 1902, St. Elmo Steak House is well known for its signature shrimp cocktail, named by the Travel Channel as the “world’s spiciest food”. In 2012, it was recognized by the James Beard Foundation as one of “America’s Classics”.[215] The Slippery Noodle Inn, a blues bar and restaurant, is the oldest continuously operating tavern in Indiana, having opened in 1850.[216] The Jazz Kitchen, opened in 1994, was recognized in 2011 by OpenTable as one the “top 50 late night dining hotspots” in the U.S.[217]

Distinctive local dishes include pork tenderloin sandwiches[218] and sugar cream pie, the latter being the unofficial state pie of Indiana.[219] The beef Manhattan, invented in Indianapolis, can also be found on restaurant menus throughout the city and region.[220]

In 2016, Condé Nast Traveler named Indianapolis the “most underrated food city in the U.S.,” while ranking Milktooth as one of the best restaurants in the world.[221][222]Food & Wine called Indianapolis the “rising star of the Midwest,” recognizing Milktooth, Rook, Amelia’s, and Bluebeard, all in Fletcher Place.[223][224] Several Indianapolis chefs and restaurateurs have been semifinalists in the James Beard Foundation Awards in recent years.[225]Microbreweries are quickly becoming a staple in the city, increasing fivefold since 2009.[226] There are now about 50 craft brewers in Indianapolis, with Sun King Brewing being the largest.[227]

For some time, Indianapolis was known as the “100 Percent American City” for its racial and ethnic homogeneity.[228] Historically, these factors, as well as low taxes and wages, provided chain restaurants a relatively stable market to test dining preferences before expanding nationwide. As a result, the Indianapolis metropolitan area had the highest concentration of chain restaurants per capita of any market in the U.S. in 2008, with one chain restaurant for every 1,459 people—44% higher than the national average.[229] In recent years, immigrants have opened some 800 ethnic restaurants.[228]

Sports

Lucas Oil Stadium during Super Bowl XLVI. The stadium is home to the Indianapolis Colts and Indy Eleven.

Bankers Life Fieldhouse, home to the Indiana Pacers and Indiana Fever since 1999.

Victory Field, home to the Indianapolis Indians since 1996.

Two major league sports teams are based in Indianapolis: the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League (NFL) and the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association (NBA).

Originally the Baltimore Colts, the franchise has been based in Indianapolis since relocating in 1984. The Colts’ tenure in Indianapolis has produced 11 division championships, two conference championships, and two Super Bowl appearances. Quarterback Peyton Manning led the team to win Super Bowl XLI in the 2006 NFL season. Lucas Oil Stadium replaced the team’s first home, the RCA Dome, in 2008.

Founded in 1967, the Indiana Pacers began in the American Basketball Association (ABA), joining the NBA when the leagues merged in 1976. Prior to joining the NBA, the Pacers won three division titles and three championships (1970, 1972, 1973). Since the merger, the Pacers have won one conference title and six division titles, most recently in 2014.

Founded in 2000, the Indiana Fever of the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA) have won three conference titles and one championship in 2012. The Fever and Pacers share Bankers Life Fieldhouse, which replaced Market Square Arena in 1999. The Indianapolis Indians of the International League (AAA) is the second oldest minor league franchise in American professional baseball, established in 1902.[230] The Indians have won 25 division titles, 14 league titles, and seven championships, most recently in 2000. Since 1996, the team has played at Victory Field, which replaced Bush Stadium. Of the 160 teams comprising Minor League Baseball, the Indians had the highest attendance during the 2016 season.[231] Established in 2013, Indy Eleven of the United Soccer League (USL) plays from Lucas Oil Stadium. Indy Fuel of the ECHL was founded in 2014 and plays from Indiana Farmers Coliseum.

A Butler Bulldogs men’s basketball game at Hinkle Fieldhouse.

Butler University and Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) are NCAA Division I schools based in the city. The Butler Bulldogs compete in the Big East Conference, except for Butler Bulldogs football, which plays in the Pioneer Football League FCS. The Butler Bulldogs men’s basketball team were runners-up in the 2010 and 2011 NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Championship Games. The IUPUI Jaguars compete in the Summit League.

Traditionally, Indianapolis’s Hinkle Fieldhouse was the hub for Hoosier Hysteria, a general excitement around the game of basketball throughout the state, specifically the Indiana High School Boys Basketball Tournament.[232] Hinkle, a National Historic Landmark, was opened in 1928 as the world’s largest basketball arena, with seating for 15,000.[233] It is regarded as “Indiana’s Basketball Cathedral”. Perhaps the most notable game was the 1954 state championship, which inspired the critically acclaimed 1986 film, Hoosiers.[234]

Indianapolis has been called the “Amateur Sports Capital of the World”.[42][235] The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the main governing body for U.S. collegiate sports, and the National Federation of State High School Associations are based in Indianapolis. The city is home to three NCAA athletic conferences: the Horizon League (Division I); the Great Lakes Valley Conference (Division II); and the Heartland Collegiate Athletic Conference (Division III). Indianapolis is also home to three national sport governing bodies, as recognized by the United States Olympic Committee: USA Gymnastics; USA Diving; and USA Track & Field.[236]

Indianapolis hosts numerous sporting events annually, including the Circle City Classic (1983–present), NFL Scouting Combine (1987–present), and Big Ten Football Championship Game (2011–present). Indianapolis is tied with New York City for having hosted the second most NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Championships (1980, 1991, 1997, 2000, 2006, 2010, and 2015).[237] The city will host the men’s Final Four next in 2021.[238] The city has also hosted three NCAA Women’s Division I Basketball Championships (2005, 2011, and 2016). Notable past events include the NBA All-Star Game (1985), Pan American Games X (1987), US Open Series Indianapolis Tennis Championships (1988–2009), WrestleMania VIII (1992), World Rowing Championships (1994), World Police and Fire Games (2001), FIBA Basketball World Cup (2002), and Super Bowl XLVI (2012).

Indianapolis is home to the OneAmerica 500 Festival Mini-Marathon, the largest half marathon and seventh largest running event in the U.S.[239] The mini-marathon is held the first weekend of May as part of the 500 Festival, leading up to the Indianapolis 500. As of 2013[update], it had sold out for 12 consecutive years, with 35,000 participants.[240] Held in autumn, the Monumental Marathon is also among the largest in the U.S., with nearly 14,000 entrants in 2015.[241]

Motorsports

File:2008 Indy 500 video.ogvPlay media

The 2008 Indianapolis 500, the 92nd running of the race.

Indianapolis is a major center for motorsports. Two auto racing sanctioning bodies are headquartered in the city (INDYCAR and United States Auto Club) along with more than 500 motorsports companies and racing teams, employing some 10,000 people in the region.[242] Indianapolis is so well connected with auto racing that it has inspired the name “IndyCar,” used for both the competition and type of car used in it.[243]

Since 1911, Indianapolis Motor Speedway (IMS) (in the enclave of Speedway, Indiana) has been the site of the Indianapolis 500, an open-wheel automobile race held annually on Memorial Day weekend. Considered part of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, the Indianapolis 500 is the world’s largest single-day sporting event, hosting more than 257,000 permanent seats.[21] Since 1994, IMS has hosted one of NASCAR’s highest attended events, the Monster Energy Cup Series Brickyard 400.[244] IMS has also hosted the Verizon IndyCar Series Grand Prix of Indianapolis since 2014.

Lucas Oil Raceway, in nearby Hendricks County, is home to the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) U.S. Nationals, the most prestigious drag racing event in the world, held annually each Labor Day weekend.[245]

Parks and recreation

A white-tailed deer in Eagle Creek Park, one of the largest municipal parks in the U.S.

Indy Parks and Recreation maintains nearly 200 parks covering 11,246 acres (4,551 ha).[246]Eagle Creek Park is the largest and most visited park in the city and ranks among the largest municipal parks in the U.S., covering 4,766 acres (1,929 ha).[247] Fishing, sailing, kayaking, canoeing, and swimming are popular activities at Eagle Creek Reservoir. Notable recreational shared use paths include the Downtown Canal Walk, Pleasant Run Trail, and Monon Trail. The Monon is a popular rail trail and part of the United States Bicycle Route System, drawing some 1.3 million people annually.[248][249] There are 13 public golf courses in the city.[250]

The Monon Trail traverses Indianapolis’s north side neighborhoods.

Military Park was established as the city’s first public park in 1852.[251] By the 20th century, the city enlisted landscape architect George Kessler to conceive a framework for Indianapolis’s modern parks system.[252] Kessler’s 1909 Indianapolis Park and Boulevard Plan linked notable parks, such as Brookside, Ellenberger, and Garfield, with a system of parkways following the city’s waterways.[253] In 2003, the system’s 3,474 acres (1,406 ha) were added to the National Register of Historic Places.[254]

Marion County is home to two of Indiana’s 25 state parks: Fort Harrison in Lawrence and White River downtown. Fort Harrison is managed by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources. White River is owned and operated by the White River State Park Development Commission, a quasi-governmental agency.[255] Encompassing 250 acres (100 ha), White River is the city’s major urban park, home to the Indianapolis Zoo and White River Gardens.[205] Indianapolis lies about 50 miles (80 km) north of two state forests, Morgan–Monroe and Yellowwood, and one national forest, Hoosier. Crown Hill Cemetery, the third largest private cemetery in the U.S., covers 555 acres (225 ha) on the city’s north side and is home to more than 250 species of trees and shrubs comprising one of the largest old-growth forests in the Midwest.[256][257]

According to the Trust for Public Land’s 2017 ParkScore Index, Indianapolis tied for last with respect to public park accessibility of the 100 largest U.S. cities evaluated. Currently, some 68% of residents are underserved. The city’s large land area and low public funding contributed to the ranking.[258]

Government and politics

The City-County Building houses the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of municipal government.

Indianapolis has a consolidated city-county government, a status it has held since 1970 under Indiana Code’s Unigov provision. Many functions of the city and county governments are consolidated, though some remain separate.[3] The city has a mayor-council form of government.

The executive branch is headed by an elected mayor, who serves as the chief executive of both the city and Marion County. Joe Hogsett, a Democrat, is the 49th and current mayor of Indianapolis. The mayor appoints deputy mayors, department heads, and members of various boards and commissions. City-County Council is the legislative body and consists of 25 members, all of whom represent geographic districts. The council has the exclusive power to adopt budgets, levy taxes, and make appropriations. It can also enact, repeal, or amend ordinances, and make appointments to certain boards and commissions. According to Moody’s, the city maintains a Aaa bond credit rating, with an annual budget of $1.1 billion.[259][260]

The judicial branch consists of a circuit court, a superior court with four divisions and 32 judges, and a small claims court.[3] The three branches, along with most local government departments, are based in the City-County Building.

The Indiana Statehouse houses the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of state government.

As the state capital, Indianapolis is the seat of Indiana’s state government. The city has hosted the capital since its move from Corydon in 1825. The Indiana Statehouse, located downtown, houses the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of state government, including the offices of the Governor of Indiana and Lieutenant Governor of Indiana, the Indiana General Assembly, and the Indiana Supreme Court. Most state departments and agencies are located in Indiana Government Centers North and South. The Indiana Governor’s Residence is located on Meridian Street in the Butler–Tarkington neighborhood, about 5 miles (8.0 km) north of downtown.

Most of Indianapolis is within Indiana’s 7th congressional district, represented by André Carson (D–Indianapolis), while the northern fifth is part of Indiana’s 5th congressional district, represented by Susan Brooks (R–Carmel).[261] Federal field offices are located in the Birch Bayh Federal Building and United States Courthouse (which houses the United States District Court for the Southern District of Indiana) and the Minton-Capehart Federal Building, both located downtown. The Defense Finance and Accounting Service, an agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, is headquartered in nearby Lawrence.

Public safety

Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department interceptor in 2008.

Indianapolis Emergency Medical Services is the largest provider of pre-hospital medical care in the city, responding to 95,000 emergency dispatch calls annually.[262] The agency’s coverage area includes six townships within the city (Center, Franklin, Lawrence, Perry, Warren, and Washington) and the town of Speedway. As of 2018[update], Charles Miramonti, MD was the EMS chief.[263]

The Indianapolis Fire Department (IFD) provides fire protection services as the primary emergency response agency for 278 square miles (720 km2) of Marion County. IFD provides automatic and mutual aid to the excluded municipalities of Beech Grove, Lawrence, and Speedway, as well as Decatur, Pike, and Wayne townships who have retained their own fire departments. The fire district comprises seven geographic battalions with 44 fire stations, dual-staffing a forty-fifth station with the City of Lawrence Fire Department.[3] As of 2014[update], 1,205 sworn firefighters responded to nearly 100,000 incidents annually.[264] As of 2018[update], Ernest Malone was the fire chief.[265]

Indianapolis Metropolitan Police Department (IMPD) is the primary law enforcement agency for the city of Indianapolis. IMPD’s jurisdiction covers Marion County, with the exceptions of Beech Grove, Lawrence, Southport, Speedway, and the Indianapolis International Airport, which is served by the Indianapolis Airport Authority Police Department.[266] IMPD was established in 2007 through a merger between the Indianapolis Police Department and the Marion County Sheriff’s Office Law Enforcement Division.[267] The Marion County Sheriff’s Office maintains and operates Marion County Jails I and II. In 2016, IMPD operated six precincts with 1,640 sworn police personnel and 200 civilian employees.[3] As of 2018[update], Bryan Roach was the chief of police.[268]

Crime

According to the FBI’s 2015 Uniform Crime Report, Indianapolis ranks as the 16th most dangerous city in the U.S., with 17.1 homicides per 100,000 people, compared with the U.S. rate of 4.9 homicides per 100,000 people.[269][citation needed] Between 2012 and 2014, the murder rate rose by 44%. There were 138 homicides in 2014, with 60% of victims and 90% of perpetrators being young black men.[270] With 144 criminal homicides, 2015 surpassed 1998 as the year with the most murder investigations in the city. With 154 criminal homicides, 2017 marked the third consecutive year of record violence. FBI data showed a 7 percent increase in violent crimes committed in Indianapolis, outpacing the rest of the state and country.[271] Law enforcement has blamed increased violence on a combination of root causes, including poverty, substance abuse, mental illness, and availability of firearms.[272]

Politics

Marion County vote by party in
presidential elections
[273]
Year Republican Democratic Others
2016 35.5% 130,360 58.0% 212,899 6.4% 23,620
2012 37.9% 136,509 60.1% 216,336 2.0% 7,127
2008 35.3% 134,313 63.7% 241,987 1.0% 3,790
2004 48.7% 156,072 50.6% 162,249 0.8% 2,517
2000 49.2% 137,810 47.9% 134,189 2.8% 7,904
1996 47.2% 133,329 44.1% 124,448 8.7% 24,437
1992 43.7% 141,369 37.8% 122,234 18.6% 60,187
1988 58.6% 184,519 40.8% 128,627 0.6% 1,949

Until fairly recently, Indianapolis was considered one of the most conservative major cities in the U.S.[68]Republicans held the mayor’s office for 32 years (1967–1999), and controlled the City-County Council from its inception in 1970 to 2003.[68] Since the early-2000s, the city’s politics have gradually shifted more toward the Democrats. As of 2014[update], the city is regarded as politically moderate.[274]

Republican Greg Ballard chose not to run for a third term in the 2015 mayoral election.[275] Republican Chuck Brewer and Democrat Joe Hogsett were the candidates to replace him. Each had similar plans for addressing the city’s issues, and the commonality between them contributed to a very low voter turnout.[276] Hogsett previously held public office as Indiana Secretary of State and as U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of Indiana, and had served in government for over 30 years, giving him greater name recognition than Brewer, a local restaurateur.[277] Hogsett was elected with 63% of the vote, officially taking office on January 1, 2016.[277]

The 2015 City-County Council elections also left Democrats in control of the council, holding a 13–12 majority over Republicans, only the second time since the creation of Unigov that Democrats controlled both the mayor’s office and council.[278]

Recent political issues of local concern have included cutting the city’s structural deficit, planning and construction of a new criminal justice center, homelessness, streetlights, and improved mass transit and transportation infrastructure.[279][260]

Education

Colleges and universities

Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis has the city’s largest higher education enrollment.

The Indianapolis Public Library’s Central Library is the hub of its 23-branch system.

Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) was founded in 1969 after merging the branch campuses of Indiana University and Purdue University.[280] IUPUI’s current enrollment is 29,800, the third largest in the state.[280] IUPUI has two colleges and 18 schools, including the Herron School of Art and Design, Robert H. McKinney School of Law, School of Dentistry, and the Indiana University School of Medicine, the largest medical school in the U.S.[280][281] The city is home to the largest campus for Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana, a state-funded community college serving 77,600 students statewide.[282]

Five private universities are based in Indianapolis. Established in 1855, Butler University is the oldest higher education institution in the city, with a total enrollment of about 5,000.[283] Affiliated with the Roman Catholic Church, Marian University was founded in 1936 when St. Francis Normal and Immaculate Conception Junior College merged, moving to Indianapolis in 1937. Marian has an enrollment of about 3,100 students.[284] Founded in 1902, the University of Indianapolis is affiliated with the United Methodist Church. The school’s current enrollment is 5,700 students.[285]Martin University was founded in 1977 and is the state’s only predominately black university.[286]Crossroads Bible College and Indiana Bible College are small Christian colleges located in the city.

Satellite campuses located in the city include Ball State University College of Architecture and Planning, Grace College, Indiana Institute of Technology, Indiana Wesleyan University, and Vincennes University.

Schools and libraries

Nine public school districts serve residents of Indianapolis: Franklin Township Community School Corporation, MSD Decatur Township, MSD Lawrence Township, MSD Perry Township, MSD Pike Township, MSD Warren Township, MSD Washington Township, MSD Wayne Township, and Indianapolis Public Schools (IPS). As of 2016[update], IPS was the second largest public school district in Indiana, serving nearly 30,000 students.[3][287]

A number of private primary and secondary schools are operated through the Archdiocese of Indianapolis, charters, or other independent organizations. Founded in 1873, the Indianapolis Public Library includes the Central Library and 23 branches throughout Marion County. The Indianapolis Public Library served 4.2 million patrons in 2014, with a circulation of 15.9 million materials.[288]

Media

The Indianapolis Star is the city’s daily morning newspaper and leading print media.

Indianapolis is served by various print media. Founded in 1903, The Indianapolis Star is the city’s daily morning newspaper. The Star is owned by Gannett Company, with a daily circulation of 127,064.[289] The Indianapolis News was the city’s daily evening newspaper and oldest print media, published from 1869 to 1999. Notable weeklies include NUVO, an alternative weekly newspaper, the Indianapolis Recorder, a weekly newspaper serving the local African American community, the Indianapolis Business Journal, reporting on local real estate, and the Southside Times. Indianapolis Monthly is the city’s monthly lifestyle publication.

