Kekionga

Coordinates: 41°5′19″N 85°7′26″W / 41.08861°N 85.12389°W / 41.08861; -85.12389

Kekionga (meaning “blackberry bush”)[1][2] also known as Kiskakon[3][4] or Pacan’s Village,[5] was the capital of the Miami tribe. It was located at the confluence of the Saint Joseph, Saint Marys and Maumee rivers on the western edge of the Great Black Swamp in present-day Indiana. Over their respective decades of influence from colonial times to after the American Revolution and Northwest Indian Wars, the French, British and Americans all established trading posts and forts at the large village, as it was located on an important portage connecting Lake Erie to the Wabash and Mississippi rivers. The European-American town of Fort Wayne, Indiana started as a settlement around the American Fort Wayne stockade after the War of 1812.

Contents

  • 1 History

    • 1.1 Colonial period
    • 1.2 As part of the Northwest Territory
    • 1.3 Decline
  • 2 See also
  • 3 Notes
  • 4 References

History

Long occupied by successive cultures of indigenous peoples, Kekionga was a large village of the Miami people at the time of European encounter. It became an important trading post for Europeans because it was on the six-mile portage between the Maumee and the Little rivers, which connected Lake Erie to the Wabash River and Mississippi River. Due to the mid-17th century French and Iroquois Wars over the fur trade, most traders believed the route was too dangerous. Following the wars, however, the portage proved to be the shortest route between the French colonies of New France (Canada) and La Louisiane.[6] The area was full of wildlife as it had not been densely inhabited for years.[7]

The Miami at first benefited from trade with the Europeans, who were primarily Canadiens from Quebec. Under Jean Baptiste Bissot, Sieur de Vincennes, the Canadiens established a trading post and fort, first at the St. Joseph River, and later at Kekionga. Vincennes and the Miami developed a strong and enduring friendship.[8]

Kekionga remained a central site for the Miami for several decades; their other villages were more temporary. The large meeting house hosted official tribal councils. However, a smallpox epidemic struck Kekionga in 1733 and people evacuated the village for a year.[9] In a speech at the Treaty of Greenville (1795), Little Turtle called Kekionga “that glorious gate … through which all the good words of our chiefs had to pass from the north to the south, and from the east to the west.”[6]

Colonial period

British merchants, seeking to expand their economic base, convinced some Miami to travel East for trade, in violation of the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht. In 1749, the pro-British La Demoiselle left Kekionga to establish the English trading village of Pickawillany, which grew rapidly. Fighting between pro-French and pro-British villages broke out among the Miami in 1751, as tensions rose in the region. French officials tried to persuade the Miami to return to Kekionga, which was nearer their stronghold of Detroit and harder for the British to reach. Lieutenant Louis Coulon de Villiers was sent to the dilapidated Fort Miamis and given authority to commandeer French voyageurs to construct a new fort, which was finished in 1752.[10] In the same year, the pro-French chief Cold Foot died at Kekionga in another smallpox epidemic. When the French-allied Three Fires Confederacy destroyed Pickawillany, most of the surviving Miami returned to Kekionga, which stopped assisting the French.[11]

After the French and Indian War (1756-1763) ended with the French defeated, France ceded Canada to the British Empire. The Miami of Kekionga became involved in Pontiac’s Rebellion in the spring of 1763, capturing the British garrison and killing the two ranking officers. The following year, Pacanne emerged as the village chief when he spared the life of the captive Captain Thomas Morris and returned him to Detroit. By 1765, Kekionga had accepted the British. Deputy commissioner George Croghan described Kekionga:

The Twightwee Village is situated on both Sides of a River called St. Joseph’s … The Indian Village Consists of about 40 or 50 Cabins besides nine or ten French Houses.[12]

As part of the Northwest Territory

In 1780 during the American Revolutionary War, Kekionga was sacked by a force of French Americans led by Colonel Augustin de la Balme, who planned to take Detroit from the British. A Miami force led by Chief Little Turtle destroyed the French force. The Miami and the European-American traders of Kekionga remained economically tied to the British-held Fort Detroit, even after the British ceded all claims of the Northwest Territory to the new United States following the war in the Treaty of Paris (1783).

In 1790, the Canadian Governor Guy Carleton warned the government in London that the loss of Kekionga would result in grave economic hardships to Detroit. He estimated that Kekionga annually produced 2000 packs of pelts, worth about £24,000 sterling. This was twice the value of the next most important trade area, between Detroit and Lake Huron.[13]

During the winter of 1789/1790, the traders Henry Hay and John Kinzie stayed in Kekionga. Hay kept a daily journal, which recorded their regular routines of drinking, dancing, and parties, as well as weekly Mass. Hay played the flute and Kinzie played the fiddle, which made them popular with the inhabitants of Kekionga. Although Hay and Kinzie stayed primarily in the French-speaking village in Kekionga, they also described some of the Miami villages. They frequently talked with the chiefs Pacanne, Little Turtle, Blue Jacket, and Le Gris, as well as brothers James, George, and Simon Girty, who lived only three miles away.[14]

Map of Kekionga

Later that year during the Northwest Indian Wars, the United States General Josiah Harmar led an invasion of Kekionga. His army counted seven distinct villages in the vicinity of Kekionga, known collectively as “the Miami Towns” or Miamitown.[15] The collected villages of Kekionga had advance knowledge of the army, and most of the people evacuated the area, carrying as many of their food stores as possible. The traders took their trade goods to Fort Detroit, after giving out all their arms and ammunition to the Miami defenders.[16] Major Ebenezer Denny, an officer with the US, drew a map of Kekionga in 1790, which showed a collection of eight distinct villages, surrounded by 500 acres of cornfields.[17][18] The United States army burned some villages and food stores, but was forced to retreat after suffering high casualties in a series of battles with forces led by Little Turtle.

The Miami victories over General Harmar’s army encouraged anti-U.S. sentiment in Kekionga, and Secretary of War Henry Knox decided that a United States fort needed to be built in the area. He ordered the territorial Governor Arthur St. Clair- who had recommended such a fort to Knox in 1790- to attack Kekionga and maintain a presence in the area. That campaign was intercepted long before they reached their destination in what became the Native Americans’ greatest victory over United States forces.[16]

In 1794, the American General Anthony Wayne led his well-trained Legion of the United States toward Kekionga, but turned and marched toward the British-held Fort Miami near modern-day Toledo, Ohio. Following General Wayne’s victory at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, Kekionga’s prominence began to diminish among the Miami. The Legion arrived at Kekionga on 17 September 1794, and Wayne personally selected the site for the new U.S. fort, which was named for him.[19] It was finished by 17 October, and was capable of withstanding 24-pound cannons.[20] Despite their objections, the Miami lost control of the long portage by the Treaty of Greenville (1795), since the Northwest Ordinance passed by Congress guaranteed free use of important portages in the region.[21]

Decline

Seal of Fort Wayne

After the construction of Fort Wayne, Kekionga’s importance to the Miami slowly declined. The Miami village at the Forks of the Wabash (modern Huntington, Indiana) became more prominent.[22] Despite the strong U.S. presence and loss of portage revenue, however, the Miami maintained sovereignty in Kekionga through the War of 1812. Under the Treaty of Ghent in 1814, they were forced to cede this and other central Indiana land in punishment for their not having supported the United States in the war.[23] The site was redeveloped as the city of Fort Wayne, Indiana between 1819 and 1823.

The old name was used for one of the first professional baseball teams, the Fort Wayne Kekiongas. It also appears on Fort Wayne’s city seal.

See also

  • Treaty of Greenville
  • Treaty of Mississinewas

Notes

  1. ^ According to J. Dunn, Jr., the name “usually said to mean “blackberry patch,” or “blackberry bush,” this plant being considered an emblem of antiquity because it sprang up on the sites of old villages. This theory rests on the testimony of Barron, a longtime an old French trader on the Wabash. It is more probable that Kekioqa is a corruption or dialect form of Kiskakon, or Kikakon, which was the original name of the place.” J. P. Dunn, INDIANA: A REDEMPTION FROM SLAVERY New York: HOUGHTON, MIFFLIN AND COMPANY, 1888, 48, Note 1.
  2. ^ Michael McCafferty, an Algonquian and Uto-Aztecan linguist professor at Indiana University, exhaustively examined the etymology of ‘Kekionga’ and dismissed Dunn’s explanation and several others. See the chapter “Trails to Kekionga” in the relevantly titled ‘Native American Place Names of Indiana’ (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2008), esp. p. 76.
  3. ^ Charles R. Poinsatte, Fort Wayne During the Canal Era 1828-1855, Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Bureau, 1969, p. 1
  4. ^ Kiskakon, meaning “cut tail,” was the principal tribe of the Odawa nation. At a very early time, they had a village on the Maumee River. Poinsatte, pg 23, fn 1
  5. ^ Andrew R. L. Cayton, Frontier Indiana (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996; .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
    ISBN 0-253-33048-3), 86.
  6. ^ ab Poinsatte, 1-3
  7. ^ Poinsatte, 4
  8. ^ “Vincennes, Sieur de (Jean Baptiste Bissot),” The Encyclopedia Americana (Danbury, CT: Grolier, 1990), 28:130.
  9. ^ Carter, 66
  10. ^ Barnhart, 100-111
  11. ^ Wheeler-Voegelin, Pg 73 Archived 2008-03-15 at the Wayback Machine..
  12. ^ Rafert, 41
  13. ^ Poinsatte, 17
  14. ^ Poinsatte, 18-19
  15. ^ Poinsatte, 14
  16. ^ ab Poinsatte, 22
  17. ^ Winkler, 14
  18. ^ Denny, Ebenezer (1859). Military Journal of Major Ebenezer Denny, an Officer in the Revolutionary and Indian Wars. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co. Retrieved 11 December 2011.See map, between pages 146 and 147.
  19. ^ Poinsatte, 27
  20. ^ Poinsatte, 28
  21. ^ Poinsatte, 30
  22. ^ Allison, 213
  23. ^ Birzer

References

  • Allison, Harold (1986). The Tragic Saga of the Indiana Indians. Paducah: Turner Publishing Company. ISBN 0-938021-07-9.
  • Barnhart, John D. and Riker, Dorothy L. Indiana to 1816. The Colonial Period. ©1971, Indiana Historical Society.
    ISBN 0-87195-109-6
  • Birzer, Bradley J. French Imperial remnants on the middle ground: The strange case of August de la Balme and Charles Beaubien[permanent dead link]. Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Summer 2000.
  • Carter, Harvey Lewis. The Life and Times of Little Turtle: First Sagamore of the Wabash. ©1987, Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    ISBN 0-252-01318-2.
  • Cayton, Andrew R. L. Frontier Indiana. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.
    ISBN 0-253-33048-3.
  • Edel, Wilbur Kekionga!: the worst defeat in the history of the U. S. Army, 1997.
    ISBN 0-275-95821-3
  • Poinsatte, Charles (1976). Outpost in the Wilderness: Fort Wayne, 1706-1828. Allen County, Fort Wayne Historical Society.
  • Rafert, Stewart The Miami Indians of Indiana: A Persistent People. 1654-1994. ©1996, Indiana Historical Society.
    ISBN 0-87195-111-8
  • Wheeler-Voegelin Dr. Erminie; Blasingham, Dr. Emily J.; and Libby, Dr. Dorothy R. An Anthropological Report on the History of the Miamis, Weas, and Eel River Indians, Vol 1. ©1997. Available online at the Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology website.
  • Winkler, John F. (2011). Wabash 1791: St. Clair’s Defeat; Osprey Campaign Series #240. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84908-676-1.


Richardville House

Chief Jean-Baptiste de Richardville House
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
U.S. National Historic Landmark
Chief Richardville House 5705 Bluffton Road Fort Wayne.JPG

Front of the house
Richardville House is located in Indiana

Richardville House

Show map of Indiana

Richardville House is located in the US

Richardville House

Show map of the US

Location 5705 Bluffton Road, Fort Wayne, Indiana
Coordinates 41°1′53″N 85°9′52″W / 41.03139°N 85.16444°W / 41.03139; -85.16444Coordinates: 41°1′53″N 85°9′52″W / 41.03139°N 85.16444°W / 41.03139; -85.16444
Area 0.8 acres (0.32 ha)
Built 1827
Architect Hann, Hugh; Ballard, A.G.
Architectural style Mid-nineteenth-century revival, I-house
NRHP reference # 97000595[1]
Significant dates
Added to NRHP June 27, 1997
Designated NHL March 2, 2012[2]

The Chief Jean Baptiste de Richardville House was built near Fort Wayne, Indiana, in 1827. Subsidized by the U.S. federal government through the 1826 Treaty of Mississinewas, it is believed to be one of only three treaty houses built east of the Mississippi River. It was designated a National Historic Landmark on March 2, 2012.[2]

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 See also
  • 3 References
  • 4 Further reading
  • 5 External links

History

Chief Richardville, the principal chief of the Miami from 1812 until his death in 1841, signed several treaties with the United States government as it negotiated with the Miami tribe for its eventual removal as a recognized nation. Lands were reserved for Richardville’s personal use, and $600 was provided for the building of a home.

The Richardville House’s architecture reflects both Greek Revival and Federal styles. When completed, using both the government’s and his own funds, Richardville’s Fort Wayne home was the equal in style and grandeur of the homes of prominent white residents of the area at that time. The Allen County-Fort Wayne Historical Society acquired the house in 1991 with money donated by the Foellinger Foundation and the Ropchan Foundation.

