Austrian Vereinstaler of 1866

The Vereinsthaler (German: [fɛɐ̯ˈʔaɪnsˌtaːlɐ], union thaler) was a standard silver coin used in most German states and the Austrian Empire in the years before German unification.


  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Use in different states
  • 3 Withdrawal
  • 4 References


The Vereinsthaler was introduced in 1857 to replace the previous standard Thaler (based on the Prussian Thaler) which was very slightly heavier. While the earlier Thaler had contained one fourteenth of a Cologne mark of silver (16.704 grams), the Vereinsthaler contained ​16 23 grams of silver, which was indicated on the coins as one thirtieth of a metric pound (pfund, equal to 500 grams).

Use in different states

The Vereinsthaler was used as the base for several different currencies. In Prussia and several other northern German states, the Vereinsthaler was the standard unit of account, divided into 30 Silbergroschen, each of 12 Pfennig. See Prussian Vereinsthaler.

In Saxony, the Neugroschen was equal to the Prussian Silbergroschen but was divided into 10 Pfennig. See Saxon Vereinsthaler. Some other north German states, such as Hanover, used the name Groschen rather than Silbergroschen for a coin of 12 Pfennig (see Hanoverian Vereinsthaler), while the Mecklenburg states and Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) used entirely distinct subdivisions (see Mecklenburg Vereinsthaler and Hesse-Kassel Vereinsthaler.

In southern Germany, states including Bavaria used the Gulden as the standard unit of account, with ​1 34 Gulden = 1 Vereinsthaler. The Gulden was divided into 60 Kreuzer, each of 4 Pfennig or 8 Heller. See Bavarian Gulden, Baden Gulden, Württemberg Gulden.

In the Austrian Empire (and later the Austro-Hungarian Empire), a different Gulden (also known as the Florin or, in Hungarian, Forint) was the unit of account, with ​1 12 Gulden = 1 Vereinsthaler. The Gulden was divided into 100 Kreuzer.


German unification saw the introduction of the Goldmark at a rate of 3 mark = 1 Vereinsthaler. Consequently, the new 10 pfennig coins were equivalent to the old Groschen of northern Germany and this became a nickname for the denomination. The Vereinsthaler coins continued to circulate as 3 mark coins until 1908, when they were replaced with smaller 3 mark coins. The name Thaler for 3 marks persisted until the 1930s.

Austria-Hungary stopped issuing Vereinsthaler coins in 1867, following the Austro-Prussian War.

Preceded by
German currency
Succeeded by
German Goldmark


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  • Krause, Chester L.; Clifford Mishler (1991). Standard Catalog of World Coins: 1801–1991 (18th ed.). Krause Publications. ISBN cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}


1690 Kreuzer of Friedrich Karl, administrator

1776 Kreuzer of Bern

The Kreuzer (German: [ˈkʀɔɪtsɐ] (About this soundlisten)), in English usually kreutzer,[1] was a silver coin and unit of currency existing in the southern German states prior to the unification of Germany, and in Austria. After 1760 it was made of copper.[2]


  • 1 Early history
  • 2 Conventionsmünze
  • 3 South Germany 1837–1873
  • 4 Austria-Hungary 1857–1892
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links

Early history

In 1559 a value of 60 Kreuzer to 1 gulden had been adopted throughout the Southern states of the Holy Roman Empire, but the northern German states declined to join, and used Groschen instead of Kreuzer. The Kreuzer in turn was worth about 4.2 Pfennig, or pennies. Thus one (golden) Gulden was worth 60 Kreuzer, or 252 Pfennig. Later currencies adopted a standard relationship of 240 Pfennig = 60 Kreuzer = 1 Gulden.


Following the adoption of the Conventionsthaler in 1754, two distinct Kreuzer came into being. The first, sometimes referred to as the Conventionskreuzer, was worth 1/120 of a Conventionsthaler, valuing the gulden at half a Conventionsthaler. This was used in Austria-Hungary. However, the states of southern Germany adopted a smaller Kreuzer Landmünze worth 1/144 of a Conventionsthaler, thus valuing the Gulden at 5/12 of a Conventionsthaler. In fact, the southern German states issued coins denominated in Kreuzer Landmünze up to 6 Kreuzer Landmünze (equal to 5 Conventionskreuzer) but in Conventionskreuzer for higher denominations.

South Germany 1837–1873

The South German Currency Union of 1837 used a system of 60 Kreuzer = 1 Gulden and 1¾ Gulden = 1 Thaler, with the Kreuzer equal to the old Kreuzer Landmünze. These Kreuzer continued in circulation until decimalization, following German unification.

Austria-Hungary 1857–1892

Austria-Hungary decimalized in 1857, adopting a system of 100 Kreuzer = 1 Gulden, Austrian Florin or Hungarian forint, 1½ gulden = 1 Vereinsthaler. It was known as krajczár in Hungarian (krajcár in modern orthography), krejcar in Czech, grajciar in Slovak, krajcar in Slovene, creiţar or crăiţar in Romanian, grajcar in Polish.


  1. ^ New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, 1997
  2. ^

External links

  • German and Austrian Kreutzer Coins