Broadcast television network affiliates include WTTV 4 (CBS), WRTV 6 (ABC), WISH-TV 8 (The CW), WTHR-TV 13 (NBC), WDNI-CD 19 (Telemundo), WFYI-TV 20 (PBS), WNDY-TV 23 (MyNetworkTV), WUDZ-LD 28 (Buzzr), WSDI-LD 30 (Quest), WHMB-TV 40 (Family), WCLJ-TV 42 (Ion Life), WBXI-CD 47 (Decades), WXIN-TV 59 (Fox), WIPX-TV 63 (Ion) and WDTI 69 (Daystar). The majority of commercial radio stations in the city are owned by Cumulus Media, Emmis Communications, iHeartMedia, and Radio One. Popular nationally syndicated radio program The Bob & Tom Show has been based at Indianapolis radio station WFBQ since 1983.[290] As of 2016[update], the Indianapolis metropolitan area was the 27th largest television market and 39th largest radio market in the U.S.[291][292]

Indianapolis natives Jane Pauley and David Letterman launched their notable broadcasting careers in local media, Pauley with WISH-TV and Letterman with WTHR-TV, respectively.[293][294] Motion pictures at least partially filmed in the city include Speedway,[295]To Please a Lady,[296]Winning,[297]Hoosiers,[298]Going All the Way,[299]Eight Men Out,[300] and Eagle Eye.[301] Television series set in Indianapolis have included One Day at a Time; Good Morning, Miss Bliss; Men Behaving Badly; Cops;[302]Close to Home;[303] the second season of anthology drama American Crime,[304] and HGTV’s Good Bones.[305]

Transportation

Indianapolis’s current transportation infrastructure comprises a complex network that includes a public bus system, two Amtrak passenger rail lines, multiple freight rail lines, an Interstate Highway System, two airports, a heliport, a private people mover, carshare and bikeshare systems, and miles of on-road bike lanes and multi-use trails.

According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 83.7% of working city of Indianapolis residents commuted by driving alone, 8.4% carpooled, 1.5% used public transportation, and 1.8% walked. About 1.5% used all other forms of transportation, including taxicab, motorcycle, and bicycle. About 3.1% of working city of Indianapolis residents worked at home.[306] In 2015, 10.5 percent of Indianapolis households lacked a car, which decreased to 8.7 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Indianapolis averaged 1.63 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.[307]

Roads and highways

Four Interstates intersect the city: Interstate 65, Interstate 69, Interstate 70, and Interstate 74. Two auxiliary Interstate Highways are located in the metropolitan area: a beltway (Interstate 465) and connector (Interstate 865). A $3 billion expansion project to extend Interstate 69 from Evansville to Indianapolis is in progress.[308] The Indiana Department of Transportation manages all Interstates, U.S. Highways, and Indiana State Roads within the city.

The city’s Department of Public Works manages about 8,100 miles of street lanes, in addition to alleys, bridges, sidewalks, and curbs.[309]

Mass transit

The Indianapolis Public Transportation Corporation, branded as IndyGo, operates the city’s public bus system. In 2016, the Julia M. Carson Transit Center opened, the downtown hub for 27 of its 31 bus routes.[310] In 2017, City-County Council approved a voter referendum increasing Marion County’s income tax to help fund IndyGo’s first major system expansion since its founding in 1975. The Marion County Transit Plan outlines proposed system improvements, including three bus rapid transit (BRT) lines, new buses, sidewalks, and bus shelters, extended hours and weekend schedules, and a 70% increase in service hours on all existing local routes.[311][312][313] Phase I of IndyGo’s Red Line, the first of the three planned BRT lines, began construction in 2018. The $96.3 million project includes a $75 million grant from the Federal Transit Administration.[314] Upon completion in 2021, the revamped public bus system is expected to nearly triple its ridership potential.[315]

The Central Indiana Regional Transportation Authority (CIRTA) is a quasi-governmental agency that operates three public buses from Indianapolis to employment centers in Plainfield and Whitestown.

Amtrak currently provides two intercity rail lines to Indianapolis via Union Station, serving about 30,000 passengers in 2015.[157] The Cardinal makes three weekly trips between New York City and Chicago, while the Hoosier State operates on the four days the Cardinal does not operate, running to Chicago. Three intercity bus service providers stop in the city: Greyhound Lines and Burlington Trailways (via Union Station), and Megabus (via City Market).[316]

Airports

Satellite image of Indianapolis International Airport.

Indianapolis International Airport (IND) sits on 7,700 acres (3,116 ha) approximately 7 miles (11 km) southwest of downtown Indianapolis. IND is the busiest airport in the state, serving more than 8.7 million passengers annually.[317] Completed in 2008, the Col. H. Weir Cook Terminal contains two concourses and 40 gates, connecting to 51 nonstop domestic and international destinations and averaging 145 daily departures.[318] As home to the second largest FedEx Express hub in the world, IND ranked as the seventh busiest U.S. airport in terms of air cargo throughput in 2015.[153][319]

The Indianapolis Airport Authority is a municipal corporation that oversees operations at five additional airports in the region, two of which are located in Indianapolis: Eagle Creek Airpark (EYE), a relief airport for IND, and the Indianapolis Downtown Heliport (8A4).[320]

Active and shared mobility

BlueIndy electric carsharing launched in 2015.

Reliance on the automobile has affected the city’s development patterns, with Walk Score ranking Indianapolis as one of the least walkable large cities in the U.S.[321] The city has enhanced bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure in recent years, with some 75 miles (121 km) of trails and 90 miles (140 km) of on-street bike lanes.[322]

Launched in 2014, Indiana Pacers Bikeshare is the city’s bike-sharing system, consisting of 251 bicycles at 29 stations. Thousands of users logged over 100,000 trips in 2017.[323] An electric carsharing program, BlueIndy, was launched in 2015. It will ultimately include 500 electric cars and 200 charging stations throughout the city.[324] After negotiations with city officials, Bird and Lime electric scooter-sharing launched in September 2018.[325]

The Indiana University Health People Mover was opened in 2003 to connect IU Health’s medical facilities with the Indiana University School of Medicine. The privately operated people mover is free and open to the public, stopping at three stations over a length of 1.4 mi (2.25 km).[326]

Healthcare

LifeLine at Indiana University Health Methodist Hospital, the largest medical center in Indiana, with 589 beds.[327]

Indiana University Health’s Academic Health Center encompasses Marion County, with the medical centers of University Hospital, Methodist Hospital, and Riley Hospital for Children. The Academic Health Center is anchored by the Indiana University School of Medicine, the second largest medical school in the U.S.[145][281] Riley Hospital for Children is among the nation’s foremost pediatric health centers, recognized in all ten specialties by U.S. News and World Report, including top 25 honors in orthopedics (23), nephrology (22), gastroenterology and GI surgery (16), pulmonology (13), and urology (4).[328] The 430-bed facility also contains Indiana’s only Pediatric Level I Trauma Center.[329]

Health and Hospital Corporation of Marion County, a municipal corporation, was formed in 1951 to manage the city’s public health facilities and programs, including the Marion County Public Health Department and Eskenazi Health.[330] Eskenazi Health’s flagship medical center, the Sidney & Lois Eskenazi Hospital, opened in 2013 after a $754 million project to replace Wishard Memorial Hospital. The hospital includes an Adult Level I Trauma Center, 315 beds, and 275 exam rooms, annually serving about 1 million outpatients.[331] Opened in 1932, the Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center is Indiana’s tertiary referral hospital for former armed services personnel, treating more than 60,000 veterans annually.[332]

Sidney & Lois Eskenazi Hospital is the flagship medical center for Indiana’s oldest healthcare system, founded in 1855 as Indianapolis City Hospital.

Located on the city’s far north side, St. Vincent Indianapolis Hospital is the flagship medical center of St. Vincent Health’s 22-hospital system. St. Vincent Indianapolis includes Peyton Manning Children’s Hospital, St. Vincent Heart Center of Indiana, St. Vincent Seton Specialty Hospital, and St. Vincent Women’s Hospital. Franciscan Health Indianapolis’s flagship medical center is located on the city’s far south side.

Community Health Network contains dozens of specialty hospitals and three emergency medical centers in Marion County, including Community Hospital South, Community Hospital North, and Community Hospital East. Community Hospital East is currently replacing its 60-year-old facility with a $175 million, 150-bed hospital to be completed in 2019.[333] The campus will also include a $120 million, 159-bed state-funded mental health and chronic addiction treatment facility. The Indiana Neuro-Diagnostic Institute will replace the antiquated Larue D. Carter Memorial Hospital in 2018.[334]

According to Indianapolis-based American College of Sports Medicine’s 2016 American Fitness Index Data Report, the city scored last of the 50 largest U.S. metropolitan areas for health and community fitness.[335] Higher instances of obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes, smoking, and asthma contributed to the ranking.[336]

Utilities

Perry K. Generating Station produces steam for the city’s district heating system.

Electricity is provided by Indianapolis Power & Light (IPL), a subsidiary of AES Corporation.[337] Despite a portfolio comprised 100% of nonrenewable energy sources in 2007, IPL ended coal-firing operations at its Harding Street Station in 2016.[338] Today, IPL generates 3,343 MW of electricity at four power stations, two wind farms,[338] and 34 solar farms,[339] covering a service area of 528 square miles (1,370 km2).[340] In 2017, Indianapolis had the fourth highest number of photovoltaics (PVs) per capita in the U.S.[339]

Citizens Energy Group provides residents with natural gas, water, wastewater, and thermal services.[341][342] Citizens is the only public charitable trust formed to operate utilities in the U.S.[343]Covanta Energy operates a waste-to-energy plant in the city, processing solid waste for steam production.[342][344] Steam is sold to Citizens’ Perry K. Generating Station for the downtown Indianapolis district heating system, the second largest in the U.S.[345]

Eleven solid waste districts are managed by one of three garbage collection providers: the city’s Department of Public Works, Republic Services, and Waste Management. Republic Services collects recycling in all 11 districts.[346] The Department of Public Works’ Operations Division is responsible for snow and ice removal, with a fleet of more than 70 snow removal trucks plowing approximately 7,300 miles (11,700 km) of public streets after winter weather events.[347][348]

Notable people

International relations

Sister cities

Indianapolis has seven sister cities and two friendship cities as designated by Sister Cities International.[349] Indianapolis has one former sister city. The partnership with Scarborough, Ontario, Canada lasted from 1996 to 1998, ending when Scarborough was amalgamated into Toronto.[350]

Charter sister cities

  • Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil (since 2009)
  • Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany (since 1988)
  • Monza, Lombardy, Italy (since 1993)
  • Northamptonshire, England, United Kingdom (since 2009)
  • Onitsha, Nigeria (since 2017)
  • Piran, Slovenia (since 2001)
  • Taipei, Taiwan (since 1978)

Friendship cities

  • Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China (since 2009)
  • Hyderabad, Telangana, India (since 2010)

Consulates

As of 2018[update], Indianapolis contains ten foreign consulates, serving Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, and Switzerland.[351]

See also

  • Great Lakes Megalopolis
  • Indianapolis (balance)
  • Indianapolis Catacombs
  • Indianapolis mass murder

Notes

  1. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
  2. ^ Official records for Indianapolis kept at downtown from February 1871 to December 1942, and at Indianapolis Int’l since January 1943. For more information, see Threadex
  1. ^ The nine oldest museums in the U.S. are: Peabody Essex Museum, 1799; Wadsworth Atheneum, 1842; Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1870; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1870; Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1876; Columbus Museum of Art, Ohio, 1878; Art Institute of Chicago, 1879; Cincinnati Art Museum, 1881; Portland Museum of Art, 1882; Indianapolis Museum of Art, 1883.[178]
  2. ^ At 669,484 square feet (62,197.1 m2), the IMA is eighth largest in the U.S. in Main Museum Building space among the 130 respondents in the Association of Art Museum Directors 2010 Statistical Survey.[179]

References

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  31. ^ A plaque at the City-County Building commissioned by the Society of Indiana Pioneers in 1962 lists these as considered names: “IN AN ACT OF JANUARY 6, 1821, THE INDIANA GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
    THEN MEETING AT CORYDON, NAMED THE NEW CAPITAL OF THE STATE ‘INDIANAPOLIS.’ JEREMIAH SULLIVAN, LATER AN EMINENT HOOSIER JURIST, ACTING IN COOPERATION WITH SAMUEL MERRILL AND WITH THE APPROVAL OF GOVERNOR JONATHAN JENNINGS, PROPOSED INDIANAPOLIS AS THE NAME WHICH WAS CHOSEN IN PREFERENCE TO TECUMSEH,
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  34. ^ Baer, p. 10 and 58.
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  36. ^ Hale, p. 9.
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  49. ^ ab Bodenhamer and Barrows, eds., p. 443.
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  304. ^ Keveney, Bill (January 4, 2016). “American Crime tackles rape in Season 2″. USA Today. Retrieved November 16, 2016.
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  306. ^ “Means of Transportation to Work by Age”. Census Reporter. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
  307. ^ “Car Ownership in U.S. Cities Data and Map”. Governing. Retrieved May 4, 2018.
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External links

  • Official website
  • Indy Chamber
  • Visit Indy
  • Indianapolis at Curlie

Coordinates: 39°47′28″N 86°08′53″W / 39.791°N 86.148°W / 39.791; -86.148


Jeffersonville, Indiana

City in Indiana, United States
Jeffersonville, Indiana
City
City of Jeffersonville
Skyline of Jeffersonville

Skyline of Jeffersonville
Nickname(s): 

The Jeff, Jeff
Location of Jeffersonville in Clark County, Indiana.

Location of Jeffersonville in Clark County, Indiana.
Coordinates: 38°17′44″N 85°43′53″W / 38.29556°N 85.73139°W / 38.29556; -85.73139Coordinates: 38°17′44″N 85°43′53″W / 38.29556°N 85.73139°W / 38.29556; -85.73139
Country United States
State Indiana
County Clark
Government

 • Mayor Mike Moore (R)
Area

[1]
 • Total 34.38 sq mi (89.06 km2)
 • Land 34.10 sq mi (88.31 km2)
 • Water 0.29 sq mi (0.74 km2)
Elevation

446 ft (136 m)
Population

(2010)[2]
 • Total 44,953
 • Estimate 

(2016)[3]
47,124
 • Density 1,381.98/sq mi (533.59/km2)
  Census
Time zone UTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP codes
47130, 47131, and 47199
Area code(s) 812 & 930
FIPS code 18-38358[4]
GNIS feature ID 0436979[5]
Website cityofjeff.net

Jeffersonville is a city in Clark County, Indiana, along the Ohio River. Locally, the city is often referred to by the abbreviated name Jeff. It is directly across the Ohio River to the north of Louisville, Kentucky, along I-65. The population was 44,953 at the 2010 census. The city is the county seat of Clark County.[6]

Contents

  • 1 History

    • 1.1 Antebellum
    • 1.2 Civil War
    • 1.3 20th century
    • 1.4 Shipbuilding industry
    • 1.5 Annexation
    • 1.6 Big Four Pedestrian Bridge
  • 2 Geography
  • 3 Demographics

    • 3.1 2010 census
    • 3.2 2000 census
  • 4 Dining and bars
  • 5 National Processing Center
  • 6 Notable people
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links

History

Statue at Warder Park honoring Thomas Jefferson

Spring St is the main shopping area in downtown

Antebellum

In 1786 Fort Finney was situated where the Kennedy Bridge is today to protect the area from Native Americans, and a settlement grew around the fort. The fort was renamed in 1791 to Fort Steuben in honor of Baron von Steuben. In 1793 the fort was abandoned. Precisely when the settlement became known as Jeffersonville is unclear, but it was probably around 1801, the year in which President Thomas Jefferson took office.[7] In 1802 local residents used a grid pattern designed by Thomas Jefferson for the formation of a city.[8] On September 13, 1803, a post office was established in the city. In 1808 Indiana’s second federal land sale office was established in Jeffersonville, which initiated a growth in settling in Indiana that was further spurred by the end of the War of 1812.

Shortly after formation, Jeffersonville was named to be the county seat of Clark County in 1802, replacing Springville. In 1812 Charlestown was named the county seat, but the county seat returned to Jeffersonville in 1878, where it remains.[7]

In 1813 and 1814 Jeffersonville was briefly the de facto capital of the Indiana Territory, as then-governor Thomas Posey disliked then-capital Corydon, and wanting to be closer to his personal physician in Louisville, decided to live in Jeffersonville. However, it is debated by some that Dennis Pennington had some involvement to his location to Jeffersonville.[9] The territorial legislature remained in Corydon and communicated with Posey by messenger.

In 1825, General Lafayette visited Jeffersonville on his United States tour.[10]

Civil War

The Civil War increased the importance of Jeffersonville, as the city was one of the principal gateways to the South during the war, due to its location directly opposite Louisville. It was served by three railroads from the north and had the waterway of the Ohio River. This factor influenced its selection as one of the principal bases for supplies and troops for the Union Army. Operating in the South, the Louisville and Nashville Railroad furnished the connecting link between Louisville and the rest of the South. Camp Joe Holt[11] was instrumental in keeping Kentucky within the Union. The third largest Civil War hospital, Jefferson General Hospital was located in nearby Port Fulton (now within Jeffersonville) from 1864 to 1866,[11] as it was close to the river and Louisville. The original land was seized by the federal government from the Honorable Jesse D. Bright, United States Senator, a sympathizer of the Confederate cause.[11] During the war it housed 16,120 patients in its 5,200 beds and was under the command of Dr. Middleton Goldsmith. A cemetery was built for fallen soldiers down the hill, but the wooden grave markers had decayed by 1927, causing the Jeffersonville city council to build a ball field over the cemetery, and not bothering to move the graves, located on Crestview Avenue. The Jeffersonville Quartermaster Intermediate Depot had its first beginning in the early days of the Civil War, near its present location.

20th century

By 1870, 17% of Jeffersonville residents were foreign-born, mostly from Germany. During the 1920s, Jeffersonville was a popular gathering place for the Ku Klux Klan, as Louisville and New Albany had strong anti-Klan laws and Jeffersonville did not.

City Hall in the Quadrangle complex

Gambling in the 1930s and 1940s was instrumental in Jeffersonville’s recovery from the Great Depression and the Flood of 1937. Casinos, betting parlors, night clubs, and even a dog track were present, giving the town the nickname “Little Las Vegas”. After Clarence Amster, a New Albany businessman was gunned down on July 2, 1937, public sentiment turned against gambling. On January 2, 1948, Indiana State Police raided every casino in the city before the operators could warn each other, and the judge who had devoted the past nine years to eliminating gambling from Jeffersonville, James L. Bottorff, ensured that the equipment was confiscated and the money at the casinos given to charity. This may have played a factor in keeping Jeffersonville residents from voting to approve riverboat gambling in the 1990s. In 2006, riverboat gambling was approved, but for the return of gambling to occur the Indiana State legislature would either have to approve an additional riverboat, or one of the existing riverboats in Indiana would have to relocate to Jeffersonville; presumably, it would be one of the three currently serving the Cincinnati market.

During World War II, the Quartermaster Depot, in conjunction with Fort Knox, Kentucky housed German prisoners of war until 1945. Now the Depot is used as a shopping center.[12][13]

Shipbuilding industry

Part of Jeffboat in Jeffersonville. Jeffboat is the largest inland shipbuilder in the U.S.