Farther south and west lies the trading and meeting place where the Wabash River and the Wabash and Erie Canal intersected in Huntington, Indiana. Here is another home where Richardville lived – a white, two-story Greek Revival filled with period furniture and portraits of the owners. This is also the site where treaties were signed. Today, this house forms the centerpiece of the historic The Forks Of The Wabash park.

See also

  • List of archaeological sites on the National Register of Historic Places in Indiana

References

  1. ^ National Park Service (2009-03-13). “National Register Information System”. National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ ab “Weekly List Of Actions Taken On Properties: 3/12/12 through 3/16/12”. NPS.gov. Retrieved April 30, 2017.

Further reading

Poinsatte, Charles R. (1969). Fort Wayne during the Canal era, 1828-1855: a study of a western community in the middle period of American history. Indiana Historical Bureau. OCLC 00069405.

External links

  • Fort Wayne Historical Society entry


Little River (Indiana)

Confluence of the Wabash and Little Wabash Rivers at Huntington

The Little River is a 22.6-mile-long (36.4 km)[1] stream in Allen and Huntington counties in northeastern Indiana. A tributary of the Wabash River, it is sometimes called the “Little Wabash”, which may cause it to be confused with the Little Wabash River of Illinois. The river drains an area of 287.9 square miles (746 km2).[2]

The Little River follows the Wabash-Erie Channel or “sluiceway,” a remnant of the Maumee Torrent that drained ancient Glacial Lake Maumee at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, and joins the Wabash just west of Huntington.

The Little River is part of the Wabash River Heritage Corridor, created by the Indiana General Assembly in 1991 to commemorate the historic portage that linked the Wabash River watershed with that of Lake Erie.

Its source is located approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) southwest of the Ardmore Knolls neighborhood of Fort Wayne, at 41°1′13″N 85°12′4″W / 41.02028°N 85.20111°W / 41.02028; -85.20111 (source), and its mouth is located in Huntington at 40°52′35″N 85°31′51″W / 40.87639°N 85.53083°W / 40.87639; -85.53083 (mouth),[3] at a park known as the Forks of the Wabash.[4]

See also

  • List of rivers of Indiana

References

  1. ^ U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline data. The National Map Archived 2012-04-05 at WebCite, accessed May 19, 2011
  2. ^ U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset, area data covering Little River watershed, 10-digit Hydrologic Unit Codes 0512010109, 0512010110, and 0512010111. The National Map Archived 2012-04-05 at WebCite, retrieved 2015-10-24
  3. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Little River
  4. ^ Gernand, Jean, and Mary Kelsay. National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: Chief Richardville House and Miami Treaty Grounds. National Park Service, 1978-10, 2.

External links

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX
  • National Weather Service: Little River Hydrograph
  • Little River Wetlands Project
  • Maumee-Wabash Portage: The Glorious Gate
  • Indiana Code: Wabash River Heritage Corridor
  • Wabash River Heritage Corridor Commission
  • Little River confluence with Wabash River: Topographic Map from TopoQuest

Maumee River

Maumee River
Maumee River at Mary Jane Thurston State Park in Grand Rapids, Ohio.jpg

The Maumee River at Grand Rapids, Ohio
refer to caption

Map of the Maumee River watershed
Location
Country United States
States Indiana, Ohio
Cities and towns Fort Wayne, Indiana; New Haven, Indiana; Antwerp, Ohio; Cecil, Ohio; Defiance, Ohio; Florida, Ohio; Napoleon, Ohio; Grand Rapids, Ohio; Waterville, Ohio; Maumee, Ohio; Perrysburg, Ohio; Rossford, Ohio; Toledo, Ohio; Oregon, Ohio
Physical characteristics
Source  
 – location Fort Wayne by the confluence of the St. Joseph and St. Marys
 – coordinates 41°04′58″N 85°07′56″W / 41.0827778°N 85.1322222°W / 41.0827778; -85.1322222 (Maumee River origin)
 – elevation 750 ft (230 m)
Mouth  
 – location
Lake Erie at Toledo
 – coordinates
41°41′58″N 83°27′36″W / 41.6994444°N 83.46°W / 41.6994444; -83.46 (Maumee River mouth)Coordinates: 41°41′58″N 83°27′36″W / 41.6994444°N 83.46°W / 41.6994444; -83.46 (Maumee River mouth)
 – elevation
571 ft (174 m)
Length 137 miles (220 km)
Basin size 6,354 sq mi (16,460 km2)
Discharge  
 – average 5,297 cu ft/s (150.0 m3/s)
Basin features
Progression Northeast
Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX

The Maumee River (pronounced /mɔːˈm/)[1] (Shawnee: Hotaawathiipi;[2]Miami-Illinois: Taawaawa siipiiwi)[3] is a river running from northeastern Indiana into northwestern Ohio and Lake Erie in the United States. It is formed at the confluence of the St. Joseph and St. Marys rivers, where Fort Wayne, Indiana, has developed, and meanders northeastwardly for 137 miles (220 km)[4] through an agricultural region of glacial moraines before flowing into the Maumee Bay of Lake Erie. The city of Toledo is located at the mouth of the Maumee. The Maumee was designated an Ohio State Scenic River on July 18, 1974. The Maumee watershed is Ohio’s breadbasket; it is two-thirds farmland, mostly corn and soybeans. It is the largest watershed of any of the rivers feeding the Great Lakes,[5] and supplies five percent of Lake Erie’s water.[6]

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Natural history
  • 3 Transportation
  • 4 Watershed
  • 5 Islands
  • 6 Walleye run
  • 7 Cities and towns along the river
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 Further reading
  • 11 External links

History

Historically the river was also known as the “Miami” in United States treaties with Native Americans. As early as 1671, French colonists called the river Miami du Lac, or Miami of the Lake (in contrast to the “Miami of the Ohio” or the Great Miami River, called in Miami-Illinois Ahsenisiipi). Maumee is an anglicized spelling of the Ottawa or Odawa name for the Miami tribe, Maamii. The Odawa had a village at the mouth of the Maumee River and occupied other territory in northwestern Ohio.[7]

The Battle of Fallen Timbers, the final battle of the Northwest Indian War, was fought 34 mile (1.2 km) north of the banks of the Maumee River. After this decisive victory for General Anthony Wayne, Native Americans ceded a twelve mile square tract around Perrysburg and Maumee to the United States by the Treaty of Greenville in 1795.[8] Lands north of the river and downstream of Defiance were ceded in the 1807 Treaty of Detroit,[9] and the rest of the Maumee River valley was ceded in the 1817 Treaty of Fort Meigs.[10]

Prior to the development of canals, portages between the rivers were important trade routes. U.S. forces built forts such as Fort Loramie, Fort Recovery, and Fort Defiance. In honor of General Wayne’s victory on the banks of the Maumee, the primary bridge crossing the river near downtown Toledo is named the Anthony Wayne Suspension Bridge.

A dispute over control of part of the Maumee River region led to the so-called Toledo War between Ohio and the Michigan Territory.

Agricultural practices along the Maumee River have contributed in the 21st century to high phosphate levels in Lake Erie. This triggered algae blooms in the lake,[6] rendering drinking water from the city of Toledo unsafe for consumption for nearly a week in August 2014.[11]

Natural history

The general extent of the Great Black Swamp prior to the 19th century

The Maumee River watershed was once part of the Great Black Swamp, a remnant of Glacial Lake Maumee, the proglacial ancestor of Lake Erie. The 1,500-square-mile (3,900 km2) swamp was a vast network of forests, wetlands, and grasslands, a rich habitat for numerous species of birds, animals, fish and flora. During the 19th century, European-American settlers struggled to drain the swamp and to convert the land to farmland; they dramatically altered the habitat, reducing areas where species could flourish.

Transportation

The mouth of the river at Toledo and Lake Erie is wide and supports considerable commercial traffic, including oil, grain, and coal. About 12 miles (19 km) upstream, in the town of Perrysburg, Ohio, the river becomes much shallower and today supports only recreational navigation above that point. The Miami and Erie Canal was built parallel to and north of the Maumee between Toledo and Defiance, Ohio, to enable extended transportation of shipped goods. The canal entered the river at a “slackwater” created by Independence Dam. It exited the river at Defiance and was built to the south, ending at Cincinnati, Ohio. While abandoned for commercial use, portions of the canal’s towpath are maintained for recreational use in both Lucas and Henry counties. A restored section of canal, including a canal lock, is operated at Providence Metropark, where visitors can ride an authentic canal boat.

The Wabash and Erie Canal was constructed on the south side of the river, continuing southwest from Defiance to Fort Wayne, Indiana, crossing the “summit” to the Wabash River valley (in Miami-Illinois the Wabash River was known as Waapaahšiki siipiiwi). Both canals were important pre-railway transportation methods in the 1840–60 period.

Watershed

The Maumee has the largest watershed of any Great Lakes river,[5] with 8,316 square miles (21,540 km2). This area includes a portion of southern Michigan. In addition to its source tributaries – the St. Joseph River (in Miami-Illinois: Kociihsasiipi) and St. Marys (in Miami-Illinois: Nameewa siipiiwi), the Maumee’s principal tributaries are the Auglaize River and the Tiffin River, which join it at Defiance from the south and north, respectively.

Islands

The St. Marys River (left) and St. Joseph River (right) converge to form the Maumee River (foreground) in Fort Wayne, Indiana.

There are several small islands in the section of the Maumee River in northwest Ohio. The names of the islands are:[12]

  • Indian Island – near Farnsworth Park west of Toledo
  • Woodcock Island – just west of Indian Island, adjacent to Missionary Island
  • Missionary Island – near Farnsworth Park west of Toledo
  • Granger Island – near Waterville, Ohio
  • Butler Island – near Side Cut Metropark, adjacent to Missionary Island’s North East side
  • Grave Island – adjacent to Missionary Island on its south side, opposite of Butler Island
  • Bluegrass Island – part of Side Cut Metropark
  • Audubon Island – the largest island in the Maumee River, formerly McKee’s Island or Ewing Island, part of SideCut Park
  • Marengo Island – near Maumee, Ohio
  • Horseshoe Island – near Walbridge Park in Toledo
  • Clark Island – near Walbridge Park in Toledo
  • Corbutt Island – in Toledo
  • Grassy Island – at the mouth of Grassy Creek at Rossford, Ohio.
  • Girty’s Island – two miles downstream of Florida, Ohio
  • Preston Island – near Defiance, Ohio
  • Little sisters Island – near Rossford, Ohio

Walleye run

According to the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, the annual walleye run up the Maumee River is one of the largest migrations of riverbound walleyes east of the Mississippi. The migration of the walleye normally starts in early March and runs through the end of April. Although the first week of April is “historically” the peak of the migration, it varies according to environmental conditions. When river flows rise due to snow melt-off and the river water temperature reaches 40 to 50 °F (4 to 10 °C), the migration begins. Walleye come to spawn from the western end of Lake Erie and the Detroit River and Lake St. Clair in Michigan. The most popular method of fishing for the migrating walleye is by wading out into the river and casting.

Cities and towns along the river

The Veterans’ Glass City Skyway in Toledo, Ohio

Toledo, Ohio

The river in Grand Rapids, Ohio

  • Fort Wayne, Indiana
  • New Haven, Indiana
  • Antwerp, Ohio
  • Cecil, Ohio
  • Defiance, Ohio
  • Florida, Ohio
  • Napoleon, Ohio
  • Grand Rapids, Ohio
  • Waterville, Ohio
  • Maumee, Ohio
  • Perrysburg, Ohio
  • Rossford, Ohio
  • Toledo, Ohio
  • Oregon, Ohio

See also

  • List of Indiana rivers
  • List of rivers of Ohio
  • USS Maumee – list of ships named for the river

References

  1. ^ “Maumee – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary”. Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved November 1, 2012..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “Shawnees Webpage”. Shawnee’s Reservation. 1997. Retrieved 2013-04-26.
  3. ^ Myaamiaatawaakani | Myaamia Dictionary
  4. ^ U.S. Geological Survey. National Hydrography Dataset high-resolution flowline data. The National Map Archived 2012-04-05 at WebCite, accessed May 19, 2011
  5. ^ ab “Maumee River Area of Concern”. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  6. ^ ab Wines, Michael (15 March 2013). “Spring Rain, Then Foul Algae in Ailing Lake Erie”. The New York Times. p. 1.
  7. ^ David M. Stothers, Patrick M. Tucker (2006). The Fry Site: Archaeological and Ethnohistorical Perspectives on the Maumee River Ottawa of Northwest Ohio. Volume 2 of Laboratory of Archaeology Publications: Occasional Monographs. Morrisville, North Carolina: LuLu Press. ISBN 1430304294.
  8. ^ 7 Stat. 49 – Text of Treaty of Greenville Library of Congress
  9. ^ 7 Stat. 105 – Text of Treaty of Detroit Library of Congress
  10. ^ 7 Stat. 160 – Text of Treaty of Fort Meigs Library of Congress
  11. ^ “Toledo, Ohio Water Supply Contaminated by Algae From Lake Erie”. The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2016-12-16.
  12. ^ Sidecut Metropark History Archived 2007-09-11 at the Wayback Machine.

