Doctor of both laws

Scale of justice
Part of a series on the
Jurisprudence of
Catholic canon law


046CupolaSPietro.jpg Catholicism portal

A Doctor of Canon and Civil Law, from the Latin doctor utriusque juris, or juris utriusque doctor, or doctor juris utriusque (“doctor of both laws”) (abbreviations include: JUD, IUD, DUJ, JUDr., DUI, DJU, Dr.iur.utr., Dr.jur.utr., DIU, UJD and UID) is a scholar who has acquired a doctorate in both civil law and church law. The degree was common among Catholic and German scholars[1] of the Middle Ages and early modern times. Today the degree is awarded by the Pontifical Lateran University after a period of six years of study, by the University of Würzburg, and by the University of Fribourg.

Prior to ca. 1800, people who studied law in Europe, studied canon law, Roman law, and feudal law. These laws were the constituent parts of the Ius commune. The Ius commune was a pan-European legal system that held sway over Europe from approximately the twelfth through the eighteenth century. Graduates earned the decree of Doctor of both laws, because they had to study both canon law and civil law, in order to master the Ius commune.[2]

Doctors of Civil and Canon Law

  • Agliardi, Antonio, Cardinal, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals
  • Arregui Yarza, Antonio, Metropolitan Archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Guayaquil, Ecuador
  • Pope Benedict XIV
  • Bevilacqua, Anthony, Cardinal, Archbishop Emeritus of Philadelphia (USA)
  • Jean de Dieu-Raymond de Cucé de Boisgelin
  • St. Charles Borromeo
  • Edoardo Borromeo
  • Giacomo Luigi Brignole
  • Giovanni Battista Bussi (1755–1844)
  • Antonio Maria Cagiano de Azevedo
  • Étienne Hubert de Cambacérès
  • Giovanni Battista Caprara
  • Filippo Giudice Caracciolo
  • Domenico Carafa della Spina di Traetto
  • Francesco Carafa di Trajetto
  • Carafa, Pierluigi (iuniore), Cardinal, Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals, Dean of the College of Cardinals
  • Luigi Dadaglio, Cardinal, Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary
  • Antonio Despuig y Dameto
  • Michele di Pietro
  • Domenico Ferrata, Cardinal, Secretary of State
  • Giuseppe Milesi Pironi Ferretti
  • Michael J. Fitzgerald, Auxiliary Bishop of the Archdiocese of Philadelphia[3]
  • Enrico Gasparri, Cardinal, Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
  • Pietro Gasparri, Cardinal, Secretary of State, codifier of 1917 Code of Canon Law
  • Pietro Giannelli
  • Giacomo Giustiniani
  • Józef Glemp, Cardinal, late Archbishop emeritus of Warsaw (Poland)
  • Archbishop Filippo Iannone, appointed Vicegerent of the Diocese of Rome 31 January 2012
  • Stephan Kuttner, Professor, Catholic University of America, Yale University, and University of California at Berkeley, founder of the Stephan Kuttner Institute of Medieval Canon Law
  • Carlo Laurenzi
  • Pope Leo XIII
  • Alphonsus Maria de Liguori, Bishop of Sant’Agata de’ Goti
  • Listecki, Jerome Edward, Archbishop of Milwaukee (USA)
  • Vincenzo Macchi
  • Lorenzo Girolamo Mattei
  • Teodolfo Mertel, last lay cardinal in the Catholic Church
  • Rev Denzil Meuli, priest of the diocese of Auckland
  • J. K. Paasikivi, President of Finland
  • Salvatore Pappalardo, Cardinal, Archbishop of Palermo (Italy)
  • Thomas J. Paprocki, Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Springfield in Illinois (USA)
  • Peters, Edward N., Catholic University of America, 1991
  • Luigi Poggi, Cardinal, Archivist and Librarian Emeritus of the Holy Roman Church
  • Mario Francesco Pompedda, Cardinal, Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
  • Pietro Respighi, Cardinal, Archpriest of the Basilica of St. John Lateran
  • Gabriele della Genga Sermattei
  • K. J. Ståhlberg, President of Finland
  • Alessandro Verde, Cardinal, Archpriest of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore (Italy)
  • Pietro Vidoni
  • Carlo Maria Viganò, Archbishop at the centre of the Vatileaks scandal
  • Jan Wężyk

See also

  • Doctor of Canon Law
  • Legum Doctor

References

  1. ^ Gottfried Leibniz held the degree. Armgardt, Matthias. Leibniz as a legal scholar. Fundamina (Pretoria) vol.20 n.1 Pretoria Jan. 2014. Accessed 7 May 2016.
  2. ^ Pennington, Kenneth. Course Description: Roman Law and the Ius Commune Archived 25 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Official Biography. “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 18 April 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link).mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}


Doctor of Divinity

Aquatint of a Doctor of Divinity at the University of Oxford, in the scarlet and black academic robes corresponding to his position. (The doctor appears here in his convocation habit, rather than his full ceremonial dress.)

Doctor of Divinity (DD or DDiv; Latin: Doctor Divinitatis) is an advanced or honorary academic degree in divinity.

Contents

  • 1 Contrast with other religious degrees
  • 2 Doctor of Divinity by country or church

    • 2.1 United Kingdom
    • 2.2 United States
    • 2.3 Catholic Church
  • 3 The Doctor and Student
  • 4 See also
  • 5 References

    • 5.1 Notes
    • 5.2 Bibliography
  • 6 External links

Contrast with other religious degrees

Doctor of Divinity should not be confused with the Doctor of Theology (ThD) degree, which is a research doctorate in theology awarded by universities and divinity schools, such as Duke Divinity School and others.[1] However, many universities award a PhD rather than a ThD to graduates of higher-level religious studies programs. Another research doctorate in theology is the Doctor of Sacred Theology (STD) which is in particular awarded by Catholic pontifical universities and faculties. The Doctor of Ministry (DMin) is another doctorate-level religious degree, but is a professional rather than a research doctorate.[2]

Doctor of Divinity by country or church

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, the degree is a higher doctorate conferred by universities upon a religious scholar of standing and distinction for accomplishments beyond the PhD level.

Typically, the candidate will submit a collection of work which has been previously published in a peer-reviewed context and pay an examination fee.[3] The university then assembles a committee of academics both internal and external who review the work submitted and decide on whether the candidate deserves the doctorate based on the submission. Most universities restrict candidacy to graduates or academic staff of several years’ standing.

United States

In the United States, the degree is generally conferred honoris causa by a church-related college, seminary, or university to recognize the recipient’s ministry-orientated accomplishments.[4] For example, Martin Luther King (who received a PhD in systematic theology from Boston University in 1955) subsequently received honorary Doctor of Divinity degrees from the Chicago Theological Seminary (1957), Boston University (1959), Wesleyan College (1964), and Springfield College (1964).[5]Billy Graham (who received honorary Doctor of Divinity degrees from The King’s College and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) was regularly addressed as “Dr. Graham”, though his highest earned degree was a Bachelor of Arts degree in anthropology from Wheaton College.[6][7]

Under federal law, a 1974 judgement accepted expert opinion that an “Honorary Doctor of Divinity is a strictly religious title with no academic standing. Such titles may be issued by bona fide churches and religious denominations, such as plaintiff [Universal Life Church], so long as their issuance is limited to a course of instruction in the principles of the church or religious denomination”.[8] However, under the California Education Code, “an institution owned, controlled, and operated and maintained by a religious organization lawfully operating as a nonprofit religious corporation pursuant to Part 4 (commencing with Section 9110) of Division 2 of Title 1 of the Corporations Code” that offers “instruction… limited to the principles of that religious organization, or to courses offered pursuant to Section 2789 of Business and Professions Code” may confer “degrees and diplomas only in the beliefs and practices of the church, religious denomination, or religious organization” so long as “the diploma or degree is limited to evidence of completion of that education”; institutions “shall not award degrees in any area of physical science”, while

.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}

any degree or diploma granted under this subdivision shall contain on its face … a reference to the theological or religious aspect of the degree’s subject area … a degree awarded under this subdivision shall reflect the nature of the degree title, such as “associate of religious studies,” “bachelor of religious studies,” “master of divinity,” or “doctor of divinity.”[9]

In a 1976 interview with Morley Safer of the TV newsmagazine 60 Minutes, Universal Life Church founder Kirby J. Hensley professed that the church’s honorary Doctor of Divinity degree was “…just a little piece of paper. And it ain’t worth anything, you know, under God’s mighty green Earth—you know what I mean?—as far as value.”[10] In 2006, Universal Life Church minister Kevin Andrews advised potential degree recipients not to misrepresent the title as an educational achievement to employers, recommending instead that it would be appropriate to list such credentials “under the heading of Titles, Awards, or Other Achievements” on curricula vitae.[11]

As of 2009, 20 U.S. states and Puerto Rico had some form of exemption provision under which religious institutions can grant religious degrees without accreditation or government oversight.[12]

Catholic Church

In the Catholic Church, Doctor of Divinity is an honorary degree denoting ordination as bishop.[citation needed]

The Doctor and Student

Christopher St. Germain’s 1528 book The Doctor and Student describes a dialogue between a Doctor of Divinity and a law student in England containing the grounds of those laws together with questions and cases concerning the equity thereof.[13]

See also

  • Bachelor of Divinity
  • Doctor of the Church
  • Master of Divinity
  • Lambeth degree

References

Notes

  1. ^ “Doctor of Theology”. Duke Divinity School. Duke University. Retrieved 18 January 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “Doctor of Ministry – Fuller Seminary”. Fuller Seminary.
  3. ^ www.eastdesign.net, Supported by Eastern Studio. “recently awarded degrees – Faculty Office”.
  4. ^ “Doctor of Divinity”. degreedirectory.org.
  5. ^ “Biographical Sketch: Martin Luther King, Jr” (PDF). norcalmlkfoundation.org. The Northern California Martin Luther King Jr. Community Foundation. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
  6. ^ Gibbs, Nancy; Ostling, Richard N. (15 November 1993). “God’s Billy Pulpit”. Time. Archived from the original on 7 December 2007. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  7. ^ “Billy Graham Evangelistic Association Chronology”. wheaton.edu. Wheaton College. 17 June 2014. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  8. ^ Universal Life Church, Inc. v. United States, 372 F.Supp. 770 (E.D. Cal. 1 March 1974).
  9. ^ “EDC § 94874”. FindLaw.com. California Code, Education Code.
  10. ^ Jackman 2007.
  11. ^ “ULC Degrees Accredited?”. ulc.net. Universal Life Church Online. 2 June 2006. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  12. ^ “Religious Exempt Schools”. osac.state.or.us. Oregon Student Assistance Commission Office of Degree Authorization. Archived from the original on 2011-02-21. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
  13. ^ St Germain & Muchall 1886.

Bibliography

.mw-parser-output .refbegin{font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul{list-style-type:none;margin-left:0}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd{margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none}.mw-parser-output .refbegin-100{font-size:100%}

Jackman, Ian, ed. (2007). Con Men: Fascinating Profiles of Swindlers and Rogues from the Files of the Most Successful Broadcast in Television History. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-9319-5.
St. Germain, Christopher; Muchall, William (1886). The Doctor and Student, Or, Dialogues Between a Doctor of Divinity and a Student in the Laws of England: Containing the Grounds of Those Laws Together with Questions and Cases Concerning the Equity Thereof. Cincinnati: R. Clarke.

External links

  • The Doctor and Student pdf files


Legum Doctor

Legum Doctor (Latin: “teacher of the laws”) (LL.D.; Doctor of Laws in English) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law, or an honorary doctorate, depending on the jurisdiction. The double “L” in the abbreviation refers to the early practice in the University of Cambridge to teach both canon law and civil law (Doctor of both laws), with the double “L” itself indicating the plural. This contrasts with the practice of the University of Oxford, where the degree that survived from the Middle Ages is the DCL or Doctor of Civil Law (only).[1]

Contents

  • 1 European and Commonwealth usage
  • 2 Germany
  • 3 Malta
  • 4 South Africa
  • 5 United Kingdom
  • 6 United States
  • 7 See also
  • 8 References

European and Commonwealth usage

In the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and Europe, the degree is a higher doctorate usually awarded on the basis of exceptionally insightful and distinctive publications that contain significant and original contributions to the study of law. Some universities, such as the University of Oxford, award a Doctor of Civil Law degree instead. In South Africa, the LL.D. is awarded by many university law faculties as the highest degree in law, also based upon research and completion of a Ph.D. equivalent dissertation as in most European countries; see Doctor of Law in South Africa. The LL.D. may also be awarded as an honorary degree based upon a person’s contributions to society.

Most Canadian universities that award the degree of Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) award it only as an honorary degree, but typically when awarded by a law school, it is an earned degree. Of the universities in Canada that offer earned doctorates in law, five Francophone or bilingual universities – (Université de Sherbrooke, [2]University of Ottawa,[3]University of Montreal,[4]Laval University,[5] and University of Quebec at Montreal[6]) – offer the LL.D.

Germany

Germany, as in many other continental European countries, does not distinguish between PhD and LL.D. academic degrees. German universities award the doctoral degree in law as a “Doctor of Law” (Dr. iur.) instead of a PhD, which literally means “Doctor of Philosophy” (Dr. Phil.), and is traditionally reserved for doctoral dissertations in the field of social and political sciences. The degree of Dr. iur. usually requires independent academic research of up to 4 years. The doctor of law as an honorary degree is called “doctor honoris causa” (Dr. h.c.). The German academic system also knows a form of higher doctorate in law which is awarded after completion of a second dissertation (Habilitation) and is a prerequisite to teach law at (German) universities. The completion of the habilitation is indicated by adding “habil.” to the title (Dr. iur. habil.).

Malta

In Malta, the European Union’s smallest member state, the LL.D. is a doctorate-level academic degree in law requiring at least three years of post-graduate full-time study at the University of Malta,[7] Malta’s national university. At least three years of previous law study are required for entry. Students are required to complete coursework in a number of core areas of law, as well as to submit a thesis which is to be “an original work on the approved subject or other contribution to the knowledge showing that he/she has carried out sufficient research therein”.[8] It confers the title of Doctor, which in Malta is rigorously used to address a holder of the degree. The LL.D. is one of the requirements for admission to the profession of advocate in Malta (an advocate, as opposed to a legal procurator, has rights of representation in superior courts).

In Malta, practising lawyers are of three designations – notaries, legal procurators and advocates. The Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree is an undergraduate degree that of itself is not sufficient for admission into any of the legal professions. A one-year full-time taught post-graduate diploma of Notary Public (N.P.) is required after the LL.B. for admission to the profession of notary public, while a taught post-graduate diploma of Legal Procurator (L.P.) is required for admission to the profession of legal procurator. A legal procurator is a lawyer in Malta that has rights of audience in the lower courts, a profession that was existent in Malta as early, and even prior to 1553.[9] All three professions also require members to be holders of a warrant issued by the President of Malta, obtainable after a minimum of one year of work experience in that profession, and examination. It is not possible for a Maltese lawyer to hold a warrant in more than one of the professions at a time.

Notable holders of the LL.D. degree include Dr. Ugo Mifsud Bonnici (former President of Malta), the late Prof. Guido de Marco (former President of the United Nations General Assembly and former President of Malta), the late Dr. George Borg Olivier (first post-independence Prime Minister of Malta), and Dr. Lawrence Gonzi (former Prime Minister of Malta).

South Africa

United Kingdom

In the UK, the degree of Doctor of Laws is a higher doctorate, ranking above the PhD, awarded upon submission of a portfolio of advanced research. It is also often awarded honoris causa to public figures (typically those associated with politics or the law) whom the university wishes to honour. In most British universities, the degree is styled “Doctor of Laws” and abbreviated LLD, however some universities (such as Oxford) award instead the degree of Doctor of Civil Law, abbreviated DCL.

In former years, Doctors of Law were a distinct form of Attorney-at-Law who were empowered to act as advocates in the ecclesiastical, probate and admiralty courts. The Doctors had their own Inn, which was called Doctors’ Commons. Charles Dickens spent some of his youth working in this branch of the law. The last surviving member of Doctors’ Commons, Dr Thomas Tristram, wrote the first editions of a textbook on trusts still in use today. In 1954, a case was brought under long-dormant law in the High Court of Chivalry.[10] The opening arguments in that case were by George Drewry Squibb, who was simultaneously distinguished as a barrister, a doctor of laws, and a historian. Squibb argued, to the satisfaction of the court, that since the modern class of Doctors of Laws were no longer trained as advocates, their role must necessarily be performed by barristers.[10] This was because Victorian reforms, which had unified the other classes of court attorney into the single profession of Barrister, had overlooked the Doctors of Law.

United States

In the United States of America, the LL.D. is awarded as an honorary degree only. The terminal academic law degree is the Scientiae Juridicae Doctor (S.J.D. or J.S.D.), equivalent to the Ph.D.

See also

  • Scientiae Juridicae Doctor (S.J.D. or J.S.D.)
  • Doctor Juris Utriusque (D.J.U.)
  • Juris Doctor (J.D.)
  • Master of Laws (LL.M.)
  • Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.)
  • Doctor of Canon Law (J.C.D.)

References

  1. ^ “General Regulations : Examination Regulations 2006-2007”. 2 June 2008..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “Doctorat en Droit”. Université de Sherbrooke. Retrieved 2015-01-21.
  3. ^ “Graduate Studies in Law”. University of Ottawa. Retrieved 2012-02-22.
  4. ^ “Presentation”. University of Montreal. Retrieved 2012-02-22.
  5. ^ “Index des programmes” (in French). Laval University. Archived from the original on 2009-06-02.
  6. ^ “Doctorat en droit”. University of Quebec at Montreal. Retrieved 2012-02-22.
  7. ^ “Welcome to the Faculty of Laws Website”. University of Malta. 2009-07-16. Retrieved 2013-10-11.
  8. ^ “Guidelines Regarding LL.D. Theses”. University of Malta. 2009-07-16. Archived from the original on 2009-01-23.
  9. ^ “Legal Procurators”. Malta: Ministry for Justice and Home Affairs. Archived from the original on 2008-08-20.
  10. ^ ab Squibb, George Drewry (1995). The High Court of Chivalry: A Study of the Civil Law in England. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-825140-8.


Doctor of Medicine

A Doctor of Medicine (MD from Latin Medicinae Doctor) is a medical degree, the meaning of which varies between different jurisdictions. In countries that follow the United States system, the MD denotes a first professional graduate degree (e.g., Doctor of Jurisprudence in law for a law degree or medical degree for a Doctor of Medicine) or a degree awarded upon initial graduation from medical school more closely related to just under a master’s degree in regards to a law and medical degree (e.g. M.D. & D.O.). Widely seen as a doctorate degree, in conflict with Department of Education classification of degrees; which considers a Doctor of Philosophy as the most advanced possible degree that can be attained.
There is debate as to whether a lawyer/legal counsel (Doctor of Jurisprudence degree holder) and a prescriber/physician (Doctor of Medicine degree holder) should be referred to as “doctors” but according to the Department of Education, historical application, and general international consensus, the answer is a resounding “no” lawyers and physicians are ” applied first professional degree holders” referred to as a “physician” and title (Mr. John Doe, MD rather than Dr.John Doe, MD or simply John Doe, MD) or “lawyer, legal counsel, or counselor (Mrs. Jane Doe, JD rather than, Dr. Jane Doe, JD)”. [1] In countries following the tradition of the United Kingdom, the MD denotes a first professional degree; and denoted as a doctorate, higher doctorate, honorary doctorate or applied clinical degree restricted to medical graduates; the equivalent first professional degree (equivalent to medical school and law school in terms of degree advancement) is typically titled Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery.[2]

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Academic degrees for physicians by country

    • 2.1 Afghanistan

      • 2.1.1 The MD specification
    • 2.2 Argentina
    • 2.3 Australia
    • 2.4 Bulgaria
    • 2.5 Cambodia
    • 2.6 China
    • 2.7 Denmark
    • 2.8 France
    • 2.9 Germany
    • 2.10 India
    • 2.11 Indonesia
    • 2.12 Iran
    • 2.13 Israel
    • 2.14 Latvia
    • 2.15 Malaysia
    • 2.16 Netherlands and Belgium
    • 2.17 Pakistan
    • 2.18 Philippines
    • 2.19 Romania
    • 2.20 Singapore
    • 2.21 South Korea
    • 2.22 Sri Lanka
    • 2.23 Sweden
    • 2.24 Taiwan
    • 2.25 Thailand
    • 2.26 Tunisia
    • 2.27 Ukraine
    • 2.28 United Kingdom, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries
    • 2.29 United States and Canada

      • 2.29.1 Research physicians
    • 2.30 Equivalent degrees in other countries
    • 2.31 Other postgraduate clinical degrees
  • 3 References

History

The thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his doctorate of medicine (1843)

In 1703, the University of Glasgow’s first medical graduate, Samuel Benion, was issued with the academic degree of Doctor of Medicine.[3]

University medical education in England culminated with the MB qualification, and in Scotland the MD, until in the mid-19th century the public bodies who regulated medical practice at the time required practitioners in Scotland as well as England to hold the dual Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery degrees (MB BS/MBChB/MB BChir/BM BCh etc.). North American medical schools switched to the tradition of the ancient universities of Scotland and began granting the MoD title rather than the MB beginning in the late 18th century. The Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York (which at the time was referred to as King’s College of Medicine) was the first American university to grant the MD degree instead of the MB.[4]

Early medical schools in North America that granted the Doctor of Medicine degrees were Columbia, Penn, Harvard, Maryland, and McGill.[5] These first few North American medical schools that were established were (for the most part) founded by physicians and surgeons who had been trained in England and Scotland.

A feminine form, “Doctress of Medicine” or Medicinae Doctrix, was also used by the New England Female Medical College in Boston in the 1860s.[6][7][8] In most countries having a Doctor of Medicine degree does not mean that the individual will be allowed to practice medicine. Typically a doctor must go through a residency for at least four years and take some form of licensing examination in their jurisdiction.

Academic degrees for physicians by country

Afghanistan

In Afghanistan, medical education begins after high school. No pre-medicine courses or bachelor’s degree is required. Eligibility is determined through the rank applicants obtain in the public university entrance exam held every year throughout the country. Entry to medical school is competitive, and only students with the highest ranks are accepted into medical programs. The primary medical degree is completed in 7 years. According to the new medical curriculum (from 2016), during the 12th semester, medical students must complete research on a medical topic and provide a thesis as part of their training. Medical graduates are awarded a certificate in general medicine, regarded “MD” and validated by the “Ministry of Higher Education of Afghanistan”. All physicians are to obtain licensing and a medical council registration number from the “Ministry of Public Health” before they officially begin to practice. They may subsequently specialize in a specific medical field at medical schools offering the necessary qualifications. After graduation, students may complete residency.

The MD specification

Before the civil wars in Afghanistan, medical education used to be taught by foreign professors or Afghan professors who studied medical education abroad. The Kabul medical institute certified the students as “Master of Medicine”. After the civil wars, medical education has extremely changed, and the MD certification has been reduced to “Medicine Bachelor”.

Argentina

In Argentina, the First Degree of Physician or Physician Diplomate (Spanish: Título de Médico)[9] is equivalent to the North American MD Degree with six years of intensive studies followed by usually three or four years of residency as a major specialty in a particular empiric field, consisting of internships, social services and sporadic research. Only by holding a Medical Title can the postgraduate student apply for the Doctor degree through a Doctorate in Medicine program approved by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation.[10]

Australia

Historically, Australian medical schools have followed the British tradition by conferring the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) to its graduates whilst reserving the title of Doctor of Medicine (MD) for their research training degree, analogous to the PhD, or for their honorary doctorates. Although the majority of Australian MBBS degrees have been graduate programs since the 1990s, under the previous Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF) they remained categorized as Level 7 Bachelor’s degrees together with other undergraduate programs.

The latest version of the AQF includes the new category of Level 9 Master’s (Extended) degrees which permits the use of the term ‘Doctor’ in the styling of the degree title of relevant professional programs. As a result, various Australian medical schools have replaced their MBBS degrees with the MD to resolve the previous anomalous nomenclature. With the introduction of the Master’s level MD, universities have also renamed their previous medical research doctorates. The University of Melbourne was the first to introduce the MD in 2011 as a basic medical degree, and has renamed its research degree to Doctor of Medical Science (DMedSc).[11]

Bulgaria

At the end of the six-year medical programs from Bulgarian medical schools, medical students are awarded the academic degree Master in Medicine and the professional title Physician – Doctor of Medicine (MD).[12][13]

Cambodia

After 6 years of general medical education (a foundation year plus 5 years), all students will graduate with a Bachelor of Medical Sciences (BMedSc, Khmer: បរិញ្ញាប័ត្រ វិទ្យាសាស្រ្តវេជ្ជសាស្ត្រ), equivalent to Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS). This degree does not allow graduates to work independently as a physician, but it is possible for those who wish to continue to master’s degrees in other fields relating to medical sciences such as public health, epidemiology, biomedical science, and nutrition.

Medical graduates, who wish to be fully qualified as physicians or specialists must follow the process as below:

  • General Practitioner’s (GP) course of 8 years (BMedSc plus a 2-year internship). Clinical rotation in the internship is modulated within four main disciplines (general medicine, surgery, gynecology, and pediatrics). The medical degree awarded is Doctor of Medicine (MD, Khmer: បណ្ឌិតវេជ្ជសាស្ត្រ ឬ វេជ្ជបណ្ឌិត) – equivalent to a master’s degree [?].
  • After graduating with BMedSc; any students who wish to enter a Residency Training Program, are required to sit for an Entrance Exam. The duration of residency programs takes 4 years after either BMedSc or MD (BMedSc or MD plus 4 years of specialization). Once the graduates have successfully defended their practical thesis, they are awarded the Degree of Specialized Doctor (MD with specialization, Khmer: សញ្ញាប័ត្រ៖ វេជ្ជបណ្ឌិតឯកទេស, lit. ‘Professional Doctorate’).

All medical graduates must complete a Thesis Defense and pass the National Exit Exam (Khmer: ប្រឡងចេញថ្នាក់ជាតិក្នុងវិស័យសុខាភិបាល) to become either GPs or medical or surgical specialists.

China

In China, the degree system is very similar to the UK. Students can enter medical schools after graduating from high school. Lengths of the studies vary, there are 5-year Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS), 6-year Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) with one year of hospital internship, 7-year (Masters of Medicine), and 8-year (Doctor of Medicine) programs. After a degree is acquired, one needs to pass the certification exam to be allowed to practice.

Denmark

In Denmark, basic medical education and training is available at four universities: the University of Copenhagen, Aarhus University, the University of Southern Denmark and Aalborg University. The duration of basic medical education and training is six years and the course leads to the degree of Candidate of Medicine (rated equally to master’s degree). Students are qualified as “medical doctor” (MD) after swearing the Hippocratic Oath upon graduation.[14]

Medical school is usually followed by a year of residency called basic clinical training (Danish: Klinisk basisuddannelse or KBU) which upon completion grants the right to practice medicine without supervision.

France

After graduating from high school with a Baccalaureat, any student can register at a university of medicine (there are about 30 of them throughout the country). At the end of first year, an internal ranking examination takes place in each of these universities in order to implement the numerus clausus. First year consists mainly of theoretical classes such as biophysics and biochemistry, anatomy, ethics or histology. Passing first year is commonly considered very challenging, requiring hard and continuous work. Each student can only try twice. For example, the Université René Descartes welcomes about 2,000 students in first year and only 300 after numerus clausus.

The second and third year are usually mainly quite theoretical although the teachings are often accompanied by placements in the field (e.g., internships as nurses or in the emergency room, depending on the university).

During fourth, fifth and sixth years, medical students get a special status called “externe” (In some universities, such as Pierre et Marie Curie, the externe status is given starting in the third year). They work as interns every morning at the hospital plus a few night shifts a month and study in the afternoon. Each internship lasts between three and four months and takes place in a different department. Med students get five weeks off a year.

At the end of the sixth year, they need to pass a national ranking exam, which will determine their specialty. The first student gets to choose first, then the second, et cetera. Usually, students work hard during fifth and sixth years in order to train properly for the national ranking exam. During these years, actual practice at the hospital and some theoretical courses are meant to balance the training.
Such externs’ average wage stands between 100 and 300 euros a month.

After that ranking exams, students can start as residents in the specialty they have been able to pick. That is the point from which they also start getting paid.

Towards the end of the medical program, French medical students are provided with more responsibilities and are required to defend a thesis; however, unlike a PhD thesis, no original research is actually necessary to write an MD thesis. At the conclusion of the thesis defense, French medical students receive a State Diploma of Doctor of Medicine (MD, French: diplôme d’Etat de docteur en médecine). Every new doctor must then proceed to a Diploma of Specialised Studies (DES, French: diplôme d’Etudes spécialisées) to mark their specialty. Some students may also receive a Diploma of Complementary Specialized Studies (DESC, French: diplôme d’Etudes spécialisées complémentaires).[15]

Germany

The University of Freiburg Faculty of Medicine

After at least six years of medical school, the students graduate with a final federal medical exam (Dritter Abschnitt der ärztlichen Prüfung). Graduates receive their license to practice medicine and the professional title of physician (Arzt). About 80% of them additionally obtain the academic MD-like degree Doctor of Medicine (Dr. Med.).[16] The corresponding “doctoral” dissertations are often written alongside undergraduate study and are comparable to a master’s thesis in science;[16] but students are only allowed to finish the dissertation process after their studies. Obtaining the title is a practical necessity because many medical laypersons incorrectly assume that a doctorate is required for the practice of medicine. The European Research Council decided in 2010 that those Dr. med. doctorates do not meet the international standards of a PhD research degree.[17][18]

India

The MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery) degree represents the first (undergraduate) level of training required to be licensed as a physician (other degrees in alternative medicine are present like BAMS, BHMS, BSMS etc.) and the MS or MD degree is a postgraduate degree, representative of specialty training. The equivalent training in the US or Canada would be the completion of a medical (post-graduate) degree. Eligibility for the MS or MD course is restricted to medical graduates holding the MBBS degree.

The MBBS course is for five and a half years, and training imparted is as follows:

  1. Pre-clinical (Anatomy, Physiology, and Biochemistry)
  2. Para-clinical (Pathology, Microbiology, Pharmacology, Forensic Medicine and Community Medicine)
  3. Clinical (Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology, General Medicine, General Surgery, Pediatrics and Obstetrics/Gynecology; with specialty rotations such as Orthopaedics, Radiology, etc.).

After three years of study and the successful completion of an examination, which includes both theoretical and practical elements, in a pre-clinical or clinical subject of a non-surgical nature [e.g. Anatomy (since the subject deals with study of anatomy through dissecting cadavers, thus given an MD degree), Physiology, Pharmacology, Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, Pathology, Microbiology] the candidate receives MD degree, whereas in a clinical subject of a surgical nature (e.g. General Surgery, Orthopaedics, Obstetrics/Gynaecology, Ophthalmology), the candidate receives the equivalent degree Master of Surgery (MS).

A second alternate qualification termed DNB [Diplomate of National Board], is considered equivalent to the MD and MS degrees. This can be obtained by passing the exam conducted by the National Board of Examinations after completing 3 years of post-MBBS residency training in teaching hospitals recognised by the board. The College of Physicians & Surgeons of Bombay, India (Established 1912) also awards higher postgraduate degrees in clinical and pre-clinical specialties, called FCPS; it involves three years of study and the successful completion of an examination, which includes both theoretical and practical elements, and a research thesis and a viva. The FCPS is representative of specialty clinical training, and equivalent to MD/MS/DNB/Ph.D Medical in Medical Doctorate in other parts of the world. Until 2007, the Government of India and the Medical Council of India recognised the FCPS qualification – since then, this is being done by State Medical Councils.

After obtaining the first postgraduate degree, that is MD/MS/FCPS/DNB/Ph.D Medical, one can go for further specialisation in medical or surgical fields. This involves a highly competitive entrance examination. This course has three years of additional training and requires the submission of a dissertation (thesis). This is considered a clinical doctorate as the focus is on preapring a super-specialist with adequate clinical as well as research training. After the dissertation is approved and the exit examination (theory and practical) is cleared, the degree awarded is DM (Doctor of Medicine), Ph.D Medical . Based on the specific field of training, the degree awarded is DM in Cardiology, Neurology, Nephrology, Gastroenterology, Neuroradiology, Critical Care, Pulmonology, Hematology, Medical Oncology, Cardio-anaesthesia, Clinical Pharmacology, Pediatric Critical Care, Pediatric Neurology, Neonataology, Pediatric Gastroenterology, Neuroanaesthesia, etc. For surgical superspecialities the degree awarded is MCh (Magister Chirurgiae), like MCh in Cardio-thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Endocrine Surgery, Neurosurgery, Surgical Gastroenterology, Urology, Plastic Surgery, Pediatric Surgery etc. DM and MCh are the clinical equivalent of a Doctorate degree. A third alternate qualification is DNB (superspecialties), offered by National Board of Examinations, like DNB in Cardiology, Neurology, Cardiac Surgery, Neurosurgery.

Following DM or MCh, one can further go for postdoctoral fellowship programs of one-year duration in specific subspecialties like Cardiac Electrophysiology, Invasive cardiology, Pediatric cardiology, Epilepsy, stroke, electroencephalography, movement disorders, neuromuscular disorders, cerebrovascular surgery, skull base surgery, neurocritical care, pediatric cardiac surgery etc. offered by prestigious government institutes and abroad.

Indonesia

In Indonesia, the title of “dokter” (dr.) is awarded after a Medical student received their Bachelor in Medicine (Sarjana Kedokteran; S. Ked) after 3-3.5 years of study (at least) and 1.5–2 years of clinical course in university hospitals. After a medical student finished those five years of study, they need to take “Uji Kompetensi Mahasiswa Program Profesi Dokter” (UKMPPD). If they pass the test, they can take Hippocrates Oath and the title of Dokter (dr.) is entitled before their name. Then they need to take a year-long internship course in primary health care clinics (also known as Puskesmas) or primary hospitals all over the country to practice as general practitioner under supervision of senior doctors. Those who wished to further their study into specialties can take graduate course of medicine of their preference and will be entitled with “Specialist of …” after their name (e.g.: Sp.A for Spesialis Anak = Pediatrician). Graduate course of medicine is equal with residency program which is required the candidates to study for four years and hospital internship. Note that “dr.” is used for medical graduates, while Dr. (or wrongfully DR., Doktor) is used for PhD holders.

Iran

In Iran, Medical education begins after high school. No pre-med course or BSc degree is required. The eligibility is determined through the rank applicants obtain in the public university entrance exam being held every year throughout the country. The entry to medical school is competitive and only students with the highest rank are accepted into medical program. The primary medical degree is completed in 7–7.5 years. On the final years (last 1–2 years) medical students need to do a research on a medical topic and provide thesis as part of their trainings. Medical graduates are awarded a certificate in general medicine, called “Professional Doctorate in Medicine” validated by the “Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran”. All physicians will obtain license and medical council registration number from the “Medical Council of Iran” before they officially begin to practice. They may subsequently specialize in a specific medical field at medical schools offering the necessary qualifications.

Israel

There are five university medical schools in Israel, including the Technion in Haifa, Ben Gurion University in Be’er Sheva, Tel Aviv University, the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and the Medical school of the Bar-Ilan University in Safed. They all follow the European 6-year model except Bar-Ilan University, which has a four-year program similar to the US system.[19] However, as of 2009, Tel Aviv University has introduced a four-year program similar to the US system for students with a bachelor’s degree in certain biological sciences. The entrance requirements of the various schools of medicine are very strict. Israeli students require a high school Baccalaureate average above 100 and psychometric examination grade over 740. The demand for medical education is strong and growing, and there is a lack of doctors in Israel.[citation needed] The Technion Medical School, Ben Gurion University, and Tel Aviv University Sackler Faculty of Medicine[20] offer 4-year MD programs for American students who have American college degrees and have taken the MCAT interested in completing rigorous medical education in Israel before returning to the US or Canada. In Israel, the degree of Doctor of Medicine (MD) is considered to be equivalent to a Master’s degree academically and legally.[21]

Latvia

In Latvia, the duration of basic medical education is six years and the course leads to the degree of Doctor of Medicine.[22]

Malaysia

In Malaysia, MD are awarded by both private and public universities, mostly are trained as a 5-year course, however with the establishment of Perdana University, it became the first university in Malaysia to provide a 4-year graduate entry course. Examples of universities in Malaysia offering the M.D degree are University Sains Malaysia, National University of Malaysia, University Putra Malaysia, UCSI University, etc.

Netherlands and Belgium

In the Netherlands and Belgium, medical students receive six years of university education prior to their graduation.

In the Netherlands specifically, prospective students can apply for medical education directly after finishing the highest level of secondary school, vwo; previous undergraduate education is not a precondition for admittance.
Medical students receive three years of preclinical training, followed by three years of clinical training (co-assistentschappen, or co-schappen) in hospitals. At one medical faculty (Utrecht University), clinical training already begins in the third year of medical school. After 6 years, students graduate as Basisartsen (“base physician”). As a result of the Bologna process, medical students in the Netherlands receive a bachelor’s degree (BSc) concluding successfully three years of medical university curriculum, and a master’s degree (MSc) upon successful graduation. After graduation, physicians can apply for, and complete a R&D based doctorate, earning them a PhD in Medicine. Contrary to popular (international) daily use, the title “MD” does not exist, is not granted, nor recognised for Dutch physicians. Furthermore, no specific notation signifying board registration exists for physicians in the Netherlands.

Belgian medical education is much more based on theoretical knowledge than the Dutch system. In the first three years, which are very theoretical and lead to a university bachelor’s degree, general scientific courses are taken such as chemistry, biophysics, physiology, biostatistics, anatomy, virology, etc. To enter the bachelor course in Flanders, prospective students have to pass an exam, as a result of the numerus clausus.

After the bachelor courses, students are allowed to enter the ‘master in medicine’ courses, which consist of three years of theoretical and clinical study. In general, the first two master years are very theoretical and teach the students human pathology, diseases and pharmacology. The third year is a year full of internships in a wide range of specialities in different clinics. The seventh, final year serves as a kind of ‘pre-specialization’ year in which the students are specifically trained in the specialty they wish to pursue after medical school. This contrasts with the Dutch approach, in which graduates are literally ‘basic doctors’ (basisartsen) who have yet to decide on a specialty.

Pakistan

In Pakistan the MD is a higher doctorate, awarded by medical universities based on successful completion of a residency program of four to six years’ duration in a university hospital.Many universities are offering MD. Parallel to MD, MS is a higher doctorate awarded on successful completion of four to six years’ duration of a residency program in surgical field

Philippines

In the Philippines, the MD is a first professional degree in medicine. It is attained by either completing a 4-year degree or a 5-year degree (with internship included) from an accredited institution by the Association of Philippine Medical Colleges and the Commission on Higher Education. An MD degree does not permit the practice of medicine but qualifies the degree-holder to apply for registration to the Professional Regulatory Commission. Registration to the Commission through completion of internship and examinations will grant the privilege of practicing medicine in the Philippines.