In 1819 the first shipbuilding took place in Jeffersonville, and steamboats would become key to Jeffersonville’s economy.[7] In 1834, James Howard built his first steamboat, named the Hyperion, in Jeffersonville.[7] He established his ship building company in Jeffersonville that year but moved his business to Madison, Indiana in 1836 and remained there until 1844. Howard returned his business to the Jeffersonville area to its final location in Port Fulton in 1849. In 1925 the United States Navy assumed control of the Howard Ship Yards until 1941, after Jeffersonville finally annexed Port Fulton.[14] During World War II, the shipyards built landing vessels such as the LST. It was later established as the Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Company, later simply known as Jeffboat, which still supports the local economy.[15] The history of shipbuilding in Jeffersonville is the focus of the Howard Steamboat Museum. There is an annual festival held in September called Steamboat Days that celebrates Jeffersonville’s heritage.[16]

Annexation

On February 5, 2008 the city of Jeffersonville officially annexed four out of six planned annex zones.[17] The proposed annexation of the other two zones was postponed due to lawsuits. One of the two areas remaining to be annexed was Oak Park, Indiana an area of about 5,000 more citizens. The areas annexed added about 5,500 acres (22 km2) to the city and about 4,500 citizens, raising the population to an estimated 33,100. The total area planned to be annexed was 7,800 acres (32 km2). The annexed areas received planning and zoning, building permits and drainage issues services immediately, with new in-city sewer rates which are lower. Other services were phased in, such as police and fire, and worked jointly with the pre-existing non-city services until they were available.[18]

The Clark County Courts dismissed the lawsuits against the city on February 25, 2008.[19] This dismissal brought the remaining Oak Park area into the city. The population of the city grew to nearly 50,000 citizens and this was the largest annexation in Jeffersonville’s history.

Big Four Pedestrian Bridge

Big Four Station is a park that opened in 2014 at the base of the Big Four Bridge

In February 2011, Kentucky governor Steve Beshear and Indiana Gov. Mitch Daniels announced that the two states, along with the City of Jeffersonville, would allocate $22 million in funding to complete the Big Four Bridge project – converting an abandoned railroad bridge into a pedestrian and bicycle path linking Louisville’s Waterfront Park and downtown Jeffersonville. Indiana spent $8 million and the City of Jeffersonville spent an extra $2 million in matching funds to pay for construction of a ramp to the Big Four Bridge on the Indiana side.

In July 2012, Jeffersonville City officials unveiled plans for an $8 million plaza, named “Big Four Station”, to surround the new ramp. The plaza opened in 2014 and includes a covered playground, fountain, stage, pavilion and plenty of green space. The project has pulled thousands of pedestrians a week into downtown Jeffersonville’s main shopping district and has spurred further development. A Marriott motel was built adjacent to the park.

Geography

Jeffersonville is located at 38°17′44″N 85°43′53″W / 38.29556°N 85.73139°W / 38.29556; -85.73139 (38.295669, -85.731485).[20]

According to the 2010 census, Jeffersonville has a total area of 34.354 square miles (88.98 km2), of which 34.06 square miles (88.21 km2) (or 99.14%) is land and 0.294 square miles (0.76 km2) (or 0.86%) is water.[21]

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 2,122
1860 4,020 89.4%
1870 7,254 80.4%
1880 9,357 29.0%
1890 10,666 14.0%
1900 10,774 1.0%
1910 10,412 −3.4%
1920 10,098 −3.0%
1930 11,946 18.3%
1940 11,493 −3.8%
1950 14,685 27.8%
1960 19,522 32.9%
1970 20,008 2.5%
1980 21,220 6.1%
1990 21,841 2.9%
2000 27,362 25.3%
2010 44,953 64.3%
Est. 2016 47,124 [3] 4.8%
Source: US Census Bureau

2010 census

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 44,953 people, 18,580 households, and 11,697 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,319.8 inhabitants per square mile (509.6/km2). There were 19,991 housing units at an average density of 586.9 per square mile (226.6/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 80.4% White, 13.2% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 1.9% from other races, and 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 4.1% of the population.

There were 18,580 households of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.1% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 37.0% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.95.

The median age in the city was 37.3 years. 23.2% of residents were under the age of 18; 8% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 29.2% were from 25 to 44; 27.5% were from 45 to 64; and 11.9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.8% male and 51.2% female.

2000 census

As of the census[4] of 2000, there were 27,362 people, 11,643 households, and 7,241 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,014.7 people per square mile (777.9/km²). There were 12,402 housing units at an average density of 913.2 per square mile (352.6/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 82.50% White, 13.68% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.84% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 0.65% from other races, and 1.97% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 1.80% of the population.

There were 11,643 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.3% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.8% were non-families. 32.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.90.

The age distribution was 23.6% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, and 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,234, and the median income for a family was $45,264. Males had a median income of $32,491 versus $24,738 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,656. About 6.9% of families and 10.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.9% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.

Dining and bars

Mick’s Lounge where Papa John’s Pizza began

Jeffersonville has a mix of restaurants that range in popularity along the river front and downtown. The city is scattered with smaller scale bars, restaurants and fast food chains in areas such as Quartermaster Station in which the Town Hall is now located and other shopping centers.[22] Jeffersonville is most known for its being the birthplace of the national pizza chain Papa John’s Pizza. The pizza chain started in Mick’s Lounge, a local bar in Jeffersonville.

National Processing Center

Jeffersonville is home to the United States Bureau of the Census’s National Processing Center, which is the bureau’s primary center for collecting, capturing, and delivering data. The facility is one of southern Indiana’s largest employers.[23]

Notable people

  • Ernie Andres, baseball player for Boston Red Sox, basketball player and baseball head coach for Indiana Hoosiers, was born in Jeffersonville.
  • Jeffersonville is the birthplace of major league pitcher Walt Terrell, NFL wide receiver Jermaine Ross and professional wrestler Nick Dinsmore.
  • Musicians Travis Meeks of Days of the New and Duane Roland, a guitarist and founder of Molly Hatchet.
  • Former New York senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan spent part of his childhood in Jeffersonville and actress Natalie West lived in the city at one time.
  • Businessman John Schnatter graduated from Jeffersonville High School and started Papa John’s in Jeffersonville.
  • Jeffersonville politician Richard B. Wathen represented the city in the Indiana House of Representatives from 1973 to 1990. Wathen Park and the Wathen Heights neighborhood are named after his family.
  • Evangelist William Branham lived in Jeffersonville for much of his life, and the Branham Tabernacle still stands on the corner of 8th and Penn Streets.
  • Admiral Jonas Ingram, Medal of Honor recipient and United States Atlantic Fleet commander during the later years of World War II, was born in Jeffersonville, and attended Jeffersonville High School for a short time prior to attending Culver Military Academy.
  • Professional basketball player Mike Flynn, 1971 Indiana Mr. Basketball, Kentucky Wildcats star and Indiana Pacers player, grew up in Jeffersonville.
  • Country music star Judy Lynn died at her Jeffersonville home in 2010.
  • Amanda Ruter Dufour (1822–1899), poet

See also

  • Howard Steamboat Museum
  • List of cities and towns along the Ohio River
  • List of mayors of Jeffersonville, Indiana
  • Waterfront Park
  • Big Four Bridge

References

  1. ^ “2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jul 28, 2017..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ ab “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
  3. ^ ab “Population and Housing Unit Estimates”. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  4. ^ ab “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on September 11, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  5. ^ “US Board on Geographic Names”. United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  6. ^ “Find a County”. National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  7. ^ abcd “Official History of Jeffersonville”. Cityofjeff.net. Archived from the original on July 20, 2008. Retrieved July 28, 2010.
  8. ^ Biographical and Historical Souvenir for the Counties of Clark, Crawford, Harrison, Floyd, Jefferson, Jennings, Scott, and Washington, Indiana. Chicago Printing Company. 1889. p. 29.
  9. ^ Life of Walter Quintin Gresham, 1832–1895 By Matilda Gresham (Rand, McNally & company 1919) page 23-23
  10. ^ Neal, Andrea (May 19, 2014). “Indiana at 200 (25): Marquis de Lafayette a Big Hit in Jeffersonville”. Indiana Policy Review. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
  11. ^ abc “Camp Joe Holt and Jefferson General Hospital Photographs, 1865, Collection Guide” (PDF). Indiana Historical Society. Retrieved July 28, 2010.
  12. ^ “Jeffersonville Quartermaster Intermediate Depot – History and Functions”. Qmfound.com. Archived from the original on August 2, 2010. Retrieved July 28, 2010.
  13. ^ “The German Prisoner of war camp in Indiana”. Archived from the original on 2011-05-25.
  14. ^ “The Howard Ship Yards & Dock Company”. Indiana.edu. Retrieved July 28, 2010.
  15. ^ “Clark County, Indiana – History”. Co.clark.in.us. Archived from the original on June 8, 2009. Retrieved July 28, 2010.
  16. ^ http://www.jeffsteamboatdays.com/
  17. ^ Jeff absorbs 4 annexed areas (by Harold J. Adams) Courier Journal February 8, 2008
  18. ^ Parts of Jeffersonville annexation official (by David Mann) The Evening News February 8, 2008
  19. ^ Jeffersonville annexation challenge is rejected (Ben Zion Hershberg) Courier Journal February 26, 2008
  20. ^ “US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990”. United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  21. ^ “G001 – Geographic Identifiers – 2010 Census Summary File 1”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
  22. ^ “Dining”. City of Jeff. Archived from the original on September 25, 2010. Retrieved July 28, 2010.
  23. ^ “National Processing Center”. Census.gov. Archived from the original on July 11, 2010. Retrieved July 28, 2010.

External links

  • City of Jeffersonville, Indiana website
  • Jeffersonville, Indiana travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • http://www.city-data.com/city/Jeffersonville-Indiana.html
  • http://newsandtribune.com/local/x62526264/Growth-Spurt-Census-shows-Clark-County-has-grown-14-3-percent-in-last-decade
  • Convention and Tourism Bureau[permanent dead link]


Fort Wayne, Indiana

Coordinates: 41°04′49.62″N 85°08′20.94″W / 41.0804500°N 85.1391500°W / 41.0804500; -85.1391500

City in Indiana, United States
Fort Wayne, Indiana
City
City of Fort Wayne
Fort Wayne skyline
Historic Fort Wayne
Chief Richardville House
Embassy Theatre
John Chapman Grave
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Bridge
Clockwise from top: Downtown Fort Wayne skyline, Chief Jean-Baptiste de Richardville House, John Chapman’s grave in Johnny Appleseed Park, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Bridge, Embassy Theatre, and Historic Fort Wayne.
Flag of Fort Wayne, Indiana
Flag
Official seal of Fort Wayne, Indiana
Seal
Nickname(s): 

“Summit City”;[1] “City of Churches”;[2] “City That Saved Itself”;[3][4] “Magnet Wire Capital of the World”[5][6]
Motto(s): 

Kekionga
Location of Fort Wayne in Allen County, Indiana.

Location of Fort Wayne in Allen County, Indiana.
Fort Wayne, Indiana is located in the US

Fort Wayne, Indiana
Fort Wayne, Indiana
Location of Fort Wayne in the United States
Coordinates: 41°04′50″N 85°08′21″W / 41.08056°N 85.13917°W / 41.08056; -85.13917
Country  United States
State  Indiana
County Allen
Townships Aboite, Adams, Perry, Pleasant, St. Joseph, Washington, Wayne
Founding October 22, 1794
Incorporated (town) January 3, 1829
Incorporated (city) February 22, 1840
Founded by Jean François Hamtramck
Named for Anthony Wayne
Government

 • Type Mayor–council
 • Mayor Tom Henry (D)
 • City Council
 • State House
 • State Senate
Area

[7]
 • City 110.84 sq mi (287.07 km2)
 • Land 110.63 sq mi (286.52 km2)
 • Water 0.21 sq mi (0.55 km2)
 • Urban

135.25 sq mi (350.3 km2)
 • Metro

1,368 sq mi (3,540 km2)
Elevation

810 ft (247 m)
Population

(2010)[8]
 • City 253,691
 • Estimate 

(2017)[9]
265,904
 • Rank US: 78th
 • Density 2,390.79/sq mi (923.09/km2)
 • Urban

313,492 (US: 119th)
 • Metro

419,453 (US: 122nd)
 • CSA

615,077 (US: 77th)
Time zone UTC−05:00 (EST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−04:00 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
Area code(s) 260
FIPS code 18-25000
GNIS feature ID 0434689[10]
Website www.cityoffortwayne.org

Fort Wayne is a city in the U.S. state of Indiana and the seat of Allen County, United States.[11] Located in northeastern Indiana, the city is 18 miles (29 km) west of the Ohio border[12] and 50 miles (80 km) south of the Michigan border.[13] With a population of 253,691 in the 2010 census, it is the second-most populous city in Indiana after Indianapolis, and the 75th-most populous city in the United States. It is the principal city of the Fort Wayne metropolitan area, consisting of Allen, Wells, and Whitley counties, a combined population of 419,453 as of 2011. Fort Wayne is the cultural and economic center of northeastern Indiana. The city is within a 300-mile (482.803 km) radius of major population centers, including Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Detroit, Indianapolis, Louisville, Lexington, and Milwaukee.
[14] In addition to the three core counties, the combined statistical area (CSA) includes Adams, DeKalb, Huntington, Noble, and Steuben counties, with an estimated population of 615,077.[14]

Fort Wayne was built in 1794 by the United States Army under the direction of American Revolutionary War general Anthony Wayne, the last in a series of forts built near the Miami village of Kekionga.[15] Named in Wayne’s honor, the European-American settlement developed at the confluence of the St. Joseph, St. Marys, and Maumee rivers as a trading post for pioneers.[16] The village was platted in 1823 and underwent tremendous growth after completion of the Wabash and Erie Canal and advent of the railroad.[16] Once a booming manufacturing town located in what became known as the Rust Belt, Fort Wayne’s economy in the 21st century is based upon distribution, transportation and logistics, healthcare, professional and business services, leisure and hospitality, and financial services.[17] The city is a center for the defense industry which employs thousands.[18]

Fort Wayne was an All-America City Award recipient in 1982, 1998, and 2009.[19] The city also received an Outstanding Achievement City Livability Award by the U.S. Conference of Mayors in 1999.[20]

Contents

  • 1 The History

    • 1.1 Early history

      • 1.1.1 Native Americans and New France
      • 1.1.2 British control
      • 1.1.3 US Invasion of Native American Land
      • 1.1.4 Settlement permitted by Treaty of St. Mary’s
    • 1.2 Modern history
  • 2 Geography

    • 2.1 Topography
    • 2.2 Cityscape

      • 2.2.1 Architecture
    • 2.3 Climate
  • 3 Demographics

    • 3.1 Religion
  • 4 Economy
  • 5 Culture

    • 5.1 Performing arts
    • 5.2 Attractions
    • 5.3 Festivals and events
  • 6 Sports
  • 7 Parks and recreation
  • 8 Government

    • 8.1 Politics
  • 9 Education

    • 9.1 Primary and secondary education
    • 9.2 Higher education
    • 9.3 Libraries
  • 10 Media
  • 11 Infrastructure

    • 11.1 Transportation
    • 11.2 Healthcare
    • 11.3 Utilities
  • 12 Notable people
  • 13 Sister cities
  • 14 See also
  • 15 Notes
  • 16 References
  • 17 Bibliography
  • 18 External links

The History

Early history

Native Americans and New France

An illustrated map of Kekionga (1790).

Little Turtle

Anthony Wayne

This area at the confluence of rivers was long occupied by successive cultures of indigenous peoples. The Miami tribe established its settlement of Kekionga at the confluence of the Maumee, St. Joseph, and St. Marys rivers. It was the capital of the Miami nation and related Algonquian tribes.[a]

In 1696, Comte de Frontenac appointed Jean Baptiste Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes as commander of the outpost.[23] The French built Fort Miami in 1697 as part of a group of forts and trading posts built between Quebec and St. Louis. In 1721, a few years after Bissot’s death, Fort Miami was replaced by Fort St. Philippe des Miamis.[24] The first census in 1744 recorded a population of approximately 40 Frenchmen and 1,000 Miami.[24]

British control

Increasing tension between France and Great Britain developed over control of the territory. In 1760, France ceded the area to Britain after its forces in North America surrendered during the Seven Years’ War, known on the North American front as the French and Indian War. In 1763, various Native American nations rebelled against British rule and retook the fort as part of Pontiac’s Rebellion. The Miami regained control of Kekionga, ruling it for more than 30 years.[24]

US Invasion of Native American Land

In 1790, after the United States achieved independence, President George Washington ordered the United States Army to secure Indiana Territory. Three battles were fought at Kekionga against Little Turtle and the Miami Confederacy. Miami warriors defeated U.S. forces in the first two battles. General Anthony Wayne led a third expedition resulting in the destruction of Kekionga and the start of peace negotiations between Little Turtle and the U.S. After General Wayne refused to negotiate, tribal forces advanced to Fallen Timbers, where they were defeated on August 20, 1794. On October 22, 1794, U.S. forces captured the Wabash–Erie portage from the Miami Confederacy and built Fort Wayne, named in honor of the general.[25]

Settlement permitted by Treaty of St. Mary’s

An illustration depicting the 1812 military garrison.

The military garrison was discontinued and a federal land office opened to sell land ceded by local Native Americans by the Treaty of St. Mary’s in 1819.[26]Platted in 1823 at the Ewing Tavern, the village became an important frontier outpost, and was incorporated as the Town of Fort Wayne in 1829, with a population of 300.[27][28] The Wabash and Erie Canal’s opening improved travel conditions to the Great Lakes and Mississippi River, exposing Fort Wayne to expanded economic opportunities. The population topped 2,000 when the town was incorporated as the City of Fort Wayne on February 22, 1840.[29] Pioneer newspaperman George W. Wood was elected the city’s first mayor. Fort Wayne’s “Summit City” nickname dates from this period, referring to the city’s position at the highest elevation along the canal’s route.[16] As influential as the canal was to the city’s earliest development, it quickly became obsolete after briefly competing with the city’s first railroad, the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago Railway, completed in 1854.[30]

Modern history

A lithograph of Fort Wayne (1868).

At the turn of the 20th century, the city’s population reached nearly 50,000, attributed to a large influx of German and Irish immigrants. Fort Wayne’s “urban working class” thrived in industrial and railroad-related jobs.[31] The city’s economy was substantially based on manufacturing, ushering in an era of innovation with several notable inventions and developments coming out of the city over the years, such as gasoline pumps (1885), the refrigerator (1913), and in 1972, the first home video game console.[32][33] A 1913 flood caused seven deaths, left 15,000 homeless, and damaged over 5,500 buildings in the worst natural disaster in the city’s history.[34]

As the automobile’s prevalence grew, Fort Wayne became a fixture on the Lincoln Highway.[35] Aviation arrived in 1919 with the opening of the city’s first airport, Smith Field. The airport served as Fort Wayne’s primary commercial airfield until Baer Field (now Fort Wayne International Airport) was transferred to the city in 1947 after serving as a military base during World War II.[36]

The Lincoln Bank Tower was completed as Indiana’s tallest building in 1930.

Fort Wayne was hit by the Great Depression beginning in 1929, with most factories cutting their workforce.[37] The stock market crash did not discourage plans to build the city’s first skyscraper and Indiana’s tallest building at the time, the Lincoln Bank Tower.[38] By 1935, the New Deal’s WPA put over 7,000 residents back to work through local infrastructure improvements, including the construction of new parks, bridges, viaducts, and a $5.2 million sewage treatment facility.[39]

The post-World War II economic boom helped the city prosper once again. Between 1950 and 1955, more than 5,000 homes were built, many in large subdivisions in rural Allen County.[40] In 1950, Fort Wayne’s first bypass, Coliseum Boulevard, opened on the north side of the city, followed by the city’s first arena, War Memorial Coliseum, bringing new opportunities for suburban expansion.[41] The Coliseum was home to the NBA’s Fort Wayne Pistons from 1952 to 1957. The opening of enclosed shopping malls and the construction of Interstate 69 through rural areas north and west of the city proper further drove the exodus of retail from downtown through the 1960s.[42] According to the Fort Wayne Home Builders Association estimates, more than 80 percent of new home construction occurred outside the city proper in the 1970s.[43]

A flooded Superior Street in 1982.