Further reading

  • Arthur Benke & Colbert Cushing, Rivers of North America. Elsevier Academic Press, 2005.
    ISBN 0-12-088253-1

External links

  • Maumee Valley Heritage Corridor
  • Maumee River Basin Commission (Indiana)
  • U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Maumee River
  • Google Map of the Maumee River


Floyd County, Indiana

Floyd County, Indiana
NewAlbanyViewedFromFloydsKnobs.jpg

Floyd County, Indiana
Map of Indiana highlighting Floyd County
Location in the U.S. state of Indiana
Map of the United States highlighting Indiana
Indiana’s location in the U.S.
Founded 1819
Named for Brigadier General John Floyd.
Seat New Albany
Largest city New Albany
Area
 • Total 148.96 sq mi (386 km2)
 • Land 147.94 sq mi (383 km2)
 • Water 1.02 sq mi (3 km2), 0.68%
Population (est.)
 • (2012) 75,283
 • Density 504/sq mi (194.57/km2)
Congressional district 9th
Time zone Eastern: UTC−5/−4
Website www.floydcounty.in.gov
Footnotes:  

  • Indiana county number 22
  • Second smallest county in Indiana by area

Floyd County is a county located in the U.S. state of Indiana. As of 2012, the population was 75,283.[1] The county seat is New Albany.[2] Floyd County is the county with the second-smallest land area in the entire state. It was formed in the year 1819 from neighboring Clark, and Harrison counties.

Floyd County is part of the Louisville/Jefferson County, KY–IN Metropolitan Statistical Area.

From Floyds Knobs, the view of the Sherman Minton Bridge that crosses the Ohio River and connecting Indiana and Kentucky.

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Geography

    • 2.1 City
    • 2.2 Towns
    • 2.3 Census-designated place
    • 2.4 Townships
    • 2.5 Geographical features
    • 2.6 Major highways
    • 2.7 Adjacent counties
  • 3 Climate and weather
  • 4 Government
  • 5 Demographics
  • 6 Education
  • 7 Gallery
  • 8 See also
  • 9 External links
  • 10 References

History

Floyd County, originally the Shawnee Indians hunting ground, was conquered for the United States by George Rogers Clark during the American Revolutionary War from the British.[3] He was awarded large tracts of land in Indiana, including almost all of present-day Floyd County. Clark sold land to the settlers who began arriving as soon as peace returned.

Pearl Street in downtown New Albany. The Knobs can be seen in the distance.

The woods of Mount Saint Francis in Floyds Knobs, Indiana.

In 1818, New Albany was a large enough to become a county seat and form a new county. New Albany leaders sent Nathaniel Scribner and John K. Graham to the capital at Corydon to petition the General Assembly.[3] Legislation was passed on January 2, 1819 by the General Assembly, and the county was established on February 1.[3][4] The origin of the county’s name is debated. According to the State Library, it was named for John Floyd, a leading Jefferson County, Kentucky pioneer and uncle of Davis Floyd.[5] John Floyd was killed in 1783 when his party was attacked by Indians in Bullitt County, Kentucky.[3] However, some maintain the county was actually named for Davis Floyd, who was convicted of aiding Aaron Burr in the treason of 1809. Davis Floyd had also been a leading local political figure and was the county’s first circuit court judge.[3]

In 1814, New Albany was platted and was established as the county seat on March 4, 1819.[3] There was an attempt in 1823 to move the county seat, but the motion failed.[4] New Albany would be the largest city in the state for much of the early 19th century, eventually being overtaken by Indianapolis during the Civil War.[6]

House of Nathaniel Scribner

Between 1800 and 1860, Floyd County experienced a huge boom in population (doubling many times over).[7] A survey in the 1850s found that over half of Indiana’s population that made more than $100,000 per year lived in Floyd County, establishing it as having the richest population in the state.[8]

The Duncan Tunnel, the longest tunnel in Indiana, was built in Floyd County in 1881 between New Albany and Edwardsville. Because no route over the Floyds Knobs was suitable for a railroad line, civil engineers decided to tunnel through them.[9] The project was originally started by the Air Line but was completed by Southern Railway. It took five years to bore at a cost of $1 million.[10] The Tunnel is 4,311 feet (1,314 m) long.[11]

Floyd County, during the 19th century, attracted immigrants of Irish, German, French and African American origins.[12] The French settlers located mostly in Floyds Knobs, Indiana. The Irish began arriving in 1817 and settled in large numbers between 1830 and 1850.[12] German immigrants settled mostly in New Albany. By 1850, about one in six county residents had been born in other countries. Mount Saint Francis, a multi-purpose complex owned and administered by the Conventual Franciscan Friars of the Province of Our Lady of Consolation, is located in Floyds Knobs along Highway 150. The property includes 400 acres of woods and Mount Saint Francis Lake, both which are open to the public. Numerous hiking trails meander through the woods and fields containing native prairie grasses. No hunting is allowed on the property.

The New Albany National Cemetery was one of the original seven first established in 1862 by Congress. More than 5,000 are buried here, from the Civil War to the Vietnam War.

Geography

According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 148.96 square miles (385.8 km2), of which 147.94 square miles (383.2 km2) (or 99.32%) is land and 1.02 square miles (2.6 km2) (or 0.68%) is water.[13] It is the second smallest county in area, behind only Ohio County.

A pasture scene in Greenville, off Georgetown-Greenville Road.

The rolling land of Georgetown features farmland, fields and woods that are dotted with homes and a few subdivisions.

City

  • New Albany

Towns

  • Floyds Knobs
  • Georgetown
  • Greenville

Census-designated place

  • Galena

Townships

Floyd County is divided into five townships:

  • Franklin
  • Georgetown
  • Greenville
  • Lafayette
  • New Albany

Geographical features

Floyds Knobs was named after the most prominent geographical feature of the county which are the knobs: many steep hills which dot the midsection of the county. The highest point is South Skyline Drive (+38° 21′ 13.64″, -85° 50′ 50.64″), at just over 1,000 ft (300 m). The Knobs Unit, which includes Floyd County, contains some of the hilliest country in Indiana. As a result, the area supports trees that prefer very dry sites and ridgetops, as well as those that prefer very wet sites, ravines, or “bottomland.” Tree types unique to the unit include blackjack oak and swamp tupelo. Part of the unit stands on sandstone bedrock; other areas developed over limestone. This difference accommodates a variety of trees and their associated flowering plants and shrubs. Trees found in Floyd County include the Sycamore, Flowering Dogwood, Virginia Pine, Easter Redcedar, American Beech, Sugar Maple, American Elm and Chestnut Oak. [14] The lowest point in the county is the shore of the Ohio River near New Albany at an elevation of 380 ft (120 m).[15]

Major highways

  • Interstate 64
  • Interstate 265
  • U.S. Route 150
  • Indiana State Road 11
  • Indiana State Road 62
  • Indiana State Road 64
  • Indiana State Road 111
  • Indiana State Road 335

Adjacent counties

  • Clark County (northeast)
  • Jefferson County, Kentucky (south, across the Ohio River)
  • Harrison County (west)
  • Washington County (northwest)

Climate and weather

New Albany, Indiana
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
3.3
 
 
41
25
 
 
3.3
 
 
47
29
 
 
4.4
 
 
57
37
 
 
3.9
 
 
67
46
 
 
4.9
 
 
75
56
 
 
3.8
 
 
83
65
 
 
4.3
 
 
87
70
 
 
3.4
 
 
86
68
 
 
3.1
 
 
79
61
 
 
2.8
 
 
68
49
 
 
3.8
 
 
56
39
 
 
3.7
 
 
45
30
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Source: The Weather Channel[16]

In recent years, average temperatures in New Albany have ranged from a low of 25 °F (−4 °C) in January to a high of 87 °F (31 °C) in July. The record low temperature was −22 °F (−30 °C), recorded in January, 1994, and a record high was 107 °F (42 °C), recorded in July, 1936. On July 4, 2012, the record for highest temperature in the county was almost broken; the temperature reached 106 °F (41 °C). Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.79 inches (71 mm) in October of last year to 4.88 inches (124 mm) in May of last year.[16]

Government

The county government is a constitutional body, and is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana and the Indiana Code.

County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Floyd county is divided into 44 precincts which are organized into four districts, each district elects one representative to the council. Three other members are elected to the county at large. The council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, and special spending. The council also has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax that is subject to state level approval, excise taxes, and service taxes.[17][18]

Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners. The commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, and each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners, typically the most senior, serves as president. The commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, and managing the day-to-day functions of the county government.[17][18]

Court: Floyd County’s court system consists of a Circuit Court and three Superior Courts. The Judge of the Circuit Court is J. Terrance Cody. The Superior Court Judges are Susan L. Orth, James Hancock, and Maria Granger. All serve six-year terms. Cases are divided by local rules.

County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, coroner, auditor, treasurer, recorder, surveyor, and circuit court clerk. Each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare party affiliations and to be residents of the county.[18]

Floyd County is part of Indiana’s 9th congressional district and is represented in Congress by Republican Trey Hollingsworth It is also part of Indiana Senate district 46 [19] and Indiana House of Representatives districts 70 and 72.[20]

Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results[21]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 56.6% 21,432 36.9% 13,945 6.5% 2,465
2012 56.2% 19,878 41.9% 14,812 2.0% 702
2008 54.4% 19,957 44.4% 16,263 1.2% 447
2004 58.7% 19,877 40.9% 13,857 0.5% 156
2000 54.9% 16,486 44.0% 13,209 1.1% 335
1996 42.9% 12,473 47.5% 13,814 9.6% 2,785
1992 40.2% 11,932 44.4% 13,166 15.4% 4,553
1988 56.3% 14,291 43.4% 11,024 0.3% 78
1984 58.9% 15,466 40.4% 10,616 0.8% 197
1980 48.9% 12,456 45.3% 11,543 5.8% 1,468
1976 46.4% 11,259 52.5% 12,744 1.0% 252
1972 58.3% 13,198 40.8% 9,243 0.9% 195
1968 41.0% 9,714 45.0% 10,671 14.0% 3,316
1964 33.1% 7,834 66.2% 15,656 0.6% 148
1960 48.4% 11,629 51.4% 12,346 0.3% 62
1956 55.2% 10,410 44.4% 8,378 0.4% 77
1952 51.8% 11,608 46.3% 10,368 2.0% 439
1948 43.8% 8,367 55.4% 10,593 0.8% 161
1944 44.1% 8,410 55.3% 10,541 0.6% 120
1940 42.5% 8,056 57.0% 10,799 0.5% 89
1936 38.5% 6,976 58.8% 10,654 2.7% 491
1932 40.4% 7,333 57.8% 10,497 1.8% 323
1928 58.5% 10,471 40.9% 7,327 0.6% 104
1924 46.5% 6,733 48.2% 6,971 5.4% 775
1920 49.7% 7,669 47.9% 7,391 2.5% 387
1916 44.0% 3,200 52.9% 3,850 3.1% 225
1912 9.7% 669 46.7% 3,236 43.7% 3,031
1908 43.9% 3,431 51.9% 4,064 4.2% 330
1904 49.1% 3,666 45.8% 3,421 5.1% 380
1900 48.2% 3,597 50.7% 3,781 1.1% 81
1896 51.7% 3,874 47.3% 3,544 0.9% 69
1892 40.3% 2,958 57.4% 4,219 2.3% 169
1888 42.9% 2,947 55.7% 3,824 1.5% 101

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1820 2,776
1830 6,361 129.1%
1840 9,454 48.6%
1850 14,875 57.3%
1860 20,183 35.7%
1870 23,300 15.4%
1880 24,590 5.5%
1890 29,458 19.8%
1900 30,118 2.2%
1910 30,293 0.6%
1920 30,661 1.2%
1930 34,655 13.0%
1940 35,061 1.2%
1950 43,955 25.4%
1960 51,397 16.9%
1970 55,622 8.2%
1980 61,169 10.0%
1990 64,404 5.3%
2000 70,823 10.0%
2010 74,578 5.3%
Est. 2016 76,990 [22] 3.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[7]
1790–1960[23] 1900–1990[24]
1990–2000[25] 2010–2013[1]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 74,578 people, 29,479 households, and 20,264 families residing in the county.[26] The population density was 504.1 inhabitants per square mile (194.6/km2). There were 31,968 housing units at an average density of 216.1 per square mile (83.4/km2).[13] The racial makeup of the county was 90.4% white, 5.2% black or African American, 0.9% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 1.2% from other races, and 2.1% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.6% of the population.[26] In terms of ancestry, 29.4% were German, 15.0% were Irish, 11.0% were English, and 10.6% were American.[27]

Of the 29,479 households, 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.4% were married couples living together, 13.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.3% were non-families, and 25.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age was 39.1 years.[26]

The median income for a household in the county was $47,697 and the median income for a family was $63,139. Males had a median income of $45,699 versus $33,749 for females. The per capita income for the county was $25,971. About 8.2% of families and 10.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.6% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over.[28]

Education

New Albany-Floyd County Consolidated School Corporation serves the county. New Albany High School was the first public high school in the state, opening its doors in 1853. The school system has two high schools, New Albany High School and Floyd Central High School, nine elementary schools and three middle schools. The district’s enrollment totals approximately 12,000 students in pre-kindergarten through high school programs. The district employs more than 1,200 full-time personnel, which includes approximately 750 teachers, and 375 part-time personnel, according to the 2017 NA-FC website.