Romania

Romanian medical programs last for 6 years (including clinical practice), which is the long-cycle first professional degree and concludes with a final licensing examination (licența), based on the dissertation of the student’s original research. The degree awarded is ‘Doctor-Medic’ and graduates are entitled to use the title “Dr.”[23]

Singapore

The American Duke University has a medical school based in Singapore (Duke-NUS Medical School), and follows the North-American model of styling its first professional degree “Doctor of Medicine” (“MD”), consid.[24] By contrast, the Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine at the National University of Singapore confers MB BS as the first professional degree.

South Korea

In South Korea, there is a Medical Doctor (MD) license.

The medical educations in South Korea (Republic of Korea) are 6 or 4 years in duration, 6-year courses starting right after high schools, and 4-year course starting after 4-year’s university education(To start the 4-year course, the student needs a bachelor’s degree). The first 2 years in the 6-year system is composed of basic sciences and liberal art courses.

Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, the MD degree is a higher postgraduate degree that is awarded by the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine after completion of a postgraduate course, examinations and speciality training. The MD degree in Sri Lanka is representative of specialty training in clinical, para clinical, and preventive medicine (e.g., general medicine, cardiology, nephrology, oncology, para clinical such as microbiology, haematology and preventive such as community medicine). Entry for the MD course is open only for medical graduates holding the MBBS degree (with a duration of five and a half years), and training is obtained in medical disciplines that are non-surgical in nature (e.g., internal medicine, radiology, pathology, etc.) After three or four years of study and the successful completion of an examination with written as well as cases and via examinations, the MD degree in the respective field of study is awarded. In community medicine and medical administration, part I examination consists of a theoretical exam while the degree is conferred after completion of a thesis as a PhD. This thesis has to be completed within a period of five years. After successfully defending the academic thesis, the MD degree is conferred to the candidate. The MD degree holder is certified as a board certified specialist by the respective board of study of the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine after he or she undergoes 2–4 years of local and foreign training depending on the specialty/subspecialty selected.

In Ayurveda, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery B.A.M.S in Unani, Bachelor of Unani Medicine and Surgery BUMS in Sidha, Bachelor of Sidha Medicine and Surgery BSMS are the basic qualification for practicing Ayurveda, Unani,&Sidha. The B.A.M.S, B.U.M.S, and B.S.M.S are 6-year degree (including internship) courses accepted by the University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka). M.D (Ayu)(Ayurveda vachaspati) can be done after B.A.M.S, as a specialty, and it takes 3 years (including submission of a thesis) to complete the course. Ayurveda M.D (Ayu) (Ayurveda vachaspati) is a master’s degree accepted by University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka), after completion of MPhil can follow Ph.D. level programmes in Sri Lanka.

Sweden

Medical education in Sweden begins with a five-and-a-half-year undergraduate university program leading to the degree “Master of Science in Medicine” (Swedish: Läkarexamen). Following this, the National Board of Health and Welfare requires a minimum of 18 months of clinical internship (Swedish: Allmäntjänstgöring) before granting a medical license (Swedish: Läkarlegitimation) to be fully qualified as the Swedish equivalent to Medical Doctor (MD).[25]

This internship consists of surgery (3–6 months), internal medicine (3–6 months), psychiatry (three months) and family medicine (six months). Upon receiving a license to practice, a physician is able to apply for a post to start specialist training. There are currently 52 recognised medical specialties in Sweden. The specialist training has a duration of minimum five years, which upon completion grants formal qualification as a specialist.

Taiwan

In Taiwan, the MD is a first professor awarded professional degree that goes up and beyond the limits of upper education.[26]

Thailand

The Thai medical education is 6 years system, consisting of 1 year in basic-science, 2 years in pre-clinical training, and 3 years for clinical training. Upon graduation, all medical students must pass national medical licensing examinations and a university-based comprehensive test. After medical school, newly graduated doctor are under contract to spend a year of internship and 2 years of tenure in rural areas before they are eligible for any other residency positions or specialized training. The students will receive Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree. However, the degree is equivalent to master’s degree in Thailand. Specialty training after the MD degree requires at least 4–6 years residency program in the training university hospitals and must pass the board examination. Board certified specialized degree is equivalent to doctorate degree.

Tunisia

In Tunisia, education is free for all Tunisian citizens and for foreigners who have scholarships. The oldest Medical school is a faculty of the University of Tunis. There are four medicine faculties situated in the major cities of Tunis, Sfax, Sousse and Monastir. Admission is bound to the success and score in the baccalaureate examination. Admission score threshold is very high, based on competition among all applicants throughout the nation. Medical school curriculum consists of five years. The first two years are medical theory, containing all basic sciences related to medicine, and the last three years consists of clinical issues related to all medical specialties. During these last three years, the student gets the status of “Externe”. The student has to attend at the university hospital every day, rotating around all wards. Every period is followed by a clinical exam regarding the student’s knowledge in that particular specialty. After those five years, there are two years on internship, in which the student is a physician but under the supervision of the chief doctor; the student rotates over the major and most essential specialties during period of four months each. After that, student has the choice of either passing the residency national exam or extending his internship for another year, after which he gains the status of family physician. The residency program consists of four to five years in the specialty he qualifies, depending on his score in the national residency examination under the rule of highest score chooses first. Whether the student chooses to be a family doctor or a specialist, he has to write a doctoral thesis, which he will be defending in front of a jury, after which he gains his degree of Doctor of Medicine (MD).

Ukraine

In Ukraine, by 2018, graduates of the school with completed secondary education who have cope with the relevant exams (in the disciplines designated by these universities) in the nationwide system for assessing graduates’ knowledge – EIT (Ukrainian: ЗНО, External independent testing) based on the rating – may be admitted to the Medical Universities[27].

Ukrainian medical universities offer a 6-year curriculum, which should end with the passing of the State Complex Examination. The graduate receives the Diploma of the State Standard with the title “Specialist Diploma”, which specifies a specialty and qualification (for example, “Physician”), or “Magister’s Diploma” also of a state standard. After that, the graduate according to the rating division (at the university) is required to undergo a practical internship course (working as a doctor under the supervision of an experienced doctor) with a duration of 2 to 3 years, in the corresponding specialty. Successful completion of internship implies that an intern passes an examination on a specialty, including testing [28] and receives a certificate of a specialist physician of the Ministry of Health, which is a formal permission for practical activity[29][30].

Thus, the American MD and the Ukrainian Physician have identical titles. On the other hand, the colloquial (not official terminology) Doctor of Medicine means that a Physician with a higher education successfully defended his thesis, after a 2-year postgraduate course and corresponding term of research (Candidate of Medical Sciences before 2015, or Ph.D. after 2015 – till 2019), which is closer to the English system of degrees.

United Kingdom, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries

The entry-level first professional degree in these countries for the practice of medicine is that of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS, MB, MB BCh BAO, BMBS, MBBChir, or MBChB). This degree typically requires between four and six years of study and clinical training, and is equivalent to the North American MD degree. Due to the UK code for higher education, first degrees in medicine comprise an integrated programme of study and professional practice spanning several levels. These degrees may retain, for historical reasons, “Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery” and are abbreviated to MBChB, MBBS or BMBS.[31]

In the UK, Ireland and many Commonwealth countries, the MD is a postgraduate research degree in medicine. At some universities, this takes the form of a first doctorate, analogous to the Ph.D., awarded upon submission of a thesis and a successful viva. The thesis may consist of new research undertaken on a full- or part-time basis, with much less supervision (in the UK) than for a Ph.D., or a portfolio of previously published work.[32]

In order to be eligible to apply for an MD degree from a UK or Commonwealth University one must hold either a “Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery” (MBBS, MBChB, BMBS for example) degree, or an equivalent U.S.-MD degree and must usually have at least five years of postgraduate experience. Therefore, graduates from the MBBS/MBChB/BMBS degrees do not hold doctorates; however, physicians holding these degrees are referred to as “doctor” as they are fully licensed as medical practitioners. In some commonwealth nations, these interns are designated as “house officers”.

At some other universities (especially older institutions, such as Oxford, Dublin, Cambridge and St Andrews), the MD is a higher doctorate (similar to a DSc) awarded upon submission of a portfolio of published work representing a substantial contribution to medical research.[33] The University of Cambridge has introduced a new degree of MedScD (more akin to the ScD degree) awarded on the basis of a career’s contribution to the science or art of medicine, rather than a thesis, for which a candidate may be awarded the MD degree.[34] Oxford did not do the same but instead demoted the rank of the degree the same level as the DPhil but retaining its original academic dress.

In the case where the MD is awarded (either as a first or higher doctorate) for previously published research, the candidate is usually required to be either a graduate or a full-time member of staff, of several years’ standing of the university in question.[35]

United States and Canada

In the United States, MDs are awarded by medical schools as “Professional Doctorate”[36][37] (as opposed to the Doctor of Philosophy degree which requires additional studies) and are accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME), an independent body sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges, and the American Medical Association (AMA).[38][39]

Admission to medical school in the United States and Canada is highly competitive, and in the United States about 17,800 out of approximately 47,000 applicants (~38%)[citation needed] received at least one acceptance to any medical school in recent application years.[vague] Before entering medical school, students are required to complete a four-year undergraduate degree and take the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT); however, some combined undergraduate-medical programs exist. Before graduating from a medical school and being awarded the Doctor of Medicine degree, students are required to take the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and both the clinical knowledge and clinical skills parts of Step 2. The MD degree is typically earned in four years. Following the awarding of the MD, physicians who wish to practice in the United States are required to complete at least one internship year (PGY-1) and pass the USMLE Step 3. In order to receive board eligible or board accredited status in a specialty of medicine such as general surgery or internal medicine, physicians undergo additional specialized training in the form of a residency. Those who wish to further specialize in areas such as cardiology or interventional radiology then complete a fellowship. Depending upon the physician’s chosen field, residencies and fellowships involve an additional three to eight years of training after obtaining the MD. This can be lengthened with additional research years, which can last one, two, or more years.[citation needed]

In Canada, the MD is the basic medical degree required to practice medicine. McGill University Faculty of Medicine is the only medical school in Canada that continues to award the M.D., C.M. degrees (abbreviated M.D.C.M.). M.D.C.M. is from the Latin Medicinae Doctorem et Chirurgiae Magistrum meaning “Doctor of Medicine and Master of Surgery”. Upon graduation, students enter into a residency phase of training. Prior to obtaining an independent practicing license from a provincial regulatory body, students must complete the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination to obtain the Licentiate of the Medical Council of Canada (LMCC) qualifications.[citation needed]

Research physicians

Even though the MD is a professional degree and not a research doctorate (i.e., a Ph.D.), many holders of the MD degree conduct clinical and basic scientific research and publish in peer-reviewed journals during training and after graduation; an academic physician whose work emphasizes basic research is called a physician-scientist. Combined medical and research training is offered through programs granting an MD-PhD. The National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its Medical Scientist Training Program, funds MD-PhD training programs at many universities. Some MDs choose a research career and receive funding from the NIH as well as other sources such as the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.[40] The United States Department of Education and the National Science Foundation do not include the MD or other professional doctorates among the degrees that are equivalent to research doctorates.[41][42]

Equivalent degrees in other countries

  • In Bangladesh, the basic medical degree is the MBBS. After completing the intermediate level of education (12 years) the candidate must undergo 5 years of medical training in any medical college to achieve the MBBS degree. After obtaining the degree, the candidate needs to undergo one year of internship to obtain BMDC (Bangladesh medical and dental council) accreditation in order to practice in the country.
  • In Brazil, the degree of ‘Doutor em Medicina’ (Medical Doctor, abbreviated as ‘Dr’) is awarded after six years of intensive undergraduate theoretical and practical studies necessarily including an intensive internship (of usually two years in duration). There are no strict requirements regarding research work to be completed during those years yet most courses will offer and enforce some involvement in research. ‘Doutorado’ is the equivalent of a PhD (i.e. a research postgraduate degree) which is usually referred to by the title ‘Professor Doutor (Prof.Dr.)’ in case of medical doctors who achieve such degree. There is no particular distinction in title (or abbreviation) between physicians and surgeons, or between medical graduates and specialists.
  • In mainland China, some medical schools award MBBS to foreign students while all medical schools award Bachelor of Medicine to nationals. MD is a higher academic research degree.
  • In Colombia, the medicine faculties of the universities awards the title of “Medico Cirujano” after taking 12 semesters of studies on “all clinic and surgery discipline a two semester on internship. After receiving the degree there is a mandatory year “obliged social work” were the doctors practice as GP in the countryside. Residency programs last between 3–4 years depends on the specialty.
  • The Czech and Slovak title MUDr. (Medicinae Universae doctor or doktor medicíny) is a professional doctorate granted upon completion of six years pregraduate Master’s study at medical schools. The postgraduate academic research degree in medicine is a PhD degree.
  • The Danish and Norwegian Candidatus medicinae or Candidata medicinae degrees (cand. med.) is awarded after completing a six-year medical programme, to which students apply directly upon finishing secondary school. The programme usually includes a small thesis. However, the cand. med. degree must not be confused with the previous Danish and Norwegian Dr. Med. degree, which is a separate degree from the Ph.D. and represents a higher degree of medical research experience. It typically consists of at least 5–6 original publications.
  • In the Dominican Republic, it is known as “Doctor en Medicina” (Doctor in Medicine). In 1511 the Spanish Catholic church founded the first university of the Americas in Santo Domingo present capital of modern-day Dominican Republic and name it Universidad Santo Tomas de Aquino (today Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo). In 1630 this university graduated the first medical doctors of the Americas and amongst the graduates some Native Americans included.
  • In Finland, the duration of basic medical education is six years and the course leads to the degree of Licentiate of Medicine.[43]
  • In Georgia, medical universities in Georgia offer a 6-year curriculum leading to award Doctor of Medicine (MD) “Physician” “Medical Doctor (MD), a European medical degree which is valid throughout the world.Some of the reputed medical universities include Tbilisi state Medical University and Petre Shotadze Tbilisi Medical Academy[44]
  • In Greece, after a six-year study, a medical student acquires his medical degree and the right to use “Δρ.”, (Dr.) before his name. This is considered equivalent to the MD title.
  • In Guyana, Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree is awarded after the completion of 4 years or 5 years of study. Texila American University, Green heart university, American International School of Medicine, Alexander American University provides medicine programs
  • In Italy, the title of “Dottore in Medicina e Chirurgia” (literally Doctor in Medicine and Surgery) is awarded after completion of a Master’s course in medicine and surgery (lasting six years) in a university. After obtaining this degree, graduates have to pass a state examination (called “abilitazione alla professione medica”, which translates to habilitation exam to medical practice) through which they acquire the right to work as a medical doctor.
  • In Japan, the title “Doctor of Medicine (MD)” is awarded by the government, after graduating from a medical university or college with a 6-year curriculum and passing the national examination.
  • In Kosovo, there are medical high schools. Students from elementary school can choose to attend the medical high school, which lasts 3 years. When they finish the 3 years of medical high school, they practice for 4 months. After that, they can be a nurse or they can go to medical facilities in Pristina, with the education there taking around 6 years, including practice, to become a doctor.
  • In Mexico and Peru, schools of medicine award the “Título de Médico Cirujano” degree after completing either six or seven years of study. This curriculum includes a rotating internship year and a year of social service providing care to an underserved community.
  • In Nepal, a MBBS degree is awarded. This is an undergraduate level degree, which is awarded after completion of four and half years of medical school followed by one year of clinical internship. Most medical schools also offer postgraduate M.D and M.S. degrees, which requires three years of further training. Post-doctorate D.M. and M.Ch. terminal degrees are awarded by a few elite institutions after three more years of super-speciality training.
  • In Poland the title of lekarz (physician, medical doctor) or “lek.” is granted after completing a 6-year medical program (students apply to it directly after graduating high school).[45] Many medical schools in Poland also offer medicine programs in English, which award the Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree.[46][47][48] In contrast, a higher doctoral academic research degree in medicine resembling a PhD is named “dr n. med.” or doktor nauk medycznych (Doctor of Medical Sciences). Specialization is valued similarly to a specialization in the English system and is a pre-requisite for a “dr. n. med.” which is usually defined within the same field.
  • In Portugal, to practice medicine, a master’s degree in medicine (awarded after a 6-year Integrated master’s program in medicine) is mandatory. Before the 2007 Bologna Process, the same course was only a Licentiate Degree. After the 6-year program, students must go through the National Seriation Exam (Prova Nacional de Seriação), and then a year of General Medical Internship (Ano Comum). When the internship ends, the students are placed in their choice of Medical Specialty, according to their ranking in the aforementioned Exam and the vacancies available for each medical specialty. Only when each student finishes the Medical Internship, will they be allowed to practice medicine without supervision. Entry to the Integrated Masters Program in Medicine is done directly after High School, based on the student’s grade – each year there are about 1800 new Medical Students in Portugal, in 8 different Medical Schools.
  • In Russia, medical universities in Russia offer a 6-year curriculum leading to award Doctor of Medicine (MD) “Physician”.
  • In Serbia and Croatia, the title of “doktor medicine” (abbreviated “dr. med.”) is awarded upon completion of six years of study at a Faculty of Medicine (“medicinski fakultet”) immediately after high school.
  • In Slovenia, the title of “doktor medicine” (abbreviated “dr. med.”) is awarded upon completion of six years of study at one of the two Slovenian Faculties of Medicine (“medicinska fakulteta”) in Ljubljana or Maribor. Studying at these faculties is only possible if the student has finished a gymnasium/grammar school (“gimnazija”) with a general diploma called “splošna matura”.
  • In Sudan the awarded degree in most of the medical schools is, Bachelor of Medicine and Basic Surgery (MBBS). In schools that are based on the English system of medical teaching, the degree is granted after six years of studying. As for the schools that are adopting the American system, they grant their students the degree of MBBS in only five years.
  • In Turkey, the title of “Tıp Doktoru” (literally “Doctor of Medicine”)is awarded upon completion of six years continuous study started with five years university education include three years basic sciences, two years clinical courses followed by one year of internship in university hospitals.

Other postgraduate clinical degrees

There is also a similar advanced professional degree to the postgraduate MD: the Master of Surgery (usually ChM or MS, but MCh in Scotland, Ireland, Wales and at Oxford and MChir at Cambridge). The equivalence of these degrees, but their differing names, prevents the need for surgeons (addressed as Mr. in the UK) having to revert to the title Dr., which they once held as new MBBS graduates.

In Ireland, where the basic medical qualification includes a degree in obstetrics, there is a similar higher degree of Master of the Art of Obstetrics (MAO). A Master of Midwifery was formerly examined by the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London (hence MMSA) but fell into abeyance in the 1960s; in this case, the term Master referred not to a university degree but rather a professional rank that is common among craft guilds.

In East Africa, the medical schools in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda award the degree of Master of Medicine (MMed) degree in both surgical and medical specialty disciplines following a three to six-year period of instruction.

In West Africa, the West African College of Physicians and the West African College of Surgeons award the Fellowship of the West African College of Physicians (FWACP) and the Fellowship of the West African College of Surgeons (FWACS) in medical and surgical disciplines respectively after a minimum of four-year residency training period.

The Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine or DO degree allows the same practice rights in the United States and Canada to the MD degree and Doctors of Osteopathic Medicine are fully licensed physicians. Holders of the MD degree must pass MD level board exams while DO holders can pass either the DO (COMLEX) exam or MD exam (USMLE).[49] Similarly, MDs must attend MD rated residency and fellowship programs while DOs can attend either MD programs or Osteopathic (DO) programs. As a result of this, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) are currently transitioning to a single accreditation system for medical residencies in the U.S.[50] On average, MD matriculants score 510 on MCAT examinations and have an average GPA of 3.70 while DO matriculants score 504 and have an average GPA of 3.56.[citation needed] The American MD degree is also recognized by most countries in the world. While DO physicians are only licensed to practice the full scope of medicine and surgery in 65 countries.[51][not in citation given]

References

  1. ^ O’Connor, Bridget N. (October 2011). “Perspectives on professional doctorate education in the United States” (pdf). Work Based Learning e-Journal. Middlesex University. 2 (1). Retrieved 8 April 2015..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “ECFMG 2008 Information Booklet — Reference Guide for Medical Education Credentials”.
  3. ^ “A Significant Medical History: 18th Century”. University of Glasgow. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  4. ^ “History | Columbia University in the City of New York”. Columbia.edu. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
  5. ^ “Crawford DS Montreal, medicine and William Leslie Logie:McGill’s first graduate and Canada’s medical graduate. 175th.anniversary” (PDF). Osler Library Newsletter. Mcgill.ca. pp. 1–7. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
  6. ^ “The Medical Profession: What Women Have Done in it” (1). Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. January 1864.
  7. ^ “New England Female Medical College”. The Boston Herald. March 3, 1864.
  8. ^ Samuel Gregory, MD. (1868) Doctor or Doctress? Boston: Trustees of New England Female Medical College.
  9. ^ [1] Archived January 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ [2] Archived July 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ “Doctor of Medicine (MD)”. University of Melbourne. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
  12. ^ Охридски, Софийски Университет Св. Климент. “Medicine (in English language) / Faculty of Medicine / Master’s Programmes / Programmes / Faculty of Medicine / Faculties / The University / Home – Софийски университет “Св. Климент Охридски“. www.uni-sofia.bg.
  13. ^ “Admission Overview of the M.D. program”. mu-varna.bg.
  14. ^ “Titles in English”. www.laeger.dk. Danish Medical Association. 5 February 2001. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
  15. ^ “University and degree systems in France” (PDF). Af-ksa.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-10-19. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
  16. ^ ab U. Beisiegel: Promovieren in der Medizin. Die Position des Wissenschaftsrates. In: Forschung & Lehre 7/09, 2009, S. 491. “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-06-09. Retrieved 2015-05-11.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  17. ^ Sarah Schmidt (1 October 2015). “Kommt ein Doktor zum Arzt …” Süddeutsche Zeitung.
  18. ^ Bernd Kramer (28 September 2015). “Akademische Ramschware”. Der Spiegel.
  19. ^ “About | Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee Bar-Ilan University”. Medicine.biu.ac.il. Retrieved 2013-09-18.
  20. ^ “Home | Sackler Faculty of Medicine”. Sacklermedicine.us. 2013-07-22. Retrieved 2013-09-18.
  21. ^ “Medical degrees in Israeli Educational System” (PDF). Handouts.aacrao.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-08-07. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
  22. ^ “Medical school”. Rīga Stradiņš University. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  23. ^ “AVICENNA Directories: Romania”. University of Copenhagen. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  24. ^ “Duke-NUS Medical School Singapore”. Duke-nus.edu.sg. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
  25. ^ “License to practice medicine in Sweden”. Socialstyrelsen.se. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
  26. ^ 臺灣大學醫學校區青年大使團. “臺灣大學醫學校區青年大使團: Introduction of the Taiwanese Medical System[中文+英文]”. Ntumc-studentambassadors.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
  27. ^ Вищі навчальні медичні заклади України(in Ukrainian)
  28. ^ Про подальше удосконалення атестації лікарів? Наказ МОЗ України від 19.12.1997 р. № 359(in Ukrainian)
  29. ^ 7.1.4. Право на заняття медичною і фармацевтичною діяльністю відповідно до спеціальності та кваліфікації(in Ukrainian)
  30. ^ Нормативні документи згідно яких здійснюється підвищення кваліфікації лікарів, провізорів та професіоналів з вищою немедичною освітою, які працюють в системі охорони здоров’я(in Ukrainian)
  31. ^ “The framework for higher education qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland” (PDF). Qaa.ac.uk. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
  32. ^ “Doctor of Medicine (MD), University of Otago, New Zealand”. Otago.ac.nz. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
  33. ^ CF Hawkins, “Write the MD Thesis” in “How To Do It” London: British Medical Association 2nd ed. 1985
    ISBN 0-7279-0186-9
  34. ^ “Reports – Cambridge University Reporter 6248”. Admin.cam.ac.uk. 2011-12-07. Retrieved 2013-07-15.
  35. ^ “Courses and Programs – The University of Queensland, Australia”. Uq.edu.au. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
  36. ^ “Doctor of Medicine as Professional Doctorate” (PDF). Wblearning-ejournal.com. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
  37. ^ “Educational System in the USA”. Nces.ed.gov. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
  38. ^ “Physician Education, Licensure, and Certification”. Ama-assn.org. Archived from the original on 2011-05-08. Retrieved 2011-05-05.
  39. ^ “NRMP: Residency Match: U.S. Seniors”. Nrmp.org. Archived from the original on 2003-10-07. Retrieved 2011-05-05.
  40. ^ [3] Archived October 14, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  41. ^ “Structure of the U.S. Education System : Research Doctorate Degrees”. Ed.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-01-27. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
  42. ^ “ERC policy on PhD and equivalent doctoral degrees” (PDF). Erc.europa.eu. Retrieved 2018-12-11.
  43. ^ “Medicine, Medical licentiate” (in Finnish). University of Helsinki. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  44. ^ Tbilisi Medical Academy
  45. ^ “The European Education Directory”. EuroEducation Net. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  46. ^ “School Detail”. search.wdoms.org.
  47. ^ “School Detail”. search.wdoms.org.
  48. ^ “School Detail”. search.wdoms.org.
  49. ^ “United States Medical Licensing Examination | USMLE Bulletin | Eligibility”. www.usmle.org. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
  50. ^ “The Single GME Accreditation System”. www.osteopathic.org. Retrieved 2018-06-27.
  51. ^ “DOs Around the World”. archive.is. 2012-09-06. Retrieved 2018-06-27.


Doctorate

Academic doctors gather before the commencement exercises at Brigham Young University (April 2008).

The cover of the thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine degree (1843).

A doctorate (from Latin docere, “to teach”) or doctor’s degree (from Latin doctor, “teacher”) or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree’s field, or to work in a specific profession. There are a variety of doctoral degrees, with the most common being the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), which is awarded in many different fields, ranging from the humanities to the scientific disciplines.

In the United States and some other countries, there are also some types of vocational, technical, or professional degrees that are referred to as doctorates. Professional doctorates have historically come about to meet the needs of practitioners in a variety of disciplines. However, the aims and means of these degrees vary greatly across disciplines making it difficult to claim a universal understanding of professional doctorates. Many universities also award honorary doctorates to individuals who have been deemed worthy of special recognition, either for scholarly work or for other contributions to the university or to society.

.mw-parser-output .toclimit-2 .toclevel-1 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-3 .toclevel-2 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-4 .toclevel-3 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-5 .toclevel-4 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-6 .toclevel-5 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-7 .toclevel-6 ul{display:none}

Contents

  • 1 History

    • 1.1 Middle Ages
    • 1.2 17th century
    • 1.3 Modern times
  • 2 Types

    • 2.1 Research doctorate
    • 2.2 Licentiate
    • 2.3 Higher doctorate and post-doctoral degrees
    • 2.4 Professional doctorate
    • 2.5 Honorary
  • 3 National variations

    • 3.1 Argentina
    • 3.2 Brazil
    • 3.3 Denmark
    • 3.4 Egypt
    • 3.5 Finland
    • 3.6 France
    • 3.7 Germany
    • 3.8 India
    • 3.9 Italy
    • 3.10 Japan

      • 3.10.1 Dissertation-only
      • 3.10.2 Professional degree
    • 3.11 Netherlands and Flanders
    • 3.12 Russia
    • 3.13 Spain
    • 3.14 United Kingdom

      • 3.14.1 History of the UK doctorate
      • 3.14.2 British doctorates today
      • 3.14.3 Subject specialist doctorates
      • 3.14.4 Higher doctorates
      • 3.14.5 Honorary degrees
    • 3.15 United States

      • 3.15.1 Research degrees
      • 3.15.2 Professional degrees
  • 4 Revocation
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References

History

Middle Ages

The term doctor derives from Latin, meaning “teacher” or “instructor”. The doctorate (Latin: doctoratus) appeared in medieval Europe as a license to teach Latin (licentia docendi) at a university.[1] Its roots can be traced to the early church in which the term doctor referred to the Apostles, church fathers, and other Christian authorities who taught and interpreted the Bible.[1]

The right to grant a licentia docendi (i.e. the doctorate) was originally reserved to the Catholic church, which required the applicant to pass a test, to take an oath of allegiance and pay a fee. The Third Council of the Lateran of 1179 guaranteed the access—at that time largely free of charge—of all able applicants. Applicants were tested for aptitude.[2] This right remained a bone of contention between the church authorities and universities that were slowly distancing themselves from the Church. The right was granted by the pope to the University of Paris in 1213 where it became a universal license to teach (licentia ubiquie docendi).[2] However, while the licentia continued to hold a higher prestige than the bachelor’s degree baccalaureus, the latter was ultimately reduced to an intermediate step to the magister and doctorate, both of which now became the exclusive teaching qualification.[2] According to Keith Allan Noble (1994), the first doctoral degree was awarded in medieval Paris around 1150.[3]

The so-called “professional, vocational, or technical curriculum” (in contrast to liberal arts) of the Middle Ages included only theology, law, and medicine.[4][not in citation given]

17th century

The doctorate of philosophy developed in Germany in the 17th century (likely c. 1652).[5] The term “philosophy” does not refer solely to the field or academic discipline of philosophy, but is used in a broader sense in accordance with its original Greek meaning, which is “love of wisdom”. In most of Europe, all fields (history, philosophy, social sciences, mathematics, and natural philosophy/natural sciences)[6] were traditionally known as philosophy, and in Germany and elsewhere in Europe the basic faculty of liberal arts was known as the “faculty of philosophy”. The doctorate of philosophy adheres to this historic convention, even though the degrees are not always for the study of philosophy. Chris Park explains that it was not until formal education and degree programs were standardized in the early 19th century that the doctorate of philosophy was reintroduced in Germany as a research degree,[7] abbreviated as Dr. phil. (similar to Ph.D. in Anglo-American countries). Germany, however, differentiated then in more detail between doctorates in philosophy and doctorates in the natural sciences, abbreviated as Dr. rer. nat., and also doctorates in the social/political sciences, abbreviated as Dr. rer. pol., similar to the other traditional doctorates in medicine (Dr. med.) and law (Dr. jur.).

University doctoral training was a form of apprenticeship to a guild. The traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of “Masters of Arts” was seven years, matching the apprenticeship term for other occupations. Originally the terms “master” and “doctor” were synonymous, but over time the doctorate came to be regarded as a higher qualification than the master’s degree. Makdisi’s revised hypothesis that the doctorate originated in the Islamic ijazah, a reversal of his earlier view that saw both systems as of “the most fundamental difference”,[8] was rejected by Huff as unsubstantiated.[9]

University degrees, including doctorates, were originally restricted to men. The first women to be granted doctorates were Juliana Morell in 1608 at Lyons,[10]Elena Cornaro Piscopia in 1678 at the University of Padua, Laura Bassi in 1732 at Bologna University, Dorothea Erxleben in 1754 at Halle University and María Isidra de Guzmán y de la Cerda in 1785 at Complutense University, Madrid.[11]

Modern times

The use and meaning of the doctorate has changed over time, and is subject to regional variations. For instance, until the early 20th century few academic staff or professors in English-speaking universities held doctorates, except for very senior scholars and those in holy orders. After that time the German practice of requiring lecturers to have completed a research doctorate spread. Universities’ shift to research-oriented (based upon the scientific method, inquiry, and observation) education increased the doctorates importance. Today, a research doctorate (PhD) or its equivalent (as defined in the US by the NSF) is generally a prerequisite for an academic career, although many recipients do not work in academia.

Professional doctorates developed in the United States from the 19th century onward. The first professional doctorate to be offered in the United States was the M.D. at Kings College (now Columbia University) after the medical school’s founding in 1767,[12] although this was not a professional doctorate in the modern American sense as it was awarded for further study after the qualifying Bachelor of Medicine (M.B.) rather than being a qualifying degree.[13] The MD became the standard first degree in medicine during the 19th century, but as a three-year undergraduate degree; it did not become established as a graduate degree until 1930. The MD, as the standard qualifying degree in medicine, gave that profession the ability (through the American Medical Association, established in 1847 for this purpose) to set and raise standards for entry into professional practice.[14][15]

The modern research degree, in the shape of the German-style Ph.D. was first awarded in the U.S. in 1861, at Yale University.[16] This differed from the MD in that the latter was, a vocational “professional degree” that trained students to apply or practice knowledge, rather than generate it, similar to other students in vocational schools or institutes. In the UK, research doctorates initially took the form of higher doctorates, first introduced at Durham University in 1882.[17] The PhD spread to the UK from the US via Canada, and was instituted at all British universities from 1917, with the first (titled a DPhil) being awarded at the University of Oxford.[18][19]

Following the MD, the next professional doctorate, the Juris Doctor (J.D.), was established by the University of Chicago in 1902. However it took a long time to be accepted, not replacing the Bachelor of Laws (LLB) until the 1960s, by which time the LLB was generally taken as a graduate degree. Notably, the curriculum for the JD and LLB were identical, with the degree being renamed as a doctorate, and it (like the MD) was not equivalent to the PhD, raising criticism that it was “not a ‘true Doctorate“.[20][21] When professional doctorates were established in the UK in the late 1980s and early 1990s, they did not follow the US model but were instead set up as research degrees at the same level as PhDs but with some taught components and a professional concentration for the research work.[22]

The older-style doctorates, now usually called higher doctorates in the United Kingdom, take much longer to complete, since candidates must show themselves to be leading experts in their subjects. These doctorates are now less common in some countries and are often awarded honoris causa. The habilitation is still used for academic recruitment purposes in many countries within the EU, and involves either a new long thesis (a second book) or a portfolio of research publications. The habilitation (highest available degree) demonstrates independent and thorough research, experience in teaching and lecturing, and, more recently, the ability to generate supportive funding. The habilitation follows the research doctorate, and in Germany it can be a requirement for appointment as a Privatdozent or professor.

Types

Since the Middle Ages, the number and types of doctorates awarded by universities has proliferated throughout the world. Practice varies from one country to another. While a doctorate usually entitles one to be addressed as “doctor”, use of the title varies widely, depending on the type and the associated occupation.

Research doctorate

Research doctorates are awarded in recognition of academic research that is publishable, at least in principle, in a peer-reviewed academic journal. The best-known research degree title, in the English-speaking world, is Doctor of Philosophy (abbreviated Ph.D.,[23] PhD[24] or, at some British universities, DPhil[25][26][27]) awarded in many countries throughout the world. Other research doctorates include the Doctor of Education (Ed.D.[23] or EdD[24]), Doctor of Arts (D.A.[23]), Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.[23]), Doctor of Professional Studies/Professional Doctorate (ProfDoc or DProf),[24]Doctor of Public Health (Dr.P.H.[23]), Doctor of Social Science (D.S.Sc. or DSocSci[24]), Doctor of Management (D.M. or D.Mgt.),[citation needed]Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.[23] or DBA[28]), the UK Doctor of Management (DMan),[29] various doctorates in engineering, such as the US Doctor of Engineering (D.Eng., D.E.Sc. or D.E.S.[23]) (also awarded in Japan and South Korea), the UK Engineering Doctorate (EngD),[30] the Dutch Professional Doctorate in Engineering (PDEng), the German engineering doctorate Doktoringenieur (Dr.-Ing.) and the German natural science doctorate Doctor rerum naturalium (Dr.rer.nat.). The UK Doctor of Medicine (MD or MD (Res)) and Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) can be research doctorates.[24] The Doctor of Theology (Th.D.,[23] D.Th. or ThD[24]), Doctor of Practical Theology (DPT)[24] and the Doctor of Sacred Theology (S.T.D.,[23] or D.S.Th.) are research doctorates in theology.[31]

Criteria for research doctorates vary, but typically require completion of a substantial body of original research, which may be presented as a single thesis or dissertation, or as a portfolio of shorter project reports (thesis by publication). The submitted dissertation is assessed by a committee of examiners, and is then typically defended by the candidate during an oral examination (viva in the UK and India) by the committee. Candidates may also be required to complete graduate-level courses in their field, as well as study research methodology.

Criteria for admission to doctoral programs varies. In the U.S. and the U.K., students may be admitted with a bachelor’s degree, while elsewhere, e.g. in Finland, a master’s degree is required. The time required to complete a research doctorate varies from three years, excluding undergraduate study, to six years or more.

Licentiate

Licentiate degrees vary widely in their meaning, and in a few countries are doctoral level qualifications. Sweden awards the licentiate degree as a two-year qualification at doctoral level and the doctoral degree (PhD) as a four-year qualification.[32] Sweden originally abolished the Licentiate in 1969 but reintroduced it in response to demands from business.[33] Finland also has a two-year doctoral level licentiate degree, similar to Sweden’s.[34] Outside of Scandinavia, the licentiate is normally a lower level qualification. In Belgium, the licentiate was the basic university degree prior to the Bologna Process and was approximately equivalent to a bachelor’s degree,[35][36] while in France and other countries it is the bachelor’s-level qualification in the Bologna process.[37] In the Pontifical system, the Licentiate in Sacred Theology (STL) is equivalent to an advanced master’s degree, or the post-master’s coursework required in preparation for a doctorate (i.e. similar in level to the Swedish/Finnish licentiate degree), while other licences (such as the Licence in Canon Law) are at the level of master’s degrees.[38]

Higher doctorate and post-doctoral degrees

A higher tier of research doctorates may be awarded on the basis of a formally submitted portfolio of published research of a particularly high standard. Examples include the Doctor of Science (D.Sc.) and Doctor of Letters (D.Litt.) degrees found in the UK, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries, and the traditional doctorates in Scandinavia.

The École Saint-Thomas-d’Aquin of the Université catholique de Louvain, for instance, has offered the opportunity for students who had already earned a doctorate to earn the degree of Maître Agrégé (Magister Aggregatus).[39]

The habilitation teaching qualification (facultas docendi or “faculty to teach”) under a university procedure with a thesis and an exam is commonly regarded as belonging to this category in Germany, Austria, France, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, Poland, etc. The degree developed in Germany in the 19th century “when holding a doctorate seemed no longer sufficient to guarantee a proficient transfer of knowledge to the next generation.”[40] The habilitation results in an award of a formal “Dr. habil.” degree or the holder of the degree may add “habil.” to their research doctorate such as “Dr. phil. habil.” or “Dr. rer. nat. habil.” In some European universities, especially in German-speaking countries, the degree is insufficient to have teaching duties without professor supervision (or to teach and supervise Ph.D. students independently) without an additional instructor/teaching certificate/license, such as Privatdozent. In many countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the degree gives the venia legendi, Latin for “permission for lecturing,” or the ius docendi, “right of teaching” a specific academic subject at universities for a lifetime. The French academic system used to have a higher doctorate, called “State doctorate” (doctorat d’État), but it was superseded by the habilitation (Habilitation à diriger des recherches, “accreditation to supervise research”, abbreviated HDR) in 1984.

Higher doctorates are often also awarded honoris causa when a university wishes to formally recognize an individual’s achievements and contributions to a particular field.