Like many cities in the Rust Belt, deindustrialization in the 1980s brought urban blight, increased crime, and a decrease in blue-collar manufacturing jobs.[44] Downtown and surrounding neighborhoods continued declining as residents and businesses sprawled further into rural Allen County.[45] A 1982 flood forced an evacuation of 9,000 residents, damaging 2,000 buildings, and costing $56.1 million (1982 USD, $137 million 2015 USD).[46][47]

The 1990s marked a turnaround for the city, as local leaders focused on crime reduction, economic diversification, and downtown redevelopment. By 1999, Fort Wayne’s crime rate decreased to levels not seen since 1974, and the city’s economy recovered, with the unemployment rate hovering at 2.4 percent in 1998.[48] Clearing blighted buildings downtown resulted in new public greenspaces, including Headwaters Park, which has become the premier community gathering space and centerpiece in the city’s $50 million flood control project. Fort Wayne celebrated its bicentennial in 1994.[49][50]

The city continued to concentrate on downtown redevelopment and investment in the 2000s.[51] The decade saw the beginnings of its transformation, with renovations and expansions of the Allen County Public Library, Grand Wayne Convention Center, and Fort Wayne Museum of Art. In 2007, the $130 million Harrison Square development was launched, creating Parkview Field.[52] Suburban growth continued, with the opening of Fort Wayne’s first lifestyle center, Jefferson Pointe, and the half-billion dollar Parkview Regional Medical Center in 2012.[53]

Geography

Fort Wayne is in the East North Central region of the Midwestern United States, in northeastern Indiana, 18 miles (29 km) west of Ohio and 50 miles (80 km) south of Michigan. According to the 2010 census, Fort Wayne has a total area of 110.834 square miles (287.06 km2), of which 110.62 square miles (286.50 km2) (or 99.81%) is land and 0.214 square miles (0.55 km2) (or 0.19%) is water.[54]

Topography

The St. Marys River (left) and St. Joseph River (right) converge to form the Maumee River (foreground).

For a regional summit, the city is situated on flat land characterized by little topographical relief, a result of the Wisconsin glaciation episode.[55] Receding glaciers eroded the land, depositing an evenly distributed layer of sediment during the last glacial period. The most distinguishable topographical feature is Cedar Creek Canyon, just north of the city proper near Huntertown.[55] The Fort Wayne Moraine follows two of the city’s three rivers: the St. Marys and St. Joseph. The two rivers converge to form the Maumee, which eventually empties into Lake Erie. Land east of the moraine includes the former Great Black Swamp, a lacustrine plain formed by Glacial Lake Maumee. The Little River flows southwest of Fort Wayne, a tributary of the Wabash River, and remnant of the Maumee Torrent. The city lies along the St. Lawrence Continental Divide which separates the Great Lakes Basin from the Gulf of Mexico watershed.

The most important geographical feature of the area is the short distance overland between the Three Rivers system, which eventually flows to the Atlantic, and the Wabash system, which eventually flows to the Gulf of Mexico. This came to be the “portage” or carrying place, over which travelers could transport their cargoes from one system to the next. This natural crossroads attracted the Native Americans for thousands of years. It later attracted the European explorers and traders and the American pioneer settlers who continued to develop the area as a transportation and communications center. Chief Little Turtle of the Miami Nation expressed its importance eloquently at the treaty of Greenville in 1795 when he called it “that glorious gate…through which all the words of our chiefs had to pass through from north to south and from east to west.”

Fort Wayne’s urban tree canopy is 29 percent, double the state average of 14.5 percent[56] and above the national average of 27.1 percent.[57] The canopy is decreasing, notably from development and the emerald ash borer infestation.[56] Fort Wayne has been designated a Tree City USA since 1990.[58]

Cityscape

Downtown Fort Wayne, looking south from the St. Marys River.

Historically, Fort Wayne has been divided into four unofficial quadrants: northeast, northwest, southeast, and southwest. Calhoun Street divides the southwest and southeast, while the St. Joseph River divides the northwest and northeast quadrants. The Maumee River separates the northeast and southeast, while portions of the St. Marys River and Chicago, Fort Wayne and Eastern Railroad separate the northwest and southwest quadrants.[59]

Fort Wayne’s early-20th century development was influenced by the City Beautiful movement and centered on a “park and boulevard plan” conceived by urban planner Charles Mulford Robinson in 1909 and finalized by landscape architect George Kessler in 1912. The master plan proposed a network of parkways and boulevards connecting the city’s three rivers and Spy Run Creek to dozens of neighborhoods and parks. Several parks were designed by noted landscape architect Arthur Asahel Shurcliff. Much of the original plan was implemented by 1955. In 2010, the Fort Wayne Park and Boulevard System was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, consisting of 11 public parks, four parkways, and ten boulevards, covering 1,883 acres (762 ha).[60][61]

Architecture

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The Allen County Courthouse was completed in 1902 and was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2003.

During the 19th century, Fort Wayne was dominated by Greek Revival, Gothic Revival, and Italianate architecture. Examples of Greek Revival architecture remain in the city, with one being the Richardville House (1827), a National Historic Landmark. Gothic and Gothic Revival architecture can be found in some of the city’s most prominent churches, including Trinity English Lutheran Church (1846), Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (1860), Trinity Episcopal Church (1865), and Saint Paul’s Evangelical Lutheran Church (1889).[62]

Popular early-20th century architectural styles found in the city include Queen Anne, Richardsonian Romanesque, Neoclassical, Colonial Revival, Dutch Colonial Revival, Tudor Revival, Prairie, American Craftsman, American Foursquare, and Art Deco. Richardsonian Romanesque buildings include Fort Wayne City Hall (1893) and John H. Bass Mansion (1902), each designed by Wing & Mahurin. Notable examples of Neoclassical architecture include the Masonic Temple (1926) and North Side High School (1927). Beaux-Arts, an architectural style closely related to Neoclassical, gained popularity during the City Beautiful movement of the 1890s and early 1900s, which is reflected in the Allen County Courthouse (1902).[62] The Allen County Courthouse is one of two National Historic Landmarks in the city. The Pennsylvania Railroad Station, also known as Baker Street Station (1914), was designed in American Craftsman style. At 312 feet (95 m), the Art Deco-style Lincoln Bank Tower was Fort Wayne’s first high-rise and Indiana’s tallest building from 1930 to 1962.[62] The E. Ross Adair Federal Building and United States Courthouse (1932) is another example of Art Deco architecture. Williams–Woodland Park Historic District includes examples of Queen Anne and Colonial Revival residential homes,[63] while the Forest Park Boulevard Historic District includes Tudor Revival homes.[62]

Modern and Postmodern architecture can be found in buildings constructed during the second half of the 20th century in Fort Wayne. The John D. Haynes House (1952) was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, while the campus of Concordia Theological Seminary (1953) was designed by Eero Saarinen. Postmodern architect Michael Graves’ first commissions were built in the city, including Hanselmann House (1967) and Snyderman House (1972, now demolished).[64]Louis Kahn’s design for the Arts United Center (1973) was inspired by a violin and its case.[65] Other notable buildings include Indiana Michigan Power Center (1982), the tallest building in the city and tallest building in Indiana outside of Indianapolis, at 442 feet (135 m).[66]

Climate

The Oakdale neighborhood after a January snow.

Fort Wayne lies in the humid continental climate zone (Köppen: Dfa), experiencing four distinct seasons.[67] The city is located in USDA hardiness zones 5b and 6a.[68] Typically, summers are hot, humid, and wet. Winters are generally cold with moderate snowfall. The average annual precipitation is 37.34 in (948 mm), recorded at Fort Wayne International Airport. During the winter season, snowfall accumulation averages 33.5 in (85 cm) per year. Lake-effect snow is not uncommon to the region, but usually appears in the form of light snow flurries.

The National Weather Service reports the highest recorded temperature in the city at 106 °F (41 °C), most recently on June 28, 2012, and the lowest recorded temperature at −24 °F (−31 °C) on January 12, 1918.[69] The wettest month on record was June 2015, with 11.98 in (304 mm) of precipitation.[70] The greatest 24-hour rainfall was 4.93 in (125 mm) on August 1, 1926. The snowiest month on record was January 2014, with 30.3 in (77 cm) of snowfall.[71] The greatest calendar-day snowfall was 18.0 in (46 cm) on February 28, 1900.[72]

Severe weather is not uncommon, particularly in the spring and summer months; the city experiences an average of 39 thunderstorm days and about 10 severe weather days annually.[73] An EF2 tornado struck northern Fort Wayne on May 26, 2001, injuring three and causing damage along the Coliseum Boulevard corridor and a subdivision.[74] Fort Wayne experienced 91 mph (146 km/h) wind gusts in the June 2012 North American derecho, knocking out power to 78,000, uprooting approximately 500 trees,[75] and costing $2.5 million.[76]

Climate data for Fort Wayne, Indiana (Fort Wayne Int’l), 1981–2010 normals,[b] extremes 1897–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 69
(21)
73
(23)
87
(31)
90
(32)
97
(36)
106
(41)
106
(41)
102
(39)
100
(38)
91
(33)
79
(26)
71
(22)
106
(41)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 53.5
(11.9)
56.9
(13.8)
72.5
(22.5)
81.0
(27.2)
86.6
(30.3)
93.0
(33.9)
93.4
(34.1)
91.7
(33.2)
88.9
(31.6)
81.0
(27.2)
68.9
(20.5)
56.0
(13.3)
95.0
(35)
Average high °F (°C) 32.4
(0.2)
36.3
(2.4)
48.0
(8.9)
61.1
(16.2)
71.7
(22.1)
80.9
(27.2)
84.4
(29.1)
82.2
(27.9)
76.0
(24.4)
63.4
(17.4)
49.9
(9.9)
36.2
(2.3)
60.3
(15.7)
Average low °F (°C) 17.4
(−8.1)
20.3
(−6.5)
28.7
(−1.8)
38.9
(3.8)
49.2
(9.6)
59.3
(15.2)
62.7
(17.1)
60.8
(16)
52.6
(11.4)
41.8
(5.4)
32.9
(0.5)
22.1
(−5.5)
40.6
(4.8)
Mean minimum °F (°C) −4.5
(−20.3)
0.5
(−17.5)
10.9
(−11.7)
23.4
(−4.8)
35.4
(1.9)
46.2
(7.9)
51.6
(10.9)
49.3
(9.6)
38.2
(3.4)
27.8
(−2.3)
18.9
(−7.3)
1.9
(−16.7)
−8.7
(−22.6)
Record low °F (°C) −24
(−31)
−19
(−28)
−10
(−23)
7
(−14)
27
(−3)
36
(2)
38
(3)
38
(3)
29
(−2)
19
(−7)
−1
(−18)
−18
(−28)
−24
(−31)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.26
(57.4)
2.04
(51.8)
2.71
(68.8)
3.52
(89.4)
4.27
(108.5)
4.16
(105.7)
4.24
(107.7)
3.64
(92.5)
2.80
(71.1)
2.84
(72.1)
3.09
(78.5)
2.77
(70.4)
38.34
(973.8)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 10.1
(25.7)
7.7
(19.6)
4.1
(10.4)
1.0
(2.5)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.3
(0.8)
1.8
(4.6)
8.5
(21.6)
33.5
(85.1)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 12.6 10.1 12.2 12.9 13.0 10.9 9.8 9.4 9.1 9.7 11.2 13.0 133.9
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 9.5 6.9 4.1 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 2.6 8.2 32.5
Average relative humidity (%) 75.7 74.3 71.7 66.2 65.5 66.3 69.4 73.3 73.2 71.5 76.0 78.9 71.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 148.5 158.5 206.3 251.4 311.9 340.0 347.0 318.2 258.1 207.6 124.2 108.2 2,779.9
Percent possible sunshine 50 53 56 63 69 75 76 75 69 60 42 38 62
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[77][78][79]

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 4,282
1860 10,388 142.6%
1870 17,718 70.6%
1880 26,880 51.7%
1890 35,393 31.7%
1900 45,115 27.5%
1910 63,933 41.7%
1920 86,549 35.4%
1930 114,946 32.8%
1940 118,410 3.0%
1950 133,607 12.8%
1960 161,776 21.1%
1970 178,269 10.2%
1980 172,196 −3.4%
1990 173,072 0.5%
2000 205,727 18.9%
2010 253,691 23.3%
Est. 2017 265,904 [80] 4.8%
U.S. Decennial Census[81]
2014 Estimate[8]

Map of racial distribution in Fort Wayne, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow)

According to the 2010 Census, there were 253,691 people and 113,541 households. The racial makeup of the city is 73.62% White, 15.41% Black or African American, 0.37% Native American or Alaska Native, 3.3% Asian (1.4% Burmese, 0.4% Indian, 0.3% Vietnamese, 0.2% Chinese, 0.2% Filipino, 0.1% Korean, 0.1% Laotian, 0.1% Thai), 0.06% Pacific Islander, 3.72% from other races, and 3.52% from two or more races. 7.96% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race. Among the Hispanic population, 6.1% are Mexican, 0.4% Puerto Rican, and 0.3% Guatemalan.[82]Non-Hispanic Whites were 70.3% of the population in 2010,[83] down from 87.7% in 1970.[84]

There were 101,585 households of which 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.3% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, and 38.0% were non-families. 31.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.09.

The median age in the city was 34.5 years. 26.4% of residents were under the age of 18; 10.2% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.5% were from 25 to 44; 24.9% were from 45 to 64; and 12% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.4% male and 51.6% female.

Fort Wayne has the largest Burmese American population in the U.S., estimated at 6,000.[85] Burmese refugee settlement and “secondary migrants” doubled the city’s Asian population between 2000 and 2010.[86]

Religion

Interior of the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, co-cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Fort Wayne-South Bend.

Fort Wayne is sometimes referred to as the “City of Churches,” an unofficial moniker dating to the late-19th century when the city was the regional hub of Catholic, Lutheran, and Episcopal faiths.[87] Today, there are 360 churches in the city.[88] 54 percent of Fort Wayne residents identify as religious, where 16 percent are Catholic, 9 percent are Lutheran, 6.5 percent are Baptist, 5 percent are Methodist, and 0.14 percent are Jewish, with 16.5 percent adhering to other Christian faiths.[89] An increasing religious minority is found among the city’s immigrant communities, including Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam.[90]

Major churches include the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Saint Paul’s Evangelical Lutheran Church and Trinity Episcopal Church. Fort Wayne’s Reform Judaism population is served by Congregation Achduth Vesholom, the oldest Jewish congregation in Indiana, founded in 1848.[91] In 2013, construction began on the first Burmese Muslim mosque to be built worldwide since the mid-1970s.[92]

As of December 2012, four national Christian denominations were headquartered in the city: the American Association of Lutheran Churches, the Fundamental Baptist Fellowship Association, the Missionary Church and the Fellowship of Evangelical Churches. Fort Wayne is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Fort Wayne–South Bend, covering 14 counties in Northern Indiana, and the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod Indiana District, encompassing all of Indiana and north central Kentucky.

Economy

The vacant General Electric complex consists of 30 acres (12 ha) and 12 buildings.[93]

Manufacturing is deeply rooted in Fort Wayne’s economic history, dating to the earliest days of the city’s growth as an important trade stop along the Wabash and Erie Canal. Railroads, introduced shortly after the canal’s arrival, eased travel from Fort Wayne to other booming industrial centers along the Great Lakes, such as Chicago, Detroit, Toledo, and Cleveland. Throughout the early and mid-20th century, manufacturing dominated the city’s economic landscape. From 1900 to 1930, Fort Wayne’s industrial output expanded by 747 percent, with total production valued at $95 million in 1929, up from $11 million in 1899.[94] The total workforce also increased from 18,000 in 1900 to nearly 50,000 in 1930.[94]

Companies that had a significant presence in the city include Dana Holding Corporation, Falstaff Brewing Corporation,[95]Fruehauf Corporation, General Electric, International Harvester, Magnavox, Old Crown Brewing Corporation, and Tokheim, among several others, producing goods such as refrigerators, washing machines, automatic phonographs, meat packing products, televisions, garbage disposals, automotive parts and motors, trailers, gasoline pumps, trucks, beer, tents and awnings.[96]Magnet wire production became an especially vital component to the city’s economy. In 1960, Fort Wayne was at the center of the United States magnet wire industry, home to New Haven Wire and Cable Company, Phelps Dodge, Rea Magnet Wire, Superior Essex, and an operation at General Electric, producing nearly 90 percent of North America’s magnet wire.[97]

Abraham Lincoln: The Hoosier Youth stands in front of Lincoln Financial Group’s downtown offices.

The 1970s and 1980s were times of economic depression in Fort Wayne, when much of the city’s manufacturing foundation eroded and the blue-collar workforce shrank. Fort Wayne joined several other cities reeling economically within the Rust Belt.[98] At the same time, General Electric also downsized much of its more than 10,000-person workforce.[99] Amid other area plant closures and downsizing, coupled with the early 1980s recession, the city lost 30,000 jobs and reached a 12.1 percent unemployment rate.[100] The arrival of General Motors in 1987 helped fill the void from shuttered manufacturers and aided in the area’s recovery, employing 3,000 at its Fort Wayne Assembly.[101] In 2017, General Motors was the largest manufacturer in the city, employing 4,100 assembling Chevrolet Silverado regular and double cab light- and heavy-duty pickup trucks.[102]

Through the 1990s and into the 2000s, the city diversified its economy; manufacturing now employs 16.9 percent of Allen County’s workforce.[17] Other sectors include distribution, transportation, and logistics (23.1 percent), health care (17.9 percent), professional and business services (12.1 percent), leisure and hospitality (11.1 percent), and financial services (6.3 percent).[17] The leisure and hospitality sector has especially grown, with 5.8 million visitors spending $545 million in 2013, a 4.3 percent increase over the previous year.[103] The city is a center for the defense industry, employing thousands at such companies as BAE Systems (1,150), Harris Corporation (888), Raytheon Systems (950), and the Fort Wayne Air National Guard Station (423).[18]

Despite economic diversification, the city was significantly impacted by the Great Recession. According to a report from Pew Research Center, the city lost nearly a quarter of its manufacturing jobs and 11% of its economic status between 2000 and 2014.[104] Economic Innovation Group’s 2016 Distressed Communities Index Report ranked Fort Wayne among the most unequal large cities in the U.S. in terms of linking economic opportunities to its distressed zip codes. As of 2017[update], Allen County’s labor force was 180,637 with an unemployment rate of 2.5 percent.[17][105]

Companies based in Fort Wayne include Brotherhood Mutual, Do it Best, Franklin Electric, Frontier Communications – Central Region,[106]Genteq, Indiana Michigan Power, K&K Insurance, MedPro Group, North American Van Lines, Rea Magnet Wire, Steel Dynamics, Sweetwater Sound, and Vera Bradley. Steel Dynamics is the only Fortune 500 company headquartered in the city, ranking 354th.[107] Founded in 1905, Lincoln Financial Group was based in Fort Wayne until its move to suburban Philadelphia in 1999.[108] The company maintains a large presence in the city, employing nearly 2,000.[109]

Culture

Performing arts

The Embassy Theatre opened in 1928 as a movie palace.