All Floyd County residents are eligible to obtain a library card at the New Albany-Floyd County Public Library in New Albany.[29]

Gallery

See also

  • Indiana University Southeast
  • List of public art in Floyd County, Indiana
  • Louisville-Jefferson County, KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area
  • Louisville-Elizabethtown-Scottsburg, KY-IN Combined Statistical Area
  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Floyd County, Indiana

External links

  • County website
  • Clark-Floyd counties tourism bureau

References

  1. ^ ab http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/18/18043.html Retrieved January 30th, 2014.
  2. ^ “Find a County”. National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ abcdef The Encyclopedia of Louisville By John E. Kleber (University Press of Kentucky 2000) pages 300-302
    ISBN 0-8131-2100-0
  4. ^ ab Floyd County History Archived 2007-07-04 at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ “Indiana Historical Bureau – Origin of Indiana County Names”. Archived from the original on 2008-03-23.
  6. ^ Findling, John ed. A History of New Albany, Indiana. (Indiana University Southeast, 2003). 53.
  7. ^ ab “U.S. Decennial Census”. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  8. ^ Miller, Harold. Industrial Development of New Albany, Indiana. Economic Geography (January 1938). 48.
  9. ^ “PBase.com”. www.pbase.com. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  10. ^ Sunny Side of Louisville – Area History Archived December 23, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ Railroad Depots of Southern Indiana, By David E. Longest. Pg 89.
    ISBN 0-7385-3958-9
  12. ^ ab The Encyclopedia of Louisville By John E. Kleber (University Press of Kentucky 2000) page 302
    ISBN 0-8131-2100-0
  13. ^ ab “Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – County”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  14. ^
    “USGS New Albany (IN, KY) Topo Map”. TopoQuest. Retrieved 2008-06-29.
  15. ^
    “USGS Lanesville (IN, KY) Topo Map”. TopoQuest. Retrieved 2008-06-29.
  16. ^ ab “Monthly Averages for New Albany, Indiana”. The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2011-01-27.
  17. ^ ab Indiana Code. “Title 36, Article 2, Section 3”. IN.gov. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
  18. ^ abc Indiana Code. “Title 2, Article 10, Section 2” (PDF). IN.gov. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
  19. ^ “Indiana Senate Districts”. State of Indiana. Retrieved 2011-01-23.
  20. ^ “Indiana House Districts”. State of Indiana. Retrieved 2011-01-23.
  21. ^ Leip, David. “Dave Leip’s Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections”. uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  22. ^ “Population and Housing Unit Estimates”. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  23. ^ “Historical Census Browser”. University of Virginia Library. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  24. ^ “Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  25. ^ “Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000” (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 10, 2014.
  26. ^ abc “DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  27. ^ “DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  28. ^ “DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-10.
  29. ^ “How to Get a Library Card”. New Albany-Floyd County Public Library. Retrieved 7 March 2018.

Coordinates: 38°19′N 85°54′W / 38.32°N 85.90°W / 38.32; -85.90


Greenville, Indiana

Town in Indiana, United States
Greenville, Indiana
Town
Town of Greenville
Greenville, Indiana.jpg
Location of Greenville in Floyd County, Indiana.

Location of Greenville in Floyd County, Indiana.
Coordinates: 38°22′22″N 85°59′19″W / 38.37278°N 85.98861°W / 38.37278; -85.98861Coordinates: 38°22′22″N 85°59′19″W / 38.37278°N 85.98861°W / 38.37278; -85.98861
Country United States
State Indiana
County Floyd
Township Greenville
Area

[1]
 • Total 0.78 sq mi (2.02 km2)
 • Land 0.78 sq mi (2.02 km2)
 • Water 0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)
Elevation

827 ft (252 m)
Population

 • Estimate 

(2016)[2]
807
 • Density 1,034.62/sq mi (399.64/km2)
Time zone UTC-5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC-4 (EDT)
ZIP code
47124
Area code(s) 812 & 930
FIPS code 18-29844[3]
GNIS feature ID 0435458[4]
U.S. Highway US 150.svg
Major State Roads Indiana 335.svg
Website http://www.visitgreenvillein.com

Greenville is an incorporated town in Floyd County, Indiana. The population was estimated by the Census Bureau to be 807 in 2016 at the 2010 census. Greenville is located in the greater Louisville metropolitan area.

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Notable residents
  • 3 Historic buildings
  • 4 Geography
  • 5 Demographics

    • 5.1 2010 census
    • 5.2 2000 census
  • 6 Education
  • 7 References

History

Greenville was platted in 1816 by Andrew Mundell and Benjamin Haines some three years before Floyd County was even established. During the first three years of Greenville’s development, the village was a part of Clark County. Early in Floyd County’s history, Greenville was initially to be the county seat. A New Albany resident offered to provide a bell for the courthouse, on the condition that the courthouse were built in New Albany; thus, it was built there instead.

Captain John Baptiste Ford found his way to Greenville as a 14-year-old runaway from Danville, Kentucky. Ford began as an apprentice with his future father-in-law in the local saddle shop which led him into his first business venture. Ford purchased the Old Mill and saddle shop from its owner, added a grocery and began making tin pie safes which he sold throughout the country. Later, Ford moved to New Albany and established several businesses, and became the first man to succeed in making plate glass in the United States. That success was the precursor to several glass companies, most notably the Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company now known as PPG. Ford became the father of American plate glass.

That original building that housed the mill, saddle shop and grocery still stands today. Historically referred to as the Old Mill and Ford’s Flour Mill, the Greenville Station is believed to be the oldest commercial building in Greenville. Construction on the original wooden structure began in 1810 and finished in 1812. In 1840, Ford helped to erect the present brick structure.[5] Besides housing Ford’s grocery and the saddle shop, the Old Mill was the Greenville Post Office from 1823 until the early 1940s when it was relocated to H. Miller’s house at the corner of East First Street and Hwy 150. The Station was a stop for the 104-mile stagecoach route that ran from Falls Cities to the Wabash River. The building also served as a stop along the Pony Express route from 1861 to 1867. The Greenville Station served as lodge hall for two civil organizations: the fraternal order of the Free and Accepted Masons and the International Order of Oddfellows. Through a majority of the early 20th century, the Greenville Station was referred to by the townspeople as the “lodge building” or the “lodge.”

Joseph Smith The prominent Mormon and founder of the Church of Latter Day Saints stayed in Greenville for one month in 1832. Smith stayed at Porter’s Public House, owned and operated by Daniel Porter, and wrote in his journal about his painful poisoning which took place. His stay is well documented in The Joseph Smith Papers.

On March 26, 1908 a fire destroyed most of the town’s original buildings. Today, the Station stands just two doors from one of the city’s oldest home (rebuilt in 1908), which still boasts some of John B. Ford’s original plate glass works.

The Simpson Memorial United Methodist Church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2004.[6]

Notable residents

  • John Baptiste Ford Lived in Greenville from 1825 – 1854 and pursued several business ventures while living in Greenville. After leaving Greenville, Ford went on to became an influential industrialist eventually establishing Pittsburgh Plate Glass Company (now PPG Porter) and Michigan Alkali Company (went on to become BSAF).
  • Norman Jay Colman In 1850, Colman became the first principal in Greenville when the Floyd County Seminary opened in town at the same location as the present day school. He went on to a successful political career including becoming the 1st Secretary of Agriculture appointed by President Grover Cleveland in 1889.
  • Roscoe Miller was a pitcher in MLB who played four seasons in 1901 – 1904 with the Detroit Tigers, New York Giants, and Pittsburgh Pirates. His rookie season was his best finishing 23-13 with 35 complete games which is still an American League rookie record.

Historic buildings

  • Simpson Memorial United Methodist Church It was designed by church plan catalog architect Benjamin D. Price and built by Capt. John Nafius in 1899. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2004.
  • Jersey Park Farm is a historic home and farm located just on the outskirts of Greenville. The farmhouse was built about 1875, and consists of a two-story, Federal style rectangular section with a two-story round section and one-story round section. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984.
  • The Station was built in 1840 by John Baptiste Ford and is the oldest commercial building in town.

Geography

Greenville is located at 38°22′22″N 85°59′19″W / 38.37278°N 85.98861°W / 38.37278; -85.98861 (38.372768, -85.988685).[7]

GreenvilleFarmland.jpg

According to the 2010 census, Greenville has a total area of 0.78 square miles (2.02 km2), all land.[8]

The township is situated such that, clockwise, it borders the township of Jackson Township, Washington County to the northwest, Wood Township, Clark County to the northeast, Laffayette Township in Floyd County to the east, Georgetown Township to the south, Jackson Township, Harrison County to the southwest, and Morgan Township, Harrison County to the west.

Big and Little Indian Creeks meander through the township, which are tributaries in the Ohio River watershed.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880 394
1890 313 −20.6%
1900 309 −1.3%
1910 227 −26.5%
1920 225 −0.9%
1930 257 14.2%
1940 285 10.9%
1950 298 4.6%
1960 453 52.0%
1970 611 34.9%
1980 537 −12.1%
1990 508 −5.4%
2000 591 16.3%
2010 595 0.7%
Est. 2016 807 [2] 35.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[9]

2010 census

As of the census[10] of 2010, there were 595 people, 219 households, and 162 families residing in the town. The population density was 762.8 inhabitants per square mile (294.5/km2). There were 241 housing units at an average density of 309.0 per square mile (119.3/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 95.5% White, 1.5% African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.5% from other races, and 0.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.0% of the population.

There were 219 households of which 40.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.5% had a male householder with no wife present, and 26.0% were non-families. 18.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72 and the average family size was 3.12.

The median age in the town was 39.4 years. 26.9% of residents were under the age of 18; 8.7% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 24.8% were from 25 to 44; 27.6% were from 45 to 64; and 11.9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the town was 51.1% male and 48.9% female.

2000 census

As of the census[3] of 2000, there were 591 people, 224 households, and 174 families residing in the town. The population density was 954.9 people per square mile (368.0/km²). There were 238 housing units at an average density of 384.6 per square mile (148.2/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 97.12% White, 0.34% African American, 1.02% Asian, 0.51% from other races, and 1.02% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.51% of the population.

There were 224 households out of which 39.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.2% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.3% were non-families. 19.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.03.

In the town, the population was spread out with 28.4% under the age of 18, 4.4% from 18 to 24, 31.3% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, and 12.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.7 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $49,271, and the median income for a family was $50,972. Males had a median income of $44,464 versus $26,484 for females. The per capita income for the town was $24,343. About 5.0% of families and 4.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.1% of those under age 18 and 15.7% of those age 65 or over.

Education

The community is within the New Albany-Floyd County Consolidated School Corporation. Greenville is within the attendance boundaries of Greenville Elementary School,[11] Highland Hills Middle School,[12] and Floyd Central High School.[13]

Greenville Elementary School is located within the town limits.[14]

References

  1. ^ “2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jul 28, 2017..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ ab “Population and Housing Unit Estimates”. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  3. ^ ab “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  4. ^ “US Board on Geographic Names”. United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  5. ^ “Chapter XVI Greenville Township”. LA Williams & Co, 1882. 2016-09-28. Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  6. ^ National Park Service (2010-07-09). “National Register Information System”. National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  7. ^ “US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990”. United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  8. ^ “G001 – Geographic Identifiers – 2010 Census Summary File 1”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
  9. ^ “Census of Population and Housing”. Census.gov. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  10. ^ “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  11. ^ “Greenville Redistrict” (Archive). New Albany-Floyd County Consolidated School Corporation. Retrieved on April 9, 2015.
  12. ^ Highland Hills Middle School District Map (Archive). New Albany-Floyd County Consolidated School Corporation. Retrieved on April 9, 2015.
  13. ^ Floyd Central High School District Map (Archive). New Albany-Floyd County Consolidated School Corporation. Retrieved on April 9, 2015.
  14. ^ Home page. Greenville Elementary School. Retrieved on April 9, 2015.


University of Notre Dame

University of Notre Dame
University of Notre Dame seal (2).svg
Latin: Universitas Dominae Nostrae a Lacu
Motto Vita Dulcedo Spes (Latin)[1]
Motto in English
Life, Sweetness, Hope[2]
Type Private, coeducational, research, non-profit
Established November 26, 1842 (1842-11-26)
Founder Fr. Edward Sorin, CSC
Religious affiliation
Catholic Church
(Congregation of Holy Cross)
Academic affiliations
ACCU NAICU
URA 568 Group
Endowment $13.1 billion (2018)[3]
Budget $1.3 billion
President John I. Jenkins, CSC
Provost Thomas Burish
Academic staff
1,241[4]
Students 12,292[5]
Undergraduates 8,448
Postgraduates 3,731
Location
Notre Dame

,

Indiana

,

U.S.

41°42′11″N 86°14′20″W / 41.7030°N 86.2390°W / 41.7030; -86.2390Coordinates: 41°42′11″N 86°14′20″W / 41.7030°N 86.2390°W / 41.7030; -86.2390

Campus Suburban: 1,261 acres (5.10 km2)
Colors Blue and Gold[6]
         
Nickname Fighting Irish
Sporting affiliations
NCAA Division I – FBS (Independent), ACC
Big Ten (ice hockey)
Mascot Leprechaun
Website www.nd.edu
University of Notre Dame logo.svg

The University of Notre Dame du Lac (or simply Notre Dame /ˌntərˈdm/ NOH-tər-DAYM or ND) is a private, non-profit Catholic research university in Notre Dame, Indiana.[7] The main campus covers 1,261 acres (510 ha) in a suburban setting and it contains a number of recognizable landmarks, such as the Golden Dome, the “Word of Life” mural (commonly known as Touchdown Jesus), the Notre Dame Stadium, and the Basilica. The school was founded on November 26, 1842, by Father Edward Sorin, CSC, who was also its first president.