Professional doctorate

Depending on the country, professional doctorates may either be research degrees at the same level as PhDs or professional degrees with little or no research content. Many professional doctorates are named “Doctor of [subject name] and abbreviated using the form “D[subject abbreviation]” or “[subject abbreviation]D”,[24] or may use the more generic titles “Professional Doctorate”, abbreviated “ProfDoc” or “DProf”,[24] “Doctor of Professional Studies” (DPS) [41][42] or “Doctor of Professional Practice” (DPP).[43][44]

In the US, professional doctorates (formally “doctor’s degree – professional practice” in government classifications) are defined by the US Department of Education’s National Center for Educational Statistics as degrees that require a minimum of six years of university-level study (including any pre-professional bachelor’s or associate degree) and meet the academic requirements for professional licensure in the discipline. The definition does not include a dissertation or study beyond master’s level, in contrast to the definition for research doctorates (“doctor’s degree – research/scholarship”), although individual programs may have different requirements.[45][46] There is also a category of “doctor’s degree – other” for doctorates that do not fall into either the “professional practice” or “research/scholarship” categories.[47] All of these are considered doctoral degrees.[48]

In contrast to the US, many countries reserve the term “doctorate” for research degrees and if, as in Canada and Australia, professional degrees bear the name “Doctor of …”, etc., it is made clear that these are not doctorates. Examples of this include Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD), Doctor of Medicine (MD), Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS), and Juris Doctor (JD). For example, Doctor of Business Administration (DBA), Doctor of Education (EdD) and Doctor of Social Science (DSS) qualify as full academic doctorates in Canada though they normally incorporate aspects of professional practice in addition to a full dissertation.[49][50]

In the UK and Ireland, all doctorates are third cycle qualifications in the Bologna Process, comparable to US research doctorates. Although all doctorates are research degrees, professional doctorates normally include taught components while the name PhD/DPhil is normally used for doctorates purely by thesis. Professional and practice-based doctorates such as the EdD, DClinPsy, MD, DHSc, DBA and EngD are full doctorates at the same level as the PhD in the national qualifications frameworks; they are not first professional degrees but are “often post-experience qualifications”.[22][24][28][51] In 2009 there were 308 professional doctorate programs in the UK, up from 109 in 1998, with the most popular being the EdD (38 institutions), DBA (33), EngD/DEng (22), MD/DM (21), and DClinPsy/DClinPsych/ClinPsyD (17).[52] Similarly in Australia, the term “professional doctorate” is sometimes applied to the Scientiae Juridicae Doctor (SJD),[53][54] which, like the UK professional doctorates, is a research degree.[55][56]

Honorary

When a university wishes to formally recognize an individual’s contributions to a particular field or philanthropic efforts, it may choose to grant a doctoral degree honoris causa (i.e. “for the sake of the honor”), waiving the usual requirements for granting the degree.[57][58] Some universities do not award honorary degrees, for example, Cornell University,[59] the University of Virginia,[60] the California Institute of Technology, Rice University, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[61]

National variations

Argentina

In Argentina the doctorate (doctorado)[62] is the highest academic degree. The intention is that candidates produce original contributions in their field knowledge within a frame of academic excellence.[63] A dissertation or thesis is prepared under the supervision of a tutor or director. It is reviewed by a Doctoral Committee composed of examiners external to the program and at least one examiner external to the institution. The degree is conferred after a successful dissertation defence.[64] Currently, there are approximately 2,151 postgraduate careers in the country, of which 14% were doctoral degrees.[63] Doctoral programs in Argentina are overseen by the National Commission for University Evaluation and Accreditation,[65][not in citation given] an agency in Argentina’s Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.[66]

Brazil

Doctoral candidates are normally required to have a Master’s degree in a related field. Exceptions are based on their individual academic merit. A second and a third foreign language are other common requirements, although the requirements regarding proficiency commonly are not strict. The admissions process varies by institution. Some require candidates to take tests while others base admissions on a research proposal application and interview only. In both instances however, a faculty member must agree prior to admission to supervise the applicant.

Requirements usually include satisfactory performance in advanced graduate courses, passing an oral qualifying exam and submitting a thesis that must represent an original and relevant contribution to existing knowledge. The thesis is examined in a final public oral exam administered by at least five faculty members, two of whom must be external. After completion, which normally consumes 4 years, the candidate is commonly awarded the degree of Doutor (Doctor) followed by the main area of specialization, e.g. Doutor em Direito (Doctor of Laws), Doutor em Ciências da Computação (Doctor of Computer Sciences), Doutor em Filosofia (Doctor of Philosophy), Doutor em Economia (Doctor of Economics), Doutor em Engenharia (Doctor of Engineering) or Doutor em Medicina (Doctor of Medicine). The generic title of Doutor em Ciências (Doctor of Sciences) is normally used to refer collectively to doctorates in the natural sciences (i.e. Physics, Chemistry, Biological and Life Sciences, etc.)

All graduate programs in Brazilian public universities are tuition-free (mandated by the Brazilian constitution). Some graduate students are additionally supported by institutional scholarships granted by federal government agencies like CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico) and CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento do Pessoal de Ensino Superior). Personal scholarships are provided by the various FAP’s (Fundações de Amparo à Pesquisa) at the state level, especially FAPESP in the state of São Paulo, FAPERJ in the state of Rio de Janeiro and FAPEMIG in the state of Minas Gerais. Competition for graduate financial aid is intense and most scholarships support at most 2 years of Master’s studies and 4 years of doctoral studies. The normal monthly stipend for doctoral students in Brazil is between 500 and 1000 USD.

A degree of Doutor usually enables an individual to apply for a junior faculty position equivalent to a US Assistant Professor. Progression to full professorship known as Professor Titular requires that the candidate be successful in a competitive public exam and normally takes additional years. In the federal university system, doctors who are admitted as junior faculty members may progress (usually by seniority) to the rank of Associate Professor then become eligible to take the competitive exam for vacant full professorships. In São Paulo state universities, Associate Professorships and subsequent eligibility to apply for a full professorship are conditioned on the qualification of Livre-docente and requires, in addition to a doctorate, a second thesis or cumulative portfolio of peer-reviewed publications, a public lecture before a panel of experts (including external members from other universities), and a written exam.

In recent years somme initiatives as jointly supervised doctorates (e.g. “cotutelles”) have become increasingly common in the country, as part of the country’s efforts to open its universities to international students.[67]

Denmark

Denmark offers four levels of degrees: 1) a three-year bachelor’s degree (e.g. Bachelor of Arts degree); 2) a five-year candidate’s degree (e.g. Candidatus/Candidata Magisterii), generally compared to a master’s degree; 3) a ph.d. degree, which replaced the licentiate in 1988; 4) a doctor’s degree (e.g. Doctor Philosophiae), which is the higher doctorate. (A three-year extended research program, leading to the magister’s degree was phased out to meet the international standards of the Bologna Process.)

For the Ph.D. degree, the candidate writes a thesis and defends it orally at a formal disputation. In the disputation, the candidate defends their thesis against three official opponents as well as opponents from the auditorium (ex auditorio).

For the higher doctorate, the candidate writes a major thesis and has to defend it orally in which the candidate (called præses) defends this thesis against two official opponents as well as opponents from the auditorium (ex auditorio).

Egypt

In Egypt, the highest degree doctorate is awarded by Al-Azhar University est. 970, which grants ( العالمية Ālimiyya Habilitation).

The Medical doctorate (abbreviated as M.D.) is equivalent to the Ph.D. degree.[68] To earn an M.D. in a science specialty, one must have a master’s degree (M.Sc.) (or two diplomas before the introduction of M.Sc. degree in Egypt) before applying. The M.D. degree involves courses in the field and defending a dissertation. It takes on average three to five years.

Many postgraduate medical and surgical specialties students earn a Doctorate. After finishing a 6-year medical school and one-year internship (house officer), physicians and surgeons earn the M.B. B.Ch. degree, which is equivalent to a US MD degree. They can then apply to earn a master’s degree or a speciality diploma, then an MD degree in a specialty.

The Egyptian M.D. degree is written using the name of one’s specialty. For example, M.D. (Geriatrics) means a doctorate in Geriatrics, which is equivalent to a Ph.D. in Geriatrics.

Finland

The Finnish requirement for the entrance into doctoral studies is a master’s degree or equivalent. All universities have the right to award doctorates.[69] The ammattikorkeakoulu institutes (institutes of higher vocational education that are not universities but often called “Universities of Applied Sciences” in English) do not award doctoral or other academic degrees. The student must:

  • Demonstrate understanding of their field and its meaning, while preparing to use scientific or scholarly study in their field, creating new knowledge.
  • Obtain a good understanding of development, basic problems and research methods
  • Obtain such understanding of the general theory of science and letters and such knowledge of neighbouring research fields that they are able to follow the development of these fields.

The way to show that these general requirements have been met is:

  • Complete graduate coursework.
  • Demonstrate critical and independent thought
  • Prepare and publicly defend a dissertation (a monograph or a compilation thesis of peer-reviewed articles). In fine arts, the dissertation may be substituted by works and/or performances as accepted by the faculty.

Entrance to a doctoral program is available only for holders of a master’s degree; there is no honors procedure for recruiting Bachelors. Entrance is not as controlled as in undergraduate studies, where a strict numerus clausus is applied. Usually, a prospective student discusses their plans with a professor. If the professor agrees to accept the student, the student applies for admission. The professor may recruit students to their group.[70] Formal acceptance does not imply funding. The student must obtain funding either by working in a research unit or through private scholarships. Funding is more available for natural and engineering sciences than in letters. Sometimes, normal work and research activity are combined.[71]

Prior to introduction of the Bologna process, Finland required at least 42 credit weeks (1,800 hours) of formal coursework. The requirement was removed in 2005, leaving the decision to individual universities, which may delegate the authority to faculties or individual professors. In Engineering and Science, required coursework varies between 40 and 70 ECTS.

The duration of graduate studies varies. It is possible to graduate three years after the master’s degree, while much longer periods are not uncommon. The study ends with a dissertation, which must present substantial new scientific/scholarly knowledge. The dissertation can either be a monograph or it an edited collection of 3 to 7 journal articles. Students unable or unwilling to write a dissertation may qualify for a licentiate degree by completing the coursework requirement and writing a shorter thesis, usually summarizing one year of research.

When the dissertation is ready, the faculty names two expert pre-examiners with doctoral degrees from the outside the university. During the pre-examination process, the student may receive comments on the work and respond with modifications.[72] After the pre-examiners approve, the doctoral candidate applies the faculty for permission to print the thesis. When granting this permission, the faculty names the opponent for the thesis defence, who must also be an outside expert, with at least a doctorate. In all Finnish universities, long tradition requires that the printed dissertation hang on a cord by a public university noticeboard for at least ten days prior to for the dissertation defence.[73]

The doctoral dissertation takes place in public. The opponent and the candidate conduct a formal debate, usually wearing white tie, under the supervision of the thesis supervisor. Family, friends, colleagues and the members of the research community customarily attend the defence. After a formal entrance, the candidate begins with an approximately 20-minute popular lecture (lectio praecursoria), that is meant to introduce laymen to the thesis topic. The opponent follows with a short talk on the topic, after which the pair critically discuss the dissertation. The proceedings take two to three hours. At the end the opponent presents their final statement and reveals whether he/she will recommend that the faculty accept it. Any member of the public then has an opportunity to raise questions, although this is rare. Immediately after the defence, the supervisor, the opponent and the candidate drink coffee with the public. Usually, the attendees of the defence are given the printed dissertation.[74] In the evening, the passed candidate hosts a dinner (Finnish: karonkka) in honour of the opponent. Usually, the candidate invites their family, colleagues and collaborators.[75]

Doctoral graduates are often Doctors of Philosophy (filosofian tohtori), but many fields retain their traditional titles: Doctor of Medicine (lääketieteen tohtori), Doctor of Science in Technology (tekniikan tohtori), Doctor of Science in Arts (Art and Design), etc.

The doctorate is a formal requirement for a docenture or professor’s position, although these in practice require postdoctoral research and further experience. Exceptions may be granted by the university governing board, but this is uncommon, and usually due to other work and expertise considered equivalent.

France

History

Before 1984 three research doctorates existed in France: the State doctorate (doctorat d’État, “DrE”, the old doctorate introduced in 1808), the third cycle doctorate (Doctorat de troisième cycle, also called doctorate of specialty, Doctorat de spécialité, created in 1954 and shorter than the State doctorate) and the diploma of doctor-engineer (diplôme de docteur-ingénieur created in 1923), for technical research.

During the first half of the 20th century, following the submission of two theses (primary thesis, thèse principale, and secondary thesis, thèse complémentaire) to the Faculty of Letters (in France, “letters” is equivalent to “humanities”) at the University of Paris, the doctoral candidate was awarded the Doctorat ès lettres. There was also the less prestigious “university doctorate” Doctorat d’université which could be received for the submission of a single thesis.

In the 1950s, the Doctorat ès lettres was renamed to Doctorat d’État.[76] In 1954 (for the sciences) and 1958 (for letters and human sciences), the less demanding Doctorat de troisième cycle degree was created on the model of the American Ph.D. with the purpose to lessen what had become an increasingly long period of time between the typical students’ completion of their Diplôme d’études supérieures, roughly equivalent to a Master of Arts) and their Doctorat d’État.[76]

After 1984, only one type of doctoral degree remained: the “doctorate” (Doctorat). A special diploma was created called the “accreditation to supervise research” (Habilitation à diriger des recherches), a professional qualification to supervise doctoral work. (This diploma is similar in spirit to the older State doctorate, and the requirements for obtaining it are similar to those necessary to obtain tenure in other systems.) Before only professors or senior full researchers of similar rank were normally authorized to supervise a doctoral candidate’s work.[77] Now habilitation is a prerequisite to the title of professor in university (Professeur des universités) and to the title of Research Director (Directeur de recherche) in national public research agency such as CNRS, INRIA, or INRA.

Admission

Today, the doctorate (doctorat) is a research-only degree. It is a national degree and its requirements are fixed by the minister of higher education and research. Only public institutions award the doctorate. It can be awarded in any field of study. The master’s degree is a prerequisite. The normal duration is three years. The redaction of a comprehensive thesis constitutes the bulk of the doctoral work. While the length of the thesis varies according to the discipline, it is rarely less than 150 pages, and often substantially more. Some 15,000 new doctoral matriculations occur every year and ~10,000 doctorates are awarded.[78]

Doctoral candidates can apply for a three-year fellowship. The most well known is the Contrat Doctoral (4,000 granted every year with a gross salary of 1758 euros per months as of September 2016[update]).

Since 2002 candidates follow in-service training, but there is no written examination for the doctorate. The candidate has to write a thesis that is read by two external reviewers. The head of the institution decides whether the candidate can defend the thesis, after considering the external reviews. The jury members are designated by the head of the institution. The candidate’s supervisor and the external reviewers are generally jury members. The maximum number of jury members is 8. The defense generally lasts 45 minutes in scientific fields, followed by 1 – 2 and a half hours of questions from the jury or other doctors present. The defense and questions are public. The jury then deliberates in private and then declares the candidate admitted or “postponed”. The latter is rare. New regulations were set in 2016 and do not award distinctions.

The title of doctor (docteur) can also be used by medical and pharmaceutical practitioners who hold a doctor’s State diploma (diplôme d’État de docteur). The diploma is a first-degree.

Germany

Doctorate degrees in Germany are research doctorates and are awarded via a process called Promotion (“promotion”). The concept of a US-style professional doctorate as an entry-level professional qualification does not exist. However, in medicine, “doctoral” dissertations are often written alongside undergraduate study. The European Research Council decided in 2010 that those Dr. med. doctorates do not meet the international standards of a PhD research degree.[79][80] The duration of the doctorate depends on the field: a doctorate in medicine may take less than a full-time year to complete, other fields take two to six. Most doctorates are awarded with specific Latin designations for the field of research (except for engineering, where the designation is German) instead of a general degree for all fields (e.g., the Ph.D.). The most important degrees are:

  • Dr. rer. nat. (rerum naturalium; natural and formal sciences, i.e. physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, computer science and information technology, or psychology);
  • Dr. phil. (philosophiae; humanities such as philosophy, philology, history, and social sciences such as sociology, political science, or psychology as well);
  • Dr. iur. (iuris; law);
  • Dr. oec. (oeconomiae; economics);
  • Dr. rer. pol. (rerum politicarum; economics, business administration, political science);
  • Dr. theol. (theologiae; theology);
  • Dr. med. (medicinae; medicine);
  • Dr. med. dent. (medicinae dentariae; dentistry);
  • Dr. med. vet. (medicinae veterinariae; veterinary medicine);
  • Dr.-Ing. (engineering).

Over fifty such designations are available, many of them rare or no longer in use. For addressing, the degree is commonly written in front of the name in abbreviated form, e.g., Dr. rer. nat. Max Mustermann or Dr. Max Mustermann, dropping the designation entirely. However leaving out the designation is only allowed, when the doctorate degree is not an honorary doctorate, which has to be indicated by Dr. h.c. (from Latin honoris causa). Although the honorific does not become part of the name, holders can demand that the title appear in official documents. The title is not mandatory. The honorific is commonly used in formal letters. For holders of other titles, only the highest title is mentioned. Multiple holders of doctorate degrees can be addressed as Dres. (from Latin doctores). Professional doctorates obtained in other countries, not requiring a thesis or not being third cycle qualifications under the Bologna process, can only be used postnominally, e.g., “Max Mustermann, MD”, and do not allow the use of the title Dr.[81]

In the German university system it is common to write two doctoral theses, the inaugural thesis (Inauguraldissertation), completing a course of study, and the habilitation thesis (Habilitationsschrift), which opens the road to a professorship.[82] Upon completion of the habilitation thesis, a Habilitation is awarded, which is indicated by appending habil. (habilitata/habilitatus) to the doctorate, e.g., Dr. rer. nat. habil. Max Mustermann. It is considered as an additional academic qualification rather than an academic degree formally. It qualifies the owner to teach at German universities (facultas docendi). The holder of a Habilitation receives the authorization to teach a certain subject (venia legendi). This has been the traditional prerequisite for attaining Privatdozent (PD) and employment as a full university Professor. With the introduction of Juniorprofessuren—around 2005—as an alternative track towards becoming a professor at universities (with tenure), Habilitation is no longer the only university career track.

India

In India, doctorates are offered by universities. Entry requirements include master’s degree. Some universities consider undergraduate degrees in professional areas such as engineering, medicine or law as qualifications for pursuing doctorate level degrees. Entrance examinations are held for almost all programs. In most North Indian universities, coursework duration and thesis is 6-7 years and in most South Indian universities is 5 years. The most common doctoral degree is Ph.D.

Italy

Italy uses a three-level degree system. The first-level degree, called a “laurea” (Bachelor’s degree), requires three years and a short thesis. The second-level degree, called a “laurea magistrale” (Master’s degree), is obtained after two additional years, specializing in a branch of the field. This degree requires more advanced thesis work, usually involving academic research or an internship. The final degree is called a “dottorato di ricerca” (Ph.D.) and is obtained after three years of academic research on the subject and a thesis.

Alternatively, after obtaining the laurea or the laurea magistrale one can complete a “Master’s” (first-level Master’s after the laurea; second-level Master’s after the laurea magistrale) of one or two years, usually including an internship. An Italian “Master’s” is not the same as a master’s degree; it is intended to be more focused on professional training and practical experience.

Regardless of the field of study, the title for Bachelors Graduate students is Dottore/Dottoressa (abbrev. Dott./Dott.ssa, or as Dr.), not to be confused with the title for the Ph.D., which is instead Dottore/Dottoressa di Ricerca. A laurea magistrale grants instead the title of Dottore/Dottoressa magistrale. Graduates in the fields of Education, Art and Music are also called Dr. Prof. (or simply Professore) or Maestro. Many professional titles, such as ingegnere (engineer) are awarded only upon passing a post-graduation examination (esame di stato), and registration in the relevant professional association.

The first institution in Italy to create a doctoral program (Ph.D.) was Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa in 1927 under the historic name “Diploma di Perfezionamento”.[83][84] Further, the research doctorates or Ph.D. (Italian: Dottorato di ricerca) in Italy were introduced with law and Presidential Decree in 1980 (Law of February 21, 1980, No. 28 and the Presidential Decree No. 382 of 11 July 1980), referring to the reform of academic teaching, training and experimentation in organisation and teaching methods.[85][86]

Hence the Superior Graduate Schools in Italy (Grandes écoles)[87] (Italian: Scuola Superiore Universitaria),[88] also called Schools of Excellence (Italian: Scuole di Eccellenza)[87][89] such as Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa and Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies keep their historical “Diploma di Perfezionamento” Ph.D. title by law[84][90] and MIUR Decree.[91][92]

Japan

Dissertation-only

Until the 1990s, most natural science and engineering doctorates in Japan were earned by industrial researchers in Japanese companies. These degrees were awarded by the employees’ former university, usually after years of research in industrial laboratories. The only requirement is submission of a dissertation, along with articles published in well-known journals. This program is called ronbun hakase (論文博士). It produced the majority of engineering doctoral degrees from national universities. University-based doctoral programs called katei hakase (課程博士), are gradually replacing these degrees. By 1994, more doctoral engineering degrees were earned for research within university laboratories (53%) than industrial research laboratories (47%).[93] Since 1978, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) has provided tutorial and financial support for promising researchers in Asia and Africa. The program is called JSPS RONPAKU.[94]

Professional degree

The only professional doctorate in Japan is the Juris Doctor, known as Hōmu Hakushi (法務博士)[95] The program generally lasts two or three years. This curriculum is professionally oriented,[96] but unlike in the US the program does not provide education sufficient for a law license. All candidates for a bar license must pass the bar exam (Shihou shiken), attend the Legal Training and Research Institute and pass the practical exam (Nikai Shiken or Shihou Shushusei koushi).[97]

Netherlands and Flanders

The traditional academic system of the Netherlands provided basic academic diploma: propaedeuse and three academic degrees: kandidaat (the lowest degree), depending on gender doctorandus or doctoranda (drs.) (with equivalent degrees in engineering – ir. and law – mr.) and doctor (dr.). After successful completion of the first year of university, the student was awarded the propaedeutic diploma (not a degree). In some fields, this diploma was abolished in the 1980s. In physics and mathematics, the student could directly obtain a kandidaats (candidate) diploma in two years. The candidate diploma was all but abolished by 1989. It used to be attained after completion of the majority of courses of the academic study (usually after completion of course requirements of the third year in the program), after which the student was allowed to begin work on their doctorandus thesis. The successful completion of this thesis conveyed the doctoranda/us title, implying that the student’s initial studies were finished. In addition to these ‘general’ degrees, specific titles equivalent to the doctorandus degree were awarded for law: meester (master) (mr.), and for engineering: ingenieur (engineer)(ir.). Following the Bologna protocol the Dutch adopted the Anglo-Saxon system of academic degrees. The old candidate’s degree was revived to become the bachelor’s degree and the doctorandus’ (mr and ir degree) were replaced by master’s degrees. Dutch university programmes tend to include advanced subject matter that e.g., at Harvard is taught in Ph.D.-courses (for instance advanced quantum mechanics or general relativity in a Dutch course for the master’s degree in theoretical physics).

Students can only enroll in a doctorate system after completing a research university level master’s degree; although dispensation can be granted on a case by case basis after scrutiny of the individual’s portfolio. The most common way to conduct doctoral studies is to work as promovendus/assistant in opleiding (aio)/onderzoeker in opleiding (oio) (research assistant with additional courses and supervision), perform extensive research and write a dissertation consisting of published articles (over a period of four or more years, averaging about 5.5 to 6). Research can also be conducted without official research assistant status, for example through a business-sponsored research laboratory.

Every Ph.D. thesis has to be promoted by a full university professor who has the role of principal advisor. The promotor (professor) determines whether the thesis quality suffices and can be submitted to the committee of experts. A committee of experts in the field review the thesis. Failures at this stage are rare because supervisors withhold inadequate work. The supervisors and promotor lose prestige among their colleagues should they allow a substandard thesis to be submitted.

After reviewer approval, the candidate publishes the thesis (generally more than 100 copies) and sends it to colleagues, friends and family with an invitation to the public defense. The degree is awarded in a formal, public, defense session, in which the thesis is defended against critical questions of the “opposition” (the review committee). Failure during this session is possible, but rare. Before the defense there may or may not be a public presentation, lasting 10 minutes (e.g. Eindhoven University) to exactly half hour (e.g. Delft University). The actual defense lasts exactly the assigned time slot (45 minutes to 1 hour exactly depending on the University) after which the defense is stopped by the bedel who closes the process.

The doctor’s title is the highest academic degree in the Netherlands. In research doctorates the degree is always Ph.D. with no distinction between disciplines. Three Dutch universities of technology (Eindhoven University of Technology, Delft University of Technology, and University of Twente) also award a (lower ranked) Professional Doctorate in Engineering (PDEng).

Although the title doctor is informally called Ph.D., legally no Ph.D. degree exists. All other university titles (B.Sc./B.Ba./LL.B./B.A. M.Sc./M.B.A./LL.M./M.A.) are protected by law, while Ph.D. is not. Any person thus can adopt the Ph.D. title, but not the doctor title, which is protected. Those who obtained a degree in a foreign country can only use the Dutch title drs. mr. ir. or dr. if approved by the Dienst Uitvoering Onderwijs[98] though according to the opportunity principle, little effort monitors such frauds. Dutch doctors may use the letter D behind their name instead of the uncapitalized shortcut dr. before their name.[99]

Those who have multiple doctor (dr.) titles may use the title dr.mult.[99] Those who have received honoris causa doctorates may use dr.h.c. before their own name.[99]

In Belgium’s Flemish Community the doctorandus title was only used by those who actually started their doctoral work. Doctorandus is still used as a synonym for a Ph.D. student. The licentiaat (licensee) title was in use for a regular graduate until the Bologna reform changed the licentiaat degree to the master’s degree (the Bologna reform abolished the two-year kandidaat degree and introduced a three-year academic bachelor’s degree instead).

Russia

In the Russian Empire the academic degree “doctor of the sciences” (doktor nauk) marked the highest academic degree that can be achieved by an examination. (The “doctor nauk” degree was introduced in Russia in 1819, abolished in 1917, and revived in the USSR in 1934.)[100] This system was generally adopted by the USSR/Russia and many post-Soviet countries. A lower degree, “candidate [doctor] of the sciences” (kandidat nauk; first introduced in the USSR on January 13, 1934, by a decision of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR), is, roughly, the Russian equivalent to the research doctorate in other countries.

Spain

The ancient ceremony of bestowing Complutense’s Doctoral biretta.

Doctoral degrees are regulated by Royal Decree (R.D. 778/1998),[101]Real Decreto (in Spanish). They are granted by the University on behalf of the King. Its Diploma has the force of a public document. The Ministry of Science keeps a National Registry of theses called TESEO.[102] According to the National Institute of Statistics (INE), less than 5% of M.Sc. degree holders are admitted to Ph.D. programmes.

All doctoral programs are research-oriented. A minimum of 4 years of study is required, divided into 2 stages:

  • A 2-year (or longer) period of studies concludes with a public dissertation presented to a panel of 3 Professors. Upon approval from the university, the candidate receives a “Diploma de Estudios Avanzados” (part qualified doctor, equivalent to M.Sc.). From 2008 it is possible to substitute the former diploma by a recognized master program.
  • A 2-year (or longer) research period includes extensions for up to 10 years. The student must present a thesis describing a discovery or original contribution. If approved by their thesis director, the study is presented to a panel of 5 distinguished scholars. Any Doctor attending the public defense is allowed to challenge the candidate with questions. If approved, the candidate receives the doctorate. Four marks used to be granted: Unsatisfactory (Suspenso), Pass (Aprobado), Remarkable (Notable), “Cum laude” (Sobresaliente), and “Summa cum laude” (Sobresaliente Cum Laude). Those Doctors granted their degree “Summa Cum Laude” were allowed to apply for an “Extraordinary Award”.

Since September 2012 and regulated by Royal Decree (R.D. 99/2011) (in Spanish),[103] three marks can be granted: Unsatisfactory (No apto), Pass (Apto) and “Cum laude” (Apto Cum Laude) as maximum mark. In the public defense the doctor is notified if the thesis has passed or not passed. The Apto Cum Laude mark is awarded after the public defense as the result of a private, anonymous vote. Votes are verified by the University. A unanimous vote of the reviewers nominates Doctors granted “Apto Cum Laude” for an “Extraordinary Award” (Premio Extraordinario de Doctorado).

In the same Royal Decree the initial 3-year study period was replaced by a Research master’s degree (one or two years; Professional master’s degrees do not grant direct access to Ph.D. Programs) that concludes with a public dissertation called “Trabajo de Fin de Máster” or “Proyecto de Fin de Máster”. An approved project earns a master’s degree that grants access to a Ph.D. program and initiates the period of research.

A doctorate is required in order to teach at the University.[104]

Only Ph.D. holders, Grandees and Dukes can sit and cover their heads in the presence of the King.[105]

Complutense University was the only one in Spain authorised to confer the doctorate. This law remained in effect until 1954, when the University of Salamanca joined in commemoration of its septecentenary. In 1970, the right was extended to all Spanish universities.[106]

All doctorate holders are reciprocally recognised as equivalent in Germany and Spain ( according to the “Bonn Agreement of November 14, 1994”).[107]

United Kingdom

History of the UK doctorate

The doctorate has long existed in the UK as, originally, the second degree in divinity, law, medicine and music. But it was not until the late 19th century that the research doctorate, now known as the higher doctorate, was introduced. The first higher doctorate was the Doctor of Science at Durham University, introduced in 1882.[17] This was soon followed by other universities, including the University of Cambridge establishing its ScD in the same year, the University of London transforming its DSc from an advanced study course to a research degree in 1885, and the University of Oxford establishing its Doctor of Letters (DLitt) in 1900.[108][109]

Ph.D. Gown, University of Cambridge

The PhD was adopted in the UK following a joint decision in 1917 by British universities, although it took much longer for it to become established. Oxford became the first university to institute the new degree, although naming it the DPhil.[108] The PhD was often distinguished from the earlier higher doctorates by distinctive academic dress. At Cambridge, for example, PhDs wear a master’s gown with scarlet facings rather than the full scarlet gown of the higher doctors, while the University of Wales gave PhDs crimson gowns rather than scarlet.[110] Professional doctorates were introduced in Britain in the 1980s and 1990s. The earliest professional doctorates were in the social sciences, including the Doctor of Business Administration (DBA), Doctor of Education (EdD) and Doctor of Clinical Psychology (DClinPsy).[111]

British doctorates today

Today, except for those awarded honoris causa, all doctorates granted by British universities are research doctorates, in that their main (and in many cases only) component is the submission of an extensive and substantial thesis or portfolio of original research, examined by an expert panel appointed by the university. UK doctorates are categorised as:[24]

Junior doctorates
  1. Subject specialist doctorates – normally PhD/DPhil; the most common form of doctorate

    • Integrated subject specialist doctorates – integrated PhDs including teaching at master’s level
  2. Doctorates by publication – PhD by Published Works; only awarded infrequently
  3. Professional and practice-based (or practitioner) doctorates – e.g. EdD, ProfDoc/DProf, EngD, etc.; usually include taught elements and have a professional, rather than academic, orientation
Higher doctorates
e.g. DD, LLD, DSc, DLitt; higher level than junior doctorates, usually awarded either for a substantial body of work over an extended period or as honorary degrees.

The Quality Assurance Agency states in the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications of UK Degree-Awarding Bodies (which covers junior doctorates but not higher doctorates) that:[22]

.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}

Doctoral degrees are awarded to students who have demonstrated:

  • the creation and interpretation of new knowledge, through original research or other advanced scholarship, of a quality to satisfy peer review, extend the forefront of the discipline, and merit publication
  • a systematic acquisition and understanding of a substantial body of knowledge which is at the forefront of an academic discipline or area of professional practice
  • the general ability to conceptualise, design and implement a project for the generation of new knowledge, applications or understanding at the forefront of the discipline, and to adjust the project design in the light of unforeseen problems
  • a detailed understanding of applicable techniques for research and advanced academic enquiry

In the UK, the (junior) doctorate is a qualification awarded at FHEQ level 8/level 12 of the FQHEIS on the national qualifications frameworks.[22][24][112] The higher doctorates are stated to be “A higher level of award”, which is not covered by the qualifications frameworks.[24]

Subject specialist doctorates

These are the most common doctorates in the UK and are normally awarded as PhDs. While the master/apprentice model was traditionally used for British PhDs, since 2003 courses have become more structured, with students taking courses in research skills and receiving training for professional and personal development. However, the assessment of the PhD remains based on the production of a thesis or equivalent and its defence at a viva voce oral examination, normally held in front of at least two examiners, one internal and one external.[24] Access to PhDs normally requires an upper second class or first class bachelor’s degree, or a master’s degree. Courses normally last three years, although it is common for students to be initially registered for MPhil degrees and then formally transferred onto the PhD after a year or two. Students who are not considered likely to complete a PhD may be offered the opportunity to complete an MPhil instead.[113]

Integrated doctorates, originally known as ‘New Route PhDs’, were introduced from 2000 onwards. These integrate teaching at master’s level during the first one or two years of the degree, either alongside research or as a preliminary to starting research. These courses usually offer a master’s-level exit degree after the taught causes are completed. While passing the taught elements is often required, examination of the final doctorate is still by thesis (or equivalent) alone.[24] The duration of integrated doctorates is a minimum of four years, with three years spent on the research component.[114]

In 2013, Research Councils UK issued a ‘Statement of Expectations for Postgraduate Training’, which lays out the expectations for training in PhDs funded by the research councils.[115] In the latest version (2016), issued together with Cancer Research UK, the Wellcome Trust and the British Heart Foundation, these include the provision of careers advice, in-depth advanced training in the subject area, provision of transferable skills, training in experimental design and statistics, training in good research conduct, and training for compliance with legal, ethical and professional frameworks. The statement also encourages peer-group development through cohort training and/or Graduate schools.[116]

Higher doctorates

Higher doctorates are awarded in recognition of a substantial body of original research undertaken over the course of many years. Typically the candidate submits a collection of previously published, peer-refereed work, which is reviewed by a committee of internal and external academics who decide whether the candidate deserves the doctorate. The higher doctorate is similar in some respects to the habilitation in some European countries. However, the purpose of the award is significantly different. While the habilitation formally determines whether an academic is suitably qualified to be a university professor, the higher doctorate does not qualify the holder for a position but rather recognises their contribution to research.[17]

Higher doctorates were defined by the UK Council for Graduate Education (UKCGE) in 2013 as:[17]

an award that is at a level above the PhD (or equivalent professional doctorate in the discipline), and that is typically gained not through a defined programme of study but rather by submission of a substantial body of research-based work.

In terms of number of institutions offering the awards, the most common doctorates of this type in UKCGE surveys carried out in 2008 and 2013 were the Doctor of Science (DSc), Doctor of Letters (DLitt), Doctor of Law (LLD), Doctor of Music (DMus) and Doctor of Divinity (DD); in the 2008 survey the Doctor of Technology (DTech) tied with the DD.[17] The DSc was offered by all 49 responding institutions in 2008 and 15 out of 16 in 2013 and the DLitt by only one less in each case, while the DD was offered in 10 responding institutions in 2008 and 3 in 2013. In terms of number of higher doctorates awarded (not including honorary doctorates) the DSc was most popular, but the number of awards was very low: the responding institutions had averaged an award of at most one earned higher doctorate per year over the period 2003 – 2013.[17]

Honorary degrees

Most British universities award degrees honoris causa to recognise individuals who have made a substantial contribution to a particular field. Usually an appropriate higher doctorate is used in these circumstances, depending on the candidate’s achievements. However, some universities differentiate between honorary and substantive doctorates, using the degree of Doctor of the University (D.Univ.) for these purposes, and reserve the higher doctorates for formal academic research.

United States

In 1861, Yale University awarded the first Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree in the United States.

The structure of US doctoral programs is more formal and complex than some others. US research doctorates are awarded for successfully completing and defending independent research presented in the form of a dissertation, along with advanced study. Multiple professional degrees use the term “doctor” in their title, such as Juris Doctor and Doctor of Medicine, but these degrees do not always contain an independent research component or always require a dissertation and should not be confused with Ph.D./D.Phil./Ed.D./D.Ed. degrees or other research doctorates.[117] Law school graduates, although awarded the J.D. degree, are not normally addressed as “doctor”. In legal studies the Ph.D. equivalent is the much rarer Doctor of Juridical Science.

Many universities offer Ph.D./D.Phil. followed by a professional doctorate or joint Ph.D./D.Phil. with the professional degree. Most often, Ph.D. work comes sequential to the professional degree, e.g., Ph.D./D.Phil. in law after a J.D. or equivalent[118][119][120][121] in physical therapy after DPT,[122][123] in pharmacy after Pharm.D.[124][125] Such professional degrees are referred to as an entry level doctorate program[126][127][128] and Ph.D. as a post-professional doctorate.[123]

Research degrees

The most common research doctorate is the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D. or D.Phil.). This degree was first awarded in the U.S. at the 1861 Yale University commencement.[129] The University of Pennsylvania followed in 1871,[130] and Cornell (1872),[131]Harvard (1873),[132]Michigan (1876) [133] and Princeton (1879)[134] followed suit. Unlike the introduction of the professional doctorate M.D., considerable controversy and opposition followed the introduction of the Ph.D. into the U.S. educational system, lasting into the 1950s, as it was seen as an unnecessary artificial transplant from a foreign (Germany) educational system, which corrupted a system based on England’s Oxbridge model.[135]

Ph.D.s and other research doctorates in the U.S. typically entail successful completion of pertinent classes, passing a comprehensive examination, and defending a dissertation.[136]

The median number of years for completion of US doctoral degrees is seven.[31] Doctoral applicants were previously required to have a master’s degree, but many programs accept students immediately following undergraduate studies.[137][138] Many programs gauge the potential of a student applying to their program and grant a master’s degree upon completion of the necessary Ph.D. course work. When so admitted, the student is expected to have mastered the material covered in the master’s degree despite not holding one, though this tradition is under heavy criticism.[139] Finishing Ph.D. qualifying exams confers Ph.D. candidate status, allowing dissertation work to begin.

While not authoritative, the International Affairs Office of the U.S. Department of Education listed over 20 “frequently” awarded research doctorate titles identified by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in a 2008 document as representing degrees equivalent in research content to the Ph.D. at the time.[140] The 2008 version of the NSF list of research doctorates included in the Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED), contained 18 awards. The Doctor of Music and Doctor of Industrial Technology were removed in 2008, after the study evaluation identified that these were fully professional, rather than research-based, doctorates.[141] The current list (as of the 2016 SED, published in March 2018) contains the same 18 awards.[142]

Professional degrees

Many fields offer professional doctorates (or professional master’s) such as pharmacy, medicine, public health, dentistry, optometry, psychology, speech-language pathology, physical therapy, occupational therapy, health science, advanced practice registered nurse, chiropractic, naturopathic medicine, law, architecture, education, teaching, business, management, and others that require such degrees for professional practice or licensure. Some of these degrees are also termed “first professional degrees,” since they are the first field-specific master’s or doctoral degrees.