The Embassy Theatre is a 2,471-seat performing arts theater which hosts over 200,000 patrons annually.[110] Since its founding in 1944, the Fort Wayne Philharmonic Orchestra has often been hosted at the Embassy.[111] The University of Saint Francis Robert Goldstine Performing Arts Center, located on its Downtown Campus, contains a 2,086-seat auditorium.[112]

Since its establishment in 2010, the Cultural District has been home to several of the city’s cultural institutions, including the Fort Wayne Museum of Art, Auer Center for Arts and Culture, Arts United Center, and Hall Community Arts Center.[113] Arts United Center houses the Fort Wayne Civic Theater, Fort Wayne Dance Collective, and Fort Wayne Youtheatre. Auer Center for Arts and Culture houses Fort Wayne Ballet. Hall Community Arts Center houses Cinema Center, an independent film venue.

Though used mainly for exhibitions and conventions, the Grand Wayne Convention Center hosts dance and choir productions, such as the annual Foundation for Art and Music in Education (FAME) Northeast Festival.[114] Foellinger Theatre, a 2,500-seat amphitheater in Franke Park, hosts seasonal acts and outdoor concerts during warmer months.[115] Located west of downtown, Arena Dinner Theatre is a nonprofit community arts corporation with a focus on live theater production, annually hosting seven full-length theatrical productions.[116]

Attractions

A reticulated giraffe in the Fort Wayne Children’s Zoo’s African Journey exhibit.

The Fort Wayne Children’s Zoo has been lauded as one of the nation’s foremost zoos.[117][118] Covering 40 acres (16 ha) and containing 1,000 animals of 200 different species, the zoo is the largest regional attraction, regularly drawing over 500,000 visitors annually.[119][120] The Foellinger-Freimann Botanical Conservatory gardens cover 24,500-square-foot (2,280 m2), displaying over 1,200 plants of 502 different species and 72 types of cacti.[121]Science Central, an interactive science center, contains permanent displays and temporary exhibits, drawing 130,000 visitors annually.[122]

Established in 1921, the Fort Wayne Museum of Art (FWMoA) is accredited by the American Alliance of Museums, specializing in the collection and exhibition of American art.[123] The FWMoA annually receives 100,000 visitors.[124]

The History Center, located in Fort Wayne’s Old City Hall, manages a collection of more than 23,000 artifacts recalling the region’s history.[125] The center is overseen by the Allen County–Fort Wayne Historical Society, which maintains the Richardville House, one of two National Historic Landmarks in the city. Historic Fort Wayne, a replica of the 1815 fortification, hosts scheduled tours and historical reenactments throughout the year.[126] Other cultural museums include the African/African–American Historical Museum,[127] Fort Wayne Firefighters Museum,[128] Greater Fort Wayne Aviation Museum,[129] and Baer Field Heritage Air Park.

The Allen County Public Library’s Fred J. Reynolds Historical Genealogy Department is the second-largest genealogy collection in North America.[130] The collection contains 350,000 printed volumes and 513,000 items of microfilm and microfiche.[131]

Festivals and events

A concert during the 42nd Three Rivers Festival in 2010.

The city hosts a variety of cultural festivals and events annually. Festivals commemorating ethnic food, dance, music, and art include Germanfest,[132] Greek Festival, and Japanese Cherry Blossom Festival.[133] Initiated in 1997, Fort Wayne Pride celebrates northeast Indiana’s LGBTQ community.[134] BBQ RibFest showcases barbecue rib cooks and live entertainment, attracting 40,000 visitors annually.[135]

Fort4Fitness is a certified half marathon, 4-mile (6.4 km) run/walk, and health fair. Over 9,000 participated in the 2011 half marathon.[136] In 2012, Fort4Fitness debuted a spring cycle, Bike-the-Fort, which included three bicycling tours with over 1,000 participants.[137] HolidayFest begins with the Night of Lights on Thanksgiving eve, with the lighting of the PNC Santa and Reindeer, Wells Fargo Holiday Display, and Indiana Michigan Power Christmas Wreath, ending with a fireworks finale at Parkview Field.[138]

The largest annual events in the city are the Johnny Appleseed Festival and the Three Rivers Festival. The Johnny Appleseed Festival draws 300,000 visitors. The festival is held at Johnny Appleseed Park, where American folklore legend John Chapman is believed to be buried.[139] Apple-themed cuisine, crafts, and historical demonstrations recalling 19th century American pioneering are among some of the festival’s events.[140] Three Rivers Festival, a celebration of Fort Wayne, spans nine days each July, attracting 400,000 visitors.[141] Three Rivers features over 200 events, including a parade, midway, hot dog eating contest, bed race, raft race, arts fair, and fireworks spectacular. Other annual events include the Allen County Fair,[142]BAALS Music Festival, National Soccer Festival,[143][144] and the Vera Bradley Outlet Sale.[145]

Sports

Allen County War Memorial Coliseum (top) and Parkview Field (bottom).

Fort Wayne is home to three minor league sports franchises: the ECHL’s Fort Wayne Komets, the Midwest League’s Fort Wayne TinCaps, and the NBA G League’s Fort Wayne Mad Ants who are owned and operated by their parent club, the Indiana Pacers.
Fort Wayne also hosts the Fort Wayne Derby Girls of the Women’s Flat Track Derby Association Division 2. These teams compete at the Allen County War Memorial Coliseum. Parkview Field is home to the TinCaps. Intercollegiate sports in the city include the Purdue Fort Wayne Mastodons, representing Purdue University Fort Wayne (PFW) in the NCAA’s Division I Summit League, and NAIA schools Indiana Tech (Wolverine–Hoosier Athletic Conference) and University of Saint Francis (Crossroads League and Mid-States Football Association). The Mastodons had represented Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne (IPFW) prior to its 2018 split into two separate institutions (see below), and from 2016 to 2018 were branded as the Fort Wayne Mastodons, but the athletic brand was changed to “Purdue Fort Wayne” shortly before the split took effect.[146]

The city has been home to other professional sports franchises, including the National Basketball Association’s Fort Wayne Pistons (which moved to Detroit in 1957), the Fort Wayne Daisies of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, and the Fort Wayne Kekiongas of the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players (precursor to Major League Baseball).

Some notable events in sports history occurred in Fort Wayne. On June 2, 1883, Fort Wayne hosted the Quincy Professionals for one of the first lighted evening baseball games ever recorded.[147] Fort Wayne is also credited as the birthplace of the NBA, as Pistons’ coach Carl Bennett brokered the merger of the BAA and the NBL in 1948 from his Alexander Street home.[148][149][150] On March 10, 1961, Wilt Chamberlain became the first player in the NBA to reach 3,000 points in a single season while competing at the War Memorial Coliseum.[148][151]

Parks and recreation

Tulips bloom in Foster Park.

Fort Wayne Parks and Recreation maintains 86 public parks totaling 2,805 acres (1,135 ha).[88] Three public and 20 private golf courses are located in Allen County.[152] Franke Park is the most extensive city park, covering 339.24 acres (137.3 ha).[153] Franke is home to the Foellinger Theatre, Shoaff Lake, and the Fort Wayne Children’s Zoo. Other notable parks include Johnny Appleseed Park (home to a campground and John Chapman’s grave) and McCulloch Park (home to Samuel Bigger’s grave). Foellinger-Freimann Botanical Conservatory, Headwaters Park, Lawton Skatepark, and Historic Fort Wayne are located downtown. Hurshtown Reservoir, near Grabill, is the largest body of water in Allen County and is popular with watersports enthusiasts for sailing and fishing. Some 300 lakes are located within 50 miles (80 km) of the city.[154] Located downtown along the St. Marys River, Fort Wayne Outfitters offers canoe, kayak, stand-up paddle board, and pontoon boat rentals for recreation along the three rivers.[155]

Canoeing on the St. Marys River.

Starting in the 1970s, the city developed a system of recreational trails along the riverbanks, known as the Rivergreenway, with the aim of beautifying the riverfronts and promoting active lifestyles for residents.[156] The Rivergreenway was designated a National Recreation Trail in 2009.[157] As of 2018, the Rivergreenway had expanded with additional trails to encompass nearly 180 miles (290 km) throughout the city and county, with about 550,000 annual users.[158] With the expansion of trails in recent years, cycling has become an emerging mode of transportation for residents. In 2009, the city’s first bicycle lanes were established[159] with the installation of 250 bike parking places.[160] In 2016, Fort Wayne was designated a Bronze Level bicycle friendly community by the League of American Bicyclists.[161]

According to the Trust for Public Land’s 2017 ParkScore Index, some 56% of Fort Wayne residents are underserved.[162]

Government

A statue of General “Mad” Anthony Wayne, namesake of the city, stands in Freimann Square.

The Allen County Courthouse (center) and the Rousseau Centre (right), home to city and county offices.

Fort Wayne has a mayor–council government.[163] The mayor, city clerk, and city council members serve four-year terms.

Fort Wayne’s mayor is Tom Henry, a Democrat, who was elected in 2007. Henry succeeded Democrat Graham Richard who chose not to run for re-election after two terms as mayor. Henry was re-elected to a third term in 2015.[164] Karl Bandemer was appointed deputy mayor in 2013.[165] Lana Keesling was elected city clerk in 2015.[166] Fort Wayne City Council has nine elected members, one representative from each of the city’s six council districts and three at-large members, serving four-year terms.[163]

The city is represented in the Indiana General Assembly by three Senate Districts and seven House Districts. Fort Wayne’s state senators include Dennis Kruse (14th District), Liz Brown (15th), and David Long (16th). Representatives include Dan Leonard (50th District), Ben Smaltz (52nd), Phil GiaQuinta (80th), Martin Carbaugh (81st), Christopher Judy (83rd), Bob Morris (84th), and Dave Heine (85th). Federally, Fort Wayne is part of Indiana’s 3rd congressional district, represented by Republican Jim Banks, a position he has held since 2016.

Under the Unigov provision of Indiana Law, Fort Wayne would have automatically consolidated with Allen County when its population exceeded 250,000, previously the minimum population for a first class city in Indiana.[167] Fort Wayne nearly met the state requirements for first class city designation on January 1, 2006 when 12.8 square miles (33 km2) of neighboring Aboite Township (and a small section of Wayne Township) including 25,094 people were annexed.[168] However, a 2004 legislative change raised the population threshold for first-class status from 250,000 to 600,000, which ensured Indianapolis’ status as the only first class city in Indiana.[169]

Fort Wayne’s E. Ross Adair Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse houses the United States District Court for the Northern District of Indiana, which was authorized by Congress in 1928.

Municipal and state laws are enforced by the Fort Wayne Police Department, an organization of 460 officers.[170] In 2006, Fort Wayne’s crime rate was 5104.1 per 100,000 people, slightly above the national average of 4479.3.[171] There were 18 murders, 404 robberies, and 2,128 burglaries in 2006.[171] Steve Reed was appointed to the position of police chief in 2016.[172] In 2014, former police chief Rusty York was appointed to the position of director of public safety. York previously served as police chief from 2000 to 2014.[173] As of 2010, the Fort Wayne Fire Department includes 375 uniformed firefighters and 18 fire stations.[174] Eric Lahey was appointed fire chief in 2014.[175]

Politics

Voter registration and Partisan Primary Participation[176]
Party Number of voters Percentage
Democratic 31,798 20.61%
Republican 35,452 22.97%
Unaffiliated 86,154 55.83%
Other 917 0.59%
Total 154,321 100%

Education

Primary and secondary education

Allen County public school districts: FWCS (pink), EACS (yellow), NACS (blue), SACS (green).

Fort Wayne Community Schools (FWCS) is the largest public school district in Indiana,[177] enrolling 30,981 students as of the 2013–2014 academic year. FWCS operate 51 facilities, including 31 elementary schools, ten middle schools, and five high schools. The student body is diverse, with 75 spoken languages in the district.[178]East Allen County Schools (EACS) operate 20 schools, with a total enrollment of 9,114.[179]Northwest Allen County Schools (NACS) operate seven elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school, with a total enrollment of 6,853.[180]Southwest Allen County Schools (SACS) operate six elementary schools, two middle schools, and one high school, with a total enrollment of 6,995.[181][182] Private primary and secondary education is offered largely through Lutheran Schools of Indiana and the Roman Catholic Diocese of Fort Wayne–South Bend. Amish Parochial Schools of Indiana has schools through eighth grade in rural eastern Allen County.[183]

Higher education

Fort Wayne hosts institutions affiliated with both of Indiana’s major state university systems. Indiana University Fort Wayne (IU Fort Wayne) and Purdue University Fort Wayne (PFW) were established in July 2018 after the dissolution of Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne (IPFW), which had enrolled over 13,000 students prior to its closure and was the state’s fifth-largest public university.[184] IPFW’s degree programs in health sciences are now operated by IU Fort Wayne; as such, that institution is now home to the Fort Wayne Center for Medical Education, a branch of the Indiana University School of Medicine. All remaining IPFW degree programs were taken over by PFW.[185]

Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana also contains two campuses in the city. Three private universities are located in the city, including Concordia Theological Seminary, Indiana Institute of Technology, and the University of Saint Francis. Private universities with regional branches in Fort Wayne include Crossroads Bible College, Grace College and Theological Seminary, Huntington University, Indiana Wesleyan University, Manchester University College of Pharmacy, and Trine University. For-profit institutions include Harrison College and International Business College.

Libraries

Composed of 14 branches, the Allen County Public Library is among the 20 largest public libraries in the U.S., and ranks 89th factoring in academic libraries, with 3.4 million volumes.[186] The library’s foundation is also among the nation’s largest, with $14 million in assets.[187] The entire library system underwent an $84.1 million overhaul from 2002 to 2007.[188] In 2009, over 7.4 million materials were borrowed by patrons, with over 3 million visits made throughout the library system.[189]

Media

Major broadcasting network affiliates include WANE-TV (CBS), WPTA-TV (ABC/NBC), WISE-TV (CW), WFFT-TV (Fox), and WFWA-TV (PBS), Northeast Indiana’s PBS member station. Religious broadcasters include WINM and W07CL. Access Fort Wayne maintains Fort Wayne and Allen County’s Public Access capabilities serving from the Allen County Public Library. Two National Public Radio stations are based in the city, WBNI and WBOI with the new WELT Community Radio Station transmitting from the Allen County Public Library.

Fort Wayne is served by two primary newspapers, the Journal Gazette and Pulitzer Prize-winning News-Sentinel.[190] The two dailies have separate editorial departments, but under a joint operating agreement, printing, advertising, and circulation are handled by Fort Wayne Newspapers, Inc. The News-Sentinel announced that it would cease printing operations in favor of digital publishing in August 2017.

Infrastructure

Transportation

An A-10 Warthog after completing a training mission at the Fort Wayne Air National Guard Station.

Fort Wayne includes two municipal airports, both managed by the Fort Wayne–Allen County Airport Authority. Fort Wayne International Airport (FWA) is the city’s primary commercial airport, with five airlines offering direct service to 13 domestic connections. The airport is Indiana’s second busiest, with over 350,000 passenger enplanements in 2015.[191] Fort Wayne International is also home to the 122d Fighter Wing’s Fort Wayne Air National Guard Station.[192]Smith Field, in northern Fort Wayne, is used primarily for general aviation.[193]

Fort Wayne is served by a single interstate (Interstate 69) along with an auxiliary beltway (Interstate 469). Once the State Road 37 expressway between Bloomington and Martinsville is completed in 2018, filling a gap in I-69 that exists south of Indianapolis, the road will run south to Evansville; it currently runs north to the Canada–United States border at Port Huron, Michigan. In the coming years, I-69 will extend to the US–Mexico border in Texas, with branches ending in Laredo, Pharr, and Brownsville. Four U.S. Routes bisect the city, including US 24, US 27, US 30, and US 33. Five Indiana State Roads also meet in the city, including State Road 1, State Road 3, State Road 14, State Road 37, and State Road 930. Airport Expressway, a four-lane divided highway, links Fort Wayne International Airport directly to I-69.[194] About 85 percent of residents commute alone by personal vehicle, while another eight percent carpool.[195]

Unlike most cities comparable to its size, Fort Wayne does not have an urban freeway system. In 1946, planners proposed a $27 million federally funded freeway, crossing east-west and north-south through downtown.[196] Opponents successfully campaigned against the proposal, objecting to the demolition of nearly 1,500 homes at the time of the post-World War II housing shortage, while playing on fears that the project would force displaced minorities into white neighborhoods.[197][198] In 1947, Fort Wayne residents voted down the referendum that would have allowed for its construction, dubbed the Anthony Wayne Parkway.[199] Beginning in 1962, construction commenced for I-69 in suburban Fort Wayne.[200][43]

The I-469 beltway around the southern and eastern fringes of Fort Wayne and New Haven was constructed between 1988 and 1995 as the largest public works project in Allen County history, at $207 million.[199]

Pennsylvania Railroad Station has stood as a landmark to the city’s railroad heritage since 1914.

Amtrak’s Capitol Limited (Chicago – Toledo – Cleveland – Pittsburgh – Washington, D.C.) and Amtrak’s Lake Shore Limited (Chicago – Toledo – Cleveland – Buffalo – Albany – split to Boston and to New York City) are the closest passenger rail services to Fort Wayne, located 25 miles (40 km) north at Waterloo Station. There has been a movement to bring direct passenger rail service back in the form of Amtrak or high-speed rail service.[201] In 2013, a feasibility study was published outlining the impacts of a proposed Columbus—Fort Wayne—Chicago high-speed rail corridor. At 300 miles (480 km), the route would cost $1.29 billion and generate some $7.1 billion in economic benefits to the region.[202] Freight service is provided by a class I railroad (Norfolk Southern) and two class III railroads (CSX Transportation).[203] Fort Wayne is headquarters and main operations hub of Norfolk Southern’s Triple Crown Services subsidiary, the largest truckload shipper in the U.S.[203]

Fort Wayne’s mass transit system is managed by the Fort Wayne Public Transportation Corporation (Citilink), providing 12 bus routes through the cities of Fort Wayne and New Haven via downtown’s Central Station.[204] CampusLink debuted in 2009 as a free shuttle service for students, faculty, and general public traveling between Ivy Tech’s Coliseum and North campuses, IPFW and its student housing on the Waterfield Campus, and shopping and residential areas.[205] MedLink debuted in 2013 connecting Parkview Regional Medical Center with Parkview Health’s Randallia campus.[206] Despite annual ridership of 2.2 million,[205] less than one percent of residents commute by public transportation.[195] Fort Wayne is served by two intercity bus providers: Greyhound Lines (Indianapolis—Toledo—Detroit) and Lakefront Lines (Chicago—Columbus—Akron).[207]

In 2016, the city introduced its first bike-sharing program, including five stations and 25 bicycles.[208]

Healthcare

Fort Wayne is served by ten medical centers belonging to one of two regional healthcare providers in the city: Parkview Health System and Lutheran Health Network. Notable hospitals include Dupont Hospital, Lutheran Hospital of Indiana, Parkview Regional Medical Center, Parkview Hospital Randallia, and St. Joseph Hospital. Over 1,600 patient beds are available throughout the city’s healthcare system.[209] As of 2017[update], both healthcare systems were the city’s first and second largest employers, respectively, and contribute to a total healthcare workforce in Allen County of 34,000.[209] VA Northern Indiana Health Care System’s Fort Wayne Campus provides medical services through the Department of Veterans Affairs.[210]

Utilities

City Utilities is the largest municipally owned water utility in Indiana, supplying residents with 72 million US gallons (270,000 m3) of water per day via the Three Rivers Water Filtration Plant and St. Joseph River.[211] Sanitary sewer treatment is also managed by City Utilities. The City of Fort Wayne offers full curbside recycling and solid waste collection services for residents, presently contracted through Republic Services. Electricity is provided by Indiana Michigan Power, a subsidiary of American Electric Power, while natural gas is supplied by Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO), a subsidiary of NiSource. All tier 1 networks and several additional telecommunication service providers cover the Fort Wayne rate area.[212]

Notable people

Sister cities

Fort Wayne has four sister cities as designated by Sister Cities International:[213]

  • Takaoka, Toyama, Japan (1977)
  • Płock, Masovian, Poland (1990)
  • Gera, Thuringia, Germany (1992)
  • Taizhou, Zhejiang, China (2012)

Friendship city

  • Mawlamyine, Mon State, Burma (Myanmar) (2015)[214]

See also

  • Fort Wayne (fort)
  • Fort Miami
  • List of public art in Fort Wayne, Indiana
  • Northern Indiana
  • Siege of Fort Wayne

Notes

  1. ^ According to J. Dunn, Jr., this name was “usually said to mean “blackberry patch,” or “blackberry bush,” this plant being considered an emblem of antiquity because it sprang up on the sites of old villages. This theory rests on the testimony of Barron, a longtime French trader on the Wabash. It is more probable that Kekionga is a corruption or dialect form of Kiskakon, or Kikakon, which was the original name of the place.” J. P. Dunn.[21] But, Michael McCafferty, an Algonquian and Uto-Aztecan linguist professor at Indiana University, exhaustively examined the etymology of ‘Kekionga’ and dismissed Dunn’s explanation and several others. See the chapter “Trails to Kekionga” in the relevantly titled Native American Place Names of Indiana (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2008), esp. p. 76. In the 1680s, French traders established a post near Kekionga due to its location on a portage between the Great Lakes and Mississippi River.[22]
  2. ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.