Notre Dame is consistently recognized as one of the top universities in the United States, in particular for its undergraduate education.[8][9][10][11] Undergraduate students are organized into six colleges, Arts and Letters, Science, Engineering, Business, Architecture and Global Affairs. The School of Architecture is known for teaching New Classical Architecture and for awarding the globally renowned annual Driehaus Architecture Prize. The university offers over 50 foreign study abroad yearlong programs and over 15 summer programs.[12] Notre Dame’s graduate program has more than 50 master, doctoral and professional degree programs offered by the five schools, with the addition of the Notre Dame Law School and a MD-PhD program offered in combination with the Indiana University School of Medicine.[13][14] It maintains a system of libraries, cultural venues, artistic and scientific museums, including the Hesburgh Library and the Snite Museum of Art. The majority of the university’s 8,000 undergraduates live on campus in one of 31 residence halls, each with its own traditions, legacies, events, and intramural sports teams. The university counts approximately 134,000 alumni, considered among the strongest alumni networks among U.S. colleges.[15][16][17]

The university’s athletic teams are members of the NCAA Division I and are known collectively as the Fighting Irish. Notre Dame is known for its football team, which contributed to its rise to prominence on the national stage in the early 20th century; the team an Independent with no conference affiliation, has accumulated eleven consensus national championships, seven Heisman Trophy winners, 62 members in the College Football Hall of Fame, and 13 members in the Pro Football Hall of Fame.[18] Other ND sport teams, chiefly in the Atlantic Coast Conference, have accumulated 17 national championships.[19] The Notre Dame Victory March is often regarded as one of the most famous and recognizable collegiate fight songs.

Started as a small all-male institution in 1842 and chartered in 1844, Notre Dame reached international fame at the beginning of the 20th century, aided by the success of its football team under the guidance of coach Knute Rockne. Major improvements to the university occurred during the administration of the Rev. Theodore Hesburgh between 1952 and 1987 as Hesburgh’s administration greatly increased the university’s resources, academic programs, and reputation and first enrolled women undergraduates in 1972. Ever since, the University has seen steady growth, and under the leadership of the next two presidents, Rev. Malloy and Rev. Jenkins, many infrastructure and research expansions have been completed. Notre Dame’s growth has continued in the 21st century, and it currently possesses one of the largest endowments of any U.S. university, at $13.1 billion.[20]

Contents

  • 1 History

    • 1.1 Foundations
    • 1.2 Early history
    • 1.3 Growth
    • 1.4 Expansion in the 1930s and 1940s
    • 1.5 Hesburgh era: 1952–1987
    • 1.6 Recent history
  • 2 Campus

    • 2.1 Buildings and architecture
    • 2.2 Environmental sustainability
    • 2.3 Global Gateways
    • 2.4 Community development
  • 3 Organization and administration

    • 3.1 Endowment
  • 4 Academics

    • 4.1 Colleges

      • 4.1.1 Special programs
    • 4.2 Graduate and professional schools
    • 4.3 Libraries
    • 4.4 Admissions
    • 4.5 Rankings
  • 5 Research

    • 5.1 Science
    • 5.2 Lobund Institute
    • 5.3 Humanities
    • 5.4 European émigrés
    • 5.5 Current research
  • 6 Student life

    • 6.1 Student events
    • 6.2 Residence halls
    • 6.3 Religious life
    • 6.4 Student-run media
  • 7 Athletics

    • 7.1 Football
    • 7.2 Men’s basketball
    • 7.3 Other sports
    • 7.4 Band and “Victory March”
  • 8 Alumni
  • 9 Popular culture
  • 10 See also
  • 11 References
  • 12 Further reading
  • 13 External links

History

Foundations

The Very Rev. Edward Sorin, founder of the university, arrived at Notre Dame in 1842. The picture was taken around 1890.

In 1842, the Bishop of Vincennes, Célestine Guynemer de la Hailandière, offered land to Father Edward Sorin of the Congregation of Holy Cross, on the condition that he build a college in two years.[21] Fr. Sorin arrived on the site with eight Holy Cross brothers from France and Ireland on November 26, 1842, and began the school using Father Stephen Badin’s old log chapel. He soon erected additional buildings, including the Old College, the first church, and the first main building. They immediately acquired two students and set about building additions to the campus.[22]

The current Main Building, built after the great fire of 1879

Notre Dame began as a primary and secondary school, but soon received its official college charter from the Indiana General Assembly on January 15, 1844.[23] Under the charter the school is officially named the University of Notre Dame du Lac (University of Our Lady of the Lake).[24] Because the university was originally only for male students, the female-only Saint Mary’s College was founded by the Sisters of the Holy Cross near Notre Dame in 1844.[25]

Early history

University of Notre Dame: Main and South Quadrangles
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
U.S. Historic district
The University of Notre Dame "God Quad".JPG

The University’s historic center, comprising the Basilica, the Golden Dome, and Washington Hall, was built in the early years of the University.
University of Notre Dame is located in Indiana

University of Notre Dame
Location Off I-80/90, Notre Dame, Indiana
Area 70 acres (28 ha)
Built 1842 (1842)
Architectural style Mixed (more Than 2 Styles From Different Periods)
NRHP reference # 78000053[26]
Added to NRHP May 23, 1978

The first degrees from the college were awarded in 1849.[27] The university was expanded with new buildings to accommodate more students and faculty.[23] With each new president, new academic programs were offered and new buildings built to accommodate them.[28] The original Main Building built by Fr. Sorin just after he arrived was replaced by a larger “Main Building” in 1865, which housed the university’s administration, classrooms, and dormitories. Under Fr. William Corby’s first administration, enrollment at Notre Dame increased to more than 500 students. In 1869 he opened the law school, which offered a two-year course of study, and in 1871 he began construction of Sacred Heart Church, today the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Notre Dame. Beginning in 1873, a library collection was started by Fr. Auguste Lemonnier, housed in the Main Building, and by 1879 it had grown to ten thousand volumes.[29]

This Main Building, and the library collection, was entirely destroyed by a fire in April 1879; school closed immediately and students were sent home.[30] The university founder, Fr. Sorin, and the president at the time, the Rev. William Corby, immediately planned for the rebuilding of the structure that had housed virtually the entire University. Construction was started on May 17, and by the incredible zeal of administrator and workers the building was completed before the fall semester of 1879. The library collection was also rebuilt and stayed housed in the new Main Building for years afterwards.[31] Around the time of the fire, a music hall was opened. Known as Washington Hall, it hosted plays and musical acts put on by the school.[32] By 1880, a science program was established at the university, and a Science Hall (today LaFortune Student Center) was built in 1883. The hall housed multiple classrooms and science labs needed for early research at the university.[33]

Growth

By 1890, individual residence halls were built to house the increasing number of students.[34]
William J. Hoynes was dean of the law school 1883–1919, and when its new building was opened shortly after his death it was renamed in his honor.[35] The Rev. John Zahm became the Holy Cross Provincial for the United States (1896–1906), with overall supervision of the university. He tried to modernize and expand Notre Dame, erecting buildings and adding to the campus art gallery and library, and amassing what became a famous Dante collection, and pushing Notre Dame towards becoming a research university dedicated to scholarship. His term was not renewed by the Congregation because of fears he had expanded Notre Dame too quickly and had run the Holy Cross order into serious debt.[35] The movement towards a research university was subsequently championed by Fr. John W. Cavanaugh, who modernized the educational standards and attracted many scholars to campus. In 1917, Notre Dame awarded its first degree to a woman, and its first bachelor in 1922. However, female undergraduates did not become common until 1972.

The University of Notre Dame in 1903

In 1919 Father James A. Burns became president of Notre Dame; following in the footsteps of Cavanaugh, in three years he produced an academic revolution that brought the school up to national standards by adopting the elective system and moving away from the university’s traditional scholastic and classical emphasis.[36][37] By contrast, the Jesuit colleges, bastions of academic conservatism, were reluctant to move to a system of electives; for this reason, their graduates were shut out of Harvard Law School.[38] Notre Dame continued to grow over the years, adding more colleges, programs, and sports teams. By 1921, with the addition of the College of Commerce,[39] Notre Dame had grown from a small college to a university with five colleges and a professional law school.[40] The university continued to expand and add new residence halls and buildings with each subsequent president.[41] By 1925 enrollment had increased to 2,500 students, of which 1,471 lived on campus.

The Basilica of the Sacred Heart, completed in 1888

One of the main driving forces in the growth of the University was its football team, the Notre Dame Fighting Irish.[citation needed]Knute Rockne became head coach in 1918. Under Rockne, the Irish would post a record of 105 wins, 12 losses, and five ties.[42] During his 13 years the Irish won three national championships, had five undefeated seasons, won the Rose Bowl in 1925, and produced players such as George Gipp and the “Four Horsemen”. Knute Rockne has the highest winning percentage (.881) in NCAA Division I/FBS football history. Rockne’s offenses employed the Notre Dame Box and his defenses ran a 7–2–2 scheme.[43] The last game Rockne coached was on December 14, 1930, when he led a group of Notre Dame all-stars against the New York Giants in New York City.[44]

The success of Notre Dame reflected rising status of Irish Americans and Catholics in the 1920s. Catholics rallied around the team and listened to the games on the radio, especially when it defeated teams from schools that symbolized the Protestant establishment in America—Harvard, Yale, Princeton, and Army.

A view of the old part of campus, with the Basilica and Main Building

Its role as a high-profile flagship institution of Catholicism made it an easy target of anti-Catholicism. The most remarkable episode of violence was a clash between Notre Dame students and the Ku Klux Klan, a white supremacist and anti-catholic movement, in 1924. Nativism and anti-Catholicism, especially when directed towards immigrants, were cornerstones of the KKK’s rhetoric, and Notre Dame was seen as a symbol of the threat posed by the Catholic Church. The Klan decided to have a week-long Klavern in South Bend. Clashes with the student body started on May 17, when students, aware of the anti-Catholic animosity, blocked the Klansmen from descending from their trains in the South Bend station and ripped the KKK clothes and regalia. On May 19 thousands of students massed downtown protesting the Klavern, and only the arrival of college president Fr. Matthew Walsh prevented any further clashes. The next day, football coach Knute Rockne spoke at a campus rally and implored the students to obey the college president and refrain from further violence. A few days later the Klavern broke up, but the hostility shown by the students was an omen and a contribution to the downfall of the KKK in Indiana.[45][46]

South Quad, built in the 1920s–1940s, houses many residential halls

Expansion in the 1930s and 1940s

Frs. Charles L. O’Donnell (1928-1934) and John Francis O’Hara (1934-1939) fueled both material and academic expansion. During their tenures at Notre Dame, they brought numerous refugee and intellectuals to campus; such as W. B. Yeats, Frank H. Spearman, Jeremiah D. M. Ford, Irvin Abell, and Josephine Brownson for the Laetare Medal, instituted in 1883. O’Hara also concentrated on expanding the graduate school. New construction included Notre Dame Stadium, the law school building, Rockne Memorial, numerous residential halls, Cushing Hall of Engineering, a new heating plant, and more. This rapid expansion, which cost the University more than $2,800,000, was made possible in large part through football revenues. O’Hara strongly believed that the Fighting Irish football team could be an effective means to “acquaint the public with the ideals that dominate” Notre Dame. He wrote, “Notre Dame football is a spiritual service because it is played for the honor and glory of God and of his Blessed Mother. When St. Paul said: ‘Whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever else you do, do all for the glory of God,’ he included football.”[5]

The Rev. John J. Cavanaugh served as president from 1946 to 1952. Cavanaugh’s legacy at Notre Dame in the post-war years was devoted to raising academic standards and reshaping the university administration to suit it to an enlarged educational mission and an expanded student body and stressing advanced studies and research at a time when Notre Dame quadrupled in student census, undergraduate enrollment increased by more than half, and graduate student enrollment grew fivefold. Cavanaugh also established the Lobund Institute for Animal Studies and Notre Dame’s Medieval Institute.[47] Cavanaugh also presided over the construction of the Nieuwland Science Hall, Fisher Hall, and the Morris Inn, as well as the Hall of Liberal arts (now O’Shaughnessy Hall), made possible by a donation from I.A. O’Shaughnessy, at the time the largest ever made to an American Catholic university.[48] He also established a system of advisory councils at the university, which continue today.

Hesburgh era: 1952–1987

The Memorial Library, renamed The Theodore Hesburgh Library in 1987, is one of the greatest accomplishments of the Hesburgh presidency.