A Doctor of Pharmacy is awarded as the professional degree in Pharmacy replacing a Bachelor’s. It is the only professional pharmacy degree awarded in the US. Pharmacy programs vary in length between 4 years for matriculants with a B.S./B.A. to 6 years for others.

In the twenty-first century professional doctorates appeared in other fields, such as the Doctor of Audiology in 2007. Advanced Practice Registered Nurses were expected to completely transition to the Doctor of Nursing Practice by 2015, and physical therapists to the Doctor of Physical Therapy by 2020. Professional associations play a central role in this transformation amid criticisms on the lack of proper criteria to assure appropriate rigor. In many cases Masters level programs were relabeled as doctoral programs.[143]

Revocation

A doctoral degree can be revoked or rescinded by the university that awarded it. Possible reasons include plagiarism, criminal or unethical activities of the author, or malfunction or manipulation of academic evaluation processes.[144]

See also

  • Compilation thesis
  • Doctor (title)
  • Eurodoctorate
  • List of fields of doctoral studies

References

  1. ^ ab Verger, J. (1999), “Doctor, doctoratus”, Lexikon des Mittelalters, 3, Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler, pp. 1155–1156.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ abc Verger, J. (1999), “Licentia”, Lexikon des Mittelalters, 5, Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler, pp. 1957–1958
  3. ^ Keith Allan Noble, Changing doctoral degrees: an international perspective, Society for Research into Higher Education, 1994, p. 8.
  4. ^ “liberal arts.” Britannica.com
  5. ^ “Erhard-Weigel-Gesellschaft: Biographie Weigels”. Erhard-weigel-gesellschaft.de. Archived from the original on 2016-11-14. Retrieved 2016-10-29.
  6. ^ Sooyoung Chang, Academic Genealogy of Mathematicians, World Scientific, 2010, p. 183.
  7. ^ Park, C. (2007), Redefining the Doctorate, York, UK: The Higher Education Academy, p. 4.
  8. ^ Makdisi, George (1970). “Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages”. Studia Islamica (32): 255–264 (260). doi:10.2307/1595223. Perhaps the most fundamental difference between the two systems is embodied in their systems of certification; namely, in medieval Europe, the licentia docendi, or license to teach; in medieval Islam, the ijaza, or authorization.
  9. ^ Huff, Toby E. (2007). The rise of early modern science : Islam, China, and the West (2. ed., repr. ed.). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge University Press. p. 155. ISBN 0521529948. It remains the case that no equivalent of the bachelor’s degree, the licentia docendi, or higher degrees ever emerged in the medieval or early modern Islamic madrasas.
  10. ^ “Juliana Morell”. Catholic Encyclopaedia. 1913.
  11. ^ Universidad de Alcala (UAH), Madrid. “Universidad de Alcalá”. uah.es.
  12. ^ “A Brief History of Columbia”. columbia.edu.
  13. ^ “History of the College of Physicians and Surgeons”. Columbia University. Retrieved 7 October 2016. King’s College organized a medical faculty in 1767 and was the first institution in the North American Colonies to confer the degree of Doctor of Medicine. The first graduates in medicine from the College were Robert Tucker and Samuel Kissarn, who received the degree of Bachelor of Medicine in May 1769, and that of Doctor of Medicine in May 1770 and May 1771, respectively.
  14. ^ Reed, A. (1921). Training for the Public Profession of the Law. Carnegie’s Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 15. Boston: Merrymount Press. pp. 162–164.
  15. ^ “Doctor of medicine profession (MD)”. Medical Encyclopedia. MedlinePlus. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  16. ^ “Landmarks in Yale’s history”. yale.edu.
  17. ^ abcdef Tina Barnes (2013). Higher Doctorates in the UK 2013 (PDF). UK Council for Graduate Education. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-9563812-7-9. The UK higher doctorate has a long history with the first (a DSc) being offered by Durham University in 1882
  18. ^ H. Perraton (17 June 2014). A History of Foreign Students in Britain. Springer.
  19. ^ “Doctoral degree characteristics” (PDF). Quality Assurance Agency. September 2011. p. 12. Retrieved 18 June 2017. The first Doctor of Philosophy (DPhil) in the UK was awarded by the University of Oxford in 1917
  20. ^ Kenneth K. Mwenda (2007). Comparing American and British Legal Education Systems: Lessons for Commonwealth African Law Schools. Cambria Press. pp. 20–25.
  21. ^ David Perry (June 2012). “HOW DID LAWYERS BECOME ‘DOCTORS’? FROM THE LL.B. TO THE J.D.” (PDF). New York State Bar Association Journal. New York State Bar Association.
  22. ^ abcd “The Frameworks for Higher Education Qualifications of UK Degree-Awarding Bodies” (PDF). Quality Assurance Agency. November 2014. pp. 16–17, 30, 36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2016-09-19. ‘doctoral degree’ is used only in respect of qualifications at level 8 on the FHEQ/SCQF level 12 on the FQHEIS.
  23. ^ abcdefghi “Structure of the U.S. Education System: Research Doctorate Degrees”. U.S. Department of Education. Archived from the original on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  24. ^ abcdefghijklmno “Characteristics Statement: Doctoral Degree” (PDF). Quality Assurance Agency. September 2015. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  25. ^ “University of Oxford answers”. University of Oxford.
  26. ^ “BUCSIS Research Programme”. University of Buckingham. Retrieved 1 October 2016. We offer research degrees both at Master’s level (represented by the two-year MPhil programme) and at DPhil (PhD level).
  27. ^ “DPhil in Economics”. University of Oxford Department of Economics. Retrieved 1 October 2016. The DPhil is the name Oxford gives to its doctoral degree rather than the more familiar name PhD. used in most other universities, but the structure of the degree is identical to that of the PhD at leading economics graduate schools worldwide.
  28. ^ ab “Status of the Doctorate of Business Administration (DBA) in the UK” (PDF). Quality Assurance Agency. 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  29. ^ “Research degrees: Doctoral College”. University of Hertfordshire. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  30. ^ “Engineering doctorate”. epsrc.ac.uk.
  31. ^ ab “Research Doctorate Programs”. americangraduateeducation.com.
  32. ^ “National Qualifications Framework” (PDF). Swedish National Agency for Higher Education. May 2011. pp. 14–15, 26. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  33. ^ Helena Mähler (2004). Jan Sadlak, ed. Sweden (PDF). Doctoral Studies and Qualifications in Europe and the United States: Status and Prospects. UNESCO. p. 202. ISBN 92-9069-179-4. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  34. ^ “University Degrees”. Finnish National Board of Education. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  35. ^ “University Education”. Fulbright Commission Belgium and Luxembourg. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  36. ^ “American Studies”. Embassy of the United States Brussels. Retrieved 1 October 2016. The degree is open to everyone (including non-Belgians) who has earned the B.A. (in Belgium: licentiaat or licence) or an equivalent degree
    [permanent dead link]
  37. ^ “Licence, Master’s, Doctorate and Other Academic Programs”. Campus France. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  38. ^ “Quadro Nazionale delle Qualifiche della Santa Sede [National Qualifications Framework of the Holy See]”. Congregazione per l’Educazione Cattolica. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  39. ^ “CV John F. Wippel – CUA Philosophy”. Philosophy.cua.edu. Archived from the original on 2016-10-30. Retrieved 2016-10-29.
  40. ^ Christian Fleck, Sociology in Austria, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
  41. ^ “Doctor of Professional Studies Program”. Gabelli School of Business. Fordham University. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  42. ^ “Homeland Security, Doctor of Professional Studies | St. John’s University”. www.stjohns.edu. Retrieved 2018-08-23.
  43. ^ “Doctorate of Professional Practice”. Robert Gordon University. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  44. ^ “Doctor of Professional Practice”. Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  45. ^ “Doctor’s degree-professional practice”. National Center for Educational Statistics. US Department of Education. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  46. ^ “Doctor’s degree-research/scholarship”. National Center for Educational Statistics. US Department of Education. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  47. ^ “Doctor’s degree-other”. National Center for Educational Statistics. US Department of Education. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  48. ^ “Glossary”. National Center for Educational Statistics. US Department of Education. Retrieved 2 September 2018. Doctor’s degree: The highest award a student can earn for graduate study. The doctor’s degree classification includes such degrees as Doctor of Education, Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor of Public Health, and the Doctor of Philosophy degree in any field such as agronomy, food technology, education, engineering, public administration, ophthalmology, or radiology. The doctor’s degree classification encompasses three main subcategories—research/scholarship degrees, professional practice degrees, and other degrees—which are described below.
    Doctor’s degree-research/scholarship: A Ph.D. or other doctor’s degree that requires advanced work beyond the master’s level, including the preparation and defense of a dissertation based on original research, or the planning and execution of an original project demonstrating substantial artistic or scholarly achievement. Examples of this type of degree may include the following and others, as designated by the awarding institution: the Ed.D. (in education), D.M.A. (in musical arts), D.B.A. (in business administration), D.Sc. (in science), D.A. (in arts), or D.M (in medicine).
    Doctor’s degree—professional practice: A doctor’s degree that is conferred upon completion of a program providing the knowledge and skills for the recognition, credential, or license required for professional practice. The degree is awarded after a period of study such that the total time to the degree, including both preprofessional and professional preparation, equals at least 6 full-time-equivalent academic years. Some doctor’s degrees of this type were formerly classified as first-professional degrees. Examples of this type of degree may include the following and others, as designated by the awarding institution: the D.C. or D.C.M. (in chiropractic); D.D.S. or D.M.D. (in dentistry); L.L.B. or J.D. (in law); M.D. (in medicine); O.D. (in optometry); D.O. (in osteopathic medicine); Pharm.D. (in pharmacy); D.P.M., Pod.D., or D.P. (in podiatry); or D.V.M. (in veterinary medicine).
    Doctor’s degree—other: A doctor’s degree that does not meet the definition of a doctor’s degree—research/scholarship or a doctor’s degree—professional practice.
  49. ^ “Canadian Degree Qualifications Framework” (PDF). Ministerial Statement on Quality Assurance of Degree Education in Canada. Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. Retrieved 3 October 2016. Though considered to be bachelor’s programs in academic standing, some professional programs yield degrees with other nomenclature. Examples: DDS (Dental Surgery), MD (Medicine), LLB, or JD (Juris Doctor)
  50. ^ “AQF qualification titles” (PDF). Australian Qualifications Framework Council. June 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  51. ^ “Review of Professional Doctorates” (PDF). European Universities Association. National Qualifications Authority of Ireland. October 2006. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  52. ^ Kathryn Brown & Carlton Cooke. “Professional Doctorate Awards in the UK” (PDF). University of Leicester. UK Council for Graduate Education. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  53. ^ “C02027v4 Doctor of Juridical Science”. UTS Handbook. University of Technology Sydney. 30 October 2009. Archived from the original on 2010-08-14. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  54. ^ “Doctor of Juridical Science (20810)”. UWA Handbooks 2010. 24 June 2010. Archived from the original on 10 October 2010. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  55. ^ Doctor of Philosophy. Doctor of Juridical Science. Master of Laws by Research. Master of Taxation by Research. Faculty of Law, The University of New South Wales 2009
  56. ^ “Higher Degrees by Research”. monash.edu.au. Archived from the original on 2009-09-12. Retrieved 2009-09-01.
  57. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2008-09-30. Retrieved 2008-04-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  58. ^ “Three to Receive Honorary Degrees for Contributions to Science and Technology, and Public Policy”. cmu.edu.
  59. ^ “Dear Uncle Ezra: Question 19”. Cornell University. 15 May 2003. Archived from the original on 2010-08-25. Retrieved 2010-09-05.
  60. ^ “University Regulations: Academic Regulations: Graduate Record 2005-2006”. virginia.edu.
  61. ^ “No honorary degrees is an MIT tradition going back to … Thomas Jefferson”. MIT News. 8 June 2001.
  62. ^ “Tipos de posgrado”. Coneau (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2008-06-12. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
  63. ^ ab “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-10-31. Retrieved 2010-04-28.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  64. ^ “Types of Graduate Programs”. Coneau. Archived from the original on 2010-08-25. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  65. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2008-09-16. Retrieved 2008-06-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  66. ^ “Origin”. Coneau. Archived from the original on 2008-12-06. Retrieved 2008-04-28.
  67. ^ Olavo Leite, André; Carmo, Valter Moura (2014). “Os doutorados em cotutela no Brasil e em seus principais parceiros acadêmicos”. Revista Brasileira de Pós-Graduação. 11 (26): 969–997.
  68. ^ [1][dead link]
  69. ^ “Valtioneuvoston asetus yliopistojen tutkinnoista 794/2004 – Säädökset alkuperäisinä – FINLEX ®”. Finlex.fi. Retrieved 2016-10-29.
  70. ^ (in Finnish) Peura, A (2004) Tohtoriksi tulemisen tarina. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 219. Page 27. University of Helsinki.
    ISBN 978-952-10-4386-4. Retrieved 1-14-2009.
  71. ^ (in Finnish) Peura, A (2004) Tohtoriksi tulemisen tarina. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 219. Page 108. University of Helsinki.
    ISBN 978-952-10-4386-4. Retrieved 1-14-2009.
  72. ^ (in Finnish) Peura, A (2004) Tohtoriksi tulemisen tarina. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 219. Pages 29 and 125–126. University of Helsinki.
    ISBN 978-952-10-4386-4. Retrieved 1-14-2009.
  73. ^ (in Finnish) Peura, A (2004) Tohtoriksi tulemisen tarina. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 219. Pages 29 and 129. University of Helsinki.
    ISBN 978-952-10-4386-4. Retrieved 1-14-2009.
  74. ^ (in Finnish) Peura, A (2004) Tohtoriksi tulemisen tarina. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 219. Pages 130–160. University of Helsinki.
    ISBN 978-952-10-4386-4. Retrieved 1-14-2009.
  75. ^ (in Finnish) Peura, A (2004) Tohtoriksi tulemisen tarina. Kasvatustieteen laitoksen tutkimuksia 219. Pages 160–180. University of Helsinki.
    ISBN 978-952-10-4386-4. Retrieved 1-14-2009.
  76. ^ ab Alan D. Schrift (2006), Twentieth-Century French Philosophy: Key Themes And Thinkers, Blackwell Publishing, p. 208.
  77. ^ H. D. Lewis, The French Education System, Routledge, 1985,
    ISBN 0-7099-1683-3,
    ISBN 978-0-7099-1683-3
  78. ^ “La formation doctorale – ESR”. Enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr. Retrieved 2016-10-29.
  79. ^ Sarah Schmidt (1 October 2015). “Kommt ein Doktor zum Arzt …” Süddeutsche Zeitung.
  80. ^ Bernd Kramer (28 September 2015). “Akademische Ramschware”. Der Spiegel.
  81. ^ “Führung ausländischer Hochschulgrade”. Archived from the original on 11 April 2009.
  82. ^ Carl Brockelmann, History of the Arabic Written Tradition, Volume 1, BRILL, 2016, p. vii.
  83. ^ “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2012-02-02.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  84. ^ ab (in Italian) STATUTO DELLA SCUOLA NORMALE SUPERIORE DI PISA (legge 18 giugno 1986, n. 308) Archived 2012-03-10 at WebCite
  85. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2011-11-04. Retrieved 2012-02-02.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  86. ^ Dario Cillo. “Decreto Presidente Repubblica 11 luglio 1980, n. 382”. Edscuola.it. Retrieved 2016-10-29.
  87. ^ ab (in Italian) Ricerca Italiana, Scuole di Eccellenza
  88. ^ “Italy’s big six form network for elite”. Times Higher Education.
  89. ^ (in Italian) Scuole di Eccellenza
  90. ^ Article 3 of the Law of 14 February 1987, No.41 | L. 14 febbraio 1987, n. 41 Istituzione della Scuola superiore di studi universitari e di perfezionamento S. Anna di Pisa
  91. ^ Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR) Decree
  92. ^ “2005 Universita in Italia Guida” (PDF). Guidalaureebiennali.miur.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2016-10-29.
  93. ^ The Science and Technology Resources of Japan: A Comparison with the United States Nsf.gov (2004-11-10). Retrieved on 2010-10-26.
  94. ^ Ronpaku (Dissertation Phd) Program. JSPS. Retrieved on 2010-10-26.
  95. ^ The Justice System Reform Council (2001). For a Justice System to Support Japan in the 21st Century.
  96. ^ Yokohama National University Law School.Program Introduction and Dean’s Message Archived 2009-09-10 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved April 7, 2008.
  97. ^ Foote, D. (2005). Justice System Reform in Japan Archived 2009-03-20 at the Wayback Machine.. Annual meeting of the Research Committee of Sociology of Law, Paris. European Network on Law and Society.
  98. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2010-12-17. Retrieved 2011-01-07.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  99. ^ abc “Informatie van de Rijksoverheid | Rijksoverheid.nl”. Postbus51.nl. Retrieved 2016-10-29.
  100. ^ Leitenberg, Milton and Raymond A. Zilinskas (2012), The Soviet Biological Weapons Program: A History, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2012, Table 2.1.
  101. ^ “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-16. Retrieved 2007-12-30.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  102. ^ “Página no encontrada – Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte”. Micinn.es. Retrieved 2016-10-29.
    [permanent dead link]
  103. ^ “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-09. Retrieved 2013-01-03.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  104. ^ “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-27. Retrieved 2014-06-05.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  105. ^ “Raíces de las normas y tradiciones del protocolo y ceremonial universitario actual: las universidades del Antiguo Régimen y los actos de colación”. Protocolo y Etiqueta.
  106. ^ “Ley Moyano de Instrucción Pública de 1857: 14”. wikisource.org.
  107. ^ “BOE.es, Documento BOE-A-1995-12243”. boe.es. Archived from the original on 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2018-12-14.
  108. ^ ab John Aldrich. “The Mathematics PhD in the United Kingdom: Historical Notes for the Mathematics Genealogy Projec”.
  109. ^ M.G. Brock and M.C Curthouys, eds., The History of the University of Oxford., vol. VII, part 2: Nineteenth Century Oxford, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 619.
  110. ^ George W. Shaw (1995). Academical Dress of British and Irish Universities. Phillmore & Co. Ltd. pp. 35, 40, 219–220. ISBN 0-85033-974-X.
  111. ^ “Professional Doctorates”. International Association for Practice Doctorates. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  112. ^ “Compare different qualifications”. ofqual.gov.uk.
  113. ^ “What is a PhD?”. Graduate Prospects Ltd. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  114. ^ “Characteristics Statement: Master’s Degree” (PDF). Quality Assurance Agency. September 2015. p. 6. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  115. ^ “RCUK unveils expectations for doctoral training support”. Vitae.ac.uk. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  116. ^ “Statement of Expectations for Postgraduate Training”. September 2016. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  117. ^ “Credential Creep” (DOC). 2.ed.gov. Retrieved 2016-10-30.
  118. ^ “Ph.D. Program – Yale Law School”. Law.yale.edu. Retrieved 2016-10-29.
  119. ^ “Distance Learning Ph.D. in Law”. le.ac.uk.
  120. ^ “Berkeley Law, Ph.D. Program (JSP)”. berkeley.edu.
  121. ^ “Ph.D. Program, UW School of Law”. washington.edu.
  122. ^ “Ph.D. in Rehabilitation Sciences”. College of Nursing and Health Professions.
  123. ^ ab “Directory of Postprofessional Ph.D. and ScD/DSc Programs”. apta.org.
  124. ^ “PharmD/Ph.D. Combined Degree Program”. ucsf.edu.
  125. ^ “University of Texas, College of Pharmacy, Pharm. D./Ph.D.” utexas.edu. Archived from the original on 2013-10-24. Retrieved 2013-10-19.
  126. ^ “Doctor of Pharmacy Degree (Pharm.D.)”. ufl.edu.
  127. ^ “PharmD Program”. osu.edu.
  128. ^ “What is the difference between a Pharm.D. and a Ph.D. degree?: College of Pharmacy”. ferris.edu. Archived from the original on 2013-10-20. Retrieved 2013-10-19.
  129. ^ “Office of Public Affairs at Yale – News Release”. Archived from the original on September 9, 2006. Retrieved 2015-01-16.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) . Retrieved on 2010-10-26.
  130. ^ American higher education in the … – Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved on 2010-10-26.
  131. ^ Cornell University Graduate School – Our History. Gradschool.cornell.edu. Retrieved on 2010-10-26.
  132. ^ [2] Archived October 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  133. ^ [3]. Bicentennial Timeline
  134. ^ History & Purpose – The Graduate School – Princeton University. Gradschool.princeton.edu (2010-10-01). Retrieved on 2010-10-26.
  135. ^ Prior, Moody E. (1965). “The Doctor of Philosophy Degree.” in Walters, E. ed. Graduate Education Today. American Council on Education. Washington, D.C. p. 32.
  136. ^ “Graduate Degree Requirements”. arizona.edu.
  137. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2010-06-13. Retrieved 2015-01-16.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  138. ^ “Admissions Information”. purdue.edu. Archived from the original on 2009-02-25.
  139. ^ “Tradition of Oxbridge ‘free’ Masters degrees under fire”. Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  140. ^ “Structure of the U.S. Education System : Research Doctorate Degrees”. Ed.gov. Archived from the original (DOC) on 2012-01-27. Retrieved 2016-10-30.
  141. ^ “Technical Notes”. Doctorate Recipients from U.S. Universities: 2014. National Science Foundation. December 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
  142. ^ “Table A-1. Types of research doctoral degrees recognized by the Survey of Earned Doctorates: 2016”. National Science Foundation. Match 2018. Retrieved 1 September 2018. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  143. ^ “The Chronicle of Higher education : The Faculty : Credential Creep” (PDF). Csun.edu. Retrieved 2016-10-30.
  144. ^ “10 High-Profile People Whose Degrees Were Revoked”. Usnews.com. Retrieved 2016-10-30.


Doctor of Law

Jesus amongst the Doctors of the Law, Master of Sigena, active at the Monastery of Santa María de Sigena, 1515–1519 (current location: Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya)

Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law. The application of the term varies from country to country, and includes degrees such as the Doctor of Juridical Science (J.S.D. or S.J.D), Doctor juris (Dr. iur. or Dr. jur.), Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Juris Doctor (J.D.), and Legum Doctor (LL.D.).

Contents

  • 1 By country

    • 1.1 Argentina
    • 1.2 Brazil
    • 1.3 Canada
    • 1.4 Czech Republic and Slovakia (former Czechoslovakia)
    • 1.5 European and Commonwealth usage
    • 1.6 Finland
    • 1.7 France
    • 1.8 Germany
    • 1.9 Italy
    • 1.10 Malta
    • 1.11 South Africa
    • 1.12 Sweden
    • 1.13 United Kingdom
    • 1.14 United States
  • 2 See also
  • 3 Notes and references

By country

Argentina

In Argentina the Doctor of Laws or Doctor of Juridical Sciences is the highest academic qualification in the field of Jurisprudence.[1] To obtain the doctoral degree the applicant must have previously achieved, at least the undergraduate degree of Attorney.[2] (Título de Abogado). The doctorates in Jurisprudence in Argentina might have different denominations as is described as follow:

  • Doctorate in Law (Offered by the University of Buenos Aires, NU of the L, and NU of R)
  • Doctorate in Criminal Law
  • Doctorate in Criminal Law and Criminal Sciences
  • Doctorate in Juridical Sciences
  • Doctorate in Juridical and Social Sciences (Offered by the NU of C)
  • Doctorate in Private Law (Offered by the NU of T)
  • Doctorate in Public Law and Government Economics (Offered by the NU of T)

Brazil

In Brazil, the Doctor of Laws degree, known in Portuguese as Doutor em Direito or Doutor em Ciências Jurídicas, is the highest academic degree in law available.

In some of the country’s most important universities there is a higher title known as livre docência, like the habilitation in some European countries. However, this higher title is not a degree in the strict sense, because livre docência nowadays is an internal title, that applies solely within the institution granting it.

In the past, livre docência was a degree in the fullness of the term, and a professor bearing the title would enjoy the privileges of livre docência if he transferred from one institution to another; there are still living professors who hold the “old” livre docência degrees; but all new titles of that name only confer privileges within the institution granting it.

The doctoral degree is awarded upon the completion and the successful defense of a thesis prepared by the doctoral candidate under the supervision of a tutor. The thesis must be examined by a board of five professors, holders of the title of doctor or of a livre docência. Two of the members of the board must be professors from another institution. In most Brazilian Law Schools, the candidates are also required to earn a minimum number of credits.

Unlike the rules of other countries, the Brazilian norms governing the grant of doctoral titles do not require the publication of the thesis as a precondition for the award of the degree. Nevertheless, copies of the thesis must be delivered to the institution’s library. Usually, doctoral thesis are published by specialized editors after the grant of the doctoral title.

If one obtains a doctoral title in a foreign country, one cannot enjoy the academic privileges of the title in Brazil unless the title be first validated by a Brazilian University. In that case, the doctor asking for the validation of the title will present his thesis and other documents relating to his foreign doctoral course to a board examiners of the Brazilian University and the examiners will then pass judgement on whether the work done by the candidate adheres to the minimum standards of quality that are usually required by a Brazilian university when granting doctoral degrees.

Admission to doctoral courses is almost universally reserved to holders of a master’s degree (the Master’s in Brazil is a graduate degree and is not the first professional degree). Therefore, a bachelor of Laws (a bearer of the first professional degree), seeking the degree of doctor must usually complete a postgraduate course to attain the degree of Master of Laws (to attain that degree one must write and defend a dissertation before a panel of three professors, bearing the title of master, doctor or a “livre docência, and also complete credits), and only then, after being a Master of Laws, one will apply for admission to a doctoral course.

There are, however, a few universities that allow “direct” admission to the doctoral course without previous completion of the Master’s course in exceptional circumstances. Thus, in rare cases, a bachelor of Laws (i.e., a holder of the first professional degree), can be admitted directly to a doctoral course.

Usually, one is allowed three years time to complete a Master of Laws degree, and four years time to complete the doctoral course. So, if one were to graduate from Law School and immediately enter a Master of Laws course and a Doctor of Laws course in immediate succession, that person would become a doctor about seven years after graduating from the Law School. On the other hand, in the rare cases in which a bachelor of Laws is allowed to pursue a “direct” doctorate, he is usually allowed five years time to complete the doctoral course.

Unlike the Master of Laws dissertation, the Doctoral Thesys must contain an original contribution to the field of Law under study.

Canada

In Canada, there are several academic law-related doctorates: the Doctor of Laws (LL.D.); Doctor of Juridical Science or Doctor of Legal Science (J.S.D./S.J.D); Doctor of Civil Law (D.C.L.); and the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.).
The Doctor of Jurisprudence (Juris Doctor or J.D.) is the professional doctorate degree that is usually required for admissions to post-graduate studies in law.

The first law degree was known until recently as the Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.). However, since law schools in Canada generally insist on a prior degree or some equivalent in order to grant admission, it was a more advanced degree than the LL.B. degrees awarded by programs abroad, which would accept high school graduates.[3] The majority of Canadian universities now grant that degree rather than the LL.B.;[4] the University of Saskatchewan replaced its LL.B. with a J.D. in 2010, because the Canadian LL.B. is equivalent to the J.D.[5]

All Canadian J.D. programs are three years, and all (except those in Quebec) have similar mandatory first-year courses: In “public”, “constitutional,” or “state” law; tort law; contract law; criminal law, and some sort of “professional practice” course. Beyond first year and the minimum requirements for graduation, course selection is elective, with various concentrations such as business law, international law, natural resources law, criminal law, and Aboriginal law.

After the first law degree, one may pursue a second, the Masters of Laws (LL.M.) and after that, the Doctor of Law (LL.D.), at some Canadian universities. (The LL.D. is awarded by several universities only as an honorary degree, but when awarded by a law school is an earned degree). Of the universities in Canada that offer earned academic doctorates in law, four (University of Ottawa,[6] University of Montreal,[7] Laval University,[8] and University of Quebec at Montreal)[9] offer LL.Ds, five (University of Alberta,[10] University of British Columbia,[11] Osgoode Hall Law School of York University, Dalhousie University,[12] and University of Victoria)[13] offer Ph.D.s, only one (University of Toronto,[14]) offers J.S.D./S.J.D degrees (Doctor of Juridical Science or Doctor of Legal Science), and one (McGill University)[15] offers a D.C.L (Doctor of Civil Law). The differences largely reflect the divide between Canada’s two legal systems (the common law and the civil law). Faculties that teach in the civil law tradition grant LL.D degrees, whereas those in the common law tradition grant either Ph.D.s or J.S.Ds. The York University Ph.D. in law was formerly termed Doctor of Jurisprudence (D.Jur.), until the name was changed in 2002.[16]

Czech Republic and Slovakia (former Czechoslovakia)

In the Czech Republic and Slovakia the Doctor is a postgraduate degree in two types – as a traditional doctorate (JUDr) and the PhD doctorate.

JUDr (Juris Utrisque Doctor) is a degree with a tradition of several centuries, originally the highest possible degree. Nowadays, its scholar importancy is quite limited, but it serves as a traditional and popular badge degree, especially useful for attorneys. In older times with no master’s degree, JUDr. served as the only law degree (and was roughly equivalent to the today’s master’s degree, plus a special exam). Requirements for obtaining a JUDr degree are a highly rated Master (Mgr.) degree in law, the compilation of a thesis (including successful defense) and passing an oral exam called Rigorosum. The thesis itself is also sometimes called Rigorosum. Many JUDr. theses are based on the students previous Master theses; however, nowadays universities require that the dissertation work is completely new.

Doctoral studies leading to PhD degree are different from the JUDr exam. PhD studies are internal (PhD student is at the same time teacher at the University), which lasts 3–5 years, and external up to 8 years long. PhD. students are obliged to pass some exams during the studies and mainly to work on their dissertation. The PhD is intended basically for candidates interested in an academic career, and it gives them the right to teach at a university.

The Czech system is in many ways similar to the German and Austrian systems. Therefore, a PhD degree is necessary for habilitation procedure. Through habilitation, the doctor of law who submits his habilitation work (similar to German Habilitationsschrift) can be given a capacity and title of Docent (Doc.), similar to German Dozent, Privatdozent or US Assistant Professor. Docent is not a degree, but a scholar title.

Only a docent can be appointed a professor through a special procedure. Unlike Germany (and unlike the traditional Czech practice), a professor is not a function (a seat, Cathedra) at a University, but a scholarly title. This leads to many problems, especially the phenomenon of so-called “flying professors”, who are teaching at two or three universities at the same time and to the decline of academic life.

European and Commonwealth usage

In the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, and Europe, the degree is a higher doctorate usually awarded on the basis of exceptionally insightful and distinctive publications that contain significant and original contributions to the study of law. Some universities, such as the University of Oxford, award a Doctor of Civil Law degree instead. In South Africa the LL.D. is awarded based upon research and completion of a Ph.D. equivalent dissertation; the LL.D. may also be awarded as an honorary degree based upon contributions to society; see below.

Finland

In Finland, the Doctor of Laws (Finnish: Oikeustieteen tohtori, OTT) (Swedish: Juris doktor, JD) is the highest academic degree in law, based on 60 credits of course studies and, most importantly, successful completion of a doctoral dissertation. The dissertation usually takes the form of a monograph at least of 250 pages in length, or of a series of published articles. A successful oral disputation is also required. It usually takes at least four years to complete the degree.

The degree of the Doctor of Laws does not qualify its holder for judicial offices. Instead, the degree of the Master of Laws (Finnish: Oikeustieteen maisteri) (Swedish: Juris magister) is the requirement for the membership of the Finnish Bar Association and for judicial offices. As the doctoral programs for the doctoral degree are, in principle, open for the holders of all master’s degrees, the possession of the degree of the Doctor of Laws is not a guarantee for the possession of the Master of Laws -degree. However, it is very seldom that someone who has not graduated in law graduates for a doctor of law.

France

In France, the Doctor of Law degree (doctorat en droit) is a PhD. The PhD in law is required to teach at the university level as a maître de conférences (lecturer). To become Professor of Law, holders of a PhD in law have yet to pass an additional competitive exam: the agrégation de droit. Only the first year (master 1) of the master’s degree in law is necessary to pass the bar exam.

Germany

The Doctor of Laws (Doktor der Rechte) is the terminal degree in law, abbreviated as Dr. iur. (Doctor iuris) or Dr. jur. (Doctor juris). The terminology varies: while most universities refer to the degree as Doctor of Laws (Doktor der Rechte (pl.), e.g. Munich, Münster, Berlin (HU), Cologne, Tübingen, Göttingen), some others refer to it either as Doctor of Jurisprudence (Doktor der Rechtswissenschaft, e.g. Heidelberg, Hamburg) or Doctor of Law (Doktor des Rechts (sg.), e.g. Berlin (FU)). It is conferred based on a thesis consisting of a suitable body of original academic research, and an oral examination (Rigorosum or Disputation). The thesis must have been published as a book or – less common – as a series of articles in a peer reviewed law journal before the degree can be formally conferred. Admission usually requires the grade of “Fully Satisfactory” (approximately top quintile of class) in the student’s first Staatsexamen (the Master’s level first professional degree). Having successfully passed the second Staatsexamen (the German equivalent to the bar exam) is not required.

The Doctor of Both Laws (Doktor beider Rechte), awarded as Dr. iur. utr. (Doctor iuris utriusque, conferred e.g. in Würzburg) is rare, since it means considering both Civil Law and Canonical Law. A doctorate solely in the latter area is the degree of Dr. iur. can. (Doctor iuris canonici).

Approximately ten percent of German law graduates hold a doctoral degree. However, the Doctor of Laws is still only the first step to tenure at German law schools. Despite the initiative to establish a junior professorship with tenure option after five to seven years, and special professorships specializing in teaching (Lehrprofessur), to become a university professor of law a habilitation (de iure not an academic degree) is still mandatory at most German law schools.

Italy

In Italy, the title of “Magister Doctor of Law” (Dottore magistrale in Giurisprudenza) is the title given to students who complete the five-year Laurea magistrale degree.

Despite the adoption of the Bologna process, in Italy law remains a field that retains the traditional Italian system.

Once a prospective lawyer has been awarded the Magister Doctor of Law and worked 18 months as a trainee lawyer, he or she is required to pass a state bar examination in order to be licensed to practice as an attorney at law (Avvocato). Previously, dottore in giurisprudenza was the title given to the students that completed the old (four-year) course of studies in law.
After the five-year degree, it is possible to enroll in a Ph.D. course in a specific field of law (“Dottorato”), and the title obtained is “Dottore di ricerca” (Ph.D.).

Malta

In Malta, the European Union’s smallest member state, the LL.D. is a doctorate-level academic degree in law requiring at least three years of post-graduate full-time study at the University of Malta,[17] Malta’s national university. At least three years of previous law study are required for entry. Students are required to complete coursework in a number of core areas of law, as well as to submit a thesis which is to be “an original work on the approved subject or other contribution to the knowledge showing that he/she has carried out sufficient research therein”.[18] It confers the title of Doctor, which in Malta is rigorously used to address a holder of the degree. The LL.D. is one of the requirements for admission to the profession of advocate in Malta (an advocate, as opposed to a legal procurator, has rights of representation in superior courts).

In Malta, practising lawyers are of three designations – notaries, legal procurators and advocates. The Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree is an undergraduate degree that of itself is not sufficient for admission into any of the legal professions. A one-year full-time taught post-graduate diploma of Notary Public (N.P.) is required after the LL.B. for admission to the profession of notary public, while a taught post-graduate diploma of Legal Procurator (L.P.) is required for admission to the profession of legal procurator. A legal procurator is a lawyer in Malta that has rights of audience in the lower courts, a profession that was existent in Malta as early, and even prior to 1553.[19] All three professions also require members to be holders of a warrant issued by the President of Malta, obtainable after a minimum of one year of work experience in that profession, and examination. It is not possible for a Maltese lawyer to hold a warrant in more than one of the professions at a time.

Notable holders of the LL.D. degree include Dr. Ugo Mifsud Bonnici (former President of Malta), Prof. Guido de Marco (former President of the United Nations General Assembly and former President of Malta), Dr. George Borg Olivier (first post-independence Prime Minister of Malta), Dr. Edward Fenech Adami (former Prime Minister and former President of Malta) and Dr. Lawrence Gonzi (former Prime Minister of Malta).

As of 2014 changes to the law course resulted from the implementation of the Bologna Process, will remove the Doctorate of Laws (LLD) title and replace it with Master of Laws (LLM). This means that prospective lawyers will not be honored with a doctorate degree and can no longer use the title “Dr”. This was met by some contempt from prospective Law students mainly because the title “Dr” is seen to be of higher esteem in Maltese society. Students of other disciplines, however, welcomed the change. The program had always been in essence only a master’s degree and was therefore viewed as discriminatory, especially by medical students.[20]

South Africa

See: Legal education in South Africa; List of law schools in South Africa; Bachelor of Laws#South Africa; Master of Laws#South Africa.

University of Pretoria Faculty of Law

In South Africa the doctorate in law is offered as a research doctorate of at least two years duration,[21] in various specialised areas of law.[22] In general, South African universities offer either the PhD[23][24] or the LLD,[25][26][27] with no significant difference between these. (At UCT, UKZN and Wits, the PhD is the research doctorate, while the LLD is the higher doctorate;[28][29][30]SU and UWC offer the LLD to law graduates, and the PhD to other graduates researching a legal-related topic).[31][32] In order to obtain the degree, the student will complete a thesis under the guidance of a supervisor, after completion of a module in research methodology, the submission of a research proposal and an oral examination. The thesis will demonstrate evidence of in-depth independent research and understanding of the topic, and constitute an original scientific contribution. Admission is usually on the basis of an LLM, and in some cases an LLB.

Sweden

In Sweden, the Doctor of Laws (LLD) is the highest academic degree in law. It is a research degree, which combines 240 credit hours (or equivalent of four full-time years of work). Candidates have the option to complete a dissertation or a monograph of a series of published articles. Although not required to practice law, the LLD is a prerequisite for an academic career.

United Kingdom

In the UK, the degree of Doctor of Laws is a higher doctorate, ranking above the Ph.D., awarded upon submission of a portfolio of advanced research. It is also often awarded honoris causa to public figures (typically those associated with politics or the law) whom the university wishes to honour. In most British universities, the degree is styled “Doctor of Laws” and abbreviated LL. D.; however, some universities award instead the degree of Doctor of Civil Law, abbreviated DCL.