References

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Bibliography

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  • Beatty, John D. (2006). History of Fort Wayne & Allen County, Indiana, 1700–2005. M.T. Publishing Company. ISBN 1-932439-44-7.
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External links

  • Official website Edit this at Wikidata
  • Greater Fort Wayne Inc.
  • Visit Fort Wayne
  • INFortWayne


Bluffton, Indiana

City in Indiana, United States
Bluffton, Indiana
City
City of Bluffton
The Wells County Courthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places

The Wells County Courthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places
Motto(s): 

“The Parlor City”
Location of Bluffton in Wells County, Indiana.

Location of Bluffton in Wells County, Indiana.
Coordinates: 40°44′17″N 85°10′20″W / 40.73806°N 85.17222°W / 40.73806; -85.17222Coordinates: 40°44′17″N 85°10′20″W / 40.73806°N 85.17222°W / 40.73806; -85.17222
Country United States
State Indiana
County Wells
Township Harrison, Lancaster
Government

 • Mayor Ted Ellis (Democrat)
Area

[1]
 • Total 8.35 sq mi (21.63 km2)
 • Land 8.22 sq mi (21.30 km2)
 • Water 0.13 sq mi (0.33 km2)
Elevation

[2]
813 ft (252 m)
Population

(2010)[3]
 • Total 9,897
 • Estimate 

(2016)[4]
9,997
 • Density 1,215.59/sq mi (469.32/km2)
Time zone UTC-5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC-4 (EDT)
ZIP code
46714
Area code 260
FIPS code[2][5] 18-06220
GNIS ID[2][5] 431264
Website www.ci.bluffton.in.us

Bluffton is a city in Harrison and Lancaster townships, Wells County, in the U.S. state of Indiana. The population was 9,897 at the 2010 census. The city is the county seat of Wells County.[6]

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Geography
  • 3 Demographics

    • 3.1 2010 census
    • 3.2 2000 census
  • 4 Education
  • 5 Notable people
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

History

Bluffton was named for river bluffs near the original town site.[7] The Bluffton post office has been in operation since 1839.[8]

Bluffton was included in the corporate name of the short-lived Cincinnati, Bluffton and Chicago Railroad, founded in 1903. The railroad’s Bluffton bridge collapsed on May 22, 1913, and the struggling carrier went out of business shortly thereafter.[9]

Bluffton is one of the first towns in Indiana, and across America, to both publicly acknowledge its history of exclusion and to promote itself as an inclusive town. In 2006, Bluffton was featured in USA Today[10] as an inclusive town that was putting up welcoming, inclusive signs at all local schools as well as at the entrances of three state highways. Mayor Ted Ellis was noted in the article for his helping Bluffton become one of the first to join the National League of Cities’ Partnership for Working Toward Inclusive Communities.[11]

The Stewart-Studebaker House, Villa North Historic District, and Wells County Courthouse are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[12] The John A. Grove House is formerly listed.[13]

Geography

Bluffton is located at 40°44′17″N 85°10′20″W / 40.73806°N 85.17222°W / 40.73806; -85.17222 (40.737991, -85.172223).[14]

According to the 2010 census, Bluffton has a total area of 8.359 square miles (21.65 km2), of which 8.23 square miles (21.32 km2) (or 98.46%) is land and 0.129 square miles (0.33 km2) (or 1.54%) is water.[15]

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 477
1860 760 59.3%
1870 1,131 48.8%
1880 2,354 108.1%
1890 3,589 52.5%
1900 4,479 24.8%
1910 4,987 11.3%
1920 5,391 8.1%
1930 5,074 −5.9%
1940 5,417 6.8%
1950 6,076 12.2%
1960 6,238 2.7%
1970 8,297 33.0%
1980 8,705 4.9%
1990 9,020 3.6%
2000 9,536 5.7%
2010 9,897 3.8%
Est. 2016 9,997 [4] 1.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[16]

2010 census

As of the 2010 census,[3] there were 9,897 people, 4,112 households, and 2,585 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,202.6 inhabitants per square mile (464.3/km2). There were 4,532 housing units at an average density of 550.7 per square mile (212.6/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 96.0% White, 0.7% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 1.3% from other races, and 1.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.3% of the population.

There were 4,112 households of which 31.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.9% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, and 37.1% were non-families. 32.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.34 and the average family size was 2.93.

The median age in the city was 38.3 years. 24.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 8.8% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 24.3% were from 25 to 44; 25.3% were from 45 to 64; and 16.9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.0% male and 52.0% female.

2000 census

As of the 2000 census,[17] there were 9,536 people, 3,922 households, and 2,517 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,442.7 people per square mile (557.0/km²). There were 4,197 housing units at an average density of 635.0 per square mile (245.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 97.65% White, 0.34% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.79% from other races, and 0.69% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.35% of the population.

There were 3,922 households out of which 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.2% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.8% were non-families. 31.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.96.

In the city, the population was spread out with 25.0% under the age of 18, 9.6% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 17.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,416, and the median income for a family was $45,294. Males had a median income of $33,088 versus $22,018 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,118. About 6.4% of families and 9.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.8% of those under age 18 and 10.3% of those age 65 or over.

Education

Bluffton has a public library, a branch of the Wells County Public Library.[18]

Notable people

  • Adam Ballinger, basketball player
  • Randy Borror, member of Indiana House of Representatives
  • Charles Clemon Deam, botanist; born in Bluffton in 1865
  • Chandler Harnish, quarterback, MVP of 2010 Humanitarian Bowl, NFL draft’s 2012 “Mr. Irrelevant”; born in Bluffton
  • Don Lash, champion long-distance runner, won 1938 James E. Sullivan Award as top amateur athlete in U.S.; born in Bluffton in 1912
  • Daniel Patrick Moynihan, former U.S. Senator from New York, former U.S. Ambassador to United Nations, former ambassador to India
  • Everett Scott, MLB baseball player
  • Robert Tonner, fashion designer and doll artist; born in Bluffton in 1952

References

  1. ^ “2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jul 28, 2017..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ abc “Feature ID 431264”. Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
  3. ^ ab “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  4. ^ ab “Population and Housing Unit Estimates”. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  5. ^ ab “FIPS55 Data: Indiana”. FIPS55 Data. United States Geological Survey. February 23, 2006. Archived from the original on June 18, 2006. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
  6. ^ “Find a County”. National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  7. ^ Exploring Indiana Highways: Trip Trivia. Exploring America’s Highway. 2007. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-9744358-3-1.
  8. ^ “Wells County”. Jim Forte Postal History. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
  9. ^ Martin, Todd and Webb, Jeffrey (2014). Images of America: Huntington. Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia Publishing. pp. 44–45.
  10. ^ “Small Indiana Town Singing Tune of Racial, Ethnic Harmony”. USA Today. August 4, 2006.
  11. ^ National League of Cities Official Website Archived October 19, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ National Park Service (2010-07-09). “National Register Information System”. National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  13. ^ “National Register of Historic Places Listings”. Weekly List of Actions Taken on Properties: 7/11/11 through 7/15/11. National Park Service. 2011-07-22.
  14. ^ “US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990”. United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  15. ^ “G001 – Geographic Identifiers – 2010 Census Summary File 1”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-28.
  16. ^ “Census of Population and Housing”. Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  17. ^ “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  18. ^ “Service facilities”. Wells County Public Library. Retrieved 15 March 2018.

External links

  • City of Bluffton, Indiana website


Kokomo, Indiana

City in Indiana, United States
Kokomo, Indiana
City
The corner of Walnut and Main St in downtown Kokomo

The corner of Walnut and Main St in downtown Kokomo
Official seal of Kokomo, Indiana
Seal
Nickname(s): 

City of Firsts
Location of Kokomo in Howard County, Indiana

Location of Kokomo in Howard County, Indiana
Coordinates: 40°28′56″N 86°7′54″W / 40.48222°N 86.13167°W / 40.48222; -86.13167Coordinates: 40°28′56″N 86°7′54″W / 40.48222°N 86.13167°W / 40.48222; -86.13167
Country United States
State Indiana
County Howard
Government

 • Mayor Greg Goodnight (D)
Area

[1]
 • Total 36.76 sq mi (95.20 km2)
 • Land 36.57 sq mi (94.72 km2)
 • Water 0.18 sq mi (0.48 km2)
Elevation

811 ft (247 m)
Population

(2010)[2]
 • Total 45,468
 • Estimate 

(2017)[3]
57,836
 • Density 1,580.33/sq mi (610.18/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP codes
46901-46904
Area code(s) 765
FIPS code 18-40392
GNIS feature ID 0437425[4]
Website www.CityOfKokomo.org

Kokomo /ˈkkəm/ is a city in and the county seat of Howard County, Indiana, United States.[5] Kokomo is Indiana’s 13th-largest city. It is the principal city of the Kokomo, Indiana Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Howard and Tipton counties. Kokomo’s population was 46,113 at the 2000 census, and 45,468 at the 2010 census.[6] On January 1, 2012, Kokomo successfully annexed more than 7 square miles (18 km2) on the south and west sides of the city, including Alto and Indian Heights, increasing the city’s population to nearly 57,000 people.[7]

Named for the Miami Ma-Ko-Ko-Mo who was called “Chief Kokomo”,[8] Kokomo first benefited from the legal business associated with being the county seat. Before the Civil War, it was connected with Indianapolis and then the Eastern cities by railroad, which resulted in sustained growth. Substantial growth came after the discovery of large natural gas reserves, which produced a boom in the mid-1880s. Among the businesses which the boom attracted was the fledgling automobile industry. A significant number of technical and engineering innovations were developed in Kokomo, particularly in automobile production, and, as a result, Kokomo became known as the “City of Firsts.” A substantial portion of Kokomo’s employment still depends on the automobile industry.

Contents

  • 1 History

    • 1.1 Historic Buildings in Kokomo, Indiana
    • 1.2 Early history and incorporation
    • 1.3 Early growth
    • 1.4 Railroads
    • 1.5 Mayor Cole
    • 1.6 Natural gas boom
    • 1.7 “City of Firsts”
    • 1.8 1913 Flood
    • 1.9 Ku Klux Klan
    • 1.10 1965 tornado
    • 1.11 Ryan White
    • 1.12 Gas tower
    • 1.13 2016 Tornado
  • 2 Geography and climate

    • 2.1 Notable tornadoes
  • 3 Environmental problems

    • 3.1 Continental Steel Corporation
    • 3.2 Groundwater contamination
  • 4 Neighborhoods
  • 5 Demographics

    • 5.1 2010 census
  • 6 Economy
  • 7 Government
  • 8 Media

    • 8.1 Newspapers
    • 8.2 Television
    • 8.3 Radio
  • 9 Education

    • 9.1 Colleges and universities

      • 9.1.1 Public school districts
      • 9.1.2 Private schools
    • 9.2 Public library
  • 10 Culture

    • 10.1 Howard County Historical Society
    • 10.2 Parks and recreation
    • 10.3 Festivals
    • 10.4 Sports teams

      • 10.4.1 Former teams
      • 10.4.2 Current teams
    • 10.5 Sports venues
    • 10.6 Entertainment
    • 10.7 Shopping
  • 11 Infrastructure

    • 11.1 Transportation

      • 11.1.1 Airports
      • 11.1.2 Highways
      • 11.1.3 Railroads
      • 11.1.4 Bus service
      • 11.1.5 Trails and paths
    • 11.2 Health care
  • 12 Notable people
  • 13 In popular culture
  • 14 Sister city
  • 15 See also
  • 16 References
  • 17 Bibliography
  • 18 External links

History

Historic Buildings in Kokomo, Indiana

Photograph of the Elliott House in the Old Silk Stocking Historic District

The following is a list of all the buildings in Kokomo, Indiana that are listed in the National Register of Historic Places:

  • Elwood Haynes House
  • Kokomo City Building
  • Kokomo Country Club Golf Course
  • Kokomo Courthouse Square Historic District
  • Kokomo High School and Memorial Gymnasium
  • Lake Erie and Western Depot Historic District
  • Learner Building
  • Old Silk Stocking Historic District
  • Seiberling Mansion[9]

Early history and incorporation

The settler tradition says Kokomo was named for Kokomoko or Ma-Ko-Ko-Mo (meaning “black walnut”), shortened to Kokomo, said to have been one of the four sons of Chief Richardville last of the chiefs of the Miami people.[10][11] Folklore holds that he was 7 feet (2.1 m) tall and falsely gives him the title of “chief.”[11] David Foster, known as the “Father of Kokomo,” claimed that he named the town Kokomo after the “ornriest Indian on earth” because Kokomo was “the ornriest town on earth.”[11][12] Kokomo is thought to have been born in 1775 and died in 1838.[13] The only documentary proof of his existence is a trading post record of a purchase of a barrel of flour for $12 for his “squaw.”[11] His remains (with those of others) were reportedly discovered during the construction of a saw mill in 1848 and re-interred in the “north-east corner” of the Pioneer Cemetery.[12] The tradition of the Peru Miami is that the town was named after a Thorntown Miami named Ko-kah-mah, whose name is rendered Co-come-wah in the Treaty at the Forks of the Wabash in 1834. That name was translated as “the diver” (an animal that could swim under water).[14]

David Foster, Founder of Kokomo

As a result of various removals, by 1840 the Miami population in Howard County (until 1846 known as Richardville County) was reduced to about 200. The principal settlement was the Village of Kokomo, on the south side of Wildcat Creek. Indian paths connected Kokomo with Frankfort and Thorntown (along the Wildcat) and led to Peru by way of Cassville, and to Meshingomesia by way of Greentown.[13] At the time David Foster had a trading post in Howard County, near the intersection of the reservation boundary line and Wildcat pike, where he engaged in both legitimate trade and illegal sale of alcohol to the Miamis on government property.[15]

Shortly after Richardville County was organized in 1844 the commissioners appointed to establish the county seat approached Foster for a donation from his substantial holdings. (In 1846 tax records show that he owned 552 acres (223 ha) of farmland and as well as 67 divided lots in the business district.[16]) At the time of the request the only improvements in what is now Kokomo were Foster’s log house and log barn and several Miami huts. The commissioners sought a donation of the more fertile lands south of Wildcat Creek, but Foster refused, donating instead 40 acres (16 ha) north of the creek—land which was thickly forested and “swampy.”[17] The terms of the donation required that Foster build a courthouse on the land, but he was later excused and Rufus L. Blowers was promised $28 to build it. He was penalized $2 for construction delays.[18] The log courthouse was completed in 1845.[19]

In June 1855 Henry A. Brouse petitioned the board of Howard county commissioners to incorporate the town of Kokomo. The original election was not held (for unspecified reasons), but another took place on October 1, 1855. After a vote of 62–3 in favor of incorporation, the board so ordered it.[20]

On March 31, 1865, an election was held for Kokomo to assume a city government. The resolution was passed, and Nelson Purdum was elected the first mayor.[21]

Early growth

In anticipation of business that the court would bring, Kokomo began a fairly quick growth from the time that lots were first sold on October 18, 1844.[19] David Foster was granted the first license to sell merchandise in Kokomo at the December 1844 commissioners meeting. Two more merchants were licensed in March 1845.[22] John Bohan, who would become a major shop owner, merchant, justice of the peace and investor, moved to Kokomo in December 1844, and erected the first two story frame house, not only in Kokomo, but in all the county.[22][23]

After the enactment of the 1846 pre-emption law,[24] settlers rapidly attempted to secure homesteads in the surrounding lands.[25]

In 1848 Stonebreaker’s Mill, 10 miles (16 km) west of Kokomo, began operations.[15][19] By 1850 Kokomo had a newspaper, when James Beard purchased the printing equipment of the New London Pioneer and set up the Howard Tribune.[26] By 1851 county business was so brisk that the county ordered the construction of two more court buildings, both one story brick affairs, 18 by 36 feet (5.5 by 11.0 m). The county auditor and treasurer occupied one building, and the clerk and recorder occupied the other.[27]

On April 1, 1854, Kokomo’s first bank, the Indian Reserve Bank, was organized with David Foster, John Bohan and Harless Ashly the principal shareholders. (It only lasted a few years until a robbery impaired its capital. The loss substantially injured Foster’s fortune.)[28]

Railroads

1854 saw the first railroad stop at Kokomo.[19] The New London Pioneer had long advocated for a rail line to connect Kokomo with Indianapolis. Colonel C.D. Murray was the agent at Kokomo for stock subscriptions in support of the railroad. In 1852 the construction of the Peru and Indianapolis Railroad commenced. In Kokomo Samuel C. Mills and Dr. Corydon Richmond, commercial competitors of David Foster, donated several lots to the railroad in order to secure the location of the rail depot near their commercial property. The route was laid along Buckeye Street at the insistence of the merchants who hoped to reduced drayage expenses. Samuel Mills built a large frame structure at the Howard flouring mills, which served as a warehouse for the company’s freight and a passenger depot. For some time after 1854 Kokomo was the terminus of the line, but eventually the line was extended to Peru and then to Michigan City.[29]

A short time after the construction of the Peru and Indianapolis Railroad began, the Pennsylvania Railroad announced that one of its lines would pass through Kokomo. By 1853 a line was commenced between Kokomo and Logansport (which was intended to become the hub of a network of lines for the company). Railroad service was inaugurated on that line on July 4, 1855.[30]

The most important rail line for Kokomo became the standard-gauge Clover Leaf line. This railroad would eventually link Kokomo with both the West Coast and the Eastern Seaboard. It began as a short line linking Frankfort and Kokomo, the Frankfort and Kokomo Railroad. Henry Y. Morrison of Frankfort was the principal promoter, and A.Y. Comstock acted for him in Kokomo. A failure of the proposed subsidy caused the promoters to turn all assets over to the contractors, who promised to complete the line. Construction began in 1873 and was completed the following year. Limited freight between the two cities made the line unprofitable. After a series of acquisitions by other railroads, the line became part of the Toledo, St. Louis and Kansas City Railroad. A line connecting it to the east reached Kokomo on January 1, 1881.[31]

Mayor Cole

In 1881, one of the most remarkable and controversial events in Kokomo’s history took place. Mayor Henry C. Cole was shot to death by a sheriff’s posse. Dr. Cole had a curious history and had stirred up a great deal of passion in the previous fifteen years. He was reputed to have been a gifted surgeon, who served in the Union Army during the Civil War and when afterwards he settled in Kokomo, he became a prominent physician. In Kokomo he married a woman, Natalie Cole, of whom he became intensely jealous.[32] He became suspicious of one Allen, whom he warned away from Kokomo. When he discovered Allen leaving the post office one day in October 1866, he shot him dead.[33] The fact that the killing both took place in broad daylight and showed cold-blooded rage (Cole continued shooting after Allen was down) caused the crime to receive national attention.[34] Cole’s case was venued to Tipton County, where he retained Daniel W. Voorhees of Terre Haute to represent him.[32] Voorhees obtained a not guilty verdict on a plea of emotional insanity.[35] Cole divorced his wife thereafter.