The Rev. Theodore Hesburgh served as president for 35 years (1952–87) of what Andrew Greeley calls a “dramatic transformation.”[49] In that time the annual operating budget rose by a factor of 18 from $9.7 million to $176.6 million, and the endowment by a factor of 40 from $9 million to $350 million, and research funding by a factor of 20 from $735,000 to $15 million. Enrollment nearly doubled from 4,979 to 9,600, faculty more than doubled 389 to 950, and degrees awarded annually doubled from 1,212 to 2,500.[50]

Hesburgh is also credited with transforming the face of Notre Dame by making it a coeducational institution. Women had graduated from Notre Dame every year since 1917, but it was mostly religious sisters and generally limited to graduate programs.[51] In the mid-1960s Notre Dame and Saint Mary’s College developed a co-exchange program whereby several hundred students took classes not offered at their home institution, an arrangement that added undergraduate women to a campus that already had a few women in the graduate schools. After extensive debate, merging with St. Mary’s was rejected, primarily because of the differential in faculty qualifications and pay scales. “In American college education,” explained the Rev. Charles E. Sheedy, Notre Dame’s Dean of Arts and Letters, “certain features formerly considered advantageous and enviable are now seen as anachronistic and out of place…. In this environment of diversity, the integration of the sexes is a normal and expected aspect, replacing separatism.” Thomas Blantz, C.S.C., Notre Dame’s Vice President of Student Affairs, added that coeducation “opened up a whole other pool of very bright students.”[52] Two of the male residence halls were converted for the newly admitted female students that first year,[53][54] while two others were converted for the next school year.[55][56] In 1971 Mary Ann Proctor became the first female undergraduate; she transferred from St. Mary’s College. In 1972, Angela Sienko, who earned a bachelor’s degree in marketing, became the first woman to graduate from the university.[57] In 1978, a historic district comprising 21 contributing buildings was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[58]

Recent history

In the 18 years under the presidency of Fr. Edward Malloy, (1987–2005), there was a rapid growth in the school’s reputation, faculty, and resources.[citation needed] He increased the faculty by more than 500 professors; the academic quality of the student body has improved dramatically, with the average SAT score rising from 1240 to 1460; the number of minority students more than doubled; the endowment grew from $350 million to more than $3 billion; the annual operating budget rose from $177 million to more than $650 million; and annual research funding improved from $15 million to more than $70 million.[citation needed] Notre Dame’s most recent (2014) capital campaign raised $2.014 billion, far exceeding its goal of $767 million, and is the largest in the history of Catholic higher education and was the largest of any University without a medical school at the time.[59]

Since 2005, Notre Dame has been led by Fr. John I. Jenkins, the 17th president of the university.[60] Jenkins took over the position from Malloy on July 1, 2005.[61] In his inaugural address, Jenkins described his goals of making the university a leader in research that recognizes ethics and building the connection between faith and studies. During his tenure, Notre Dame has increased its endowment, enlarged its student body, and undergone many construction projects on campus, including Compton Family Ice Arena, a new architecture hall, additional residence halls, and the Campus Crossroads, a $400 million enhancement and expansion of Notre Dame Stadium.[62]

Campus

Notre Dame’s campus is located in Notre Dame, Indiana, an unincorporated community in the Michiana area of Northern Indiana, north of South Bend and four miles (6 km) from the Michigan state line.[63]
In September 2011, Travel+Leisure listed Notre Dame as having one of the most beautiful college campuses in the United States.[64] Today it lies on 1,250 acres (5.1 km2) just south of the Indiana Toll Road and includes 143 buildings located on quads throughout the campus.[65] Notre Dame is a major tourist attraction in northern Indiana; in the 2015–2016 academic year, the campus was visited by more than 1.8 millions visitors, more than 857,250 of which from outside of St. Joseph County.[66]

Buildings and architecture

Historic Washington Hall on the Main Quadrangle, popularly termed the “God Quad”

Development of the campus began in the spring of 1843, when Fr. Sorin and some of his congregation built the “Old College,” a building used for dormitories, a bakery, and a classroom. A year later, after an architect arrived, a small “Main Building” was built allowing for the launch of the college.[67][68] The Main Building burned down in 1879, and it was immediately replaced with the current one. It was topped with the Golden Dome, which today has become Notre Dame’s most distinguishable feature. Close to the Main Building stands Washington Hall, a theater that was built in 1881 and has since then been used for theatrical and musical representation.

The Golden Dome, built by Fr. Sorin, has become the symbol of the University.

Because of its Catholic identity, a number of religious buildings stand on campus. The Old College building has become one of two seminaries on campus run by the Congregation of Holy Cross.[69] The current Basilica of the Sacred Heart is located on the spot of Fr. Sorin’s original church, which became too small for the growing college. It is built in French Revival style and it is decorated by stained glass windows imported directly from France. The interior was painted by Luigi Gregori, an Italian painter invited by Fr. Sorin to be artist in residence. The Basilica also features a bell tower with a carillon. Inside the church there are also sculptures by Ivan Mestrovic. The Grotto of Our Lady of Lourdes, which was built in 1896, is a replica of the original in Lourdes, France. It is very popular among students and alumni as a place of prayer and meditation, and it is considered one of the most beloved spots on campus.[70]

A Science Hall was built in 1883 under the direction of Fr. Zahm, but in 1950 it was converted to a student union building and named LaFortune Student Center, after Joseph LaFortune, an oil executive from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Commonly known as “LaFortune” or “LaFun,” it is a 4-story building of 83,000 square feet (7,700 m2)[71] that provides the Notre Dame community with a meeting place for social, recreational, cultural, and educational activities.[72] LaFortune employs 35 part-time student staff and 29 full-time non-student staff and has an annual budget of $1.2 million.[71]
Many businesses, services, and divisions of The Office of Student Affairs[72] are found within. The building also houses restaurants from national restaurant chains.[73]


A 70 acres (28 ha) historic district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1978 as University of Notre Dame: Main and South Quadrangles. The district covers 21 contributing buildings in the core of the original campus including the Main Administration Building and the Basilica.[58]

Autumn on the God Quad, formally known as the Main Quadrangle

Since the construction of its oldest buildings, the university’s physical plant has grown substantially. Over the years 31 residence halls have been built to accommodate students and each has been constructed with its own chapel. Many academic building were added together with a system of libraries, the most prominent of which is the Theodore Hesburgh Library, built in 1963 and today containing almost 4 million books. Since 2004, several buildings have been added, including the DeBartolo Performing Arts Center,[74] the Guglielmino Complex,[75] and the Jordan Hall of Science.[76] Additionally, a new residence for men, Dunne Hall, began accepting residents for the Fall 2016 semester. Flaherty Hall was completed and began housing undergraduate women in Fall 2016 as well. A new engineering building, Stinson-Remick Hall, a new combination Center for Social Concerns/Institute for Church Life building, Geddes Hall, and a law school addition have recently been completed as well.[77] Additionally the new hockey arena opened in the fall of 2011. The Stayer Center for Executive Education, which houses the Mendoza College of Business Executive Education Department opened in March 2013 just South of the Mendoza College of Business building. Because of its long athletic tradition, the university features also many building dedicated to sport. The most famous is Notre Dame Stadium,[78] home of the Fighting Irish football team; it has been renovated several times and today it can hold more than 80 thousand people. Prominent venues include also the Edmund P. Joyce Center, with indoor basketball and volleyball courts, and the Compton Family Ice Arena,[79] a two-rink facility dedicated to hockey. Also, there are many outdoor fields, as the Frank Eck Stadium for baseball.[80]McCourtney Hall, an interdisciplinary research facility, opened its doors for the Fall 2016 semester, and ground has broken on a 60,000-square-foot architecture building on the South end of campus near the DeBartolo Performing Arts Center. Walsh Family Hall of Architecture will open in late 2018.[81]

Announced on January 29, 2014 as an integration of ” the academy, student life and athletics,”[82] construction on the 750,000 square foot Campus Crossroads project began around Notre Dame Stadium on November 19, 2014. The construction project consists of three buildings – Duncan Student Center (west), Corbett Family Hall (east) and O’Neill Hall (south) – will house student life services, a recreation center, the career center, the departments of anthropology and psychology, a digital media center and the department of music and Sacred Music program. The east and west buildings also will include some 3,000 to 4,000 premium seats for the football stadium with supporting club amenities.

Legends of Notre Dame (commonly referred to as Legends) is a music venue, public house, and restaurant located on the campus of the University of Notre Dame, just 100 yards (91 m) south of Notre Dame Stadium. The former Alumni Senior Club[83] opened its doors the first weekend in September 2003 after a $3.5 million renovation and transformed into the all-ages student hang-out that currently exists. Legends is made up of two parts: The Restaurant and Alehouse and the nightclub.[84]

Environmental sustainability

The University of Notre Dame has made being a sustainability leader an integral part of its mission. The Office of Sustainability was created in the fall of 2007 at the recommendation of a Sustainability Strategy Working Group and appointed the first director in April 2008. The pursuit of sustainability is directly related to the Catholic Mission of the University. In his encyclical Laudato Si’, Pope Francis stated, “We need a conversation which includes everyone, since the environmental challenge we are undergoing, and its human roots, concern and affect us all.”

The University of Notre Dame received a gold rating from the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE) in 2014.[85] In 2016, The Office of Sustainability released their Comprehensive Sustainability Strategy in order to achieve a number of goals in the areas of Energy and Emissions, Water, Building and Construction, Waste, Procurement, Licensing and Food Sources, Education, Research, and Community Outreach.[86] As of April 2018[update], twelve buildings have achieved LEED-Certified status with nine of them achieving LEED Gold status.[87] Notre Dame’s dining services sources 40% of its food locally and offers sustainably caught seafood as well as many organic, fair-trade, and vegan options.[88] The university also houses the Kellog Institute for International Peace Studies. Father Gustavo Gutierrez, the founder of Liberation Theology is a current faculty member.[89]

Global Gateways

The university owns several centers around the world used for international studies and research, conferences abroad, and alumni support.[90]

  • London. The university has had a presence in London, England, since 1968. Since 1998, its London center has been based in Fischer Hall, the former United University Club at 1 Suffolk Street in Trafalgar Square. The center enables the Colleges of Arts and Letters, Business Administration, Science, Engineering and the Law School to develop their own programs in London, as well as hosting conferences and symposia.[91] The university also owns a residence facility, Conway Hall, which was previously a hospital. It houses students studying abroad in London.[92]
  • Beijing. The university owns space in the Liangmaqiao Station area, Beijing. The center is the hub of Notre Dame Asia and it hosts a number of programs including study abroad.[93]

Kylemore Abbey, in Ireland, which entered a study abroad partnership with the university

  • Dublin. The university owns the O’Connell House, a building in Merrion Square at the heart of Georgian Dublin. It hosts academic programs and summer internships for both undergraduate and graduate students in addition to seminars and is home to the Keough Naughton Centre.[94] Since 2015, the university has entered a partnership with Kylemore Abbey. The university renovated spaces in the abbey, and the abbey will host academic programs for Notre Dame students.[95]
  • Jerusalem. The Jerusalem Global Gateway shares space in common with the Tantur Ecumenical Institute, also directed by the University of Notre Dame. The space is located in a 100,000-square-foot facility on the seam between Jerusalem and Bethlehem. It hosts a number of religious and ecumenical programs.[96]
  • Rome. The Rome Global Getaway is located in Via Ostilia, very close to the Colosseum. It was recently acquired and renovated, and it now has 32,000 square-foot space and hosts a variety of academic and educational activities of the university. The university purchased a second Roman villa on the Caelian hill.[97]

In addition to the five Global Getaways, the University also holds a presence in Chicago where it owns the Santa Fe Building.[98]

Community development

The first phase of Eddy Street Commons, a $215 million development located adjacent to the University of Notre Dame campus and funded by the university, broke ground on June 3, 2008.[99][100] The Eddy Street Commons drew union protests when workers hired by the City of South Bend to construct the public parking garage picketed the private work site after a contractor hired non-union workers.[101] The second phase, a 90 million dollar project, broke ground in 2017. Combined, the two phases constitute a 300 million dollar investment in the Northeastern Neighborhood.[102]

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Organization and administration

The Rev. Theodore Hesburgh was the 15th and longest-serving president.

The university of Notre Dame is under the leadership of the president, who is a priest of the Congregation of Holy Cross. The first president was Fr. Edward Sorin and the current president is Fr. John I. Jenkins. As of 2018[update], the provost of the university, who oversees academic functions, is Thomas Burish.[103]
Until 1967 Notre Dame had been governed directly by the Congregation, but under the presidency of the Rev. Theodore Hesburgh two groups, the Board of Fellows and the Board of Trustees were established to govern the University.[104] The Fellows are a group of six Holy Cross religious and six lay members who have final say over the operation of the university. The Fellows vote on potential trustees and sign off on all major decisions by that body.[105] The Trustees elect the president and provide general guidance and governance to the university.[106]

Endowment

Notre Dame’s financial endowment was started in the early 1920s by university president James Burns, and increased to US$7 million by 1952 when Hesburgh became president. By the 1980s it reached $150 million, and in 2000, it returned a record 57.9% investment.[107] For the 2007 fiscal year, the endowment had grown to approximately $6.5 billion, putting the university in the top-15 largest endowments in the country.[108] In October 2018, the University listed its endowment at National Association of College and University Business Officers published Notre Dame’s endowment at $13.1 billion.