In former years, Doctors of Law were a distinct form of lawyer who were empowered to act as advocates in civil law courts. The Doctors had their own Society called Doctors’ Commons, but following reforms in the nineteenth century their exclusive rights of audience were shared with barristers and the last Doctor of Law died in 1912. Due to the possession of a Doctorate, the Doctors of Law had precedence equal to that of a Serjeant-at-Law and for this reason the convention remains that advocates holding junior doctorates (such as Doctors of Philosophy) should not be addressed as “doctor” in an English court.[33]

In 1953, a case was brought under long-dormant law in the High Court of Chivalry. The opening arguments in that case were by George Drewry Squibb who argued, to the satisfaction of the court, that since the modern class of Doctors of Laws were no longer trained as advocates, their role must necessarily be performed by barristers.[34] This was because Victorian reforms, which had unified the other classes of court attorney into the single profession of Barrister, had overlooked the Doctors of Law.

United States

Legal education in the United States
Law School Oral Arguments.jpg
Stages
  • Pre-law
  • Law school
  • Trial practice
  • Legal clinic
  • Juris Doctor
  • Master of Laws
  • Doctor of Laws
Exams
  • LSAT
  • Bar examination
  • Continuing legal education
Organizations
  • Law School Admission Council
  • Association of American Law Schools
  • American Bar Association
  • Practising Law Institute
  • Continuing Legal Education Regulators Association

In the United States, the most common Doctor of Law degree is the Juris Doctor (or Doctor of Jurisprudence), abbreviated as J.D. It is the professional degree for lawyers, having replaced the Bachelor of Laws in the 20th century after law schools began to require a Bachelor’s degree before admission to a J.D. program to study law for three years. A research dissertation is not required for the J.D., but the American Bar Association issued a Council Statement stating that the J.D. should be considered equivalent to the Ph.D. for educational employment purposes.[35] In recent years, some universities also have developed other new interdisciplinary professional doctorates that may combine law and other specialized or applied fields. One example of this is Northeastern University’s Doctor of Law and Policy (D.L.P.) degree.[36]

Additionally, other universities award a higher postdoctoral research degree in law, the Doctor of Juridical Science (or Scientiae Juridicae Doctor), abbreviated as S.J.D. or D.J.S. Applicants for S.J.D. programs must first earn a J.D., and some programs require both a J.D. and an LL.M. before admission.[37][38] Similar to the Ph.D., the S.J.D. is a research doctorate and has been described as the “highest degree in law” by the University of Virginia,[39] as well as the “terminal degree in law” by Indiana University[40] and Harvard Law School.[41] It has also been called the “most advanced law degree” by Yale Law School,[42] Georgetown Law,[43] New York University,[44] and Stanford University.[45] The University of Connecticut School of Law explains that this specific degree is “intended for individuals who have demonstrated evidence of superior scholarly potential.”[46]

The National Association of Legal Professionals states that the S.J.D./D.J.S. is “the most advanced or terminal law degree that would follow the earning of the LL.M. and J.D. degrees.”[47] It typically requires three to five years to complete, and requires an advanced study in law as a scientific discipline and a dissertation, which serves as an original contribution to the scholarly field of law.[38][48][49]

As with most other countries, in the United States the Legum Doctor (LL.D.), also colloquially known in English as Doctorate of Laws, is granted only as an honorary degree.

See also

  • Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.)
  • Doctor of Canon Law (J.C.D.)
  • Doctor of Juridical Science (J.S.D. or S.J.D.)
  • Doctor Juris Utriusque (D.J.U.)
  • Juris Doctor (J.D.)
  • Legum Doctor (LL.D.)
  • Master of Laws (LL.M.)

Notes and references

  1. ^ National Commission of University Accreditation: Doctorate Engine Seeker Archived July 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ “National Law of Higher Education” (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-07-06. Retrieved 2010-10-11..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ Belford, Terrence. “Why Change To A JD Degree?”. Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 20 June 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
  4. ^ “Osgoode Law School “Dean Patrick Monahan on the Growing Number of Canadian Law Schools Switching from the LLB to JD Degree Designation“. yorku.ca. Archived from the original on 10 June 2008. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  5. ^ “Become A Juris Doctor”. University of Saskatchewan Law School. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
  6. ^ “Graduate Studies in Law”. Llmlld.uottawa.ca. Archived from the original on 2009-07-22. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  7. ^ “Présentation – Faculté de droit – Université de Montréal”. Droit.umontreal.ca. Archived from the original on 2011-05-04. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  8. ^ “Index des programmes – Faculté de droit | Université Laval”. Ulaval.ca. Archived from the original on 2009-06-02. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  9. ^ “UQAM | Doctorat en droit | Université du Québec à Montréal”. Programmes.uqam.ca. Archived from the original on 2010-09-26. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  10. ^ “PhD – Faculty of Law – University of Alberta”. lawschool.ualberta.ca. Archived from the original on 2012-11-10. Retrieved 2013-06-17.
  11. ^ “UBC Faculty of Law – Doctorate (Ph.D.) Program”. Law.ubc.ca. Archived from the original on 2010-08-26. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  12. ^ “Graduate Programs in Law (LLM, PhD)”. Dalhousie University. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  13. ^ [1] Archived November 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ “University of Toronto – Faculty of Law: Prospective Students”. Law.utoronto.ca. Archived from the original on 2011-07-06. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  15. ^ “Doctor of civil law (D.C.L.) program”. archive.org. 19 December 2007. Archived from the original on 19 December 2007. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  16. ^ “September senate”. York University. 10 October 2002. Archived from the original on 14 February 2017. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  17. ^ “Faculty of Laws – Faculty of Laws – University of Malta”. Home.um.edu.mt. 2009-07-16. Archived from the original on 2009-01-23. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  18. ^ “Faculty of Laws – Faculty of Laws – University of Malta”. Home.um.edu.mt. 2009-07-16. Archived from the original on 2009-01-23. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  19. ^ [2] Archived April 17, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ “Law students want to retain ‘Dr’ title”. MaltaToday.com.mt. Archived from the original on 2014-04-27.
  21. ^ Faculty of Law. “Doctor of Laws”. uj.ac.za. Archived from the original on 2012-04-18.
  22. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2013-06-23. Retrieved 2012-04-24.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ “- Wits University”. wits.ac.za. Archived from the original on 2012-04-20.
  24. ^ Rhodes University. “Rhodes University”. ru.ac.za. Archived from the original on 2012-04-14.
  25. ^ “Error”. sun.ac.za. Archived from the original on 2012-11-27.
  26. ^ [3]
  27. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2013-06-23. Retrieved 2012-04-24.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2012-05-19. Retrieved 2012-07-18.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  29. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2012-11-16. Retrieved 2012-02-14.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  30. ^ http://www.wits.ac.za/files/gr264_189955001326275256.pdf[permanent dead link]
  31. ^ “Nagraads / Postgraduate – Universiteit Stellenbosch Fakulteit Regsgeleerdheid – University of Stellenbosch Faculty of Law”. blogs.sun.ac.za. Archived from the original on 21 January 2018. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  32. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2012-10-19. Retrieved 2012-04-26.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ Jowitt’s Dictionary of English Law, Entry “Doctor of Law”
  34. ^ Squibb, G.D. The High Court of Chivalry. Oxford University Press, London.
    ISBN 0-19-825140-8
  35. ^ “Council Statement by the American Bar Association” (PDF). ABA. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 July 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
  36. ^ “Doctor of Law and Policy | Northeastern College of Professional Studies”. cps.northeastern.edu. Retrieved 2018-08-23.
  37. ^ “Doctor of Juridical Science Degree”. Law.gwu.edu. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  38. ^ ab “Georgetown Law – Doctor of Juridical Science (Admissions)”. Law.georgetown.edu. 21 September 2011. Archived from the original on 16 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  39. ^ “LL.M. and S.J.D. Programs, Graduate Studies in Law”. Law.virginia.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-06-03. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  40. ^ “S.J.D. Degree”. Indylaw.indiana.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-08-25. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  41. ^ “S.J.D. Courses & Academics”. Law.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-06-19. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  42. ^ “Yale Law School | Contact the Graduate Programs Office”. Law.yale.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-10-28. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  43. ^ The George Washington University. “SJD – The George Washington University”. Gwu.edu. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  44. ^ “NYU Law – LL.M. & J.S.D.: J.S.D. Program”. Law.nyu.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-10-11. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  45. ^ Stanford Law School. “Doctor of Science of Law (JSD) | Stanford Law School”. Law.stanford.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  46. ^ “Doctor of Laws (S.J.D.) | UConn School of Law”. www.law.uconn.edu. Retrieved 2018-08-23.
  47. ^ “The Association for Legal Career Professionals | Working Glossary”. NALP. Archived from the original on 2010-09-28. Retrieved 2010-10-11.
  48. ^ “Doctor of Juridical Science (SJD) Requirements”. Law.duke.edu. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  49. ^ “Tulane Law School Prospective Students”. Law.tulane.edu. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2011.


Doctor of Philosophy

McGill University graduates wearing doctoral robes

A group of new Ph.D graduates with their professors

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ph.D., or DPhil; Latin Philosophiae doctor or Doctor philosophiae) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. As an earned research degree, those studying for this qualification are usually not only required to demonstrate subject-matter expertise and mastery by examination, they are also often asked to make a new scholarly contribution to a particular area of knowledge through their own original research. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree may, in many jurisdictions, use the title Doctor (often abbreviated “Dr” or “Dr.”) or, in non-English speaking countries, variants such as “Dr. phil.” with their name, although the proper etiquette associated with this usage may also be subject to the professional ethics of their own scholarly field, culture, or society. Those who teach at universities or work in academic, educational, or research fields are usually addressed by this title “professionally and socially in a salutation or conversation.”[1] Additionally, holders of this degree may use post-nominal letters such as “Ph.D.”, “PhD”, or “DPhil” (depending on the awarding institution). However, they should never list both “Dr.” and “Ph.D.” with their name in reference to the same academic qualification, as this is considered redundant, possibly misleading, and in poor taste.[2][3]

The specific requirements to earn a PhD degree vary considerably according to the country, institution, and time period, from entry-level research degrees to higher doctorates. During the studies that lead to the degree, the student is called a doctoral student or PhD student; a student who has completed all of their coursework and comprehensive examinations and is working on their thesis/dissertation is sometimes known as a doctoral candidate or PhD candidate (see: all but dissertation). A student attaining this level may be granted a Candidate of Philosophy degree at some institutions, or may be granted a master’s degree en route to the doctoral degree. Sometimes this status is also colloquially known as “Ph.D. ABD”, meaning “All But Dissertation.”[4]

A PhD candidate must submit a project, thesis or dissertation often consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed journal.[5] In many countries, a candidate must defend this work before a panel of expert examiners appointed by the university. Universities sometimes award other types of doctorate besides the PhD, such as the Doctor of Musical Arts (D.M.A.) for music performers and the Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) for professional educators. In 2005 the European Universities Association defined the Salzburg Principles, ten basic principles for third-cycle degrees (doctorates) within the Bologna Process.[6] These were followed in 2016 by the Florence Principles, seven basic principles for doctorates in the arts laid out by the European League of Institutes of the Arts, which have been endorsed by the European Association of Conservatoires, the International Association of Film and Television Schools, the International Association of Universities and Colleges of Art, Design and Media, and the Society for Artistic Research.[7]

In the context of the Doctor of Philosophy and other similarly titled degrees, the term “philosophy” does not refer to the field or academic discipline of philosophy, but is used in a broader sense in accordance with its original Greek meaning, which is “love of wisdom”. In most of Europe, all fields (history, philosophy, social sciences, mathematics, and natural philosophy/sciences)[8] other than theology, law, and medicine (the so-called professional, vocational, or technical curriculum) were traditionally known as philosophy, and in Germany and elsewhere in Europe the basic faculty of liberal arts was known as the “faculty of philosophy”.

Contents

  • 1 Terminology
  • 2 History

    • 2.1 Medieval and early modern Europe
    • 2.2 Educational reforms in Germany
    • 2.3 History in the United Kingdom
    • 2.4 History in the United States
  • 3 Requirements

    • 3.1 PhD confirmation
  • 4 Value and criticism

    • 4.1 National variations
  • 5 Degrees around the globe

    • 5.1 Argentina

      • 5.1.1 Admission
      • 5.1.2 Funding
      • 5.1.3 Requirements for completion
    • 5.2 Australia

      • 5.2.1 Admission
      • 5.2.2 Scholarships
      • 5.2.3 Fees
      • 5.2.4 Requirements for completion
    • 5.3 Canada

      • 5.3.1 Admission
      • 5.3.2 Funding
      • 5.3.3 Requirements for completion
    • 5.4 Colombia

      • 5.4.1 Admission
      • 5.4.2 Funding
      • 5.4.3 Requirements for completion
    • 5.5 Finland
    • 5.6 France

      • 5.6.1 History
      • 5.6.2 Admission
      • 5.6.3 Funding
    • 5.7 Germany

      • 5.7.1 Admission
      • 5.7.2 Structure
      • 5.7.3 Duration
    • 5.8 India

      • 5.8.1 Admission
    • 5.9 Italy

      • 5.9.1 History
      • 5.9.2 Admission
    • 5.10 Poland
    • 5.11 Scandinavia
    • 5.12 Singapore
    • 5.13 Spain
    • 5.14 Ukraine
    • 5.15 United Kingdom

      • 5.15.1 Admission
      • 5.15.2 Funding
      • 5.15.3 Completion
      • 5.15.4 Other doctorates
    • 5.16 United States

      • 5.16.1 Requirements
      • 5.16.2 Funding
    • 5.17 USSR, Russian Federation and former Soviet Republics
  • 6 Models of supervision
  • 7 International PhD equivalent degrees
  • 8 See also
  • 9 Notes and references
  • 10 Bibliography
  • 11 External links

Terminology

The degree is abbreviated PhD (sometimes Ph.D. in North America), from the Latin Philosophiae Doctor, pronounced as three separate letters (/pˈd/).[9][10][11] The abbreviation DPhil, from the English ‘Doctor of Philosophy’,[12] is used by a small number of British and Commonwealth universities, including Oxford and formerly York and Sussex, as the abbreviation for degrees from those institutions.[13]

History

Medieval and early modern Europe

In the universities of Medieval Europe, study was organized in four faculties: the basic faculty of arts, and the three higher faculties of theology, medicine, and law (canon law and civil law). All of these faculties awarded intermediate degrees (bachelor of arts, of theology, of laws, of medicine) and final degrees. Initially, the titles of master and doctor were used interchangeably for the final degrees—the title Doctor was merely a formality bestowed on a Teacher/Master of the art—but by the late Middle Ages the terms Master of Arts and Doctor of Theology/Divinity, Doctor of Law, and Doctor of Medicine had become standard in most places (though in the German and Italian universities the term Doctor was used for all faculties).

The doctorates in the higher faculties were quite different from the current PhD degree in that they were awarded for advanced scholarship, not original research. No dissertation or original work was required, only lengthy residency requirements and examinations. Besides these degrees, there was the licentiate. Originally this was a license to teach, awarded shortly before the award of the master or doctor degree by the diocese in which the university was located, but later it evolved into an academic degree in its own right, in particular in the continental universities.

According to Keith Allan Noble (1994), the first doctoral degree was awarded in medieval Paris around 1150.[14] The doctorate of philosophy developed in Germany as the terminal Teacher’s credential in the 17th century (c. 1652). There were no PhDs in Germany before the 1650s (when they gradually started replacing the MA as the highest academic degree; arguably one of the earliest German PhD holders is Erhard Weigel (Dr. phil. hab., Leipzig, 1652).[citation needed]

In theory, the full course of studies might, for example, lead in succession to the degrees of Bachelor of Arts, Licentiate of Arts, Master of Arts or Bachelor of Medicine, Licentiate of Medicine, Doctor of Medicine. But before the early modern era, there were many exceptions to this. Most students left the university without becoming masters of arts, whereas regulars (members of monastic orders) could skip the arts faculty entirely.[15][16][17]

Educational reforms in Germany

This situation changed in the early 19th century through the educational reforms in Germany, most strongly embodied in the model of the University of Berlin, founded and controlled by the Prussian government in 1810. The arts faculty, which in Germany was labelled the faculty of philosophy, started demanding contributions to research,[18] attested by a dissertation, for the award of their final degree, which was labelled Doctor of Philosophy (abbreviated as Ph.D.)—originally this was just the German equivalent of the Master of Arts degree. Whereas in the Middle Ages the arts faculty had a set curriculum, based upon the trivium and the quadrivium, by the 19th century it had come to house all the courses of study in subjects now commonly referred to as sciences and humanities.[19] Professors across the humanities and sciences focused on their advanced research.[20] Practically all the funding came from the central government, and it could be cut off if the professor was politically unacceptable.[relevant? ][21]

These reforms proved extremely successful, and fairly quickly the German universities started attracting foreign students, notably from the United States. The American students would go to Germany to obtain a PhD after having studied for a bachelor’s degrees at an American college. So influential was this practice that it was imported to the United States, where in 1861 Yale University started granting the PhD degree to younger students who, after having obtained the bachelor’s degree, had completed a prescribed course of graduate study and successfully defended a thesis or dissertation containing original research in science or in the humanities.[22] In Germany, the name of the doctorate was adapted after the philosophy faculty started being split up − e.g. Dr. rer. nat. for doctorates in the faculty of natural sciences − but in most of the English-speaking world the name “Doctor of Philosophy” was retained for research doctorates in all disciplines.

The PhD degree and similar awards spread across Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The degree was introduced in France in 1808, replacing diplomas as the highest academic degree; into Russia in 1819, when the Doktor Nauk degree, roughly equivalent to a PhD, gradually started replacing the specialist diploma, roughly equivalent to the MA, as the highest academic degree; and in Italy in 1927, when PhDs gradually started replacing the Laurea as the highest academic degree.[citation needed]

History in the United Kingdom

Research degrees first appeared in the UK in the late 19th century in the shape of the Doctor of Science (DSc or ScD) and other such “higher doctorates”. The University of London introduced the DSc in 1860, but as an advanced study course, following on directly from the BSc, rather than a research degree. The first higher doctorate in the modern sense was Durham University’s DSc, introduced in 1882.[23] This was soon followed by other universities, including the University of Cambridge establishing its ScD in the same year and the University of London transforming its DSc into a research degree in 1885. These were, however, very advanced degrees, rather than research-training degrees at the PhD level—Harold Jeffreys said that getting a Cambridge ScD was “more or less equivalent to being proposed for the Royal Society”.[24]

Finally, in 1917 the current PhD degree was introduced, along the lines of the American and German model, and quickly became popular with both British and foreign students.[25] The slightly older degrees of Doctor of Science and Doctor of Literature/Letters still exist at British universities; together with the much older degrees of Doctor of Divinity (DD), Doctor of Music (DMus), Doctor of Civil Law (DCL) and Doctor of Medicine (MD) they form the higher doctorates, but apart from honorary degrees they are only infrequently awarded.

A new PhD graduate from the University of Birmingham shakes hands with the Chancellor.

In the English (but not the Scottish) universities the Faculty of Arts had become dominant by the early 19th century. Indeed, the higher faculties had largely atrophied, since medical training had shifted to teaching hospitals,[26] the legal training for the common law system was provided by the Inns of Court (with some minor exceptions, see Doctors’ Commons), and few students undertook formal study in theology. This contrasted with the situation in the continental European universities at the time, where the preparatory role of the Faculty of Philosophy or Arts was to a great extent taken over by secondary education: in modern France, the Baccalauréat is the examination taken at the end of secondary studies. The reforms at the Humboldt University transformed the Faculty of Philosophy or Arts (and its more recent successors such as the Faculty of Sciences) from a lower faculty into one on a par with the Faculties of Law and Medicine.

There were similar developments in many other continental European universities, and at least until reforms in the early 21st century many European countries (e.g. Belgium, Spain, and the Scandinavian countries) had in all faculties triple degree structures of bachelor (or candidate) − licentiate − doctor as opposed to bachelor − master − doctor; the meaning of the different degrees varied a lot from country to country however. To this day this is also still the case for the pontifical degrees in theology and canon law: for instance, in Sacred theology the degrees are Bachelor of Sacred Theology (STB), Licentiate of Sacred Theology (STL), and Doctor of Sacred Theology (STD), and in Canon law: Bachelor of Canon Law (JCB), Licentiate of Canon Law (JCL), and Doctor of Canon Law (JCD).

History in the United States

A Yale University PhD diploma from 1861.

Until the mid-19th century, advanced degrees were not a criterion for professorships at most colleges. That began to change as the more ambitious scholars at major schools went to Germany for 1 to 3 years to obtain a PhD in the sciences or humanities.[27][28]Graduate schools slowly emerged in the United States. In 1861, Yale awarded the first three earned PhDs in North America to Eugene Schuyler, Arthur Williams Wright, and James Morris Whiton,[29] although honorary PhDs had been awarded in the U.S. for almost a decade, with Bucknell University awarding the first to Ebenezer Newton Elliott in 1852.[30]

In the next two decades, NYU, the University of Pennsylvania, Harvard, and Princeton also began granting the degree. Major shifts toward graduate education were foretold by the opening of Clark University in 1887 which offered only graduate programs and the Johns Hopkins University which focused on its PhD program. By the 1890s, Harvard, Columbia, Michigan and Wisconsin were building major graduate programs, whose alumni were hired by new research universities. By 1900, 300 PhDs were awarded annually, most of them by six universities. It was no longer necessary to study in Germany.[31][32] However, half of the institutions awarding earned PhDs in 1899 were undergraduate institutions that granted the degree for work done away from campus.[30] Degrees awarded by universities without legitimate PhD programs accounted for about a third of the 382 doctorates recorded by the U.S. Department of Education in 1900, of which another 8–10% were honorary.[33]

At the start of the 20th century, U.S. universities were held in low regard internationally and many American students were still traveling to Europe for PhDs. The lack of centralised authority meant anyone could start a university and award PhDs. This led to the formation of the Association of American Universities by 14 leading research universities (producing nearly 90% of the approximately 250 legitimate research doctorates awarded in 1900), with one of the main goals being to “raise the opinion entertained abroad of our own Doctor’s Degree”.[33]

In Germany, the national government funded the universities and the research programs of the leading professors. It was impossible for professors who were not approved by Berlin to train graduate students. In the United States, by contrast, private universities and state universities alike were independent of the federal government. Independence was high, but funding was low. The breakthrough came from private foundations, which began regularly supporting research in science and history; large corporations sometimes supported engineering programs. The postdoctoral fellowship was established by the Rockefeller Foundation in 1919. Meanwhile, the leading universities, in cooperation with the learned societies, set up a network of scholarly journals. “Publish or perish” became the formula for faculty advancement in the research universities. After World War II, state universities across the country expanded greatly in undergraduate enrollment, and eagerly added research programs leading to masters or doctorate degrees. Their graduate faculties had to have a suitable record of publication and research grants. Late in the 20th century, “publish or perish” became increasingly important in colleges and smaller universities.[34]

Requirements

A South African PhD graduate (on right, wearing ceremonial gown)

Detailed requirements for the award of a PhD degree vary throughout the world and even from school to school. It is usually required for the student to hold an Honours degree or a Master’s Degree with high academic standing, in order to be considered for a PhD program.[citation needed] In the US, Canada, India, and Denmark, for example, many universities require coursework in addition to research for PhD degrees. In other countries (such as the UK) there is generally no such condition, though this varies by university and field.[35] Some individual universities or departments specify additional requirements for students not already in possession of a bachelor’s degree or equivalent or higher. In order to submit a successful PhD admission application, copies of academic transcripts, letters of recommendation, a research proposal, and a personal statement are often required. Most universities also invite for a special interview before admission.

A candidate must submit a project, thesis or dissertation often consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed context.[5] In many countries a candidate must defend this work before a panel of expert examiners appointed by the university; in other countries, the dissertation is examined by a panel of expert examiners who stipulate whether the dissertation is in principle passable and any issues that need to be addressed before the dissertation can be passed.

Some universities in the non-English-speaking world have begun adopting similar standards to those of the anglophone Ph.D. degree for their research doctorates (see the Bologna process).[36]

A PhD student or candidate is conventionally required to study on campus under close supervision. With the popularity of distance education and e-learning technologies, some universities now accept students enrolled into a distance education part-time mode.

In a “sandwich PhD” program, PhD candidates do not spend their entire study period at the same university. Instead, the PhD candidates spend the first and last periods of the program at their home universities, and in between conduct research at another institution or field research.[37] Occasionally a “sandwich PhD” will be awarded by two universities.[38]

PhD confirmation

A PhD confirmation is a preliminary presentation or lecture that a PhD candidate presents to faculty and possibly other interested members.[where?] The lecture follows after a suitable topic has been identified, and can include such matters as the aim of the research, methodology, first results, planned (or finished) publications, etc.

The confirmation lecture can be seen as a trial run for the final public defense, though faculty members at this stage can still largely influence the direction of the research. At the end of the lecture, the PhD candidate can be seen as “confirmed” – faculty members give their approval and trust that the study is well directed and will with high probability result in the candidate being successful.

In the United States, this is generally called advancing to Candidacy, the confirmation event being called the Candidacy Examination.

Value and criticism

A career in academia generally requires a PhD, though, in some countries, it is possible to reach relatively high positions without a doctorate. In North America, professors are increasingly being required to have a PhD, because the percentage of faculty with a PhD is used as a university ratings measure.[39]

The motivation may also include increased salary, but in many cases, this is not the result. Research by Casey[who?] suggests that, over all subjects, PhDs provide an earnings premium of 26% over non-accredited graduates, but notes that master’s degrees provide a premium of 23% and a bachelor’s 14%. While this is a small return to the individual (or even an overall deficit when tuition and lost earnings during training are accounted for), he claims there are significant benefits to society for the extra research training.[40]
However, some research suggests that overqualified workers are often less satisfied and less productive at their jobs.[41] These difficulties are increasingly being felt by graduates of professional degrees, such as law school, looking to find employment. Ph.D. students often have to take on debt to undertake their degree.[42][43]

A PhD is also required in some positions outside academia, such as research jobs in major international agencies. In some cases, the Executive Directors of some types of foundations may be expected to hold a PhD[citation needed] A PhD is sometimes felt to be a necessary qualification in certain areas of employment, such as in foreign policy think-tanks: U.S. News wrote in 2013 that “[i]f having a master’s degree at the minimum is de rigueur in Washington’s foreign policy world, it is no wonder many are starting to feel that the PhD is a necessary escalation, another case of costly signaling to potential employers.”[44] Similarly, an article on the Australian public service states that “credentialism in the public service is seeing a dramatic increase in the number of graduate positions going to PhDs and masters degrees becoming the base entry level qualification.”[45]

The Economist published an article in 2010 citing various criticisms against the state of Ph.D.s. These included a prediction by economist Richard B. Freeman that, based on pre-2000 data, only 20% of life science Ph.D. students would gain a faculty job in the U.S., and that in Canada 80% of postdoctoral research fellows earned less than or equal to an average construction worker ($38,600 a year). According to the article, only the fastest developing countries (e.g. China or Brazil) have a shortage of PhDs.[41]

The US higher education system often offers little incentive to move students through Ph.D. programs quickly and may even provide incentive to slow them down. To counter this problem, the United States introduced the Doctor of Arts degree in 1970 with seed money from the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. The aim of the Doctor of Arts degree was to shorten the time needed to complete the degree by focusing on pedagogy over research, although the Doctor of Arts still contains a significant research component. Germany is one of the few nations engaging these issues, and it has been doing so by reconceptualising Ph.D. programs to be training for careers, outside academia, but still at high-level positions. This development can be seen in the extensive number of Ph.D. holders, typically from the fields of law, engineering, and economics, at the very top corporate and administrative positions. To a lesser extent, the UK research councils have tackled the issue by introducing, since 1992, the EngD.[citation needed][clarification needed]

Mark C. Taylor opined in 2011 in Nature that total reform of Ph.D. programs in almost every field is necessary in the U.S. and that pressure to make the necessary changes will need to come from many sources (students, administrators, public and private sectors, etc.).[46] Other articles in Nature have also examined the issue of PhD reform.[47][48][49]

Freeman Dyson, professor emeritus at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, is opposed to the PhD system and does not have a PhD degree.[50]

National variations

In German-speaking nations; most Eastern European nations; successor states of the former Soviet Union; most parts of Africa, Asia, and many Spanish-speaking countries, the corresponding degree to a Doctor of Philosophy is simply called “Doctor” (Doktor), and the subject area is distinguished by a Latin suffix (e.g., “Dr. med.” for Doctor medicinae, Doctor of Medicine; “Dr. rer. nat.” for Doctor rerum naturalium, Doctor of the Natural Sciences; “Dr. phil.” for Doctor philosophiae, Doctor of Philosophy; “Dr. iur.” for Doctor iuris, Doctor of Laws).[51]

Degrees around the globe

The UNESCO, in its International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), states that: “Programmes to be classified at ISCED level 8 are referred to in many ways around the world such as PhD, DPhil, D.Lit, D.Sc, LL.D, Doctorate or similar terms. However, it is important to note that programmes with a similar name to ‘doctor’ should only be included in ISCED level 8 if they satisfy the criteria described in Paragraph 263. For international comparability purposes, the term ‘doctoral or equivalent’ is used to label ISCED level 8”.[52]

Argentina

Admission

In Argentina, the admission to a PhD program at public Argentine University requires the full completion of a Master’s degree or a Licentiate degree. Non-Argentine Master’s titles are generally accepted into a PhD program when the degree comes from a recognized university.

Funding

While a significant portion of postgraduate students finance their tuition and living costs with teaching or research work at private and state-run institutions, international institutions, such as the Fulbright Program and the Organization of American States (OAS), have been known to grant full scholarships for tuition with apportions for housing.[53]

Requirements for completion

Upon completion of at least two years’ research and coursework as a graduate student, a candidate must demonstrate truthful and original contributions to his or her specific field of knowledge within a frame of academic excellence.[54] The doctoral candidate’s work should be presented in a dissertation or thesis prepared under the supervision of a tutor or director, and reviewed by a Doctoral Committee. This Committee should be composed of examiners that are external to the program, and at least one of them should also be external to the institution. The academic degree of Doctor, respective to the correspondent field of science that the candidate has contributed with original and rigorous research, is received after a successful defense of the candidate’s dissertation.[55]

Australia

Admission

Admission to a Ph.D. program in Australia requires applicants to demonstrate capacity to undertake research in the proposed field of study. The standard requirement is a bachelor’s degree with either first-class or upper second-class honors. Research master’s degrees and coursework master’s degrees with a 25% research component are usually considered equivalent. It is also possible for research master’s degree students to ‘upgrade’ to Ph.D. candidature after demonstrating sufficient progress.

Scholarships

Ph.D. students are sometimes offered a scholarship to study for their Ph.D. degree. The most common of these was the government-funded Australian Postgraduate Award (APA) until its dissolution in 2017. It was replaced by Research Training Program (RTP), awarded to students of “exceptional research potential”, which provides a living stipend to students of approximately A$27,000 a year (tax-free). RTPs are paid for a duration of 3 years, while a 6-month extension is usually possible upon citing delays out of the control of the student.[56] Some universities also fund a similar scholarship that matches the APA amount. Due to a continual increase in living costs, many Ph.D. students are forced to live under the poverty line.[57] In addition to the more common RTP and university scholarships, Australian students have other sources of scholarship funding, coming from industry, private enterprise, and organisations.

Fees

Australian citizens, permanent residents, and New Zealand citizens are not charged course fees for their Ph.D. or research master’s degree, with the exception in some universities of the student services and amenities fee (SSAF) which is set by each university and typically involves the largest amount allowed by the Australian government. All fees are paid for by the Australian government, except for the SSAF, under the Research Training Program.[58] International students and coursework master’s degree students must pay course fees unless they receive a scholarship to cover them.

Requirements for completion

Completion requirements vary. Most Australian Ph.D. programs do not have a required coursework component. The credit points attached to the degree are all in the product of the research, which is usually an 80,000-word thesis[citation needed] that makes a significant new contribution to the field. Recent pressure on higher degree by research (HDR) students to publish has resulted in increasing interest in Ph.D by publication as opposed to the more traditional Ph.D by dissertation, which typically requires a minimum of two publications, but which also requires traditional thesis elements such as an introductory exegesis, and linking chapters between papers.[59] The Ph.D. thesis is sent to external examiners who are experts in the field of research and who have not been involved in the work. Examiners are nominated by the candidate’s university and their identities are often not revealed to the candidate until the examination is complete. A formal oral defence is generally not part of the examination of the thesis, largely because of the distances that would need to be travelled by the overseas examiners; however, since 2016, some there is a trend toward implementing this in many Australian universities.

Canada

Admission

Admission to a doctoral programme at a Canadian university usually requires completion of a Master’s degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades and proven research ability. In some cases, a student may progress directly from an Honours Bachelor’s degree to a Ph.D. program; other programs allow a student to fast-track to a doctoral program after one year of outstanding work in a Master’s program (without having to complete the Master’s).

An application package typically includes a research proposal, letters of reference, transcripts, and in some cases, a writing sample or Graduate Record Examinations scores. A common criterion for prospective Ph.D. students is the comprehensive or qualifying examination, a process that often commences in the second year of a graduate program. Generally, successful completion of the qualifying exam permits continuance in the graduate program. Formats for this examination include oral examination by the student’s faculty committee (or a separate qualifying committee), or written tests designed to demonstrate the student’s knowledge in a specialized area (see below) or both.

At English-speaking universities, a student may also be required to demonstrate English language abilities, usually by achieving an acceptable score on a standard examination (for example the Test of English as a Foreign Language). Depending on the field, the student may also be required to demonstrate ability in one or more additional languages. A prospective student applying to French-speaking universities may also have to demonstrate some English language ability.

Funding

While some students work outside the university (or at student jobs within the university), in some programs students are advised (or must agree) not to devote more than ten hours per week to activities (e.g., employment) outside of their studies, particularly if they have been given funding. For large and prestigious scholarships, such as those from NSERC and Fonds québécois de la recherche sur la nature et les technologies, this is an absolute requirement.

At some Canadian universities, most Ph.D. students receive an award equivalent to part or all of the tuition amount for the first four years (this is sometimes called a tuition deferral or tuition waiver). Other sources of funding include teaching assistantships and research assistantships; experience as a teaching assistant is encouraged but not requisite in many programs. Some programs may require all Ph.D. candidates to teach, which may be done under the supervision of their supervisor or regular faculty. Besides these sources of funding, there are also various competitive scholarships, bursaries, and awards available, such as those offered by the federal government via NSERC, CIHR, or SSHRC.

Requirements for completion

In general, the first two years of study are devoted to completion of coursework and the comprehensive examinations. At this stage, the student is known as a “Ph.D. student” or “doctoral student”. It is usually expected that the student will have completed most of his or her required coursework by the end of this stage. Furthermore, it is usually required that by the end of eighteen to thirty-six months after the first registration, the student will have successfully completed the comprehensive exams.

Upon successful completion of the comprehensive exams, the student becomes known as a “Ph.D. candidate”. From this stage on, the bulk of the student’s time will be devoted to his or her own research, culminating in the completion of a Ph.D. thesis or dissertation. The final requirement is an oral defense of the thesis, which is open to the public in some, but not all, universities. At most Canadian universities, the time needed to complete a Ph.D. degree typically ranges from four to six years.[citation needed] It is, however, not uncommon for students to be unable to complete all the requirements within six years, particularly given that funding packages often support students for only two to four years; many departments will allow program extensions at the discretion of the thesis supervisor and/or department chair. Alternative arrangements exist whereby a student is allowed to let their registration in the program lapse at the end of six years and re-register once the thesis is completed in draft form. The general rule is that graduate students are obligated to pay tuition until the initial thesis submission has been received by the thesis office. In other words, if a Ph.D. student defers or delays the initial submission of their thesis they remain obligated to pay fees until such time that the thesis has been received in good standing.

Colombia

Admission

In Colombia, the Ph.D. course admission may require a master’s degree (Magíster) in some universities, specially public universities. However, it could also be applied for a direct doctorate in specific cases, according to the jury’s recommendations on the thesis proposal.

Funding

Most of postgraduate students in Colombia must finance their tuition fees by means of teaching assistant seats or research works. Some institutions such as Colciencias, Colfuturo, and Icetex grant scholarships or provide awards in the form of forgivable loans.[60]

Requirements for completion

After two or two and a half years it is expected the research work of the doctoral candidate to be submitted in the form of oral qualification, where suggestions and corrections about the research hypothesis and methodology, as well as on the course of the research work are performed. The Ph.D. degree is only received after a successful defense of the candidate’s thesis is performed (four or five years after the enrollment), and most of the times also requiring the most important results having been published in at least one peer-reviewed high impact international journal.

Finland

In Finland, the degree of filosofian tohtori (abbreviated FT) is awarded by traditional universities, such as University of Helsinki. A Master’s degree is required, and the doctorate combines approximately 4–5 years of research (amounting to 3–5 scientific articles, some of which must be first-author) and 60 ECTS points of studies.[61] Other universities such as Aalto University award degrees such as tekniikan tohtori (TkT, engineering), taiteen tohtori (TaT, art), etc., which are translated in English to Doctor of Science (D.Sc.), and they are formally equivalent. The licentiate (filosofian lisensiaatti or FL) requires only 2–3 years of research and is sometimes done before an FT.

France

History

Before 1984 three research doctorates existed in France: the State doctorate (doctorat d’État, the old doctorate introduced in 1808), the third cycle doctorate (doctorat de troisième cycle, created in 1954 and shorter than the State doctorate) and the diploma of doctor-engineer (diplôme de docteur-ingénieur created in 1923), for technical research. After 1984, only one type of doctoral degree remained, called “doctorate” (Doctorat). The latter is equivalent to the Ph.D.

Admission

Students pursuing the Ph.D. degree must first complete a master’s degree program, which takes two years after graduation with a bachelor’s degree (five years in total). The candidate must find funding and a formal doctoral advisor (Directeur de thèse) with an habilitation throughout the doctoral program.

The Ph.D. admission is granted by a graduate school (in French, “école doctorale”). A Ph.D. candidate can follow some in-service training offered by the graduate school while continuing his or her research at laboratory. His or her research may be carried out in a laboratory, at a university, or in a company. In the last case, the company hires the candidate and he or she is supervised by both the company’s tutor and a labs’ professor. The validation of the Ph.D. degree requires generally 3 to 4 years after the master’s degree.

Funding

The financing of Ph.D. research comes mainly from funds for research of the French Ministry of Higher Education and Research. The most common procedure is a short-term employment contract called doctoral contract: the institution of higher education is the employer and the Ph.D. candidate the employee. However, the candidate can apply for funds from a company who can host him or her at its premises (as in the case where Ph.D. candidates do their research in a company). As another encountered situation, the company and the institute can sign together a funding agreement so that the candidate still has a public doctoral contract, but is daily located in the company (for example, it is particularly the case of (French) Scientific Cooperation Foundation). Many other resources come from some regional/city projects, some associations, etc.