Cole’s reputation for violent instability, and the cowardice in the way he killed Allen, created many enemies for him, but his generosity toward poor patients and a promise to “clean up” the town won him enough support to win a bitter election for Mayor in 1881.[32][35] Shortly thereafter, on September 19, 1881, he was shot dead by a sheriff’s posse at Old Spring Mills at West Jefferson Street.[32] According to the coroner’s inquest, he died from shotgun wounds inflicted by Deputy George Bennett (father of New York stage idol Richard Bennett).[36] The sheriff claimed that an informant had advised him that Cole was planning to rob a flour mill, possibly to incriminate his enemies. The posse was forced to fire on Cole in self-defense (the sheriff claimed he had two revolvers) and to prevent his escape, although his injuries seemed inconsistent with that version.[36][37] Cole’s supporter’s argued that no revolvers or burglary tools were produced and that the motive was implausible.[36] Nevertheless, no action was taken against Bennett or the other members of the posse.

Natural gas miners and their drill, near Kokomo, Indiana during the Indiana Gas Boom, c. 1885

Natural gas boom

Natural gas had been developed in Pennsylvania and Canada for some time, and had most recently been developed around Findlay, Ohio. In March 1886, a group of citizens, led principally by A.Y. Comstock (who had promoted the Frankfort and Kokomo Railroad) and D.C. Spraker (later President of Kokomo Rubber Company), circulated a memorandum seeking subscribers (at $100 each) for the purpose of boring for gas at a distance of at least 2,000 feet (610 m) below ground. It took until September to obtain the necessary 22 subscribers. The first rig was built south of Wildcat Creek. and on October 6, 1886, natural gas erupted forth and the well was capped.[38]

Together with the well in Eaton, which began producing slightly before Kokomo’s, the discovery led to the Indiana Gas Boom. This discovery was directly responsible for Elwood Haynes’ move to Kokomo, as a superintendent with a gas company with interests in Kokomo and Howard County. The Diamond Plate Glass Company (now part of PPG Industries) began in Kokomo in 1887, lured by the cheap and plentiful natural gas.[19] The Kokomo Opalescent Glass Works started making stained glass in Kokomo in 1888 and has been in continuous operation ever since.[39]

“City of Firsts”

Elwood Haynes driving in his first automobile, the 1894 Pioneer, photo taken c. 1910

As a result of the natural gas boom, Kokomo attracted an increasing number of industries, which resulted in significant technological innovations. For these industrial and technical achievements, Kokomo is officially known as the “City of Firsts.”[40] Among other achievements, Kokomo was a pioneer of the United States automobile manufacturing, with Elwood Haynes test-driving his early internal combustion engine auto there on July 4, 1894. Haynes and his associates built a number of other autos over the next few years; the Haynes-Apperson Automobile Company for mass-production of commercial autos was established in Kokomo in 1898.[41] Haynes went on to invent Stainless Steel flatware in 1912 to give his wife tarnish-free dinnerware.[42] In 1938, the Delco Radio Division of General Motors (now Aptiv) developed the first push button car radio.[43]

Kokomo serves as the “City of Firsts” in the food industry as well. In 1928 Walter Kemp, Kemp Brothers Canning Co. developed the first canned tomato juice because of a request by a physician in search for baby food for his clinic.[44] Kokomo is also home to the first mechanical corn picker which was developed by John Powell in the early 1920s. Kokomo was home to the first Ponderosa Steakhouse, which opened in 1965.[45] Kokomo opened the first McDonald’s with a diner inside, locally called “McDiner.”[46] This McDonald’s theme failed nationally. Eventually, the “McDiner” closed and was converted back to a regular McDonald’s restaurant.

1904 newspaper advertisement for Haynes-Apperson

The following inventions are associated with Kokomo:[19]

  • 1894 – Elwood Haynes makes the first successful trial run of his “horseless carriage” on Pumpkinvine Pike, which is now Boulevard east of Indiana 931 (formerly U.S.31.)
  • 1894 – The first pneumatic rubber tire in the US was created by D.C. Spraker at the Kokomo Rubber Tire Company.
  • 1895 – The first aluminum casting was developed by William “Billy” Johnson from the Ford and Donnelly Foundry.
  • 1902 – Kingston carburetor developed by George Kingston.
  • 1906 – The first Stellite cobalt-base alloy was discovered by Elwood Haynes.
  • 1912 – Stainless steel tableware was invented by Elwood Haynes as a response to his wife’s desire for tableware that wouldn’t tarnish.
  • 1918 – The Howitzer shell, used in World War I, was created by the Superior Machine Tool Company.
  • 1918 – The first aerial bomb with fins was produced by the Liberty Pressed Metal Company.
  • 1920 – The mechanical corn picker was created by John Powell.
  • 1923 – William Swern Sr. developed the first tire-building machine for mass production of auto tires [47][48]
  • 1928 – The first canned tomato juice was created by Walter Kemp from Kemp Brothers Canning Company in response to a physician’s need for baby food.
  • 1938 – The first push-button car radio was created at Delco Radio Division of General Motors Corporation.
  • 1941 – Globe American Stove Company manufactured the first all-metal life boats and rafts, known as Kokomo Kids in the US Navy.
  • 1947 – The first signal-seeking car radio was created by the Delco Radio Division of General Motors.
  • 1956 – Delco Radio Division of General Motors produced a transistorized signal-seeking car (hybrid) radio, which used both vacuum tubes and transistors in its radio’s circuitry. This transistorized car radio was available as an option on the 1956 Chevrolet Corvette car models.[49][50]
  • 1957 – Delco Radio Division of General Motors produced an all-transistor car radio, as standard equipment for the Cadillac Eldorado Brougham car model.[51][52][53]

1913 Flood

On March 21–26, 1913 Kokomo suffered severe flooding when 6.59 inches (167 mm) of rainfall occurred. The Kokomo Tribune reported at the time that the Wildcat Creek over-topped its levee to reach nearly 1 mile (1.6 km) wide after rising at a rate of 3 inches (76 mm) per hour. Damage was widespread, including loss of electrical power due to the power plant being flooded. On March 26, flooding was declared over after the water level dropped 42 inches (1,100 mm) in a 24-hour period.[54]

Ku Klux Klan

Cross burning, a regular practice of the Klan

In the summer of 1923, record numbers attended rallies of the Ku Klux Klan in Indiana. On June 16, 1923, a crowd of 75,000 attended a Klan rally in Terre Haute.[55] On June 21 Argos held the largest rally it had ever seen.[56] On June 26 a large Klan rally was held in Alexandria. All of this was merely a prelude to the rally planned for Kokomo. Conceived as a “monster tristate conclave,” it was intended to charter 93 Indiana klans representing more than 300,000 members.[57] Some doubted the prospect of 200,000 attendees, claiming in would be “without parallel in history”;[58] others predicted attendance of 300,000.[59] Extensive preparations for that number were made, including the scheduling of 1,000 interurban cars from around Indiana to Kokomo.[60] The Union Traction Company, in addition to supplying 50 cars, transported three cars of white horses to Kokomo for the parade.[61] The Kokomo Klan rented the fields surrounding its own large lot for parking, and electric amplifiers were obtained to allow the large crowd to hear the speeches.[59]

According to historian Robert Coughland, “literally half” of Kokomo residents were members of the Ku Klux Klan during its height in the 1920s and 1930s.[62] On July 4, 1923, Kokomo achieved national notoriety when it hosted the largest Ku Klux Klan gathering in history. An estimated 200,000 Klan members and supporters gathered in Malfalfa Park for a massive Konklave in which D. C. Stephenson was elevated to the position of Grand Dragon of the Indiana Klan.[63][64] Other estimates say the crowd was only 10,000.[65] A huge flag was used that day to collect a reported $50,000 for construction of a local “Klan hospital” so that Klan members would not have to be treated at the only local hospital, which was Catholic.[66] Both men’s and women’s Klans held weekly rallies and initiations in Malfalfa Park, and Kokomo’s Klanswomen held meetings at the armory, the local headquarters of the Women of the Ku Klux Klan, and churches. A speech at a Baptist church was attended by 1000 Klanswomen.[67]

The Kokomo rally sent shockwaves through the national GOP, which had come to believe that the re-election of President Warren G. Harding depended on the vote of Indiana. According to the Washington correspondent of the New York World, Republicans feared that the Klan had “virtually swallowed” the Indiana Republican Party. Since the Republicans held only a 25,000 vote plurality in the state, any serious defection of African-Americans would tip the state to the Democrats.[68] In the event, Harding died within a month and Republican Calvin Coolidge succeeded him with a substantial electoral majority (including Indiana) against a divided opposition. The Klan, however, continued to dominate state politics especially after the election of Edward L. Jackson as governor.

1965 tornado

On April 11, 1965 the southern part of Kokomo was struck by one of the 47 tornadoes that erupted over six Midwestern states, an event now known as the Palm Sunday Tornado Outbreak.[69] The F4 tornado that swept through Kokomo was 800 yards (730 m) wide and killed 25 people in the surrounding area.[70] Significant damage was done to the Chrysler transmission plant. Windows were broken and the framework cracked throughout, and sections of the west wall were leveled. The Maple Crest elementary and junior high schools suffered extensive damage. The roof collapsed on the junior high school, and the framework of both schools was substantially wrecked. The Maple Crest Shell Station at the intersection of Lincoln and Washington was torn from its foundation and scattered about. Mills Drug Store at the same intersection was demolished. A house on Holly Lane was uprooted, and one on James Drive was demolished. The Maple Crest Shopping Center was extensively damaged, with Woolworth’s suffering the most damage. The front and back of the one-story structure were caved in and merchandise was strewn about.[71] Numerous homes in the Maple Crest area were flattened, and the top floor of the Maple Crest apartments was blown off. The only thing left standing on the nearby Church of the Brethren was the steeple.[72] The force of the wind on the flat earth near Kokomo was so great that Ted Fujita was able to make aerial photographs of the spiral scoring on the ground.[73]

Ryan White

Ryan White in 1989 at a fundraising event in Indianapolis

Kokomo served to symbolize the nation’s early misunderstanding and ignorance of AIDS in the mid-to-late 1980s when Ryan White was expelled from school due to his illness. White was a teenage hemophiliac who had been infected with HIV through contaminated blood products (Factor 8). At the time blood products were often collected through state prison systems. Factor 8 was made from pooled plasma of thousands of donors. Later the plasma was screened for HIV and Hepatitis and heat treated to inactive HIV and Hepatitis. The teen had been attending Western Middle School (which is actually in Russiaville) but was ostracized by his classmates, and forced to eat lunch alone and use a separate restroom. Many parents and teachers in Kokomo rallied in support of banning White from attending the school. A lengthy administrative appeal process with the school system ensued, followed by death threats and violence against White and his family, including a bullet being fired through the window of their Kokomo home. Media coverage of the case made White into a national celebrity and spokesman for AIDS research and public education.[74] In 1987, the White family left Kokomo for Cicero, Indiana. Ryan attended Hamilton Heights High School in nearby Arcadia, where he was welcomed by faculty and students.

Gas tower

The Kokomo Gas Tower had been a symbol of Kokomo since it was constructed in 1954. The tower was 378 feet (115 m) tall and had a capacity of 12,000,000 cubic feet (340,000 m3). Due to high maintenance costs of $75,000 a year, and up to $1,000,000 to paint it, the gas company decided to demolish it in 2003. Other ideas were reviewed before settling on this decision, including a plan to turn the tower into a giant Coca-Cola advertisement. On September 7, 2003, at approximately 7:30 a.m., the Gas Tower was demolished by Controlled Demolition, Inc. (CDI). Pieces of the tower were sold to the public for $20–30, and proceeds went to a planned Kokomo technology incubation center and Bona Vista.[75]

2016 Tornado

On August 24, 2016 a strong EF3 tornado caused major damage in the southern part of Kokomo. 1,000 homes were damaged, 170 of which sustained major damage. 80 of these homes were destroyed, some sustaining loss of roofs and exterior walls. Many large trees and power poles were snapped along the path, and the Park Place Apartments were heavily damaged as well. Vehicles were also damaged, including a large truck that was moved 10 feet from the driveway of a house and flipped over.[76] A Starbucks was completely destroyed, and several people were left trapped inside and had to be rescued.[77] Many sheds and detached garages were destroyed as well, and a receipt from Kokomo was found 30 miles away in Marion.[76] The storm followed a path very close to that of another tornado which hit on November 17, 2013. Scientists have noticed that every tornado in Kokomo has struck the southern part of the city.[78]

Geography and climate

According to the 2010 census, Kokomo has a total area of 18.559 square miles (48.07 km2), of which 18.5 square miles (47.91 km2) (or 99.68%) is land and 0.059 square miles (0.15 km2) (or 0.32%) is water.[79]

Kokomo has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa).

Climate data for Kokomo, Indiana, Kokomo Municipal Airport, normals 2003–2012
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 72
(22)
74
(23)
85
(29)
94
(34)
100
(38)
107
(42)
110
(43)
106
(41)
103
(39)
91
(33)
81
(27)
71
(22)
110
(43)
Average high °F (°C) 32
(0)
37
(3)
48
(9)
62
(17)
72
(22)
81
(27)
84
(29)
83
(28)
77
(25)
64
(18)
50
(10)
36
(2)
61
(16)
Average low °F (°C) 16
(−9)
19
(−7)
28
(−2)
39
(4)
49
(9)
59
(15)
62
(17)
60
(16)
52
(11)
41
(5)
32
(0)
21
(−6)
40
(4)
Record low °F (°C) −26
(−32)
−20
(−29)
−10
(−23)
8
(−13)
27
(−3)
34
(1)
41
(5)
37
(3)
27
(−3)
17
(−8)
−5
(−21)
−24
(−31)
−26
(−32)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.58
(65.5)
2.46
(62.5)
3.03
(77)
3.92
(99.6)
4.43
(112.5)
4.36
(110.7)
4.81
(122.2)
3.91
(99.3)
3.45
(87.6)
3.22
(81.8)
3.68
(93.5)
3.18
(80.8)
42.4
(1,077)
Average relative humidity (%) 71.5 70.5 63.5 59.25 62 63.75 68.5 71 65.5 60.5 63.5 68 65.625
Source #1: [80]
Source #2: [81]

Notable tornadoes

Kokomo has been struck by 18 tornadoes between 1950 and 2015, some of which were strong enough to claim lives.[82]

On March 6, 1961, two F3 tornadoes struck the southern part of Kokomo, killing one person and injuring three others.

On April 11, 1965 an F4 tornado tore through portions of Russiaville, Alto, southern Kokomo, and Greentown killing 25 people and injuring hundreds of more.

On April 20, 2004 Two tornadoes struck the Northern part of Kokomo. The first tornado was rated F0 and caused little damage to homes and trees. The second tornado was rated F1 and caused a roof to collapse at the local skating rink, and damaged three other homes and a truck stop. Both tornadoes caused 1 injury and no fatalities. This was the first time ever a tornado has struck the Northern part of Kokomo.

On November 17, 2013 two EF2 tornadoes tore through the southern part of Kokomo. The first tornado Damaged over 300 homes/businesses. The second tornado touched down briefly and caused damage to the local golf course and other businesses. In all, The two tornadoes caused 0 fatalities and only five injuries.

On August 24, 2016 an EF3 tornado caused significant damage to the Southern part of Kokomo damaging over 1,000 homes and businesses. 80 of these homes were destroyed, 176 had their walls blown in and roofs torn off, and over 700 were damaged badly. No fatal injuries were recorded during this tornado.

Environmental problems

Continental Steel Corporation

From 1914 through 1986, the Continental Steel Corporation facility produced nails, wire and wire fence from scrap steel on a 183-acre (74 ha) facility in Kokomo. Manufacturing operations in the steel plant and on other portions of the property included the use, handling, storage and disposal of hazardous materials. Steel-making operations had included reheating, casting rolling, drawing, pickling, galvanizing, tinning and tempering.

After the company filed for bankruptcy in 1986, EPA and the Indiana Department of Environmental Management investigated the plant and property and found soil, sediments, surface water and ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds (PCBs) and several metals, including lead, arsenic, cadmium, and chromium. Lead contamination was also detected in soils on nearby residential properties.

The site was proposed to the National Priorities List as a Superfund site in 1988 and formally added in 1989.[83]

In April 2009, EPA received almost $6 million in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to complete needed cleanup at two problems at the Continental Steel Superfund site: the former Slag Processing Area and the site’s contaminated ground water. The ARRA funding helped accelerate the cleanup of hazardous waste on the site. In the process, total of 15 Indiana contractors or subcontractors were involved in the ARRA-funded work, creating at least 45 temporary jobs.

In August 2010, using the ARRA funds, EPA completed the cleanup of the former slag processing area of the Superfund Site. Approximately 86,000 short tons (78,000 t) of slag were moved to the site’s acid lagoon area for use as fill on that portion of the site. Two feet (0.6 m) of clean soil were used to cap the former slag processing area, leaving it suitable for potential redevelopment. ARRA funds were also used to address contaminated groundwater at the site. This work included extensive groundwater sampling to determine the contaminated plume area and installation of groundwater extraction and monitoring wells. Three wind turbines will be used to generate much of the power needed to operate the groundwater extraction system.

Site cleanup was completed in August 2011.[84]

In 2016 the former site was approved as the location of a Solar farm with installation of panels beginning in August 2016. The estimated cost of the project is $10M.[85]
The solar energy park began operating on December 29, 2016.[86]

Groundwater contamination

In 1995 the Indiana American Water treatment facility found groundwater beneath the city contaminated with trace amounts of vinyl chloride. In 2007, the Indiana Department of Environmental Management found groundwater at four municipal wells containing vinyl chloride at levels exceeding the EPA maximum contaminant level in raw water.[87]

In 2011, it found one of the monitoring wells, not owned or used by Indiana American Water, had amounts of vinyl chloride that were more than 2,500 times the maximum level for drinking water.[87] IDEM has identified fourteen facilities that handle chlorinated solvents and could be sources to the contamination plume. Some of these potential sources are currently being managed under other authorities but there is no cleanup approach focusing on the ground water plume. Water from several well fields in Kokomo are blended and treated prior to distribution. A water treatment system has been successfully removing the vinyl chloride from the finished drinking water, but this is not a permanent solution to address the contaminated ground water plume.