Academics

As of fall 2014, Notre Dame had 12,292 students and employed 1,126 full-time faculty members and another 190 part-time members to give a student/faculty ratio of 8:1.[4]

Colleges

  • The College of Arts and Letters was established as the university’s first college in 1842 with the first degrees given in 1849.[109] The university’s first academic curriculum was modeled after the Jesuit Ratio Studiorum from Saint Louis University.[110] Today the college, housed in O’Shaughnessy Hall,[111] includes 20 departments in the areas of fine arts, humanities, and social sciences and awards Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degrees in nearly 70 majors and minors, making it the largest of the university’s colleges. There are more than 3000 undergraduates and 1,100 graduates enrolled in the college, taught by 500 faculty members.[112]
  • The College of Science was established at the university in 1865 by president Father Patrick Dillon. Dillon’s curriculum involved six years of course work, including higher-level mathematics courses.[113] Today the college, housed in the newly built Jordan Hall of Science,[114] includes over 1,200 undergraduates in several departments of study – Biology, Neuroscience & Behavior, Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mathematics, Physics, pre-professional studies, applied and computational mathematics and statistics (ACMS), Science-Business, Science-Computing, Science-Education, and Statistic – each awarding Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degrees.[115] According to university statistics, its science pre-professional program has one of the highest acceptance rates to medical school of any university in the United States.[116]

    Bond Hall, house of the School of Architecture

  • The School of Architecture was established in 1899,[117] although degrees in architecture were first awarded by the university in 1898.[118] Today the school, housed in Bond Hall,[119] offers a five-year undergraduate program leading to the Bachelor of Architecture degree. All undergraduate students study the third year of the program in Rome.[120] The faculty teaches (pre-modernist) traditional and classical architecture and urban planning (e.g., following the principles of New Urbanism and New Classical Architecture).[121] It also awards the renowned annual Driehaus Architecture Prize.[122]
  • The College of Engineering was established in 1920;[123] however, early courses in civil and mechanical engineering were a part of the College of Science since the 1870s.[124] Today the college, housed in the Fitzpatrick, Cushing, and Stinson-Remick Halls of Engineering,[125] includes five departments of study – aerospace and mechanical engineering, chemical and biomolecular engineering, civil engineering and geological sciences, computer science and engineering, and electrical engineering – with eight B.S. degrees offered. Additionally, the college offers five-year dual degree programs with the Colleges of Arts and Letters and of Business awarding additional B.A. and Master of Business Administration (MBA) degrees, respectively.[126]
  • The Mendoza College of Business was established by Father John Francis O’Hara in 1921, although a foreign commerce program was launched in 1917.[127] Today the college offers degrees in accountancy, finance, management, and marketing and enrolls over 1,600 students.[128] In 2016, Bloomberg Businessweek ranked Mendoza’s undergraduate program as second in the country[129] after five consecutive years in the first position.[130] For its 2017 rankings, U.S. News and World Report ranked the Graduate school 29th, tied with Rice University and Georgia Tech.[131]
  • The Keough School of Global Affairs was established in 2014 by Father John I. Jenkins, CSC. The first new school in nearly a century, it builds on the presence of seven institutes founded for international research, scholarship, and education at Notre Dame. The school offers six doctoral programs related to international peace studies, a Masters in Global Affairs focused either in peace studies or sustainable development, and five undergraduate majors.

Special programs

All of Notre Dame’s undergraduate students are a part of one of the five undergraduate colleges at the school or are in the First Year of Studies program.

The Hesburgh Library, which is the center of the campus’ intellectual life

The First Year of Studies program was established in 1962 to guide incoming freshmen in their first year at the school before they have declared a major. Each student is given an academic advisor from the program who helps them to choose classes that give them exposure to any major in which they are interested.[132] The program also includes a Learning Resource Center which provides time management, collaborative learning, and subject tutoring.[133] This program has been recognized previously, by U.S. News & World Report, as outstanding.[134] The program is designed to encourage intellectual and academic achievement and innovation among first year students. It includes programs such as FY advising, the Dean’s A list, the Renaissance circle, NDignite, the First year Urban challenge and more.

Each admissions cycle, the Office of Undergraduate Admissions selects a small number of students for the Glynn Family Honors Program, which grants top students within the College of Arts and Letters and the College of Science access to smaller class sizes taught by distinguished faculty, endowed funding for independent research, and dedicated advising faculty and staff.[135]

Graduate and professional schools

The Law School in winter

The university first offered graduate degrees, in the form of a Master of Arts (MA), in the 1854–1855 academic year. The program expanded to include Master of Laws (LL.M.) and Master of Civil Engineering in its early stages of growth, before a formal graduate school education was developed with a thesis not required to receive the degrees. This changed in 1924 with formal requirements developed for graduate degrees, including offering Doctorate (PhD) degrees.[136]

  • Each of the five colleges offers graduate education in the form of Masters and Doctoral programs. Most of the departments from the College of Arts and Letters offer PhD programs, while a professional Master of Divinity (M.Div.) program also exists. All of the departments in the College of Science offer PhD programs, except for the Department of Pre-Professional Studies. The School of Architecture offers a Master of Architecture, while each of the departments of the College of Engineering offer PhD programs. The College of Business offers multiple professional programs including MBA and Master of Science in Accountancy programs. It also operates facilities in Chicago and Cincinnati for its executive MBA program.[137] Additionally, the Alliance for Catholic Education program[138] offers a Master of Education program where students study at the university during the summer and teach in Catholic elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools across the Southern United States for two school years.[139] The Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies at the University of Notre Dame is dedicated to research, education and outreach on the causes of violent conflict and the conditions for sustainable peace. It offers PhD, Master’s, and undergraduate degrees in peace studies. It was founded in 1986 through the donations of Joan B. Kroc, the widow of McDonald’s owner Ray Kroc. The institute was inspired by the vision of the Rev. Theodore M. Hesburgh CSC, President Emeritus of the University of Notre Dame. The institute has contributed to international policy discussions about peace building practices.[140]
  • The Notre Dame Law School offers a professional program for students, where they can earn a degree in the law. Established in 1869, Notre Dame was the first Catholic university in the United States to have a law program.[141] Today the program has consistently ranked among the top law schools in the nation according to U.S. News & World Report.[142] The Law School grants the professional Juris Doctor degree as well as the graduate LL.M. and Doctor of Juridical Science degrees.[137]
  • Although Notre Dame does not have a medical school of its own, it offers a combined MD–PhD though the regional campus of the Indiana University School of Medicine, where Indiana University medical students may spend the first two years of their medical education before transferring to the main medical campus at IUPUI.[143][144]

In 2014, Notre Dame announced plans to establish the Donald R. Keough School of Global Affairs, a professional school focused on the study of global government, human rights, and other areas of global social and political policy. The creation of the school is funded by a $50 million gift from Donald Keough and Marilyn Keough and will be housed in Jenkins Hall on Debartolo Quad. The school is scheduled to open in August 2017.[145]

Libraries

The interior of the Kresge Law Library at the Notre Dame Law School

The library system of the university is divided between the main library and each of the colleges and schools. The main building is the 14-story Theodore M. Hesburgh Library, completed in 1963, which is the third building to house the main collection of books.[146] The front of the library is adorned with the Word of Life mural designed by artist Millard Sheets. This mural is popularly known as “Touchdown Jesus” because of its proximity to Notre Dame Stadium and Jesus’ arms appearing to make the signal for a touchdown.[147][148]

Clarke Memorial Fountain

The library system also includes branch libraries for Architecture, Chemistry and Physics, Engineering, Law, and Mathematics as well as information centers in the Mendoza College of Business, the Kellogg Institute for International Studies, the Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, and a slide library in O’Shaughnessy Hall.[149] A theology library was also opened in fall of 2015. Located on the first floor of Stanford Hall, it is the first branch of the library system to be housed in a dorm room. The library system holds over three million volumes, was the single largest university library in the world upon its completion,[150] and remains one of the 100 largest libraries in the country.[151]

Admissions

Notre Dame is known for its competitive admissions, with the incoming class enrolling in fall 2018 admitting 3,610 from a pool of 20,371 (17.7% acceptance rate in 2018).[152] The academic profile of the enrolled class continues to rate among the top 10 to 15 in the nation for national research universities. Of the most recent class, the Class of 2020, 48% were in the top 1% of their high school, and 94% were in the top 10%. The median SAT score was 1510 and the median ACT score was 34. The university practices a non-restrictive early action policy that allows admitted students to consider admission to Notre Dame as well as any other colleges to which they were accepted.[153] 1,400 of the 3,577 (39.1%) were admitted under the early action plan.[154] Admitted students came from 1,311 high schools and the average student traveled more than 750 miles to Notre Dame, making it arguably the most representative university in the United States. While all entering students begin in the College of the First Year of Studies, 25% have indicated they plan to study in the liberal arts or social sciences, 24% in engineering, 24% in business, 24% in science, and 3% in architecture.[155]

Rankings

University rankings
National
ARWU[156] 79–102
Forbes[157] 21
U.S. News & World Report[158] 18
Washington Monthly[159] 24
Global
ARWU[160] 201–300
QS[161] 195
Times[162] 108
U.S. News & World Report[163] 181

USNWR graduate school rankings[164]

Business 29
Engineering 48
Law 20

USNWR departmental rankings[164]

Biological Sciences 84
Chemistry 60
Clinical Psychology 47
Computer Science 60
Earth Sciences 88
Economics 47
English 33
Fine Arts 114
History 27
Mathematics 41
Physics 54
Political Science 37
Psychology 60
Sociology 32

In 2016–2017, Notre Dame ranked 7th for undergraduate teaching and 15th overall among “national universities” in the United States in U.S. News & World Reports Best Colleges 2016.[165][166] In 2014, USA Today ranked Notre Dame 10th overall for American universities.[167]Forbes’s “America’s Top Colleges” ranks Notre Dame 13th among colleges in the United States in 2016, 8th among Research Universities, and 1st in the Midwest.[168]U.S. News & World Report also lists Notre Dame Law School as 22nd overall.[142]BusinessWeek ranks Mendoza College of Business undergraduate school as 1st overall.[169] It ranks the MBA program as 20th overall. The Philosophical Gourmet Report ranks Notre Dame’s graduate philosophy program as 15th nationally,[170] while Architect Magazine ranked the undergraduate architecture program as 12th nationally.[171]
Additionally, the study abroad program ranks sixth in highest participation percentage in the nation, with 57.6% of students choosing to study abroad in 17 countries.[172] According to PayScale, undergraduate alumni of University of Notre Dame have a mid-career median salary $110,000, making it the 24th highest among colleges and universities in the United States. The median starting salary of $55,300 ranked 58th in the same peer group.[173] In a corporate study carried out by The New York Times, Notre Dame’s graduates were shown to be among the most sought-after and valued in the world,[174]

Named by Newsweek as one of the “25 New Ivies,”[175] it is also an Oak Ridge Associated University.[176]

Research

Science

Jordan Hall of Science

Father Joseph Carrier, C.S.C. was Director of the Science Museum and the Library and Professor of Chemistry and Physics until 1874. Carrier taught that scientific research and its promise for progress were not antagonistic to the ideals of intellectual and moral culture endorsed by the Church. One of Carrier’s students was Father John Augustine Zahm who was made Professor and Co-Director of the Science Department at age 23 and by 1900 was a nationally prominent scientist and naturalist. Zahm was active in the Catholic Summer School movement, which introduced Catholic laity to contemporary intellectual issues. His book Evolution and Dogma (1896) defended certain aspects of evolutionary theory as true, and argued, moreover, that even the great Church teachers Thomas Aquinas and Augustine taught something like it. The intervention of Irish American Catholics in Rome prevented Zahm’s censure by the Vatican. In 1913, Zahm and former President Theodore Roosevelt embarked on a major expedition through the Amazon.[177]

In 1882, Albert Zahm (John Zahm’s brother) built an early wind tunnel used to compare lift to drag of aeronautical models. Around 1899, Professor Jerome Green became the first American to send a wireless message.[178] In 1931, Father Julius Nieuwland performed early work on basic reactions that was used to create neoprene.[179] Study of nuclear physics at the university began with the building of a nuclear accelerator in 1936,[180] and continues now partly through a partnership in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics.[181]

Lobund Institute

The Lobund Institute (Laboratory Of Biology University of Notre Dame) grew out of pioneering research in germ-free-life which began in 1928. This area of research originated in a question posed by Pasteur as to whether animal life was possible without bacteria. Although others had taken up this idea, their research was short lived and inconclusive. Lobund was the first research organization to answer definitively, that such life is possible and that it can be prolonged through generations. But the objective was not merely to answer Pasteur’s question but also to produce the germ free animal as a new tool for biological and medical research. This objective was reached and for years Lobund was a unique center for the study and production of germ free animals and for their use in biological and medical investigations. Today the work has spread to other universities. In the beginning it was under the Department of Biology and a program leading to the master’s degree accompanied the research program. In the 1940s Lobund achieved independent status as a purely research organization and in 1950 was raised to the status of an Institute. In 1958 it was brought back into the Department of Biology as integral part of that department, but with its own program leading to the degree of PhD in Gnotobiotics.[182]

Hallway within Hurley Hall

Humanities

Richard T. Sullivan taught English from 1936 to 1974 and published six novels, dozens of short stories, and various other efforts. He was known as a regional writer and a Catholic spokesman.[183]

The new wing of the Law School

Frank O’Malley was an English professor during the 1930s–1960s. Influenced by philosophers Jacques Maritain, John U. Nef, and others, O’Malley developed a concept of Christian philosophy that was a fundamental element in his thought. Through his course “Modern Catholic Writers” O’Malley introduced generations of undergraduates to Gabriel Marcel, Graham Greene, Evelyn Waugh, Sigrid Undset, Paul Claudel, and Gerard Manley Hopkins.[184]

The Review of Politics was founded in 1939 by Waldemar Gurian, modeled after German Catholic journals. It quickly emerged as part of an international Catholic intellectual revival, offering an alternative vision to positivist philosophy. For 44 years, the Review was edited by Gurian, Matthew Fitzsimons, Frederick Crosson, and Thomas Stritch. Intellectual leaders included Gurian, Jacques Maritain, Frank O’Malley, Leo Richard Ward, F. A. Hermens, and John U. Nef. It became a major forum for political ideas and modern political concerns, especially from a Catholic and scholastic tradition.[185]

Kenneth Sayre has explored the history of the Philosophy department. He stresses the abandonment of official Thomism to the philosophical pluralism of the 1970s, with attention to the issue of being Catholic. He pays special attention to the charismatic personalities of Ernan McMullin and Ralph McInerny, key leaders of the department in the 1960s and 1970s.[186]

European émigrés

The rise of Hitler and other dictators in the 1930s forced numerous Catholic intellectuals to flee Europe; president John O’Hara brought many to Notre Dame. From Germany came Anton-Hermann Chroust (1907–1982) in classics and law,[187] and Waldemar Gurian a German Catholic intellectual of Jewish descent. Positivism dominated American intellectual life in the 1920s onward but in marked contrast, Gurian received a German Catholic education and wrote his doctoral dissertation under Max Scheler.[188]Ivan Meštrović (1883–1962), a renowned sculptor, brought Croatian culture to campus, 1955–62.[189]Yves Simon (1903–61), brought to ND in the 1940s the insights of French studies in the Aristotelian-Thomistic tradition of philosophy; his own teacher Jacques Maritain (1882–1973) was a frequent visitor to campus.[190]

The Pieta by Ivan Meštrović, a European émigré

The exiles developed a distinctive emphasis on the evils of totalitarianism. For example, the political science courses of Gerhart Niemeyer (1907–97) discussed communist ideology and were particularly accessible to his students. He came to ND in 1955, and was a frequent contributor to the National Review and other conservative magazines.[191] In 1960, then President Theodore M. Hesburgh, at the urging of Niemeyer and political science department head, Fr. Stanley Parry, C.S.C., invited Eric Voegelin (1901-1985), who had escaped Nazi-occupied Austria, to guest lecture at Notre Dame, which he did until his retirement in 1968.