Germany

Admission

In Germany, admission to a doctoral program is generally on the basis of having an advanced degree (i.e., a master’s degree, diplom, magister, or staatsexamen), mostly in a related field and having above-average grades. A candidate must also find a tenured professor from a university to serve as the formal advisor and supervisor (Betreuer) of the dissertation throughout the doctoral program called Promotion. This supervisor is informally referred to as Doktorvater or Doktormutter, which literally translate to “doctor’s father” and “doctor’s mother” respectively.

While most German doctorates are considered equivalent to the PhD, an exception is the medical doctorate, where “doctoral” dissertations are often written alongside undergraduate study. The European Research Council decided in 2010 that those doctorates do not meet the international standards of a PhD research degree.[62][63] There are different forms of university-level institution in Germany, but only professors from “Universities” (Univ.-Prof.) can serve as doctoral supervisors – “Universities of Applied Sciences” (Fachhochschulen) are not entitled to award doctorates,[64] although some exceptions apply to this rule.[65]

Structure

Depending on the university, doctoral students (Doktoranden) can be required to attend formal classes or lectures, some of them also including exams or other scientific assignments, in order to get one or more certificates of qualification (Qualifikationsnachweise). Depending on the doctoral regulations (Promotionsordnung) of the university and sometimes on the status of the doctoral student, such certificates may not be required. Usually, former students, research assistants or lecturers from the same university, may be spared from attending extra classes. Instead, under the tutelage of a single professor or advisory committee, they are expected to conduct independent research. In addition to doctoral studies, many doctoral candidates work as teaching assistants, research assistants, or lecturers.

Many universities have established research-intensive Graduiertenkollegs (“graduate colleges”), which are graduate schools that provide funding for doctoral studies.

Duration

The usual duration of a doctoral program largely depends on the subject and area of research; but, often three to five years of full-time research work are required.

In 2014, the median age of new Ph.D. graduates was 30.4 years of age.[66]

India

Admission

In India, generally, a master’s degree is required to gain admission to a doctoral program. Direct admission to a Ph.D. programme after bachelors is also offered by the IITs, the IIITs, the NITs and the Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research. In some subjects, doing a Masters in Philosophy (M.Phil.) is a prerequisite to starting a Ph.D. For funding/fellowship, it is required to qualify for the National Eligibility Test for Lectureship and Junior Research fellowship (NET for LS and JRF)[67] conducted by the federal research organisation Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and University Grants Commission (UGC).

In the last few years, there have been many changes in the rules relating to a Ph.D. in India.[citation needed] According to the new rules described by UGC, universities must have to conduct entrance exams in general ability and the selected subject. After clearing these tests, the shortlisted candidates need to appear for an interview by the available supervisor/guide. After successful completion of the coursework, the students are required to give presentations of the research proposal (plan of work or synopsis) at the beginning, submit progress reports, give a pre-submission presentation and finally defend the thesis in an open defence viva-voce.[citation needed]

Italy

History

The Dottorato di ricerca (research doctorate), abbreviated to “Dott. Ric.” or “Ph.D.”, is an academic title awarded at the end of a course of not less than three years, admission to which is based on entrance examinations and academic rankings in the Bachelor of Arts (“Laurea Triennale”) and Master of Arts (“Laurea Magistrale”). While the standard Ph.D. follows the Bologna process, the M.D.-Ph.D. programme may be completed in two years.

The first institution in Italy to create a doctoral program (Ph.D.) was Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa in 1927 under the historic name “Diploma di Perfezionamento”.[68][69]
Further, the research doctorates or Ph.D. (Dottorato di ricerca) in Italy were introduced by law and Presidential Decree in 1980,[70][71] referring to the reform of academic teaching, training and experimentation in organisation and teaching methods.[72][73]

Hence, the Superior Graduate Schools in Italy[74] (Scuola Superiore Universitaria),[75] also called Schools of Excellence (Scuole di Eccellenza)[74][76] such as Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa and Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies still keep their reputed historical “Diploma di Perfezionamento” Ph.D. title by law[69][77] and MIUR Decree.[78][79]

Admission

Doctorate courses are open, without age or citizenship limits, to all those who already hold a “laurea magistrale” (master degree) or similar academic title awarded abroad which has been recognised as equivalent to an Italian degree by the Committee responsible for the entrance examinations.

The number of places on offer each year and details of the entrance examinations are set out in the examination announcement.

Poland

A doctoral degree (Pol. doktor), abbreviated to Ph.D. (Pol. dr) is an advanced academic degree awarded by universities in most fields[80][81][82][83][84] as well as by the Polish Academy of Sciences,[85] regulated by the Polish parliament acts[86] and the government orders, in particular by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Poland. Commonly, students with a master’s degree or equivalent are accepted to a doctoral entrance exam. The title of Ph.D. is awarded to a scientist who 1) completed a minimum of 3 years of Ph.D. studies (Pol. studia doktoranckie; not required to obtain Ph.D.), 2) finished his/her theoretical and/or laboratory’s scientific work, 3) passed all Ph.D. examinations, 4) submitted his/her dissertation, a document presenting the author’s research and findings,[87] 5) successfully defended his/her doctoral thesis. Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, always public, by his/her supervisory committee with expertise in the given discipline.

Scandinavia

The doctorate was introduced in Sweden in 1477 and in Denmark-Norway in 1479 and awarded in theology, law, and medicine, while the magister’s degree was the highest degree at the Faculty of Philosophy, equivalent to the doctorate.

Scandinavian countries were among the early adopters of a degree known as a doctorate of philosophy, based upon the German model. Denmark and Norway both introduced the Dr. Phil(os). degree in 1824, replacing the Magister’s degree as the highest degree, while Uppsala University of Sweden renamed its Magister’s degree Filosofie Doktor (fil. dr) in 1863. These degrees, however, became comparable to the German Habilitation rather than the doctorate, as Scandinavian countries did not have a separate Habilitation.[88]

The degrees were uncommon and not a prerequisite for employment as a professor; rather, they were seen as distinctions similar to the British (higher) doctorates (D.Litt., D.Sc.). Denmark introduced an American-style Ph.D. in 1989; it formally replaced the Licentiate’s degree and is considered a lower degree than the dr. phil. degree; officially, the ph.d. is not considered a doctorate, but unofficially, it is referred to as “the smaller doctorate”, as opposed to the dr. phil., “the grand doctorate”. Holders of a ph.d. degree are not entitled to style themselves as “Dr.”[89] Currently Denmark distinctions between the dr. phil. as the proper doctorate and a higher degree than the ph.d., whereas in Norway, the historically analogous dr. philos. degree is officially regarded as equivalent to the new ph.d. Today, the Norwegian ph.d. degree is awarded to candidates who have completed a supervised doctoral programme at an institution,[90] while candidates with a master’s degree who have conducted research on their own may submit their work for a dr. philos. defence at a relevant institution.[91] Ph.d. candidates must complete one trial lecture before they can defend their thesis,[90] whereas dr. philos. candidates must complete two trial lectures.[91]

In Sweden, the doctorate of philosophy was introduced at Uppsala University’s Faculty of Philosophy in 1863. In Sweden, the Latin term is officially translated into Swedish filosofie doktor and commonly abbreviated fil. dr or FD. The degree represents the traditional Faculty of Philosophy and encompasses subjects from biology, physics, and chemistry, to languages, history, and social sciences, being the highest degree in these disciplines. Sweden currently has two research-level degrees, the Licentiate’s degree, which is comparable to the Danish degree formerly known as the Licentiate’s degree and now as the ph.d., and the higher doctorate of philosophy, Filosofie Doktor. Some universities in Sweden also use the term teknologie doktor for doctorates awarded by institutes of technology (for doctorates in engineering or natural science related subjects such as materials science, molecular biology, computer science etc.). The Swedish term fil. dr is often also used as a translation of corresponding degrees from e.g. Denmark and Norway.

Singapore

Singapore has six universities offering doctoral study opportunities: National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore Management University, Singapore Institute of Technology, Singapore University of Technology and Design, and Singapore University of Social Sciences.[92]

Spain

Doctoral degrees are regulated by Real Decreto (Royal Decree in Spanish) 99/2011 from the 2014/2015 academic year [93] and they are required to apply to a long-term teaching position at a university. They are granted by a university on behalf of the King, and its diploma has the force of a public document. The Ministry of Science keeps a National Registry of Theses called TESEO.[94]

All doctoral programs are of a research nature. The studies should include original results and can take a maximum of three years, although this period can be extended under certain circumstances to 5 years.[95]

The student must write his thesis presenting a new discovery or original contribution to science. If approved by her or his “thesis director (or directors)”, the study will be presented to a panel of 5 distinguished scholars. Any doctor attending the public presentations is allowed to challenge the candidate with questions on his research. If approved, he will receive the doctorate. Four marks can be granted: Unsatisfactory, Pass, Satisfactory, and Excellent. “Summa Cum laude” (with all honours, in Latin) denomination can be added to the Excellent ones if all five members of the tribunal agree.[96]

The social standing of doctors in Spain was evidenced by the fact that Philip III let Ph.D. holders to take seat and cover their heads during an act in the University of Salamanca in which the King took part so as to recognise their merits. This right to cover their heads in the presence of the King is traditionally reserved in Spain to Grandees and Dukes. The concesion is remembered in solemn ceremonies held by the University by telling Doctors to take seat and cover their heads as a reminder of that royal leave.[97]
All Doctor Degree holders are reciprocally recognized as equivalent in Germany and Spain (“Bonn Agreement of November 14, 1994”).[98]

Ukraine

Starting in 2016,[99] in Ukraine Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, Ukrainian: Доктор філософії) is the highest education level and the first science degree. PhD is awarded in recognition of a substantial contribution to scientific knowledge, origination of new directions and visions in science. A PhD degree is a prerequisite for heading a university department in Ukraine. Upon completion of a PhD, a PhD holder can elect to continue his studies and get a post-doctoral degree called “Doctor of Sciences” (DSc. Ukrainian: Доктор наук), which is the second and the highest science degree in Ukraine.

United Kingdom

Admission

Universities admit applicants to Ph.D. programs on a case-by-case basis; depending on the university, admission is typically conditional on the prospective student having completed an undergraduate degree with at least upper second-class honours or a postgraduate master’s degree but requirements can vary.

In the case of the University of Oxford, for example, “The one essential condition of being accepted … is evidence of previous academic excellence, and of future potential.”[100] Some UK universities (e.g. Oxford) abbreviate their Doctor of Philosophy degree as “DPhil”, while most use the abbreviation “PhD”; these are in all other respects equivalent. Commonly, students are first accepted onto an MPhil or MRes programme and may transfer to Ph.D. regulations upon satisfactory progress, this is sometimes referred to as APG (Advanced Postgraduate) status. This is typically done after one or two years and the research work done may count towards the Ph.D. degree. If a student fails to make satisfactory progress, he or she may be offered the opportunity to write up and submit for an MPhil degree as is the case at the King’s College London and University of Manchester. In many universities, the MPhil is also offered as a stand-alone research degree.

Ph.D. students from countries outside the EU/EFTA area are required to comply with the Academic Technology Approval Scheme (ATAS), which involves undergoing a security clearance process with the Foreign Office for certain courses in medicine, mathematics, engineering and material sciences.[101][102] This requirement was introduced in 2007 due to concerns about overseas terrorism and weapons proliferation.[102]

Funding

In the United Kingdom, funding for Ph.D. students is sometimes provided by government-funded Research Councils or the European Social Fund, usually in the form of a tax-free bursary which consists of tuition fees together with a stipend.[103] Tuition fees are charged at different rates for “Home/EU” and “Overseas” students, generally £3,000–£6,000 per year for the former and £9,000–14,500 for the latter (which includes EU citizens who have not been normally resident in the EEA for the last three years), although this can rise to over £16,000 at elite institutions. Higher fees are often charged for laboratory-based degrees.[104][105]

The stipend is around £13,000 per year for three years,[103] (sometimes higher by £2,000–3,000 in London), whether or not the degree continues for longer (within the usual four-year span). This implies that the fourth year of Ph.D. work is often unfunded. A very small number of scientific studentships are sometimes paid at a higher rate – for example, in London, Cancer Research UK, the ICR and the Wellcome Trust stipend rates start at around £19,000 and progress annually to around £23,000 a year; an amount that is tax and national insurance free. Research Council funding is sometimes ‘earmarked’ for a particular department or research group, who then allocate it to a chosen student, although in doing so they are generally expected to abide by the usual minimum entry requirements (typically a first degree with upper second class honours, although successful completion of a postgraduate master’s degree is usually counted as raising the class of the first degree by one division for these purposes). The availability of funding in many disciplines means that in practice only those with the best research proposals, references and backgrounds are likely to be awarded a studentship. The ESRC (Economic and Social Science Research Council) explicitly state that a 2.1 minimum (or 2.2 plus additional master’s degree) is required—no additional marks are given for students with a first class honours or a distinction at masters level. Since 2002, there has been a move by research councils to fund interdisciplinary doctoral training centres which concentrate resources on fewer higher quality centres.

Many students who are not in receipt of external funding may choose to undertake the degree part-time, thus reducing the tuition fees, as well as creating free time in which to earn money for subsistence. Students may also take part in tutoring, work as research assistants, or (occasionally) deliver lectures, at a rate of typically £12-14 per hour, either to supplement existing low income or as a sole means of funding.[106]

Completion

Ph.D. gown, University of Cambridge

There is usually a preliminary assessment to remain in the program and the thesis is submitted at the end of a three- to four-year program. These periods are usually extended pro rata for part-time students. With special dispensation, the final date for the thesis can be extended for up to four additional years, for a total of seven, but this is rare.[107] For full-time Ph.D.s, a 4-year time limit has now been fixed and students must apply for an extension to submit a thesis past this point. Since the early 1990s, British funding councils have adopted a policy of penalising departments where large proportions of students fail to submit their theses in four years after achieving Ph.D.-student status (or pro rata equivalent) by reducing the number of funded places in subsequent years.[108] Inadvertently, this leads to significant pressure on the candidate to minimise the scope of projects with a view on thesis submission, regardless of quality, and discourage time spent on activities that would otherwise further the impact of the research on the community (e.g. publications in high impact journals, seminars, workshops). Furthermore, supervising staff are encouraged in their career progression to ensure that the Ph.D. students under their supervision finalise the projects in three rather than the four years that the program is permitted to cover. These issues contribute to an overall discrepancy between supervisors and Ph.D. candidates in the priority they assign to the quality and impact of the research contained in a Ph.D. project, the former favouring quick Ph.D. projects over several students and the latter favouring a larger scope for their own ambitious project, training, and impact.[citation needed]

There has recently been an increase in the number of Integrated Ph.D. programs available, such as at the University of Southampton. These courses include a Master of Research (MRes) in the first year, which consists of a taught component as well as laboratory rotation projects. The Ph.D. must then be completed within the next 3 years. As this includes the MRes all deadlines and timeframes are brought forward to encourage completion of both MRes and Ph.D. within 4 years from commencement. These programs are designed to provide students with a greater range of skills than a standard Ph.D., and for the university, they are a means of gaining an extra years’ fees from public sources.

Other doctorates

In the United Kingdom, Ph.D. degrees are distinct from other doctorates, most notably the higher doctorates such as D.Litt. (Doctor of Letters) or D.Sc. (Doctor of Science), which may be granted on the recommendation of a committee of examiners on the basis of a substantial portfolio of submitted (and usually published) research. However, some UK universities still maintain the option of submitting a thesis for the award of a higher doctorate.

Recent years have seen the introduction of professional doctorates (D.Prof or ProfD), which are the same level as Ph.D.s but more specific in their field.[109] These tend not to be solely academic, but combine academic research, a taught component and a professional qualification. These are most notably in the fields of engineering (Eng.D.), education (Ed.D.), educational psychology (D.Ed.Psych), occupational psychology (D.Occ Psych.) clinical psychology (D.Clin.Psych.), health psychology (DHealthPsy), social work (DSW), nursing (DNP), public administration (DPA), business administration (DBA), and music (DMA). These typically have a more formal taught component consisting of smaller research projects, as well as a 40,000–60,000-word thesis component, which together are officially considered equivalent to a Ph.D. degree.

United States

In the United States, the Ph.D. degree is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most fields of study. There are 282 universities in the United States that award the Ph.D. degree, and those universities vary widely in their criteria for admission, as well as the rigor of their academic programs.[110]

Requirements

U.S. students typically undergo a series of three phases in the course of their work toward the Ph.D. degree. The first phase consists of coursework in the student’s field of study and requires one to three years to complete. This often is followed by a preliminary, a comprehensive examination, or a series of cumulative examinations where the emphasis is on breadth rather than depth of knowledge. The student is often later required to pass oral and written examinations in the field of specialization within the discipline, and here, depth is emphasized. Some Ph.D. programs require the candidate to successfully complete requirements in pedagogy (taking courses on higher level teaching and teaching undergraduate courses) or applied science (e.g., clinical practice and predoctoral clinical internship in Ph.D. programs in clinical, counseling, or school psychology).[citation needed]

Another two to eight years are usually required for the composition of a substantial and original contribution to human knowledge in the form of a written dissertation, which in the social sciences and humanities typically ranges from 50 to 450 pages. In many cases, depending on the discipline, a dissertation consists of a comprehensive literature review, an outline of methodology, and several chapters of scientific, social, historical, philosophical, or literary analysis. Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, sometimes public, by his or her supervisory committee with expertise in the given discipline.

Typically, Ph.D. programs require applicants to have a bachelor’s degree in a relevant field (and, in many cases in the humanities, a master’s degree), reasonably high grades, several letters of recommendation, relevant academic coursework, a cogent statement of interest in the field of study, and satisfactory performance on a graduate-level exam specified by the respective program (e.g., GRE, GMAT).[111][112]

Depending on the specific field of study, completion of a Ph.D. program usually takes four to eight years of study after the Bachelor’s Degree; those students who begin a Ph.D. program with a master’s degree may complete their Ph.D. degree a year or two sooner.[113] As Ph.D. programs typically lack the formal structure of undergraduate education, there are significant individual differences in the time taken to complete the degree. Overall, 57% of students who begin a Ph.D. program in the US will complete their degree within ten years, approximately 30% will drop out or be dismissed, and the remaining 13% of students will continue on past ten years.[114]

The number of Ph.D. diplomas awarded by US universities has risen nearly every year since 1957, according to data compiled by the US National Science Foundation. In 1957, US universities awarded 8,611 Ph.D. diplomas; 20,403 in 1967; 31,716 in 1977; 32,365 in 1987; 42,538 in 1997; 48,133 in 2007,[115] and 55,006 in 2015.[116]

Funding

Ph.D. students at U.S. universities typically receive a tuition waiver and some form of annual stipend.[citation needed] Many U.S. Ph.D. students work as teaching assistants or research assistants. Graduate schools increasingly[citation needed] encourage their students to seek outside funding; many are supported by fellowships they obtain for themselves or by their advisers’ research grants from government agencies such as the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. Many Ivy League and other well-endowed universities provide funding for the entire duration of the degree program (if it is short) or for most of it.[citation needed] especially in the forms of tuition waivers/stipends.[117]

USSR, Russian Federation and former Soviet Republics

The degree of Candidate of Sciences (Russian: кандидат наук, Kandidat Nauk) was the first advanced research qualification in the former USSR (it was introduced there in 1934) and some Eastern Bloc countries (Czechoslovakia, Hungary) and is still awarded in some post-Soviet states (Russian Federation, Belarus, and others). According to “Guidelines for the recognition of Russian qualifications in the other European countries”, in countries with a two-tier system of doctoral degrees (like Russian Federation, some post-Soviet states, Germany, Poland, Austria and Switzerland), should be considered for recognition at the level of the first doctoral degree, and in countries with only one doctoral degree, the degree of Kandidat Nauk should be considered for recognition as equivalent to this Ph.D. degree.

As most education systems only have one advanced research qualification granting doctoral degrees or equivalent qualifications (ISCED 2011,[118] par.270), the degree of Candidate of Sciences (Kandidat Nauk) of the former USSR counties is usually considered at the same level as the doctorate or Ph.D. degrees of those countries.[119][120]

According to the Joint Statement by the Permanent Conference of the Ministers for Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder of the Federal Republic of Germany (Kultusministerkonferenz, KMK), German Rectors’ Conference (HRK) and the Ministry of General and Professional Education of the Russian Federation, the degree of Kandidat Nauk is recognised in Germany at the level of the German degree of Doktor and the degree of Doktor Nauk at the level of German Habilitation.[121][122] The Russian degree of Kandidat Nauk is also officially recognised by the Government of the French Republic as equivalent to French doctorate.[123][124]

According to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011, for purposes of international educational statistics, Kandidat Nauk (Candidate of Sciences) belongs to ISCED level 8, or “doctoral or equivalent”, together with Ph.D., D.Phil., D.Litt., D.Sc., LL.D., Doctorate or similar. It is mentioned in the Russian version of ISCED 2011 (par.262) on the UNESCO website as an equivalent to Ph.D. belonging to this level.[118] In the same way as Ph.D. degrees awarded in many English-speaking countries, Kandidat Nauk (Candidate of Sciences) allows its holders to reach the level of the Docent.[125] The second doctorate[119] (or post-doctoral degree)[126][127] in some post-Soviet states called Doctor of Sciences (Russian: доктор наук, Doktor Nauk) is given as an example of second advanced research qualifications or higher doctorates in ISCED 2011[118] (par.270) and is similar to Habilitation in Germany, Poland and several other countries.[119][127] It constitutes a higher qualification compared to Ph.D. as against the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) or Dublin Descriptors.[127]

About 88% of Russian students studying at state universities study at the expense of budget funds.[128] The average stipend in Russia (as of August 2011[update]) is $430 a year ($35/month).[129] The average tuition fee in graduate school is $2,000 per year.[130]

Models of supervision

At some universities, there may be training for those wishing to supervise Ph.D. studies. There is now a lot of literature published for academics who wish to do this, such as Delamont, Atkinson, and Parry (1997). Indeed, Dinham and Scott (2001) have argued that the worldwide growth in research students has been matched by increase in a number of what they term “how-to” texts for both students and supervisors, citing examples such as Pugh and Phillips (1987). These authors report empirical data on the benefits that a Ph.D. candidate may gain if he or she publishes work, and note that Ph.D. students are more likely to do this with adequate encouragement from their supervisors.

Wisker (2005) has noticed how research into this field has distinguished between two models of supervision:
The technical-rationality model of supervision, emphasising technique; The negotiated order model, being less mechanistic and emphasising fluid and dynamic change in the Ph.D. process. These two models were first distinguished by Acker, Hill and Black (1994; cited in Wisker, 2005). Considerable literature exists on the expectations that supervisors may have of their students (Phillips & Pugh, 1987) and the expectations that students may have of their supervisors (Phillips & Pugh, 1987; Wilkinson, 2005) in the course of Ph.D. supervision. Similar expectations are implied by the Quality Assurance Agency’s Code for Supervision (Quality Assurance Agency, 1999; cited in Wilkinson, 2005).

International PhD equivalent degrees

  • Afghanistan: دکتورا
  • Albania: Doktorature (Dr.)
  • Algeria: Doctorat, دكتوراه
  • Argentina: Doctorado (Dr.)
  • Armenia: գիտությունների թեկնածու, դոցենտ
  • Austria: Doktor (Dr., plural: DDr.)
  • Azerbaijan: Doktorantura (Dr.)
  • Bangladesh: Doctorate
  • Belarus: кандидат наук
  • Belgium (Dutch-speaking): Doctor
  • Belgium (French-speaking): Doctorat
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina: Doktor
  • Brazil: Doutorado
  • Bulgaria: Доктор
  • Burma: ပါရဂူ
  • Canada: Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
  • China: 博士 (Bo-shi)
  • Chile: Doctorado
  • Colombia: Doctorado
  • Costa Rica: Ph.D. or Doctorado (Dr.)
  • Croatia: Doktor
  • Czech Republic: CSc. and DrSc. was used till 1998, since 1998 Ph.D. written as Ph.D. is used
  • Denmark: Licentiate, Magister, Ph.D. (the doctorates are higher degrees)
  • Dominican Republic: Doctorado
  • Ecuador: Doctorado
  • El Salvador: Doctorado
  • Egypt: Doctorat, دكتوراه
  • Estonia: Doktor (Dr)
  • Ethiopia: ዶክተር, Doctor (Ph.D., Dr.)
  • Finland: Filosofian tohtori and any degree of tohtori
  • France: Doctorat
  • Germany: Doktor
  • Greece: Διδακτορικό
  • Hong Kong: 博士 (Doctor)
  • Hungary: Doktor (Dr.)
  • India: Doctorate
  • Indonesia: Doktor
  • Iran: دکترا (Doctora)
  • Iraq: دكتوراه (Duktorah)
  • Ireland: an Doctúireacht
  • Israel: דוקטורט (“doctorat”)
  • Italy: Dottorato di ricerca
  • Japan: 博士 (hakushi)
  • Jordan: دكتوراه (Doctorah)
  • Korea: 박사 (baksa)
  • Kuwait: دكتوراه (Dektoraah)
  • Kurdistan: دکتۆرا (Doctorah)
  • Latin America: Doctorado/Doctorate
  • Latvia: Zinātņu doktors
  • Lebanon: دكتوراه (doktorah)
  • Lithuania: Daktaras
  • Macau: 博士 (Doutoramento)
  • Macedonia: Докторат
  • Malaysia: Doktor Falsafah
  • Mauritius: Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
  • Mexico: Doctorado
  • Mongolia: Эрдэмтэн
  • Morocco: Doctorat
  • Nepal: Doctor
  • Netherlands: Doctor
  • Nigeria: Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
  • Norway: Magister, Licentiate, doctorates (traditionally considered higher degrees), Ph.D.
  • Pakistan: Doctor
  • Palestine: دكتوراه (doktorah)
  • Paraguay: Ph.D. or Doctorado (Dr.)
  • Peru: Doctorado
  • Philippines: Doktor
  • Poland: Doktor
  • Portugal: pt:Doutoramento
  • Romania: Doctorat
  • Russia: кандидат наук (Ph.D.), ru: доктор наук (Sc.D.)
  • Saudi Arabia دكتوراه
  • Singapore: Doctor
  • Serbia: Доктор
  • Slovakia: Ph.D. or Doctor (Dr.)
  • Slovenia: Doktor znanosti
  • Spain: Doctorado
  • Sweden: Filosofie doktor (fil.dr., FD)
  • Switzerland: Doctorat (Dr)
  • Syria: دكتوراه (doktorah)
  • Taiwan: 博士 (Mandarin: Bo-shi; Taiwanese: Phok-sū)
  • Thailand: ดุษฎีบัณฑิต
  • Tunisia: دكتوراه (doktorah)
  • Turkey: Doktora
  • United Arab Emirates: ar:دكتوراه (doktorah)
  • United Kingdom: Doctor of Philosophy (PhD, doctor, the abbreviation DPhil is used only by the University of Oxford and the University of Sussex)
  • United States: Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
  • Ukraine: uk: Доктор філософії (PhD)
  • Uruguay: Doctorado
  • Uzbekistan: Fan nomzodi (CSc.)
  • Venezuela: Doctorado
  • Vietnam: Tiến sĩ

See also

  • History of higher education in the United States#Graduate schools
  • List of fields of doctoral studies in the United States
  • PhD in management, a program designed for students interested in becoming university professors in the field of business
  • D.P.S., Doctor of Professional Studies
  • Piled Higher and Deeper, Life (or the lack thereof) in Academia, a comic strip by Jorge Cham
  • Terminal degree, the highest degree awarded in a field, usually a PhD

Notes and references

  1. ^ Hickey, Robert. “How address the holder of a Doctorate”. www.formsofaddress.info. Retrieved 2018-08-23..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “How to Correctly Use the Titles Dr. & PhD With a Name | Synonym”. Retrieved 2018-08-23.
  3. ^ Action, Tradition In. “How to Address the Holder of a Ph.D.” www.traditioninaction.org. Retrieved 2018-08-23.
  4. ^ Schuman, Rebecca (2014-08-01). “ABD Company”. Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved 2018-08-23.
  5. ^ ab Dinham, S.; Scott, C. (2001). “The Experience of Disseminating the Results of Doctoral Research”. Journal of Further and Higher Education. 25: 45–55. doi:10.1080/03098770020030498.
  6. ^ Kirsti Koch Christensen (2005). “BOLOGNA SEMINAR: DOCTORAL PROGRAMMES FOR THE EUROPEAN KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY” (PDF). European Universities Association.
  7. ^ http://www.elia-artschools.org/userfiles/File/customfiles/1-the-florence-principles20161124105336_20161202112511.pdf
  8. ^ Sooyoung Chang, Academic Genealogy of Mathematicians, World Scientific, 2010, p. 183.
  9. ^ “PhD”. Oxford Living Dictionaries – British and World English. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  10. ^ “Ph.D.” Oxford Living Dictionaries – North American English. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  11. ^ “PhD”. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  12. ^ Robert Currie (1994). “The Arts and Social Studies, 1914–1939”. In Brian Harrison. The History of the University of Oxford: The twentieth century. Clarendon Press. p. 125. ISBN 9780198229742. Very few persons had received even an honorary DLitt by 1916 when the Reverend E. M. Walker, Senior Tutor of Queen’s, proposed, as the Oxford Magazine put it, that the University ‘should divert the stream’ of American aspirants to the German universities’ degree of philosophiae doctor by opening the DLitt to persons offering a suitable dissertation nine terms after graduation. Apart from a successful move led by Sidney Ball, philosophy tutor at St John’s, to distinguish the proposed arrangement from both the DLitt and the German PhD by adopting the English title ‘doctor of philosophy’ (DPhil), the scheme meet with little opposition
  13. ^ “What is a DPhil?”. University of Oxford,. A DPhil is the Oxford term for a PhD.
  14. ^ Allan Noble, Keith (2001). “Changing doctoral degrees: an international perspective, Society for Research into Higher Education, 1994, p. 8; Bourner, T., Bowden, R., & Laing, S. (2001). “Professional doctorates in England”. Studies in Higher Education. 26 (1): 65–88. doi:10.1080/03075070020030724.
  15. ^ Pedersen, Olaf (1997). The first universities: Studium generale and the origins of university education in Europe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-59431-8.
  16. ^ de Ridder-Symoens, Hilde (2003). A history of the university in Europe: Universities in the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-36105-7.
  17. ^ Rashdall, Hastings (1964). The universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. Oxford University Press.
  18. ^ Park, C. (2007), Redefining the Doctorate, York, UK: The Higher Education Academy, p. 4.
  19. ^ Rüegg, Walter. A History of the University in Europe: Volume 3, Universities in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries (1800–1945). Cambridge University Press.
  20. ^ R. Steven Turner, “The growth of professorial research in Prussia, 1818 to 1848: Causes and context.” Historical studies in the physical sciences (1971): 137–182. in JSTOR
  21. ^ Timothy Lenoir, “Revolution from above: the role of the state in creating the German research system, 1810–1910.” American Economic Review (1998): 22–27. JSTOR.
  22. ^ See, for instance, Rosenberg, R. P. (1962). “Eugene Schuyler’s Doctor of Philosophy Degree: A Theory Concerning the Dissertation”. The Journal of Higher Education. 33 (7): 381–386. doi:10.2307/1979947. JSTOR 1979947.
  23. ^ Tina Barnes (2013). Higher Doctorates in the UK 2013 (PDF). UK Council for Graduate Education. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-9563812-7-9. The UK higher doctorate has a long history with the first (a DSc) being offered by Durham University in 1882
  24. ^ John Aldrich. “The Mathematics PhD in the United Kingdom: Historical Notes for the Mathematics Genealogy Projec”.
  25. ^ Simpson, Renate (June 1983). How the PhD came to Britain: A Century of Struggle for Postgraduate Education. Open University Press. ISBN 0-900868-95-3.
  26. ^ C. Singer and S.W.F. Holloway, Early Medical Education in England in Relation to the Pre-History of the University of London, Med Hist. 1960 January; 4(1): 1–17.
  27. ^ Carl Diehl, Americans and German scholarship, 1770–1870 (1978).
  28. ^ Henry Geitz, Jürgen Heideking, and Jurgen Herbst, eds. German influences on education in the United States to 1917 (1995).
  29. ^ Rosenberg, Ralph P. (1961). “The First American Doctor of Philosophy Degree: A Centennial Salute to Yale, 1861–1961”. Journal of Higher Education. 32 (7): 387–394. doi:10.2307/1978076. JSTOR 1978076.
  30. ^ ab John Seiler Brubacher; Willis Rudy (1 January 1997). Higher Education in Transition: A History of American Colleges and Universities. Transaction Publishers. p. 192. ISBN 9781412815383.
  31. ^ Roger L. Geiger, “Research, graduate education, and the ecology of American universities: An interpretive history.” in Lester F. Goodchild and Harold S. Weschler, eds., The History of Higher Education (2nd ed, 1997), pp 273–89
  32. ^ Laurence R. Veysey, The emergence of the American university (1970) is the standard history; see pp 121–79.
  33. ^ ab Lori Thurgood; Mary J. Golladay; Susan T. Hill (October 2006). “Historical Background”. U.S. Doctorates in the 20th Century. National Science Foundation. Archived from the original on 10 February 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  34. ^ Christopher Jencks and David Riesman. The academic revolution (1968) ch 1.
  35. ^ Indeed there is a ‘new route’ to the PhD in some UK institutions where in an individual may complete a series of postgraduate level taught courses as a part of the doctoral programme. This is called the ‘New Route Ph.D.’, an integrated PhD that resembles somewhat the American PhD program. For a list of programmes and institutions offering the ‘new route’ see http://www.newroutephd.ac.uk/
  36. ^ The term “doctor of philosophy” is not always applied by those countries to graduates in disciplines other than philosophy itself. These doctoral degrees, however, are sometimes identified in English as Ph.D. degrees.
  37. ^ Categories of PhD Candidates, Wageningen University; Ph.D. scholarship programmes, University of Groningen Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science; Sandwich Ph.D., Technissche Universitat Kaiserslautern.
  38. ^ “Higher education: Agreement reached with Glasgow for ‘sandwich’ Ph.D.” Express Tribune. 11 February 2012.
  39. ^ 2009 FT rankings table and criteria list
  40. ^ “The economic contribution of Ph.D.s”, Journal of Higher Education Management and Policy, Volume 31, Issue 3, 2009.
  41. ^ ab “Doctoral degrees: The disposable academic”. The Economist. 2010-12-18. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
  42. ^ “From Graduate School to Welfare”. The Chronicle of Higher Education. 2012-05-06. Retrieved 2017-11-12.
  43. ^ “Even A PhD Couldn’t Keep This Man Off Food Stamps”. Business Insider. Retrieved 2017-11-12.
  44. ^ Faris Alikhan, “The Peril of Credential Creep in Foreign Policy”, U.S. News, 2 October 2013.
  45. ^ Hare, Julie (3 April 2014). “More PhDs enter public service”. The Australian.
  46. ^ Taylor, M. (2011). “Reform the Ph.D. system or close it down”. Nature. 472 (7343): 261–261. Bibcode:2011Natur.472..261T. doi:10.1038/472261a. PMID 21512530.
  47. ^ Fiske, P. (2011). “What is a Ph.D. really worth?”. Nature. 472 (7343): 381–381. doi:10.1038/nj7343-381a.
  48. ^ Anon (2011). “Fix the Ph.D.: No longer a guaranteed ticket to an academic career, the Ph.D. system needs a serious rethink”. Nature. 472 (7343): 259–260. Bibcode:2011Natur.472R.259.. doi:10.1038/472259b. PMID 21512527.
  49. ^ Cyranoski, D.; Gilbert, N.; Ledford, H.; Nayar, A.; Yahia, M. (2011). “Education: The Ph.D. factory”. Nature. 472 (7343): 276–279. Bibcode:2011Natur.472..276C. doi:10.1038/472276a. PMID 21512548.
  50. ^ Lin, Thomas (March 26, 2014). “A ‘Rebel’ Without a Ph.D.” Quanta Magazine. Retrieved 2017-11-11.
  51. ^ Albrecht Behmel; Kelly Neudorfer (11 October 2016). The Foreigner’s Guide to German Universities: Origin, Meaning, and Use of Terms and Expressions in Everyday University Life. Columbia University Press. p. 42. ISBN 9783838268323.
  52. ^ “Paragraph 262 International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011”.
  53. ^ “Scholarships in Argentina”. Spuweb.siu.edu.ar. Archived from the original on 7 May 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  54. ^ “GFME: Global Foundation for Management Education” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-10-31. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  55. ^ “Comisión Nacional de Evaluación y Acreditación Universitaria” (in Spanish). Coneau.edu.ar. Archived from the original on 25 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  56. ^ “Home, Graduate Research, University of Tasmania, Australia”. Utas.edu.au. Retrieved 2013-07-02.
  57. ^ ABC (2008). “Ph.D. students living below poverty line”. ABC News. 2008 (April): 1–2.
  58. ^ “HEIMSHELP: Information about requirements and procedures for higher education and VET providers”. DEEWR. 2011.
  59. ^ Jackson, Denise (22 April 2013). “Completing a PhD by publication: a review of Australian policy and implications for practice”. Higher Education Research & Development. 32 (3): 355–368. doi:10.1080/07294360.2012.692666.
  60. ^ “Colciencias Call for Scholarships in Colombia”. Retrieved 2015-03-04.
  61. ^ “Matemaattis-luonnontieteellinen tiedekunta”. helsinki.fi.
  62. ^ Sarah Schmidt (1 October 2015). “Kommt ein Doktor zum Arzt …” Süddeutsche Zeitung.
  63. ^ Bernd Kramer (28 September 2015). “Akademische Ramschware”. Der Spiegel.
  64. ^ “Higher Education in Germany: Hochschulen vs. Universities”. Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved 2015-02-10.
  65. ^ http://www.zeit.de/2016/48/promotion-fachhochschule-pro-contra
  66. ^ Bestandene Prüfungen, Statistisches Bundesamt, retrieved 2016-03-30
  67. ^ “N E T, Inside H E, University Grants Commission”. Ugc.ac.in. 1988-07-22. Retrieved 2010-02-07.
  68. ^ Student Guidebook, Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  69. ^ ab “STATUTO DELLA SCUOLA NORMALE SUPERIORE DI PISA (legge 18 giugno 1986, n. 308)” (PDF). sns.it.
  70. ^ “Law of February 21, 1980, No. 28”. Archived from the original on 4 November 2011.
  71. ^ “Presidential Decree No. 382 of 11 July 1980”.
  72. ^ Law of 21 February 1980, No. 28 Archived 4 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  73. ^ “Decreto Presidente Repubblica 11 luglio 1980, n. 382”. edscuola.it.
  74. ^ ab “ResearchItaly, Pagina di transizione”. ricercaitaliana.it.
  75. ^ Paul Bompard, “Italy’s big six form network for elite”, Times Higher Education (THE), 18 February 2000.
  76. ^ “Scuole, Scuole di Eccellenza”. scuoledieccellenza.it.
  77. ^ Article 3 of the Law of 14 February 1987, No.41 | L. 14 febbraio 1987, n. 41 Istituzione della Scuola superiore di studi universitari e di perfezionamento S. Anna di Pisa
  78. ^ Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR) Decree
  79. ^ Università in Italia, Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR)
  80. ^ Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education in Warsaw,
  81. ^ [http://www.uj.edu.pl/ Over 600 years of Jagiellonian University in Cracow,
  82. ^ “Energetyka w programach partii – Uniwersytet Warszawski”.
  83. ^ [1] Archived 18 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine.,
  84. ^ Warsaw University of Technology Archived 18 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  85. ^ “Polish Academy of Sciences”. pan.pl. Archived from the original on 29 September 2010.
  86. ^ “The Sejm of the Republic of Poland”. sejm.gov.pl.
  87. ^ Master A et al. (2010). “Untranslated regions of thyroid hormone receptor beta 1 mRNA are impaired in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma”. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1802 (11): 995–1005. doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2010.07.025. PMID 20691260.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  88. ^ Dommasnes, Liv Helga; Else Johansen Kleppe; Gro Mandt; Jenny-Rita Næss (1998). “Women archeologists in retrospect, The Norwegian case”. In Margarita Díaz-Andreu García and Marie Louise Stig Sørensen. Excavating women: a history of women in European archaeology. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-15760-9. … a Dr. philos. degree, which is the highest academic degree in Norway, roughly equivalent to the German Doktor Habilitation. Traditionally, this degree, which was considered a prerequisite for obtaining top positions within academia, was earned rather late in life, often after one had passed 50 years of age.
  89. ^ Elisabeth Vestergaard (2006). Den danske forskeruddannelse. Rapporter, evalueringer og anbefalinger 1992–2006 Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. Aarhus: Dansk Center for Forskningsanalyse
  90. ^ ab “Forskrift for graden philosophiae doctor (ph.d.) ved Arkitektur- og designhøgskolen i Oslo (AHO)”. Lovdata. 8 December 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  91. ^ ab “Forskrift for graden doctor philosophiae (dr.philos.) ved Universitetet i Oslo”. Lovdata (in Norwegian). 19 August 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  92. ^ Mather-L’Huillier, Nathalie. “Why do your PhD in Singapore?”. FindAPhD. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  93. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado 10/02/2011 (in Spanish)
  94. ^ Base de Datos TESEO
  95. ^ “Artículo 3.2 del Real Decreto 99/2011, de 28 de enero, por el que se regulan las enseñanzas oficiales de doctorado”. BOE.es. Retrieved 2018-07-04.
  96. ^ “Artículo 14 del Real Decreto 99/2011, de 28 de enero, por el que se regulan las enseñanzas oficiales de doctorado”. BOE.es. Retrieved 2018-07-04.
  97. ^ “Raíces de las normas y tradiciones del protocolo y ceremonial universitario actual: las universidades del Antiguo Régimen y los actos de colación. Protocolo y Etiqueta” (in Spanish). Protocolo.org. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  98. ^ “Boletín Oficial del Estado. Texto del Documento”. Boe.es. 1995-05-24. Retrieved 2015-11-11.
  99. ^ Кабінет Міністрів України. Постанова від 23 березня 2016 р. № 261 / Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine. Decree from 23 March 2016 #261 (in Ukrainian)
  100. ^ “University of Oxford”. Ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  101. ^ FCO Counter terrorism & weapons proliferation staff: Advice for PHD/doctoral level students applying for an ATAS certificate Archived 12 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
  102. ^ ab Postgrad checks worry scientists BBC News, 12 March 2007
  103. ^ ab Arts and Humanities Research Council
  104. ^ “Postgraduate fees in the UK”. Postgrad.com. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  105. ^ “What is a PhD?”. Prospects. Graduate Prospects Ltd. How much does it cost?. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
  106. ^ Bray, M.; Kwok, P. (2003). “Demand for private supplementary tutoring: Conceptual considerations, and socio-economic patterns in Hong Kong”. Economics of Education Review. 22 (6): 611–620. doi:10.1016/S0272-7757(03)00032-3.
  107. ^ “The Ph.D. is in need of revision”. universityaffairs.ca.
  108. ^ “ESRC Society Today” (PDF). ESRC Society Today. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  109. ^ “Professional Doctorate”. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  110. ^ Listing of Research I Universities, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 282 is the sum of all three categories of doctoral universities.
  111. ^ “Wharton Doctoral Programs: Application Requirements”. Wharton.upenn.edu. 2009-12-15. Archived from the original on 13 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  112. ^ Columbia University in the City of New York Archived 19 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  113. ^ “Research Doctorate Programmes”. US Department of Education. 2006-06-18. Archived from the original on 2007-03-03.
  114. ^ In humanities, ten years may not be enough to get a Ph.D., “The Chronicle of Higher Education” 27 July 2007
  115. ^ National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. 2014. Doctoral Recipients from U.S. Universities, 2012. Survey of Earned Doctorates. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation
  116. ^ PhD programmes: Doctorate deluge, Nature 547, 483 (27 July 2017) doi:10.1038/nj7664-483b
  117. ^ “PhD Funding Opportunities”. Yale (Public Health. Yale. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  118. ^ abc “International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 2011”.
  119. ^ abc UNESCO-IIEP. Varghese, N. V.; Püttmann, V. Trends in diversification of post-secondary education (IIEP research papers). Paris: UNESCO-IIEP, 2011, p. 11–12.
  120. ^ Kouptsov, O., ed. “The Doctorate in the Europe Region”. CEPES Studies in Higher Education. Bucharest: UNESCO, CEPES, 1994, p. 199,
    ISBN 92-9069-133-6,
  121. ^ “Gemeinsame Erklärungzur gegenseitigen akademischen Anerkennungvon tudienzeiten und Abschlüssen im Hochschulbereichsowie von Urkunden über russische wissenschaftliche Gradeund deutsche akademische Qualifikationen zwischen HRK/” KMK und dem Ministerium für Allgemeine und Berufliche Bildungder Russischen Föderation 1999.h
  122. ^ Совместное заявление о взаимном академическом признании периодов обучения в высших учебных заведениях, документов о высшем образовании, российских ученых степенях и германских академических квалификациях, 1999, http://www.russia.edu.ru/information/legal/law/inter/germ/
  123. ^ Décret n° 2003-744 du 1er août 2003 portant publication de l’accord entre le Gouvernement de la République française et le Gouvernement de la Fédération de Russie sur la reconnaissance mutuelle des documents sur les grades et titres universitaires, signé à Saint-Pétersbourg le 12 mai 2003.
  124. ^ Соглашение между Правительством Российской Федерации и Правительством Французской Республики о взаимном признании документов об ученых степенях, Санкт-Петербург, 12 мая 2003 года, http://www.russia.edu.ru/information/legal/law/inter/soglash/2538/
  125. ^ Лучук О. Коли ми діждемося Вашинґтона? Тоді ж і станем “докторами”! До питання про академічні посади, наукові ступені та вчені звання в українському та американському наукових дискурсах // Україна: культурна спадщина, національна свідомість, державність: Збірник наукових праць. Випуск 21. Львів: Інститут українознавства ім. І.Крип’якевича НАН України, 2012, http://www.nbuv.gov.ua/portal/soc_gum/Uks/2012_21/40LuchukO.pdf
  126. ^ “Study on the organisation of doctoral programmes in EU neighbouring countries” Archived 13 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Technopolis Group, GHK. Ukraine. December 2010.
  127. ^ abc Technopolis Group, GHK. Study on the organisation of doctoral programmes in EU neighbouring countries Archived 13 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. The Russian Federation. December 2010.
  128. ^ Статистика Российского образования
  129. ^ http://ria.ru/edu_news/20110804/411919327.html Стипендии на приоритетных специальностях составят от 2 до 4 тыс руб // “РИА Новости”, 04/08/2011
  130. ^ http://www.careerrussia.ru/detail_new.php?ID=5925 Archived 1 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Молодому специалисту на заметку: образование/аспирантура