The site was proposed to the National Priorities List and added to the Superfund in March 2015. No cleanup plan is yet in effect.[88]

Neighborhoods

These are neighborhoods in Kokomo according to the city transportation map:[89]

  • Berkley Meadows
  • Bon Air
  • Cedar Crest
  • Country Club Hills
  • Cricket Hill
  • Darrough Chapel
  • Doral Park
  • Downtown Kokomo
  • Emerald Lake
  • Fairlawn
  • Forest Park
  • Forest Park Estates
  • Fredrick Farms
  • Greentree
  • Highland Springs
  • Holiday Hills
  • Holiday Park
  • Indian Heights
  • Ivy Hills
  • Maple Crest
  • Markland Heights
  • Mayfield
  • Old Silk Stocking
  • Orleans Southwest
  • Pittsburgh Plate Glass
  • Stonybrook
  • Sycamore Village
  • Terrace Gardens
  • Terrace Meadows
  • The Preserves at Bridgewater
  • Urbandale
  • Vinton Woods
  • Water’s Edge
  • Western Woods
  • Willowridge
  • Webster Estates

Demographics

Location of the Kokomo-Peru CSA and its components:

  Kokomo Metropolitan Statistical Area
  Peru Micropolitan Statistical Area
Historical population
Census Pop.
1860 1,040
1870 2,177 109.3%
1880 4,042 85.7%
1890 8,261 104.4%
1900 10,609 28.4%
1910 17,010 60.3%
1920 30,067 76.8%
1930 32,843 9.2%
1940 33,795 2.9%
1950 38,672 14.4%
1960 47,197 22.0%
1970 44,042 −6.7%
1980 47,808 8.6%
1990 44,962 −6.0%
2000 46,113 2.6%
2010 45,468 −1.4%
Est. 2017 57,836 [3] 27.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[90]
2012 Estimate[91]

Kokomo is the larger principal city of the Kokomo-Peru CSA, a Combined Statistical Area that includes the Kokomo metropolitan area (Howard and Tipton counties) and the Peru micropolitan area (Miami County),[92][93][94] which had a combined population of 119,335 at the 2012 estimate.

As of 2000 the median income for households in the city was $36,258, and the median income for a family was $45,353. Males had a median income of $38,420 versus $24,868 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,083. About 9.6% of families and 13.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.5% of those under age 18 and 9.3% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 45,468 people, 19,848 households, and 11,667 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,457.7 inhabitants per square mile (948.9/km2). There were 23,010 housing units at an average density of 1,243.8 per square mile (480.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 83.5% White, 10.7% African American, 0.4% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 1.1% from other races, and 3.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.3% of the population.

There were 19,848 households of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.4% were married couples living together, 16.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.8% had a male householder with no wife present, and 41.2% were non-families. 35.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.90.

The median age in the city was 38.2 years. 24% of residents were under the age of 18; 8.8% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25.2% were from 25 to 44; 26.2% were from 45 to 64; and 15.8% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 46.8% male and 53.2% female.

The Upper Kispoko Band of the Shawnee Nation, an unrecognized tribe, was listed as being located in Kokomo, Indiana as of 2013[update].[95][96][97][98][99]

Economy

Downtown Kokomo in 2008

Kokomo’s employment, largely based in manufacturing, was hard hit by the economic downturn which led to the recession beginning in December 2007.[citation needed] In December 2008, Kokomo was ranked third by Forbes in its list of America’s fastest dying towns, mainly as a result of the financial difficulties of the automotive industry.[100]

In May 2011, Forbes magazine listed Kokomo as one of the “Best Cities for Jobs” after the city ascended 177 places in the rankings. The same article described Kokomo’s success in the past few years as “inspirational” and attributed the turnaround to “a revival in manufacturing.”[101] In June 2011, Conexus released a report touting Kokomo’s “rapid bounce” after the recession, and predicted a rise in income of more than 2%, assuming increased automobile production.[102]

By May 2013 Kokomo’s unemployment rate was 9%, representing a 1.4% decrease in non-farm employment,[103] it was higher than the national rate of 7.6%.[104] The May 2013 statistics reported a 6.9% decline in manufacturing jobs over the previous 12 months. Government employment was 18.7% below the previous year.[103]

Major employers are

  • FCA US LLC

    • Kokomo Transmission Plant (3,583 employees)[105]
    • Kokomo Casting Plant (1,281 employees)[106]
    • Indiana Transmission Plant I and II (2,439 employees)[107]
  • Aptiv
  • Delphi Technologies
  • GM Components Holdings LLC
  • Haynes International
  • Holder Mattress
  • Syndicate Sales, Inc.
  • Coca-Cola bottling plant
  • Bona Vista (charity)

Government

City Hall and Police Department building.

Kokomo’s current mayor is Democrat Greg Goodnight (2008–present).[108] The two previous mayors were Matt McKillip (2004–2008)[109] and Jim Trobaugh, both Republicans.
The mayor is elected in a citywide vote. The city council is known as the Common Council. It consists of nine members. Six members are elected from individual districts. The other three are elected at-large.[110]

Media

Newspapers

  • Kokomo Tribune, daily morning newspaper owned by Community Newspaper Holdings Inc. (CNHI).
  • Kokomo Perspective, a locally owned weekly newspaper delivered every Tuesday or Wednesday.
  • The Correspondent, The Student Voice of Indiana University Kokomo and Purdue College of Technology at Kokomo

Television

  • WTTK, CBS affiliate, channel 29 (satellite of Bloomington-licensed WTTV); transmits from Indianapolis’s north side
  • KGOV, Kokomo government access channel, channel 2

Radio

  • WFIU-FM, Jazz, Classical, NPR – 106.1 FM
  • WFRN-FM, Christian Radio – 93.7 FM
  • WIOU-AM, Talk, News and Sports – 1350 AM
  • WIWC-FM, Christian Radio – 91.7 FM
  • WMYK-FM, Rock – 98.5 FM
  • WSHW-FM, Contemporary Hit Radio (Top 40) – 99.7 FM
  • WTSX-FM, Hip-Hop, Gospel, Soul, Rock-n-Roll, EDM & Top 40 – 104.9 FM
  • WWKI-FM, Hit Country – 100.5 FM
  • WJJD-LP, Christian Radio – 101.3 FM
  • WZWZ-FM, Bright Adult Contemporary – 92.5 FM

Education

Colleges and universities

  • Howard College – 1863-1872[111]
  • Indiana University Kokomo (IUK)
  • Indiana Wesleyan University – Kokomo Campus
  • Ivy Tech Community College
  • Purdue University College of Technology at Kokomo

Public school districts

  • Kokomo-Center Township Consolidated School Corporation (K-12, most neighborhoods inside city limits) Kokomo High School (NCC)
  • Northwestern School Corporation (K–12, northern part of the town) (MIC)
  • Taylor Community School Corporation (K-12, Indian Heights neighborhood) (MIC)
  • Western School Corporation (K-12, Pine Valley/Jackson Morrow Park area) (MIC)

Private schools

  • Acacia Academy (K-8)
  • Agape Garden Montessori School
  • Children’s Christian Academy
  • Christian Heritage Academy
  • F.D. Reese Christian Academy (K-3)
  • Redeemer Lutheran School (K-8)
  • Sts. Joan of Arc and St. Patrick Catholic School (K-8)
  • Temple Christian School (K-12)
  • Victory Christian Academy (K-12)

Public library

The city has a lending library, the Kokomo-Howard County Public Library.[112]

Culture

Howard County Historical Society

Seiberling Mansion

The Howard County Historical Society occupies the Seiberling Mansion and the Elliot House, and their carriage houses. The Seiberling Mansion was built as the residence of Monroe Seiberling, one of Kokomo’s richest citizens. Because of its architectural significance, the building has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1972. The Elliot House was also built as a residence; it was later adapted for use as office space. These buildings are in the Old Silk Stocking Neighborhood, which is on the National Register of Historic Places, the only neighborhood in the county to be so recognized.[113]

Parks and recreation

Old Ben – Born in 1902 and acclaimed as “The largest steer in the world”

The Vermont Covered Bridge – Another attraction to be found in Highland Park

  • Chief Ma-Ko-Ko-Mo Burial and Monument, east of downtown Kokomo
  • Elwood Haynes Museum, located next to Highland Park[114]
  • Foster Park
  • Kokomo Country Club, golf club

Festivals

  • Haynes-Apperson Festival, Independence Day weekend[115]
  • WeberFest, Foster Park[116]
  • Kokomo Con, October, Kokomo Event Center.[117][118][119]

Sports teams

Former teams

  • Indiana Mustangs, Mid Continental Football League (1991–2009), Mid States Football League (2010)
  • Kokomo Dodgers, Midwest League (1955–1961)
  • Kokomo CFD Saints, semi-pro baseball (1989–2002)
  • Kokomo CFD Knights, semi-pro baseball (2006–2007)
  • Kokomo Mantis FC, soccer team (2016)

Current teams

  • Kokomo City of Fists Roller Girls, (Founded 2010)[120]
  • Kokomo Jackrabbits, Prospect League collegiate baseball, (Founded 2015)

Sports venues

  • Highland Park Stadium (CFD Investments Stadium)
  • Kokomo Speedway[121]
  • Memorial Gym
  • Kokomo Municipal Stadium
  • Wildcat Creek Soccer Complex

Entertainment

Kokomo has a 12-screen movie theater, called AMC Showplace Kokomo 12, located on 1530 East Boulevard. In addition to AMC, Kokomo also has several forms of live entertainment, including choirs, a Park Band Association, and three live theatres.

Shopping

The city’s major mall is Markland Mall, which features Target. The Kokomo Town Center, the former Kokomo Mall, underwent a major renovation in 2011 when it became an outdoor mall.[122]

Infrastructure

Transportation

Airports

  • Kokomo Municipal Airport[123]

Highways

US 31 in Kokomo in 2005, now designated State Road 931.

  • US 31.svg US-31 to South Bend (North) and Indianapolis (South)[124]
  • US 35.svg US-35 to Logansport (North) and Muncie (South)
  • Indiana 931.svg IN-931 (former US 31 through Kokomo)
  • Indiana 19.svg IN-19 to Kokomo Reservoir (North) and Tipton (South)
  • Indiana 22.svg IN-22 to Burlington (West) and Hartford City (East)
  • Indiana 26.svg IN-26 to Lafayette (West) and Hartford City (East)

A major roadway traversing through Kokomo, nicknamed “stop light city”,[125] US 31 had become one of the state’s most congested roadways. In Howard County, there were 15 traffic signals on US 31. As part of the state of Indiana’s Major Moves Project, US 31 was updated to bypass the city of Kokomo to the east. It has interchanges at SR 26, Boulevard, Markland Avenue, and Touby Pike, as well as where the current SR 931 meets the new US 31.[126] There was a similar change near South Bend and there will be one near Indianapolis. The construction in Howard County cost roughly $340 million. Construction started on the County Road 200 South bridge on November 1, 2008.[127] The new US 31 was opened November 27, 2013,[128] at which time the existing roadway was renamed SR 931.

Railroads

  • Central Railroad of Indianapolis[129]
  • Norfolk Southern Railway (out of service)
  • Winamac Southern Railway (formerly part of the Columbus to Chicago Main Line)[130]

Bus service

  • Trailways service to Indianapolis and South Bend
  • Kokomo City-Line Trolley A fixed-route transportation system, five bus routes run past a total of exactly 275 stops, passing each stop once every hour, from 6:30 a.m. to 7 p.m., Monday through Friday. The buses also have wireless internet for riders, which like the buses, is free to riders.[131]

Trails and paths

  • Wildcat Walk of Excellence – The Wildcat Walk of Excellence consists of over 3 miles (4.8 km) of paved trail that roughly follows the Wildcat Creek. The trail connects several of Kokomo’s parks including Foster, Future, Waterworks, Miller-Highland and Mehlig Parks with a pedestrian bridge connecting Foster Park and the Kokomo Beach Family Aquatic Center.
  • Industrial Heritage Trail – An ongoing project beginning in 2011, the Industrial Heritage Trail is currently built in two sections totaling in 4.03 miles (6.49 km) in length and follows the right-of-way of a railroad corridor. The northern segment spans 1.24 miles (2.00 km) from Apperson Way (north) to Northside Park (south). The southern section spans 2.79 miles (4.49 km) from Jefferson Street (north) in downtown Kokomo to the former Damen’s Property adjacent to SR931 on the city’s south side. Once completed, the Industrial Heritage Trail will span 5.6 miles (9.0 km) between SR931 on the city’s north and south side.
  • Nickel Plate Trail – Currently connecting Rochester to Peru, the trail ends in Cassville with plans to connect to Kokomo in the near future.

Health care

  • St. Vincent Kokomo Hospital, opened in 1913[132][133][134]
  • Community Howard Regional Health, incorporated in 1958[135]

Notable people

  • Brandon Beachy, MLB pitcher Los Angeles Dodgers, Northwestern High School (Indiana) graduate
  • Alicia Berneche, operatic soprano
  • Rupert Boneham, contestant on TV series Survivor, Libertarian candidate for Indiana Governor in 2012
  • Norman Bridwell, author of the Clifford the Big Red Dog children’s books
  • Quautico (Tico) Brown, former Continental Basketball Association player
  • Steve Butler, six-time Sprint Car National Champion
  • Calibretto 13, band
  • Kaitlyn Christopher, Miss Indiana USA 2005
  • Dave Darland, auto racer
  • Rowdy Elliott, baseball player
  • Elwood Haynes, inventor, automotive pioneer
  • Bud Hillis, U.S. Representative
  • Margaret Hillis, pianist, founder of Chicago Symphony Chorus
  • Nellie Keeler, child circus performer
  • Don Johnson, professional bowler/PBA Hall-of-Fame member
  • Opha May Johnson, United States Marine Corps first female Marine[136]
  • Steve Kroft, 60 Minutes correspondent
  • Jim “Goose” Ligon, former ABA basketball player
  • Strother Martin, actor
  • Clay Myers, photographer, animal welfare advocate
  • Kent C. Nelson, past CEO of United Parcel Service
  • John O’Banion, singer
  • Jack Purvis, jazz musician
  • Jane Randolph, actress, grew up in Kokomo
  • Jimmy Rayl, “Splendid Splinter,” Indiana Pacers 1967–1969, two-time All-American Indiana University
  • Robert S. Richardson, astronomer
  • Tod Sloan, jockey
  • Tavis Smiley, PBS presenter
  • “Sylvia” (Sylvia Jane Kirby), singer
  • Joe Thatcher, pitcher for MLB Chicago Cubs
  • Pat Underwood, former MLB pitcher, Detroit Tigers
  • Tom Underwood, former MLB pitcher, Philadelphia Phillies, St. Louis Cardinals, Toronto Blue Jays, New York Yankees, Oakland A’s and Baltimore Orioles
  • William N. Vaile, Congressman[137]
  • Ryan White, AIDS activist

In popular culture

  • The Man from Home (1908), a play by Booth Tarkington and Harry Leon Wilson, involves a lawyer from Kokomo who travels to Europe but returns to the city in the end.[138]
  • A Romance of Kokomo was a silent film made in 1917, which was also filmed in Kokomo, and made its opening premiere at the Isis Theater on South Main Street.[139]
  • The Kid from Kokomo (1939; also sometimes called Broadway Cavalier) is a comedy film about an orphan from Kokomo who refuses to box until his mother is found. The film was based on a story by Dalton Trumbo.[140]
  • In the 1947 film Mother Wore Tights, Betty Grable and Dan Dailey sing a song entitled “Kokomo, Indiana”.[141]
  • Kokomo is the setting of Allan Dwan’s nostalgic 1953 musical Sweethearts on Parade.[142]
  • “First Snow in Kokomo” is a track on Aretha Franklin’s album Young, Gifted and Black. Franklin’s domestic partner Ken Cunningham was born and raised in Kokomo and they still have family there.[143]
  • In the 1980 film Blues Brothers, the roadhouse “Bob’s Country Bunker” is identified by Elwood Blues as being located in Kokomo.[144]

Sister city

  • Dongyang, Zhejiang, China (2013)[145]

See also

  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Howard County, Indiana

References

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  16. ^ Pollard, p. 320
  17. ^ Morrow, pp. 56–58.
  18. ^ Morrow, p. 112.
  19. ^ abcdef “Time Line of Howard County, 1844–”. Kokomo-Howard County Public Library. Archived from the original on November 12, 2013. Retrieved June 17, 2013.
  20. ^ Pollard, pp. 326–27
  21. ^ Pollard, p. 330.
  22. ^ ab Pollard, p. 326.
  23. ^ Morrow, pp. 202–03.
  24. ^ An Act to grant the Right of Preemption to actual Settlers on the Lands acquired by Treaty from the Miami Indians in Indiana, 9 Stat. 50 (August 3, 1846).
  25. ^ Morrow, p. 68.
  26. ^ Pollard, Otis C. “Newspapers”. History of Howard County. by Jackson Morrow (Indianapolis: B.F. Bowen & Co. [1909?]), Vol. I, pp. 304–18 (“Newspapers”), pp. 304–05.
  27. ^ Morrow, pp. 112–13.
  28. ^ Pollard, pp. 327–28.
  29. ^ Pollard, Otis C. “Railroads”. History of Howard County. by Jackson Morrow (Indianapolis: B.F. Bowen & Co. [1909?]), Vol. I, pp. 416–21 (“Railroads”), pp. 416–19.
  30. ^ Watt, William J. (1999) The Pennsylvania Railroad in Indiana. Indiana University Press. p. 30.
  31. ^ Railroads, pp. 419–20.
  32. ^ abcd Leiter, Carl. “The Case of Dr. Henry Cole”. From Out of the Past. Kokomo-Howard County Public Library. undated clipping.
  33. ^ Pollard, Otis C. “Crimes and Casualties”. History of Howard County. by Jackson Morrow (Indianapolis: B.F. Bowen & Co. [1909?]), Vol. I, pp. 282–304 (“Pollard”), p. 292-93.
  34. ^ “General News” (PDF). The New York Times. October 29, 1866. Retrieved July 16, 2013.
  35. ^ ab Pollard, p. 293.
  36. ^ abc Booher, Ned and Linda Ferries, Kokomo: A Pictorial History (St. Louis: G. Bradley: 1989), p. 28.
  37. ^ Pollard, pp. 294–95.
  38. ^ Morrow, pp. 232–34.
  39. ^ “History of Kokomo Opalescent Glass”. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
  40. ^ “City of Kokomo, Indiana”. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
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  42. ^ “Stainless Steel”. Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  43. ^ ONDAS Media Selects Delphi as First Strategic Investor and Technology Provider to Help Bring Satellite Radio to Europe Archived January 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  44. ^ “Walter Kemp Develops Canned Tomato Juice”. American Profile. Retrieved August 19, 2012.
  45. ^ Stephens, Caleb (April 21, 2003). “Local Ponderosa restaurants fall from six to two”. Bizjournals.