Bibliography

  • Delamont, S., Atkinson, P. & Parry, O. (1997). Supervising the Ph.D.: A guide to success. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    ISBN 0-335-19516-4
  • Dinham, S. & Scott, C. (2001). The experience of the results of disseminating the results of doctoral research. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 25 (1) 45–55.
    ISSN 1469-9486
  • Feibelman, Peter J. A Ph.D. Is Not Enough!: A Guide to Survival in Science (2011) excerpt
  • Geiger, Roger L. To Advance Knowledge: The Growth of American Research Universities, 1900–1940. (Oxford University Press, 1986).
  • Geiger, Roger L. Research and Relevant Knowledge: American Research Universities Since World War II (2001).
  • MacGillivray, Alex; Potts, Gareth; Raymond, Polly. Secrets of Their Success (London: New Economics Foundation, 2002).
  • Mewburn, Inger. How To Tame Your Ph.D. (2012) excerpt
  • Petre, Marian. The Unwritten Rules Of Phd Research (2010) excerpt
  • Phillips, E. & Pugh, D.S. How to get a Ph.D. : managing the peaks and troughs of research. Milton Keynes: Open University Press 1987.
    ISBN 0-335-15537-5
  • Simpson, Renate. How the Ph.D. came to Britain: A century of struggle for postgraduate education, Society for Research into Higher Education, Guildford (1983).
  • Wellington, J. Bathmaker, A._M., Hunt, C., McCullough, G. & Sikes, P. (2005). Succeeding with your doctorate. London: Sage.
    ISBN 1-4129-0116-2
  • Wilkinson, D. (2005) The essential guide to postgraduate study London : SAGE
    ISBN 1-4129-0062-X (hbk.)
  • Wisker, G. (2005) The Good Supervisor: Supervising Postgraduate and Undergraduate Research for Doctoral Theses and Dissertations Palgrave Macmillan.
    ISBN 1-4039-0395-6.

External links

  • PhDStudent.com, The tools you need to survive and thrive in graduate school.
  • Supervision of Ph.D. students (with some focus on disagreements)


Juris Doctor

Example of a diploma from Suffolk University Law School conferring the Juris Doctor degree

The Juris Doctor degree (J.D. or JD), also known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree (J.D., JD, D.Jur. or DJur), is a graduate-entry professional degree in law[1][2][3][4][5] and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. It is earned by completing law school in Australia, Canada and the United States, and some other common law countries. It has the academic standing of a professional doctorate in the United States,[6][7][8] a master’s degree in Australia,[9] and a second-entry, baccalaureate degree in Canada[10][11][12][13][14] (in all three jurisdictions the same as other professional degrees such as M.D. or D.D.S., the degrees required to be a practicing physician or dentist, respectively).[15][16][17]

The degree was first awarded in the United States in the early 20th century and was created as a modern version of the old European doctor of law degree (such as the Dottore in Giurisprudenza in Italy and the Juris Utriusque Doctor in Germany and central Europe).[18] Originating from the 19th century Harvard movement for the scientific study of law, it is a degree that in most common law jurisdictions is the primary professional preparation for lawyers. It involves a three-year program in most jurisdictions.[19][20]

To be authorized to practice law in the courts of a given state in the United States, the majority of individuals holding a J.D. degree must pass a bar examination.[21][22][23][24] The state of Wisconsin, however, permits the graduates of its two law schools to practice law in that state, and in its state courts, without having to take its bar exam—a practice called “diploma privilege”—provided they complete the courses needed to satisfy the diploma privilege requirements. In the United States, passing an additional bar exam is not required of lawyers authorized to practice in at least one state to practice in the national courts of the United States, courts commonly known as “federal courts”. Lawyers must, however, be admitted to the bar of the federal court before they are authorized to practice in that court. Admission to the bar of a federal district court includes admission to the bar of the related bankruptcy court.

Contents

  • 1 Etymology and abbreviations
  • 2 Historical context

    • 2.1 Origins of the law degree
    • 2.2 The history of legal training in England
    • 2.3 Legal training in colonial North America and 19th century U.S.

      • 2.3.1 Revolutionary approach: Scientific study of law
  • 3 Creation of the J.D. and major common law approaches to legal education

    • 3.1 Legal education in the United States

      • 3.1.1 Creation of the Juris Doctor
    • 3.2 Major common law approaches
  • 4 Modern variants and curriculum

    • 4.1 Types and characteristics

      • 4.1.1 Standard Juris Doctor curriculum
      • 4.1.2 Replacement for the LL.B.
    • 4.2 Descriptions of the J.D. outside the U.S.

      • 4.2.1 Australia
      • 4.2.2 Canada
      • 4.2.3 China
      • 4.2.4 Hong Kong
      • 4.2.5 Italy
      • 4.2.6 Japan
      • 4.2.7 Mexico
      • 4.2.8 Philippines
      • 4.2.9 Singapore
      • 4.2.10 United Kingdom
  • 5 In academia
  • 6 Use of the title “Doctor”
  • 7 See also
  • 8 Notes and references
  • 9 External links

Etymology and abbreviations

In the United States, the professional doctorate in law may be conferred in Latin or in English as Juris Doctor (sometimes shown on Latin diplomas in the accusative form Juris Doctorem) and at some law schools Doctor of Law (J.D. or JD),[25] or Doctor of Jurisprudence (also abbreviated JD or J.D.).[26][27] “Juris Doctor” literally means “Teacher of Law”, while the Latin for “Doctor of Jurisprudence”—Jurisprudentiae Doctor—literally means “Teacher of Legal Knowledge”.

The J.D. is not to be confused with Doctor of Laws or Legum Doctor (LLD or LL.D.). In institutions where the latter can be earned, e.g. Cambridge University (where it is titled Doctor of Law, though still retaining the abbreviation LLD) and many other British institutions, it is a higher research doctorate representing a substantial contribution to the field over many years, beyond that required for a PhD and well beyond a taught degree such as the J.D.[28] The LL.D. is invariably an honorary degree in the United States.

Historical context

Origins of the law degree

The first university in Europe, the University of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 11th century who were students of the glossator school in that city. This served as the model for other law schools of the Middle Ages, and other early universities such as the University of Padua.[29] The first academic degrees may[31] have been doctorates in civil law (doctores legum) followed by canon law (doctores decretorum); these were not professional degrees but rather indicated that their holders had been approved to teach at the universities. While Bologna granted only doctorates, preparatory degrees (bachelor’s and licences) were introduced in Paris and then in the English universities.[32][33][34][35]

The history of legal training in England

The Inns of Court of London served as a professional school for lawyers in England.

The nature of the J.D. can be better understood by a review of the context of the history of legal education in England. The teaching of law at Cambridge and Oxford Universities was mainly for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practice law.[36] The universities only taught civil and canon law (used in a very few jurisdictions such as the courts of admiralty and church courts) but not the common law that applied in most jurisdictions. Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court, but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened considerably and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation.[37] However, because of the lack of standardisation of study and of objective standards for appraisal of these apprenticeships, the role of universities became subsequently of importance for the education of lawyers in the English speaking world.[38]

In England in 1292 when Edward I first requested that lawyers be trained, students merely sat in the courts and observed, but over time the students would hire professionals to lecture them in their residences, which led to the institution of the Inns of Court system.[39] The original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, as well as court proceedings observation.[40] By the fifteenth century, the Inns functioned like a university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, though very specialized in purpose.[41] With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, and the demand for lawyers grew.[42]

Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, and included coursework in law only in the context of canon and civil law (the two ‘Laws’ in the original Bachelor of Laws, which thus became the Bachelor of Civil Law when the study of canon law was barred after the Reformation) and for the purpose of the study of philosophy or history only. The apprenticeship program for solicitors thus emerged, structured and governed by the same rules as the apprenticeship programs for the trades.[43] The training of solicitors by a five-year apprenticeship was formally established by the Attorneys and Solicitors Act 1728,.[44]William Blackstone became the first lecturer in English common law at the University of Oxford in 1753, but the university did not establish the program for the purpose of professional study, and the lectures were very philosophical and theoretical in nature.[44] Blackstone insisted that the study of law should be university based, where concentration on foundational principles can be had, instead of concentration on detail and procedure had through apprenticeship and the Inns of Court.[45]

The 1728 act was amended in 1821 to reduce the period of the required apprenticeship to three years for graduates in either Law or Arts from Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin, as “the admission of such graduates should be facilitated, in consideration of the learning and abilities requisite for taking such degree”.[46] This was extended in 1837 to cover the newly established universities of Durham and London,[47] and again in 1851 to include the new Queen’s University of Ireland.[48]

The Inns of Court continued but became less effective, and admission to the bar still did not require any significant educational activity or examination. In 1846, Parliament examined the education and training of prospective barristers and found the system to be inferior to that of Europe and the United States as Britain did not regulate the admission of barristers.[38] Therefore, formal schools of law were called for, but not finally established until later in the century, and even then the bar did not consider a university degree in admission decisions.[38]

Until the mid nineteenth century, most law degrees in England (the BCL at Oxford and Durham, and the LLB at London)[49][50][51] were postgraduate degrees, taken after an initial degree in Arts. The Cambridge degree, variously referred to as a BCL, BL or LLB, was an exception: it took 6 years from matriculation to complete, but only three of these had to be in residence, and the BA was not required (although those not holding a BA had to produce a certificate to prove they had not only been in residence but had actually attended lectures for at least three terms).[52][53] These degrees specialised in Roman Civil Law rather than English Common Law, which was the domain of the Inns of Court, and were thus more theoretical than practically useful.[54] Cambridge reestablished its LLB degree in 1858 as an undergraduate course alongside the BA,[55] and the London LLB, which had previously required a minimum of one year after the BA, become an undergraduate degree in 1866.[56] The older nomenclature continues to be used for the BCL at Oxford today, which is a master’s level program, while Cambridge moved its LLB back to being a postgraduate degree in 1922 but only renamed it as the LLM in 1982.[57]

Between the 1960s and the 1990s, law schools in England took on a more central role in the preparation of lawyers and consequently improved their coverage of advanced legal topics to become more professionally relevant. Over the same period, American law schools became more scholarly and less professionally oriented, so that in 1996 Langbein could write: “That contrast between English law schools as temples of scholarship and American law schools as training centers for the profession no longer bears the remotest relation to reality.”[58]

Legal training in colonial North America and 19th century U.S.

Initially there was much resistance to lawyers in colonial North America because of the role they had played in hierarchical England, but slowly the colonial governments started using the services of professionals trained in the Inns of Court in London, and by the end of the American Revolution there was a functional bar in each state.[59] Due to an initial distrust of a profession open only to the elite in England, as institutions for training developed in what would become the United States they emerged as quite different from those in England.[60]

Initially in the United States the legal professionals were trained and imported from England.[61] A formal apprenticeship or clerkship program was established first in New York in 1730—at that time a seven-year clerkship was required, and in 1756 a four-year college degree was required in addition to five years of clerking and an examination.[62] Later the requirements were reduced to require only two years of college education.[62] But a system like the Inns did not develop, and a college education was not required in England until the 19th century, so this system was unique.

The clerkship program required much individual study and the mentoring lawyer was expected to carefully select materials for study and guide the clerk in his study of the law and ensure that it was being absorbed.[63] The student was supposed to compile his notes of his reading of the law into a “commonplace book”, which he would try to memorize.[64] Although those were the ideals, in reality the clerks were often overworked and rarely were able to study the law individually as expected. They were often employed to tedious tasks, such as making handwritten copies of documents. Finding sufficient legal texts was also a seriously debilitating issue, and there was no standardization in the books assigned to the clerk trainees because they were assigned by their mentor, whose opinion of the law may have differed greatly from his peers.[65] It was said by one famous attorney in the U.S., William Livingston, in 1745 in a New York newspaper that the clerkship program was severely flawed, and that most mentors “have no manner of concern for their clerk’s future welfare… [T]is a monstrous absurdity to suppose, that the law is to be learnt by a perpetual copying of precedents.”[64] There were some few mentors that were dedicated to the service, and because of their rarity, they became so sought after that the first law schools evolved from the offices of some of these attorneys who took on many clerks and began to spend more time training than practicing law.[64]

Tapping Reeve, founder of the first law school in North America, the Litchfield Law School, in 1773

In time, the apprenticeship program was not considered sufficient to produce lawyers fully capable of serving their clients’ needs.[66] The apprenticeship programs often employed the trainee with menial tasks, and while they were well trained in the day-to-day operations of a law office, they were generally unprepared practitioners or legal reasoners.[67] The establishment of formal faculties of law in U.S. universities did not occur until the latter part of the 18th century.[68] With the beginning of the American Revolution, the supply of lawyers from Britain ended. The first law degree granted by a U.S. university was a Bachelor of Law in 1793 by the College of William and Mary, which was abbreviated L.B.; Harvard was the first university to use the LL.B. abbreviation in the United States.[69]

The first university law programs in the United States, such as that of the University of Maryland established in 1812, included much theoretical and philosophical study, including works such as the Bible, Cicero, Seneca, Aristotle, Adam Smith, Montesquieu and Grotius.[70] It has been said that the early university law schools of the early 19th century seemed to be preparing students for careers as statesmen rather than as lawyers.[71] At the LL.B. programs in the early 1900s at Stanford University and Yale continued to include “cultural study”, which included courses in languages, mathematics and economics.[72] An LL.B., or Bachelor of Laws, recognized that a prior bachelor’s degree was not required to earn an LL. B.

In the 1850s there were many proprietary schools which originated from a practitioner taking on multiple apprentices and establishing a school and which provided a practical legal education, as opposed to the one offered in the universities which offered an education in the theory, history and philosophy of law.[73] The universities assumed that the acquisition of skills would happen in practice, while the proprietary schools concentrated on the practical skills during education.[73]

Revolutionary approach: Scientific study of law

Joseph Story, U.S. Supreme Court Justice, lecturer of law at Harvard and proponent of the scientific study of law

In part to compete with the small professional law schools, there began a great change in U.S. university legal education. For a short time beginning in 1826 Yale began to offer a complete “practitioners’ course” which lasted two years and included practical courses, such as pleading drafting.[74] U.S. Supreme Court justice Joseph Story started the spirit of change in legal education at Harvard when he advocated a more “scientific study” of the law in the 19th century.[75] At the time he was a lecturer at Harvard. Therefore, at Harvard the education was much of a trade school type of approach to legal education, contrary to the more liberal arts education advocated by Blackstone at Oxford and Jefferson at William and Mary.[76] Nonetheless there continued to be debate among educators over whether legal education should be more vocational, as at the private law schools, or through a rigorous scientific method, such as that developed by Story and Langdell.[77][80] In the words of Dorsey Ellis, “Langdell viewed law as a science and the law library as the laboratory, with the cases providing the basis for learning those ‘principles or doctrines’ of which law, considered as a science, consists.[81] Nonetheless, into the year 1900 most states did not require a university education (although an apprenticeship was often required) and most practitioners had not attended any law school or college.[76]

Therefore, the modern legal education system in the U.S. is a combination of teaching law as a science and a practical skill,[82] implementing elements such as clinical training, which has become an essential part of legal education in the U.S. and in the J.D. program of study.[83]

Creation of the J.D. and major common law approaches to legal education

The J.D. originated in the United States during a movement to improve training of the professions. Prior to the origination of the J.D., law students began law school either with only a high school diploma, or less than the amount of undergraduate study required to earn a bachelor’s degree. The LL.B. persisted through the middle of the twentieth century, after which a completed bachelor’s degree became a requirement for virtually all students entering law school. The didactic approaches that resulted were revolutionary for university education and have slowly been implemented outside the U.S., but only recently (since about 1997) and in stages. The degrees which resulted from this new approach, such as the M.D. and the J.D., are just as different from their European counterparts as the educational approaches differ.

Legal education in the United States

Professional doctorates were developed in the United States in the 19th century, the first being the Doctor of Medicine in 1807,[84] but the professional law degree took more time. At the time the legal system in the United States was still in development as the educational institutions were developing. The status of the legal profession was at that time still ambiguous; therefore, the development of the legal degree took much time.[85] Even when some universities offered training in law, they did not offer a degree.[85] Because in the United States there were no Inns of Court, and the English academic degrees did not provide the necessary professional training, the models from England were inapplicable, and the degree program took some time to develop.[86] At first the degree took the form of a B.L. (such as at the College of William and Mary), but then Harvard, keen on importing legitimacy through the trappings of Oxford and Cambridge, implemented an LL.B. degree.[87] This was somewhat controversial at the time because it was a professional training without any of the cultural or classical studies required of a degree in England,[88][89] where it was necessary to gain a general BA prior to an LLB or BCL until the nineteenth century.[90] Thus, even though the name of the English LL.B. degree was implemented at Harvard, the program in the U.S. was nonetheless intended as a first degree which, unlike the English B.A., gave practical or professional training in law.[91][92]

Creation of the Juris Doctor

In the mid-19th century there was much concern about the quality of legal education in the United States. Christopher Columbus Langdell, who served as dean of Harvard Law School from 1870 to 1895, dedicated his life to reforming legal education in the United States. The historian Robert Stevens wrote that “it was Langdell’s goal to turn the legal profession into a university educated one—and not at the undergraduate level, but through a three-year post baccalaureate degree.”[18] This graduate level study would allow the intensive legal training that Langdell had developed, known as the case method (a method of studying landmark cases) and the Socratic method (a method of examining students on the reasoning of the court in the cases studied). Therefore, a graduate high level law degree was proposed, the Juris Doctor, implementing the case and Socratic methods as its didactic approach.[93] According to professor J. H. Beale, an 1882 Harvard Law graduate, one of the main arguments for the change was uniformity. Harvard’s four professional schools of Theology, Law, Medicine and Arts and Sciences were all graduate schools, and their degrees were therefore a second degree. Two of them conferred a doctorate and the other two a baccalaureate degree. The change from LL.B. to J.D. was intended to end “this discrimination, the practice of conferring what is normally a first degree upon persons who have already their primary degree”.[94] The J.D. was proposed as the equivalent of the J.U.D. in Germany to reflect the advanced study required to be an effective lawyer.

The University of Chicago Law School was the first to offer the J.D.[95] While approval was still pending at Harvard, the degree was introduced at many other law schools including at the law schools at NYU, Berkeley, Michigan and Stanford. Because of tradition, and concerns about less prominent universities implementing a J.D. program, prominent eastern law schools like those of Harvard, Yale and Columbia refused to implement the degree. Indeed, pressure from them led almost every law school (except at the University of Chicago and other law schools in Illinois) to abandon the J.D. and readopt the LL.B. as the first law degree by the 1930s.[96]

It was only after 1962 that a new push—this time begun at less-prominent law schools—successfully led to the universal adoption of the J.D. as the first law degree. Student and alumni support were key in the LL.B.-to-J.D. change, and even the most prominent schools were convinced to make the change: Columbia and Harvard in 1969, and Yale, last, in 1971.[97] Nonetheless, the LL.B. at Yale retained the didactical changes of the “practitioners courses” of 1826 and was very different from the LL.B. in common law countries other than Canada.[74]

Christopher Langdell, one of the scholars at Harvard who established the J.D.

Following standard modern academic practice, Harvard Law School refers to its Master of Laws and Doctor of Juridical Science degrees as its graduate level law degrees.[98] Similarly, Columbia refers to the LL.M. and the J.S.D. as its graduate program.[99] Yale Law School lists its LL.M., M.S.L., J.S.D., and Ph.D. as constituting graduate programs.[100] A distinction thus remains between professional and graduate law degrees in the United States.

Major common law approaches

The English legal system is the root of the systems of other common-law countries, such as the United States. Originally, common lawyers in England were trained exclusively in the Inns of Court. Even though it took nearly 150 years since common law education began with Blackstone at Oxford for university education to be part of legal training in England and Wales, the LL.B. eventually became the degree usually taken before becoming a lawyer. In England and Wales the LL.B. is an undergraduate scholarly program and although it (assuming it is a qualifying law degree) fulfills the academic requirements for becoming a lawyer,[101] further vocational and professional training as either a barrister (the Bar Professional Training Course[102] followed by Pupillage[103]) or as a solicitor (the Legal Practice Course[104] followed by a “period of recognised training”[105]) is required before becoming licensed in that jurisdiction.[58] The qualifying law degree in most English universities is the LLB although in some, including Oxford and Cambridge, it is the BA in Law.[106] Both of these can be taken with “senior status” in two years by those already holding an undergraduate degree in another discipline.[107] A few universities offer “exempting” degrees, usually integrated master’s degrees denominated Master in Law (MLaw), that combine the qualifying law degree with the legal practice course or the bar professional training course in a four-year, undergraduate-entry program.[108][109]

Legal education in Canada has unique variations from other Commonwealth countries. Even though the legal system of Canada is mostly a transplant of the English system (Quebec excepted), the Canadian system is unique in that there are no Inns of Court, the practical training occurs in the office of a barrister and solicitor with law society membership, and, since 1889, a university degree has been a prerequisite to initiating an articling clerkship.[110] The education in law schools in Canada was similar to that in the United States at the turn of the 20th century, but with a greater concentration on statutory drafting and interpretation, and elements of a liberal education.[111] The bar associations in Canada were influenced by the changes at Harvard, and were sometimes quicker to nationally implement the changes proposed in the United States, such as requiring previous college education before studying law.[111]

Modern variants and curriculum

Legal education is rooted in the history and structure of the legal system of the jurisdiction where the education is given; therefore, law degrees are vastly different from country to country, making comparisons among degrees problematic.[112] This has proven true in the context of the various forms of the J.D. which have been implemented around the world.

Until about 1997 the J.D. was unique to law schools in the U.S. But with the rise in international success of law firms from the United States, and the rise in students from outside the U.S. attending U.S. law schools, attorneys with the J.D. have become increasingly common internationally.[113] Therefore, the prestige of the J.D. has also risen, and many universities outside the U.S. have started to offer the J.D., often for the express purpose of raising the prestige of their law school and graduates.[113] Such institutions usually aim to appropriate the name of the degree only, and sometimes the new J.D. program of study is the same as that of their traditional law degree, which is usually more scholarly in purpose than the professional training intended with the J.D. as created in the U.S. Various characteristics can therefore be seen among J.D. degrees as implemented in universities around the world.

Comparisons of J.D. variants[114]
Jurisdiction Scholarly content absent? Duration in years Different curriculum from LL.B. in jurisdiction? Requires further training for license?
United States Yes 3 No No
Australia No 3–4 Yes[115] Yes
Canada No 3 No Yes
Hong Kong No 2–3 No Yes
Japan No 2–3 Yes Yes
Philippines No 4 Varies Yes
Singapore No 2–3 No Yes[116]
United Kingdom No 3–4 Yes Yes

Types and characteristics

Until very recently, only law schools in the United States offered the Juris Doctor. Starting about 1997, universities in other countries began introducing the J.D. as a first professional degree in law, with differences appropriate to the legal systems of the countries in which these law schools are situated.

Standard Juris Doctor curriculum

As stated by James Hall and Christopher Langdell, two people who were involved in the creation of the J.D., the J.D. is a professional degree like the M.D., intended to prepare practitioners through a scientific approach of analysing and teaching the law through logic and adversarial analysis (such as the Casebook and Socratic methods).[117] It has existed as described in the United States for over 100 years, and can therefore be termed the standard or traditional J.D. program. The J.D. program generally requires a bachelor’s degree for entry, though this requirement is sometimes waived.[118][119][120][121] The program of study for the degree has remained substantially unchanged since its creation, and is an intensive study of the substantive law and its professional applications (and therefore[citation needed] requires no thesis, although a lengthy writing project is sometimes required[122]). As a professional training, it provides sufficient training for entry into practice (no apprenticeship is necessary to sit for the bar exam). It requires at least three academic years of full-time study. While the J.D. is a doctoral degree in the US, lawyers usually use the suffix of “esquire” as opposed to the prefix “Dr.” Although calling an American lawyer “doctor” would not be incorrect, provided the attorney has a J.D. or other doctoral degree (as opposed to an LL.B., which is a baccalaureate, not a doctorate), the title is more commonly used in Europe and Asia than in the U.S. or Canada.

Replacement for the LL.B.

An initial attempt to rename the LL.B. to the J.D. in the US in the early 20th century started with a petition at Harvard in 1902. This was rejected, but the idea took hold at the new law school established at the University of Chicago and other universities and by 1925 80% of US law schools gave the J.D. to graduate entrants, while restricting undergraduate entrants (who followed the same curriculum) to the LL.B. Yet the change was rejected by Harvard, Yale and Columbia, and by the late 1920s schools were moving away from the J.D. and once again granting only the LL.B, with only Illinois law schools holding out. This changed in the 1960s, by which time almost all law school entrants were graduates. The J.D. was reintroduced in 1962 and by 1971 had replaced the LL.B., again without any change in the curriculum, with many schools going as far as to offer a J.D. to their LL.B. alumni for a small fee.[123]

Canadian and Australian universities have law programs that are very similar to the J.D. programs in the United States. These include Queen’s University, University of British Columbia, University of Alberta, University of Victoria, Université de Moncton, University of Calgary, University of Saskatchewan, University of Manitoba, University of Windsor, University of Ottawa, University of Western Ontario, York University[124] and University of Toronto[125] in Canada, RMIT and the University of Melbourne in Australia.[3] Therefore, when the J.D. program was introduced at these institutions, it was a mere renaming of their second-entry LL.B. program and entailed no significant substantive changes to their curricula.[126] The reason given for doing so is because of the international popularity and recognizability of the J.D., and the need to recognize the demanding graduate characteristics of the program.[127] Because these programs are in institutions heavily influenced by those in the UK, the J.D. programs often have some small scholarly element (see chart above, entitled “Comparisons of J.D. Variants”). And because the legal systems are also influenced by that of the UK, an apprenticeship is still required before being qualified to apply for a license to practice (see country sections below, under “Descriptions of the J.D. outside the U.S.”).

Descriptions of the J.D. outside the U.S.

Australia

The traditional law degree in Australia was the undergraduate Bachelor of Laws (LLB); however, there has been a huge shift towards the JD in the past five years, with most Australian universities now offering a JD programme, including the country’s best ranked universities (e.g. The University of New South Wales,[128] the University of Sydney,[129] the Australian National University,[130] the University of Melbourne[131]).

Generally, universities that offer the JD also offer the LLB, though at some universities, only the JD is offered, and only at postgraduate levels. Due to recent changes in undergraduate degree structuring, some universities, such as the University of Melbourne,[132] only allow law to be studied at the postgraduate level, and the JD has completely replaced the LLB.

An Australian Juris Doctor consists of three years of full-time study, or the equivalent. The course varies across different universities, though all are obliged to teach the Priestley 11 subjects if they wish for their students to be able to practice law in Australia. As with LLB graduates, graduates of the JD need to complete the practical legal training (PLT) requirement before they are eligible for admission to practice. Some universities, such as the University of Technology, Sydney, have begun offering PLT as part of the JD, though this is unusual, as PLT is most often undertaken in early employment.[133]

On the Australian Qualifications Framework, the Juris Doctor is classified as a “Masters degree (Extended)”, with an exception having been granted to use the title Juris Doctor (other such exceptions include Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Dentistry and Doctor of Veterinary Medicine). It may not be described as a doctoral degree, and holders may not use the title “Doctor”. Along with other extended master’s degrees, the JD takes 3-4 years following a minimum of a 3-year bachelor’s degree.[9][134]

Canada

The J.D. degree is the dominant common law law degree in Canada, replacing the traditional LL.B. degree prominent in Commonwealth countries.[135] The University of Toronto became the first to rename its law degree from LL.B. to J.D. in 2001. As with the second-entry LL.B., in order to be admitted to a Juris Doctor program, applicants must have completed a minimum of 2 or 3 years of study toward a bachelor’s degree and scored high on the North American Law School Admission Test.[136] As a practical matter, nearly all successful applicants have completed one or more degrees before admission to a Canadian common law school,[137] although despite this it is, along with other first professional degrees, considered to be a bachelor’s degree-level qualification.[14] All Canadian Juris Doctor programs consist of three years, and have similar content in their mandatory first year courses. The mandatory first year courses in Canadian law schools outside Quebec include public law (i.e. provincial law, constitutional law, and administrative law), property law, tort law, contract law, criminal law, and legal research and writing.[138] Beyond first year and other courses required for graduation, course selection is elective with various concentrations such as commercial and corporate law, taxation, international law, natural resources law, real estate transactions, employment law, criminal law, and Aboriginal law.[139] After graduation from an accredited law school, each province’s or territory’s law society requires completion of a bar admission course or examination, and a period of supervised “articling” prior to independent practice.[140]

Use of the “J.D.” designation by Canadian law schools is not intended to indicate an emphasis on American law, but rather to distinguish Canadian law degrees from English law degrees, which do not require prior undergraduate study.[113] The Canadian J.D. is a degree in Canadian Law. Accordingly, United States jurisdictions other than New York and Massachusetts[141] do not recognize Canadian Juris Doctor degrees automatically.[142][143] This is equivalent to the manner in which United States J.D. graduates are treated in Canadian jurisdictions such as Ontario.[144] To prepare graduates to practise in jurisdictions on both sides of the border, some pairs of law schools have developed joint Canadian-American J.D. programs. As of 2018, these include a three-year program conducted concurrently at the University of Windsor and the University of Detroit Mercy,[145] as well as a four-year program with the University of Ottawa and either Michigan State University or American University in which students spend two years studying on each side of the border.[146] Previously, New York University (NYU) Law School and Osgoode Hall Law School offered a similar program, but this has since been terminated.[147]

Two notable exceptions are Université de Montréal and Université de Sherbrooke, which both offer a one-year J.D. program aimed at Quebec civil law graduates in order to practice law either elsewhere in Canada or in the state of New York.[148][149]

York University offered the degree of Doctor of Jurisprudence (D.Jur.) as a research degree until 2002, when the name of the program was changed to Ph.D. in Law.[150]

China

J.D.s are not generally awarded in the People’s Republic of China (P.R.C.). Instead, a J.M. (Juris Magister) is awarded as the counterpart of JD in the United States, the professional degree in law in China.[151] The primary law degree in the P.R.C. is the bachelor of law. In the fall of 2008 the Shenzhen campus of Peking University started the School of Transnational Law, which offers a U.S.-style education and awards both a Chinese master’s degree and, by special authorization of the government, a J.D.[152]

Hong Kong

The J.D. degree is currently offered at The Chinese University of Hong Kong,[153]The University of Hong Kong,[154] and City University of Hong Kong. The degree is known as the 法律博士 in Chinese, and in Cantonese it is pronounced Faat Leot Bok Si.[155] The J.D. in Hong Kong is almost identical to the LL.B. and is reserved for graduates of non-law disciplines, but the J.D. is considered to be a graduate-level degree and requires a thesis or dissertation.[156] Like the LL.B. there is much scholarly content in the required coursework. Although the universities offering the degree claim that the J.D. is a two-year program, completing the degree in two years would require study during the summer term.[157] The JD is, despite its title, considered to be a master’s degree by the universities that offer it in Hong Kong,[158][159][160] and it is positioned at master’s level in the Hong Kong Qualifications Framework.[161] Neither the LL.B. nor the J.D. provides the education sufficient for a license to practice, as graduates of both are also required to undertake the PCLL course and a solicitor traineeship or a barrister pupillage.[162]

Italy

In Italy the J.D. is known as Laurea Magistrale in Giurisprudenza.[163] In the Bologna process framework, it’s a Master’s-level degree.[164] It comprises 5 years of coursework and a final dissertation.[165] Graduates are awarded the title of “dottore magistrale in giurisprudenza” and are qualified to register to any Italian bar in order to fulfil the 18-months training required to sit the qualification examination.[166]

Japan

In Japan the J.D. is known as Homu Hakushi (法務博士).[167] The program generally lasts three years. Two year J.D. programs for applicants with legal knowledge (mainly undergraduate level law degree holders) are also offered. This curriculum is professionally oriented,[168] but does not provide the education sufficient for a license to practice as an attorney in Japan, as all candidates for a license must have 12 month practical training by the Legal Training and Research Institute after passing the bar examination.[169] Similarly to the US, the Juris Doctor is classed as a “Professional Degree” (専門職) in Japan, which is separate from the “academic” postgraduate sequence of master’s degrees and doctorates.[170][171]

Mexico

To become a licensed lawyer, a person must hold the Licenciado en Derecho degree obtainable by four to five years of academic study and final examination. After these undergraduate studies it is possible to obtain a Maestría degree, equivalent to a master’s degree. This degree requires two to three years of academic studies. Finally, one can study for an additional three years to obtain the Doctor en Derecho degree, which is a research degree at doctoral level.[172] Since most universities and law schools must have approval from the ministry of education (Secretaría de Educación Pública) through the general office of professions (Direccion General de Profesiones) all of the academic programs are similar throughout the country in public and private law schools.

Philippines

In the Philippines, the J.D. exists alongside the more common LL.B. Like the standard LL.B, it requires four years of study, is considered a graduate degree and requires prior undergraduate study as a prerequisite for admission, and covers the core subjects required for the bar examinations. However, the J.D. requires students to finish the core bar subjects in just 2½ years; take elective courses (such as legal theory, philosophy, and sometimes even theology); undergo an apprenticeship; and write and defend a thesis.[173][174]

The degree was first conferred in the Philippines by the Ateneo de Manila Law School, which first developed the model program later adopted by most schools now offering the J.D.. After the Ateneo, schools such as the University of Batangas College of Law, University of St. La Salle – College of Law, and the De La Salle Lipa College of Law[175] began offering the J.D., with schools such as the Far Eastern University Institute of Law offering with De La Salle University’s Ramon V. Del Rosario College of Business for the country’s first J.D. – MBA program.[176] In 2008, the University of the Philippines College of Law began conferring the J.D. on its graduates, the school choosing rename its LL.B. program into a J.D. because to accurately reflect the nature of education the university provides as “nomenclature does not accurately reflect the fact that the LL.B. is a professional as well as a post baccalaureate degree.”[177] In 2009, the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (PLM) and the Silliman University College of Law also shifted their respective LL.B Programs to Juris Doctor -applying the change to incoming freshmen students for School Year 2009–2010.[178][179] The newly established De La Salle University College of Law is likewise offering the J.D., although it will offer the program using a trimestral calendar, unlike the model curriculum that uses a semestral calendar.

Singapore

The degree of Doctor of Jurisprudence (J.D.) is offered at the Singapore Management University (SMU), and it is treated as a qualifying law degree for the purposes of admission to the legal profession in Singapore.[116] A graduate of this programme is a “qualified person” under Singapore’s legislation governing entry to the legal profession, and is eligible for admission to the Singapore Bar.[180]

However, like its counterpart the Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.), whether obtained from the National University of Singapore, Singapore Management University or recognised overseas universities (“approved universities”),[181] the SMU J.D. is not in itself sufficient for entry into the Singapore legal profession. Qualified persons are still required to fulfill other criteria for admission to the Singapore Bar, most importantly being the completion of Part B of the Singapore Bar Examinations, and completion of the Practice Training Contract.[182]

United Kingdom

The Quality Assurance Agency consulted in 2014 on the inclusion of “Juris Doctor” in the UK Framework for Higher Education Qualifications as an exception to the rule that “doctor” should only be used by doctoral degrees. It was proposed that the Juris Doctor would be an award at bachelor level and would not confer the right to use the title “doctor”.[183][184] This was not incorporated into the final framework published in 2014.[185]

The only JD degree currently awarded by a UK university is at Queen’s University Belfast. This is a 3–4 year degree specified as being a professional doctorate at the doctoral qualifications level in the UK framework, sitting above the LLM and including a 30,000 word dissertation demonstrating the “creation and interpretation of new knowledge, through original research or other advanced scholarship, of a quality to satisfy peer review, extend the forefront of the discipline, and merit publication” that must be passed in order to gain the degree.[186][187]

Joint LLB/JD courses for a very limited number of students are offered by University College London, King’s College London and the London School of Economics in collaboration with Columbia University in the US, which is responsible for the award of the JD. These are four-year undergraduate courses leading to the award of both a British LLB and a US JD.[188][189][190]

Both the University of Southampton and the University of Surrey offer two-year graduate-entry LLBs described as “JD Pathway” degrees, which are aimed particularly at Canadian students.[191][192]

In academia

As a professional doctorate, the Juris Doctor is the degree that prepares the recipient to enter the law profession (as do the M.D. or D.O. in the medical profession and the D.D.S in the dental profession). While the J.D. is the sole degree necessary to become a professor of law or to obtain a license to practice law, it (like the M.D., D.O, or D.D.S.) is not a “research degree”.[193] Research degrees in the study of law include the Master of Laws (LL.M.), which ordinarily requires the J.D. as a prerequisite,[194] and the Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D./J.S.D.), which ordinarily requires the LL.M. as a prerequisite.[194] However, the American Bar Association has issued a Council Statement,[195] advising law schools that the J.D. should be considered equivalent to the Ph.D. for educational employment purposes. Accordingly, while most law professors are required to conduct original writing and research in order to be awarded tenure, the majority have a J.D. as their highest degree. Research in 2015 showed an increasing trend toward hiring professors with both J.D. and Ph.D. degrees, particularly at more highly ranked schools.[196] Professor Kenneth K. Mwenda criticized the Council’s statement, pointing out that it compares the J.D. only to the taught component of the US Ph.D., ignoring the research and dissertation components.[197]

The United States Department of Education and the National Science Foundation do not include the J.D. or other professional doctorates among the degrees that are equivalent to research doctorates.[198] Among legal degrees, they accord this status only to the Doctor of Juridical Science degree.[198] In Europe, the European Research Council follows a similar policy, stating that a first professional degree carrying the title “doctor” is not considered equivalent to a PhD.[199] The Dutch and Portuguese National Academic Recognition Information Centres both classify the US J.D. (along with other first professional degrees) as equivalent to a master’s degree,[200][201] although the National Qualifications Authority of Ireland states with respect to US practice that “The ‘1st professional degree’ is a
first degree, not a graduate degree even though it incorporates the word ‘doctor’ in the title”[202] and Commonwealth countries also often consider the US J.D. equivalent to a bachelor’s degree.[203] The U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services has advised that while the J.D. is likely not equivalent to a Ph.D., it is “equivalent to, if not higher than, a master’s degree”.[204]

Use of the title “Doctor”

Presumably because it did not entirely replace the L.L.B. for new graduates until 1971, it has not been customary in the U.S. to address holders of the J.D. as “doctor”. It was noted in the 1920s, when the title was widely used by people with doctorates (even those that, at the time, were undergraduate qualifications) and others, that the J.D. stood out from other doctorates in this respect.[205] This continues to be the case in general today.[206]

In the late 1960s, the rising number of American law schools awarding J.D.s led to debate over whether lawyers could ethically use the title “Doctor”. Initial informal ethics opinions, based on the Canons of Professional Ethics then in force, came down against this.[207][208] These were then reinforced with a full ethics opinion that maintained the ban on using the title in legal practice as a form of self-laudation (except when dealing with countries where the use of “Doctor” by lawyers was standard practice), but allowed the use of the title in academia “if the school of graduation thinks of the J.D. degree as a doctor’s degree”.[209] These opinions led to further debate.[210][211] The introduction of the new Code of Professional Responsibility in 1969 seemed to settle the question – in states where this was adopted – in favour of allowing the use of the title.[212] There was some dispute over whether only the Ph.D.-level Doctor of Juridical Science should properly be seen as granting the title,[213] but ethics opinions made it clear that the new Code allowed J.D.-holders to be called “Doctor”, while reaffirming that the older Canons did not.[214]

As not all state bars adopted the new Code and some omitted the clause permitting the use of the title, confusion over whether lawyers could ethically use the title “Doctor” continued.[215] While many state bars now allow the use of the title, some prohibit its use where there is any chance of confusing the public about a lawyer’s actual qualifications (e.g. if the public might be left with the impression that the lawyer is also a medical doctor).[216] There has been discussion on whether it is permissible in some other limited instances. For example, in June 2006, the Florida Bar Board of Governors ruled that a lawyer could refer to himself as a “doctor en leyes” (doctor in laws) in a Spanish-language advertisement, reversing an earlier decision.[217] The decision was reversed again in July 2006, when the board voted to only allow the names of degrees to appear in the language used on the diploma, without translation.[218]

The Wall Street Journal notes specifically in its stylebook that “Lawyers, despite their J.D. degrees, aren’t called doctor, although the title is often used (if preferred) for holders of the Ed.D., D.D.S., D.O., M.D., O.D., and Ph.D.[219] Many other newspapers reserve the title for physicians[220] or do not use titles at all.[221] In 2011, Mother Jones published an article claiming that Michele Bachmann was misrepresenting her qualifications by using the “bogus” title Dr. based on her J.D. They later amended the article to note that the use of the title by lawyers “is a (begrudgingly) accepted practice in some states and not in others”, although they maintained that it was rarely used as it “suggests that you’re a medical doctor or a Ph.D.—and therefore conveys a false level of expertise”.[222]

See also

  • Bachelor of Civil Law (B.C.L., LL.B., or LL.L.)
  • Bachelor of Laws (LL.B)
  • Doctor of Canon Law (J.C.D.)
  • Doctor of Juridical Science (J.S.D. or S.J.D.)
  • Doctor of Laws (LL.D)
  • Master of Laws (LL.M)
  • Legal education
  • Admission to practice law
  • Accelerated JD program
  • Law degree
  • Law school in the United States — describes general characteristics of the J.D. curriculum in the U.S.
  • Lawyer

Notes and references

  1. ^ University of California, Berkeley. “General Catalog – Graduate Education – Graduate Degrees and Certificates”. Archived from the original on 2008-05-21. Retrieved 2008-05-25..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ University of Southern California (1995). “Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs”. Archived from the original on 2008-04-22. Retrieved 2008-05-25.
  3. ^ ab University of Melbourne. “About Use – The Melbourne JD”. Retrieved 2008-05-26.
  4. ^ U.S. Department of Education (2008). “USNEI-Structure of U.S. Education – Graduate/Post Education Levels”. Archived from the original on 2007-12-14. Retrieved 2008-05-25.
  5. ^ College Blue Book (1999). Degrees Offered by College and Subject. New York: MacMillan. p. 817.
  6. ^ National Science Foundation (2006). “Time to Degree of U.S. Research Doctorate Recipients”. InfoBrief, Science Resource Statistics. NSF. 06-312: 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-08. Under “Data notes” this article mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.
  7. ^ San Diego County Bar Association (1969). “Ethics Opinion 1969-5”. Archived from the original on 2003-04-11. Retrieved 2008-05-26. Under “other references” differences between academic and professional doctorates, and contains a statement that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.
  8. ^ University of Utah (2006). “University of Utah – The Graduate School – Graduate Handbook”. Archived from the original on 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2008-05-28.
  9. ^ ab “AQF qualification titles” (PDF). Australian Qualifications Framework Council. June 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  10. ^ Kirsten McMahon (January 2008). “Making the grade” (PDF). Canadian Lawyer. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-22. Retrieved 2015-07-07.
  11. ^ Lisa Jemison; Rosel Kim (29 November 2007). “A law degree by any other name”. Queen’s Journal. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
  12. ^ “Admissions”. Faculty of Law. University of Toronto. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
  13. ^ “Juris Doctor Program”. Faculty of Law Calendar 2011-2012 Academic Year. Queen’s University. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
  14. ^ ab “Canadian Degree Qualifications Framework” (PDF). Ministerial Statement on Quality Assurance of Degree Education in Canada. Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. Retrieved 2016-09-16. Programs with a professional focus … Some of them are first-entry programs, others are second-entry programs … Though considered to be bachelor’s programs in academic standing, some professional programs yield degrees with other nomenclature. Examples: DDS (Dental Surgery), MD (Medicine), LLB, or JD (Juris Doctor)
  15. ^ Association of American Universities Data Exchange. “Glossary of Terms for Graduate Education”. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
  16. ^ German Federal Ministry of Education. “U.S. Higher Education / Evaluation of the Almanac Chronicle of Higher Education” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 13, 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-26. Report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analysing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate.
  17. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. 2002. p. 962:1a.
  18. ^ ab Stevens, R. (1971). “Two Cheers For 1870: The American Law School”, in Law in American History, eds. Donald Fleming and Bernard Bailyn. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1971, p. 427.
  19. ^ University of Washington School of Law. “JD Program & Policies”. Retrieved 2008-09-02.
  20. ^ Russo, Eugene (2004). “The Changing Length of PhDs”. Nature. 431 (7006): 382–383. doi:10.1038/nj7006-382a. PMID 15372047. Retrieved 2008-09-02.
  21. ^ “North Carolina Board of Law Examiners |NCBLE 919-848-4229”. Ncble.org. 2017-03-20. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  22. ^ itembridge.com. “VBBE – Welcome”. Barexam.virginia.gov. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  23. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2010-09-14. Retrieved 2010-09-24.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ “Bole- Official Page New York State Bar Examination”. Nybarexam.org. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  25. ^ “JD”. Oxford Living Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
  26. ^ “Doctor of Jurisprudence”. University of Texas. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  27. ^ “Doctor of Jurisprudence”. Stanford University. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  28. ^ “Higher doctorates”. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  29. ^ García y García, A. (1992). “The Faculties of Law,” A History of the University in Europe, London: Cambridge University Press. Accessed May 26, 2008.
  30. ^ Noble, Keith Allen (1992). An International Prognostic Study, Based on an Acquisition Model, of Degree Philosophiae Doctor (Ph. D.) (PDF) (Ph.D.). University of Ottawa. p. 18.
  31. ^ Some sources have the first doctorates in theology at Paris being awarded prior to the doctorates in law at Bologna.[30]
  32. ^ Verger, J. (1999). “Licentia”. Lexikon des Mittelalters. Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler. 5.
  33. ^ Verger, J. (1999). “Doctor, doctoratus”. Lexikon des Mittelalters. Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler. 3.
  34. ^ de Ridder-Symoens, Hilde: A History of the University in Europe: Volume 1, Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992,
    ISBN 0-521-36105-2
  35. ^ Herbermann, et al. (1915). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Encyclopedia Press. Accessed May 26, 2008.
  36. ^ Stein (1981), 434, 435.
  37. ^ Stein (1981), 434, 436.
  38. ^ abc Stein (1981), 436.
  39. ^ Stein, R. (1981). The Path of Legal Education from Edward to Langdell: A History of Insular Reaction, Pace University School of Law Faculty Publications, 1981, 57 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 429, p. 430.
  40. ^ Stein (1981), 431.
  41. ^ Stein (1981), 432.
  42. ^ Stein (1981), 433.
  43. ^ Stein (1981), 434.
  44. ^ ab Stein (1981), 435.
  45. ^ Moline, Brian J., Early American Legal Education, 42 Washburn Law Journal 775, 793 (2003).
  46. ^ 1 & 2 George IV. c. 48. 8 June 1821.
  47. ^ 1 Vict. c. 56. 15 July 1837.
  48. ^ 14 & 15 Vict. c. LXXXVIII. 7 August 1851.
  49. ^ Oxford University Calendar. 1833.
  50. ^ Durham University Calendar. 1844.
  51. ^ London University Calendar. 1845.
  52. ^ Cambridge University Calendar. 1833.
  53. ^ Peter Searby. A History of the University of Cambridge:, Volume 3; Volumes 1750-1870. Cambridge University Press. pp. 187–190.
  54. ^ “The Solicitors’ Journal”. 1865-04-29.
  55. ^ “Cambridge”. Norwich Mercury. 1858-10-20 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)).
  56. ^ University of London Calendar. 1866. p. 95.
  57. ^ “LLM”. Cambridge University Faculty of Law. Archived from the original on 2007-11-02.
  58. ^ ab John H. Langbein (1996). “Scholarly and Professional Objectives in Legal Education: American Trends and English Comparisons” (PDF). Pressing Problems in the Law, Volume 2: What are Law Schools For?. Oxford University Press.
  59. ^ Moline (2003), 775.
  60. ^ Stein (1981), 429.
  61. ^ Stein (1981), 438.
  62. ^ ab Stein (1981), 439.
  63. ^ Moline (2003), 781.
  64. ^ abc Moline (2003), 782.
  65. ^ Moline (2003), 782 and 783.
  66. ^ Sonsteng, J. (2007). “A Legal Education Renaissance: A Practical Approach for the Twenty-First Century”. William Mitchell Law Review, Vol. 34, No. 1, Revised April 2, 2008. Accessed May 26, 2008. page 13.
  67. ^ Stein (1981).
  68. ^ Stein (1981), 442.
  69. ^ Kirkwood, M. and Owens, W. A Brief History of the Stanford Law School, 1893–1946 Archived 2012-04-07 at the Wayback Machine., Stanford University School of Law. Accessed May 26, 2008.
  70. ^ Moline (2003), 794.
  71. ^ Moline (2003), 795.
  72. ^ Kirkwood, 19.
  73. ^ ab Sonsteng (2007), 15.
  74. ^ ab Moline (2003), p. 798.
  75. ^ Moline (2003), p. 800.
  76. ^ ab Moline (2003), p. 801.
  77. ^ Ralph Michael Stein (1981). “The Path of Legal Education from Edward to Langdell: A History of Insular Reaction”. Chicago-Kent Law Review. 57 (2): 445.
  78. ^ William P. LaPiana (1994). Logic and Experience: The Origin of Modern American Legal Education]. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  79. ^ Ralph Michael Stein (1981). “The Path of Legal Education from Edward to Langdell: A History of Insular Reaction”. Chicago-Kent Law Review. 57 (2): 449–450.
  80. ^ For detailed discussions of the development of Langdell’s method, see LaPiana (1994)[78] and Stein (1981)[79]
  81. ^ Ellis, D. (2001). “Legal Education: A Perspective on the Last 130 Years of American Legal Training”. Washington University Journal of Law & Policy. 6: 166.
  82. ^ Moline (2003), p. 802.
  83. ^ Sonsteng (2007), p. 19.
  84. ^ Reed, A. (1921). Training for the Public Profession of the Law. Carnegie’s Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 15. Boston: Merrymount Press. p. 162.
  85. ^ ab Reed, A. (1921). Training for the Public Profession of the Law. Carnegie’s Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 15. Boston: Merrymount Press. p. 165.
  86. ^ Reed, A. (1921). Training for the Public Profession of the Law. Carnegie’s Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 15. Boston: Merrymount Press. p. 164.
  87. ^ Reed, A. (1921). Training for the Public Profession of the Law. Carnegie’s Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 15. Boston: Merrymount Press. p. 167.
  88. ^ Reed, A. (1921). Training for the Public Profession of the Law. Carnegie’s Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 15. Boston: Merrymount Press. p. 161.
  89. ^ Alfred Zantzinger Reed. Present-day Law Schools in the United States and Canada. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 21. Boston: Merrymount Press.
  90. ^ Alfred Zantzinger Reed. Present-day Law Schools in the United States and Canada. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 21. Boston: Merrymount Press. p. 78.
  91. ^ Alfred Zantzinger Reed. Present-day Law Schools in the United States and Canada. Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 21. Boston: Merrymount Press. p. 74.
  92. ^ Reed, A. (1921). Training for the Public Profession of the Law. Carnegie’s Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 15. Boston: Merrymount Press. p. 169.
  93. ^ Harno, A. (2004) Legal Education in the United States, New Jersey: Lawbook Exchange, page 50.
  94. ^ William Roscoe Thayer; William Richards Castle; Mark Antony De Wolfe Howe; Arthur Stanwood Pier; Bernard Augustine De Voto; Theodore Morrison (1902). “Shall the degree be J. D. instead of LL. B.”. The Harvard graduates’ magazine. Harvard Graduates’ Magazine Association. pp. 555–556. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  95. ^ Herbermann, 112–117.
  96. ^ David Perry, “How Did Lawyers Become ‘Doctors’?”, New York State Bar Journal, June 2012, 20 at p. 21, available at Heinonline (login required).
  97. ^ David Perry, “How Did Lawyers Become ‘Doctors’?”, New York State Bar Journal, June 2012, 20 at pp. 22-23, available at Heinonline (login required); see also “What is the difference between the LL.B. degree and the J.D.degree?”. asklib.law.harvard.edu. Retrieved 26 August 2012.; Schoenfeld, M. (1963). “J.D. or LL.B as the Basic Law Degree”, Cleveland-Marshall Law Review, Vol. 4, pp. 573–579, quoted in Joanna Lombard, LL.B. to J.D. and the Professional Degree in Architecture Archived 2014-10-14 at the Wayback Machine., Proceedings of the 85th ACSA Annual Meeting, Architecture: Material and Imagined and Technology Conference, 1997. pp. 585–591.
  98. ^ “Graduate Program | Harvard Law School”. Law.harvard.edu. 2014-06-23. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  99. ^ “Graduate Legal Studies”. Columbia Law School. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  100. ^ “Graduate Programs – Yale Law School”. Law.yale.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  101. ^ “Joint Announcement”. The Law Society and the General Council of the Bar. 1999. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  102. ^ “Bar Professional Training Course”. Bar Standards Board. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  103. ^ “Pupillage”. Bar Standards Board. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  104. ^ “Legal Practice Course (LPC)”. Solicitors Regulation Authority. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  105. ^ “Period of recognised training”. Solicitors Regulation Authority. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  106. ^ “Qualifying law degree providers”. Solicitors Regulation Authority. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  107. ^ “Law – Senior Status”. Queen Mary, University of London. Archived from the original on 2016-09-25. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
  108. ^ “Exempting law degree providers”. Solicitors Regulation Authority. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  109. ^ “MLaw”. Northumbria University. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  110. ^ Reed (1921), 27.
  111. ^ ab Reed (1928), 390.
  112. ^ See, Langbein (1996).
  113. ^ abc “Peter A. Allard School of Law | UBC Board of Governors Approves Request for LL.B. (Bachelor of Laws) degree to be renamed J.D. (Juris Doctor)”. Law.ubc.ca. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  114. ^ Verification of the data in this table can be found in the subsequent paragraphs of this section.
  115. ^ “No” as originally introduced, but the JD is now at master’s degree level
  116. ^ ab “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2014-01-01.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  117. ^ Hall, J. (1907). American Law School Degrees, Michigan Law Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 112–117.
  118. ^ [1]
  119. ^ “Admission Requirements – Trinity Law School”. Lawschool.tiu.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  120. ^ “Applying Without a Bachelor’s Degree”. Cooley.edu. Archived from the original on 2017-05-02. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  121. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2016-01-19. Retrieved 2016-01-04.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  122. ^ “Writing Requirements | NYU School of Law”. Law.nyu.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  123. ^ David Perry (June 2012). “HOW DID LAWYERS BECOME “DOCTORS”? FROM THE LL.B. TO THE J.D.” (PDF). New York State Bar Association Journal. New York State Bar Association.
  124. ^ Belford, T. (2009). “Why Change to a J.D. Degree? Archived 2011-06-20 at the Wayback Machine.
  125. ^ University of Toronto J.D. admissions FAQ [2] Archived 2012-05-28 at the Wayback Machine..
  126. ^ Belford, T. (2009). “Why Change to a J.D. Degree? Archived 2011-06-20 at the Wayback Machine. Globe Campus. Accessed August 24, 2009.
  127. ^ idem
  128. ^ “Unsw Jd | Law”. Law.unsw.edu.au. 2017-04-07. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  129. ^ “The Sydney Juris Doctor (JD) – Future Students – The University of Sydney”. Sydney.edu.au. 2017-03-30. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  130. ^ “The ANU Juris Doctor – ANU College of Law – ANU”. Law.anu.edu.au. 2015-08-10. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  131. ^ “The Melbourne JD (Juris Doctor) : Melbourne Law School”. Law.unimelb.edu.au. AU. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  132. ^ “A decade into the Melbourne Model, young graduates give their assessment”. Smh.com.au. 2015-10-04. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  133. ^ “Careers Guide” (PDF). Suls.org.au. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  134. ^ “Addendum to AQF Second Edition January 2013: Amended Qualification Type: Masters Degree” (PDF). Australian Qualifications Framework Council. May 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  135. ^ “Dean Patrick Monahan on the Growing Number of Canadian Law Schools Switching from the LLB to JD Degree Designation”. Osgoode Law School. May 2012. Archived from the original on June 10, 2008.
  136. ^ “First Year Admission Standards”. Queen’s University. Archived from the original on 2009-07-15. Retrieved 2009-07-15.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  137. ^ “Admission”. University of Calgary. Archived from the original on 2007-12-10. Retrieved 2007-12-10.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  138. ^ “Osgoode Hall Law School – JD Program – Degree Requirements – First Year Courses”. Osgoode.yorku.ca. Archived from the original on 2011-07-21. Retrieved 2011-08-25.
  139. ^ “Bachelor of Law Degree Programs in Canada”. Canadian-universities.net. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  140. ^ “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-07-05. Retrieved 2009-09-11.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  141. ^ “University of Toronto – Faculty of Law: Prospective Students”. Law.utoronto.ca. Archived from the original on 2011-08-28. Retrieved 2011-08-25.
  142. ^ NYU Law Archived 2009-12-11 at the Wayback Machine.. Law.nyu.edu. Retrieved on 2013-07-15.
  143. ^ “Foreign Legal Education”. Nybarexam.org. 2011-04-27. Retrieved 2011-08-25.
  144. ^ [3][dead link]
  145. ^ “University of Windsor – JD/LLB – Welcome”. Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2008-02-16. Retrieved 2017-04-17.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  146. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2008-06-02.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  147. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2008-05-18. Retrieved 2008-06-19.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  148. ^ University of Montreal J.D. (Programme No 2-328-1-1) Accessed December 31, 2013.
  149. ^ “Diplôme (Juris Doctor) – Faculté de droit – Université de Sherbrooke”. Usherbrooke.ca. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  150. ^ “September senate”. York University. 10 October 2002. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  151. ^ “Regulations of the People’s Republic of China on Academic Degrees (2004)”. P.R.C. National People’s Congress. 28 August 2005. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011.
  152. ^ “Circular authorizing Peking University to offer the international Fa Lv Shuo Shi on a trial basis” (PDF). Academic Degree Commission of the State Council of the People’s Republic of China. 27 August 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 July 2011.
  153. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2013-12-26. Retrieved 2013-12-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  154. ^ The University of Hong Kong. Juris Doctor (JD) Overview Archived 2008-12-02 at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed December 15, 2008.
  155. ^ The Chinese University of Hong Kong School of Law. The Juris Doctor (JD) Programme Archived 2007-12-30 at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed June 29, 2008. City University of Hong Kong. Programmes and Courses: Juris Doctor Archived 2007-12-24 at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed June 29, 2008.
  156. ^ The University of Hong Kong. Juris Doctor (JD) Overview Archived 2008-12-02 at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed December 15, 2008. The Chinese University of Hong Kong. JD Programme Structure Archived 2008-07-03 at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed June 29, 2008. City University of Hong Kong. Academic Programmes: Juris Doctor Archived 2008-04-13 at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed June 29, 2008.
  157. ^ The University of Hong Kong. Juris Doctor (JD) Overview Archived 2008-12-02 at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed December 15, 2008. The Chinese University of Hong Kong. The Juris Doctor (JD) Programme: Courses and Recommended Sequences Archived 2008-06-10 at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed June 29, 2008. City University of Hong Kong. Academic Programmes: Juris Doctorate Archived 2007-12-24 at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed June 29, 2008. (The City University website says at the top of the page that it is a two-year program, then later on the same page, and on other pages in the site, says that “normally, full-time J.D. students can complete the programme in 3 years.”)
  158. ^ “FAQ: JURIS DOCTOR (JD)”. CUHK Law. Chinese University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 2016-09-16. Is the JD Programme a doctoral or a master’s degree?
    The JD Programme is formally classified as a taught master’s degree programme and it is not customary for JD graduates to use the title “Doctor”
  159. ^ “Masters Degrees”. Calendar 2016–2017. University of Hong Kong. Archived from the original on 2016-09-21. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  160. ^ “Juris Doctor (JD) – Information for entrants to be admitted in 2013-14 & thereafter”. School of Law. City University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 2016-09-16. Although the award has the word ‘Doctor’ in its title, this is a traditional usage and it is not generally regarded as equivalent to the PhD degree or other doctoral awards. It is a first law degree for students who are already graduates in a non-law discipline.
  161. ^ “Qualifications Framework: Award Titles Scheme” (PDF). Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
    8. Providers may continue to adopt titles traditionally used for degree and sub-degree qualifications in the mainstream education (i.e. Associate at Level 4, Bachelor at Level 5, Master at Level 6, and Doctor at Level 7).
    9. The following qualifications currently offered by the university sector are recognised globally. These award titles will continue to be recognised under QF although they do not conform to ATS:
    * Juris Doctor (JD) at QF Level 6
  162. ^ Hong Kong Bar Association. General Admission Archived 2008-06-03 at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed June 1, 2008.
  163. ^ “Degree Programmes – School of Law”. www.law.unibo.it. Retrieved 2018-09-14.
  164. ^ “MIUR – Università”. www.miur.it. Retrieved 2018-09-14.
  165. ^ “Degree Programmes – School of Law”. www.law.unibo.it. Retrieved 2018-09-14.
  166. ^ “Consiglio Nazionale Forense – L. 247/2012 Riforma dell’ordinamento professionale forense”.
  167. ^ Justice System Reform Council (2001). For a Justice System to Support Japan in the 21st Century.
  168. ^ Yokohama National University Law School.Program Introduction and Dean’s Message Archived 2009-09-10 at the Wayback Machine.. Accessed April 7, 2008.
  169. ^ Foote, D. (2005). Justice System Reform in Japan. Annual meeting of the Research of Sociology of Law, Paris. European Network on Law and Society.
  170. ^ “Degree Regulations of Nagoya University”. Nagoya University. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  171. ^ “Kobe University Degree Regulations” (PDF). Kobe University. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
    [permanent dead link]
  172. ^ “Doctorado en Derecho”. UNAM. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
    [permanent dead link]
  173. ^ “| Ateneo de Manila University”. Ateneolaw.ateneo.edu. 2017-02-10. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  174. ^ “Ateneo de Manila Law School – Philippine Leadership Crisis and the J.D. Program”. Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 2008-05-08. Retrieved 2017-04-17.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  175. ^ Jerwin Lasin. “De La Salle Lipa College of Law”. Dlsl.edu.ph. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  176. ^ Curriculum models (2006). Philippine Association of Law Schools.
  177. ^ University of Philippines College of Law. News Archived 2008-05-31 at the Wayback Machine.. April 25, 2008.
  178. ^ The Weekly Sillimanian Vol. LXXXII No.4: SU Law adopts Juris Doctor Program. By: Princess Dianne Kris S. Decierdo. Published July 15, 2009. Archived copies can be viewed and verified at the Sillimaniana Section of the Silliman University Main Library.
  179. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2009-07-08. Retrieved 2009-07-14.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  180. ^ Rule 5A, Legal Profession (Qualified Persons) Rules (Cap. 161, s.2(2)) [4], Ministry of Law (Singapore), Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  181. ^ List of approved universities Archived 2014-02-22 at the Wayback Machine., Ministry of Law (Singapore), Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  182. ^ What admission requirements must I fulfill? Archived 2014-02-14 at Archive.is, Ministry of Law (Singapore), Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  183. ^ “UK Quality Code for Higher Education Part A: Setting and maintaining academic standards The frameworks for higher education qualifications of UK degree-awarding bodies Post consultation draft (v4)” (PDF). QAA. August 2014. pp. 34 & 35. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-01-10. Comment [s4]: Footnote as follows will need to be added depending on decision re the JD:
    •the award of a Juris Doctor is an exception to the principle that the title doctor should only be used for qualifications meeting the qualification descriptor for FHEQ level 8/SCQF level 12 on the FQHEIS in full
    •the Juris Doctor is not a doctoral qualification at level 8 of the FHEQ/SQCF level 12 but at level 6 of the FHEQ/SCQF level 10 on the FQHEIS (with some modules at level 7 of the FHEQ/SCQF level 11 on the FQHEIS)
    •holders of the qualification are not entitled to use the title Dr.
  184. ^ “CONSULTATION ON THE UK QUALITY CODE FOR HIGHER EDUCATION, PART A: SETTING AND MAINTAINING ACADEMIC STANDARDS, THE UK FRAMEWORKS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION QUALIFICATIONS” (PDF). University of Ulster Learning and Teaching Committee. 18 June 2014. p. 6.
  185. ^ “The Frameworks for Higher Education Qualifications of UK Degree-Awarding Bodies” (PDF). QAA. October 2014. Retrieved August 4, 2018
  186. ^ “Programme Specification (2015-16)” (PDF). Queens University Belfast. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  187. ^ “Study regulations for research degree programmes”. Queens University Belfast. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  188. ^ “Joint LLB/Juris Doctor (JD) with Columbia University, New York”. University College London. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  189. ^ “English Law & American Law LLB and JD”. King’s College London. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  190. ^ “Double Degree Programme: Columbia Law School”. London School of Economics. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  191. ^ “M101 LLB Accelerated Graduate Programme (2 yrs)”. University of Southampton. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
  192. ^ “Law (JD Pathway) LLB (Hons) – 2017 entry”. University of Surrey. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
  193. ^ Kenneth Kaoma Mwenda, Gerry Nkombo Muuka (eds.), “The Challenge of Change in Africa’s Higher Education in the 21st Century”, Cambria Press (2009) [5]; see esp. Mwenda’s comments on pp. 87–88, in the section labeled “The Academic Rank of a JD” and the quoted material from Pappas immediately preceding it.
  194. ^ ab “LL.M. Admission – Yale Law School”. Law.yale.edu. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  195. ^ “Council Statements” (PDF). Abanet.org. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  196. ^ Orin Kerr (October 22, 2015). “The rise of the Ph.D. law professor”. Washington Post.
  197. ^ Kenneth K. Mwenda (2007). Comparing American and British Legal Education Systems: Lessons for Commonwealth African Law Schools. Cambria Press. pp. 21–22.
  198. ^ ab “Structure of the U.S. Education System : Research Doctorate Degrees”. 2.ed.gov. Archived from the original (DOC) on 2012-01-27. Retrieved 2017-04-17.
  199. ^ “PhD and Equivalent Doctoral Degrees: The ERC Policy” (PDF). European Research Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-06. Retrieved 2013-05-25. First-professional degrees will not be considered in themselves as PhD-equivalent, even if recipients carry the title “Doctor”.
  200. ^ “Recognition of Qualifications” (PDF). NARIC Portugal. p. 49. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  201. ^ “The American education system described and compared with the Dutch system” (PDF). NUFFIC. p. 3. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  202. ^ “Review of Professional Doctorates” (PDF). National Qualifications Authority of Ireland. October 2006. p. 3. Retrieved 18 September 2016.
  203. ^ Kenneth K. Mwenda (2007). Comparing American and British Legal Education Systems: Lessons for Commonwealth African Law Schools. Cambria Press. p. 27.
  204. ^ Michael Aytes (2 May 2006). “AFM Update: Chapter 31: H-1B Cap Exemption for Aliens Holding a Master’s or Higher Degree from a U.S. Institution. (AD06-24)” (PDF). U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  205. ^ A. L. Crabbe (March 1925). “Who Is a Doctor?”. Peabody Journal of Education. 2 (5): 268–273. JSTOR 1487677.
  206. ^ Robert Hickey. “How to Address an Attorney or Lawyer In the United States”. Protocol School of Washington.
  207. ^ “Summaries of Informal Opinions of the Standing Committee on Professional Ethics”. American Bar Association Journal. 54 (7): 657. July 1968. JSTOR 25724462. 1001. A lawyer holding a J.D. degree may not ethically use, either orally or in print, the title “Doctor” professionally or socially.
  208. ^ “Summaries of Informal Opinions of the Standing Committee on Professional Ethics”. American Bar Association Journal. 55 (6): 589. June 1969. JSTOR 25724818.
  209. ^ “Opinions of the Committee on Professional Ethics”. American Bar Association Journal. 55 (5): 451–453. May 1969. JSTOR 25724785.
  210. ^ David Hittner (June 1969). “The Juris “Doctor”—A Question of Ethics?”. American Bar Association Journal. 55 (7): 663–665. JSTOR 25724845.
  211. ^ William H. Shields (June 1969). “Don’t Call Me Doctor“. American Bar Association Journal. 55 (20): 960–963. JSTOR 25724927.
  212. ^ “Views of our Readers – Editor’s Note”. American Bar Association Journal. 55 (11): 1024. November 1969. JSTOR 25724947.
  213. ^ S. C. Yuter (August 1971). “Revisting the “Doctor” Debate”. American Bar Association Journal. 57 (8): 790–892. JSTOR 25725564.
  214. ^ “Summaries of Informal Opinions of the Standing Committee on Professional Ethics”. American Bar Association Journal. 56 (8): 750. August 1970. JSTOR 25725213.
  215. ^ Kathleen Maher (November 2006). “LAWYERS ARE DOCTORS, TOO: But There is No Clear Ethics Rule on Whether They May Say So”. American Bar Association Journal. 92 (11): 24. JSTOR 27846360.
  216. ^ S.A.P. (Mar 1, 2013). “Trust me, I’m a doctor of law”. The Economist.
  217. ^ Gary Blankenship (July 1, 2006). “Debate over ‘doctor of law’ title continues”. The Florida Bar News.
  218. ^ Gary Blankenship (August 15, 2006). “Bar board settles Dr. of Law debate”. The Florida Bar News.
  219. ^ Paul Martin (15 June 2010). The Wall Street Journal Guide to Business Style and Us. Simon and Schuster. p. 72.
  220. ^ Robin Abcarian (February 2, 2009). “Hi, I’m Jill. Jill Biden. But please, call me Dr. Biden”. Los Angeles Times. Newspapers, including The Times, generally do not use the honorific ‘Dr.’ unless the person in question has a medical degree.
  221. ^ “Why Doesn’t the Times Call Condi ‘Dr. Rice’?”. Slate. 27 December 2000. Retrieved 1 May 2017. Most newspapers dispense with such formalities and on second reference call people only by their last names.
  222. ^ Tim Murphy (18 August 2011). “Michele Bachmann Is Not a Doctor”. Mother Jones.

External links