Current research

As of 2012[update] research continued in many fields. The university president, John Jenkins, described his hope that Notre Dame would become “one of the pre–eminent research institutions in the world” in his inaugural address.[192] The university has many multi-disciplinary institutes devoted to research in varying fields, including the Medieval Institute, the Kellogg Institute for International Studies, the Kroc Institute for International Peace studies, and the Center for Social Concerns.[193] Recent research includes work on family conflict and child development,[194][195]genome mapping,[196] the increasing trade deficit of the United States with China,[197] studies in fluid mechanics,[198]computational science and engineering,[199]supramolecular chemistry,[200] and marketing trends on the Internet.[201] As of 2013[update], the university is home to the Notre Dame Global Adaptation Index which ranks countries annually based on how vulnerable they are to climate change and how prepared they are to adapt.[202]

Student life

In 2014 the Notre Dame student body consisted of 12,179 students, with 8,448 undergraduates, 2,138 graduate and professional and 1,593 professional (Law, M.Div., Business, MEd) students.[5] Around 21–24% of students are children of alumni,[203] and although 37% of students come from the Midwestern United States, the student body represents all 50 states and 100 countries. 32% of students are U.S. students of color or international citizens.[5] As of March 2007[update]The Princeton Review ranked the school as the fifth highest ‘dream school’ for parents to send their children.[204] As of March 2015[update] The Princeton Review ranked Notre Dame as the ninth highest.[205] It has also been commended by some diversity oriented publications; Hispanic Magazine in 2004 ranked the university ninth on its list of the top–25 colleges for Latinos,[206] and The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education recognized the university in 2006 for raising enrollment of African-American students.[207]

The strictly measured federal graduation rate for athletes was 98% for freshmen who entered between 2007 and 2010, the highest in the country.[208]

Student events

With 6,000 participants, the university’s intramural sports program was named in 2004 by Sports Illustrated as the best program in the country,[209] while in 2007 The Princeton Review named it as the top school where “Everyone Plays Intramural Sports.”[210] The annual Bookstore Basketball tournament is the largest outdoor five-on-five tournament in the world with over 700 teams participating each year,[211] while the Notre Dame Men’s Boxing Club hosts the annual Bengal Bouts tournament that raises money for the Holy Cross Missions in Bangladesh.[212] In the fall, the Notre Dame Women’s Boxing Club hosts an annual Baraka Bouts tournament that raises money for the Congregation of the Holy Cross Missions in Uganda.

Many of the most popular student events held on campus are organized by the 30 Residential Halls, which are the core of the student community. Among these, the most notable are the Keenan Revue, the Fisher Hall Regatta, Keenan Hall Muddy Sunday, the Morrissey Hall Medallion Hunt, the Dillon Hall Pep Rally, the Keough Hall Chariot Race and many others. Each dorm also hosts many formal and informal balls and dances each year.

Howard Hall, one of the fifteen female dormitories on campus

Residence halls

Residentiality is a primary and defining characteristic of a Notre Dame undergraduate education and is embedded in the Mission Statement of the University. About 80% of undergraduates and 20% of graduate students live on campus.[5] The majority of the graduate students on campus live in one of four graduate housing complexes on campus, while all on-campus undergraduates live in one of the 31 residence halls.[213] All residence halls are single-sex, with 16 male dorms, 14 female dorms, and one small house of formation for male college students discerning entrance into the Congregation of Holy Cross.[214] The university maintains a visiting policy (known as parietal hours) for those students who live in dormitories, specifying times when members of the opposite sex are allowed to visit other students’ dorm rooms; however, all residence halls have 24-hour social spaces for students regardless of gender.

Every hall is led by a rector. Rectors are made up of priests, religious sisters or brothers, and laypersons trained in ministry and/or education. They are full-time, live-in professionals who serve as pastoral leaders, chief administrators, community builders and university resources to their residents. Rectors often coordinate with professors, academic advisors, and counselors to look after students and guide their formation into adulthood. They select, hire, train, and supervise hall staff: resident advisors (only chosen from the seniors) and assistant rectors (graduate students). Many residence halls also have at least one priest or lay faculty member in residence. Every hall has its own chapel and liturgical schedule with masses celebrated multiple times per week during the academic year.

There are no traditional social fraternities or sororities at the university, but a majority of students live in the same residence hall for all four years. The residence halls are the primary places for students to develop community and identity. Every hall has its own colors, mascot, signature events, and lore. Hence, when two alumni meet, the first question asked is often, “Where did you live?”. Most intramural (interhall) sports are based on residence hall teams, where the university offers the only non-military academy program of full-contact intramural American football.[215] At the end of the interhall football season, the championship game is played on the field in Notre Dame Stadium.

Religious life

Basilica of the Sacred Heart at night

The university is affiliated with the Congregation of Holy Cross (Latin: Congregatio a Sancta Cruce, abbreviated postnominals: “CSC”). While religious affiliation is not a criterion for admission, more than 93% of students identify as Christian, with over 80% of the total being Catholic.[216] There are 47 chapels on campus, including one in every residence hall. Collectively, Catholic Mass is celebrated over 100 times per week on campus, and a large campus ministry program provides for the faith needs of the community.[215][217] Fifty-seven chapels are located throughout the campus.[218] There are also the Baptist Collegiate Ministry (BCM), Jewish Club, Muslim Student Association, Orthodox Christian Fellowship, The Mormon Club, and many more.

The university is the major seat of the Congregation of Holy Cross (albeit not its official headquarters, which are in Rome).[219] Its main seminary, Moreau Seminary, is located on the campus across St. Joseph lake from the Main Building.[220]Old College, the oldest building on campus and located near the shore of St. Mary lake, houses undergraduate seminarians. Retired priests and brothers reside in Fatima House (a former retreat center), Holy Cross House, as well as Columba Hall near the Grotto.[221]

Student-run media

As at most other universities, Notre Dame’s students run a number of news media outlets. The nine student-run outlets include three newspapers, both a radio and television station, and several magazines and journals. Begun as a one-page journal in September 1876,[222] the Scholastic magazine is issued twice monthly and claims to be the oldest continuous collegiate publication in the United States. The other magazine, The Juggler, is released twice a year and focuses on student literature and artwork.[223] The Dome yearbook is published annually. The newspapers have varying publication interests, with The Observer published daily and mainly reporting university and other news,[224] and staffed by students from both Notre Dame and Saint Mary’s College. Unlike Scholastic and The Dome, The Observer is an independent publication and does not have a faculty advisor or any editorial oversight from the University. In 1987, when some students believed that The Observer began to show a conservative bias, a liberal newspaper, Common Sense was published. “Common Sense” is no longer published. In 2003, when other students believed that the paper showed a liberal bias, the Irish Rover went into production. The Irish Rover is a fully independent non-profit paper that is published twice a month and features regular columns from alumni and faculty in addition to coverage of campus matters. The Observer and the Irish Rover are both distributed to all students.[223]Finally, in Spring 2008 an undergraduate journal for political science research, Beyond Politics, made its debut.[225]

The television station, NDtv, grew from one show in 2002 to a full 24-hour channel with original programming by September 2006.[226]WSND-FM serves the student body and larger South Bend community at 88.9 FM, offering students a chance to become involved in bringing classical music, fine arts and educational programming, and alternative rock to the airwaves. Another radio station, WVFI, began as a partner of WSND-FM. More recently, however, WVFI has been airing independently and is streamed on the Internet.[227]

Athletics

Notre Dame Stadium

Notre Dame teams are known as the Fighting Irish. They compete as a member of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I, primarily competing in the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC) for all sports except football since the 2013–14 school year.[228] The Fighting Irish previously competed in the Horizon League from 1982 to 1983 to 1985–86, and again from 1987 to 1988 to 1994–95, and then in the Big East Conference through 2012–13. Men’s sports include baseball, basketball, cross country, fencing, football(independent), golf, ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer, swimming and diving, tennis and track & field; while women’s sports include basketball, cross country, fencing, golf, lacrosse, rowing, soccer, softball, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field, and volleyball. The football team competes as a Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) Independent[229] since its inception in 1887. Both fencing teams compete in the Midwest Fencing Conference,[230] and the men’s ice hockey team competes in the Big Ten Conference

Football Stadium during a game

Notre Dame’s conference affiliations for all of its sports except football and fencing changed in July 2013 as a result of major conference realignment, and its fencing affiliation changed in July 2014. The Irish left the Big East for the ACC during a prolonged period of instability in the Big East;[231][232] while they maintain their football independence, they have committed to play five games per season against ACC opponents.[233] In ice hockey, the Irish were forced to find a new conference home after the Big Ten Conference’s decision to add the sport in 2013–14 led to a cascade of conference moves that culminated in the dissolution of the school’s former hockey home, the Central Collegiate Hockey Association, after the 2012–13 season. Notre Dame moved its hockey team to Hockey East.[234] After Notre Dame joined the ACC, the conference announced it would add fencing as a sponsored sport beginning in the 2014–15 school year.[235]

There are many theories behind the adoption of the athletics moniker[236] but it is known that the Fighting Irish name was used in the early 1920s with respect to the football team and was popularized by alumnus Francis Wallace in his New York Daily News columns.[237] The official colors of Notre Dame are navy blue and gold,[238] which are worn in competition by its athletic teams. In addition, the color green is often worn because of the Fighting Irish nickname.[239] The Notre Dame Leprechaun is the mascot of the athletic teams. Created by Theodore W. Drake in 1964, the leprechaun was first used on the football pocket schedule and later on the football program covers. The leprechaun was featured on the cover of Time in November 1964 and gained national exposure.[240]

On July 1, 2014, the University of Notre Dame and Under Armour reached an agreement in which Under Armour provides uniforms, apparel, equipment, and monetary compensation to Notre Dame for 10 years. This contract, worth almost $100 million, is the most lucrative in the history of the NCAA.[241]
The university marching band plays at home games for most of the sports. The band, which began in 1846 and has a claim as the oldest university band in continuous existence in the United States, was honored by the National Music Council as a “Landmark of American Music” during the United States Bicentennial.[242] The band regularly plays the school’s fight song the Notre Dame Victory March, which was named as the most played and most famous fight song by Northern Illinois Professor William Studwell.[243] According to College Fight Songs: An Annotated Anthology published in 1998, the “Notre Dame Victory March” ranks as the greatest fight song of all time.[243]

Coach Knute Rockne

According to some analysts without direct connection to the university or its athletic department, Notre Dame promotes Muscular Christianity through its athletic programs.[244][245]

Football

The Notre Dame football team’s history began when the Michigan Wolverines football team brought the game of football to Notre Dame in 1887 and played against a group of students.[246] Since then, 13 Fighting Irish teams have won consensus national championships (although the university only claims 11),[228] along with another nine teams being named national champion by at least one source.[247] Additionally, the program has the most members in the College Football Hall of Fame,[248] is tied with Ohio State University with the most Heisman Trophies won,[249] and have the highest winning percentage in NCAA history.[250] With the long history, Notre Dame has accumulated many rivals, and its annual game against USC for the Jeweled Shillelagh has been named by some as one of the most important in college football[251] and is often called the greatest intersectional rivalry in college football in the country.[252][253][254][255]

Notre Dame playing against Navy

George Gipp was the school’s legendary football player during 1916–20. He played semiprofessional baseball and smoked, drank, and gambled when not playing sports. He was also humble, generous to the needy, and a man of integrity.[256] It was in 1928 that famed coach Knute Rockne used his final conversation with the dying Gipp to inspire the Notre Dame team to beat the Army team and “win one for the Gipper.” The 1940 film, Knute Rockne, All American, starred Pat O’Brien as Knute Rockne and Ronald Reagan as Gipp. The team competes in Notre Dame Stadium, an 80,795-seat stadium on campus.[257] The current head coach is Brian Kelly, hired from the University of Cincinnati on December 11, 2009.[258] Kelly’s record in midway through his sixth season at Notre Dame is 52–21. In 2012, Kelly’s Fighting Irish squad went undefeated and played in the BCS National Championship Game. Kelly succeeded Charlie Weis, who was fired in November 2009 after five seasons.[259][260] Although Weis led his team to two Bowl Championship Series bowl games,[261] his overall record was 35–27,[262] mediocre by Notre Dame standards, and the 2007 team had the most losses in school history.[263] The football team generates enough revenue to operate independently while $22.1 million is retained from the team’s profits for academic use. Forbes named the team as the most valuable in college football, worth a total of $101 million in 2007.[264]

Football gameday traditions

During home games, activities occur all around campus and different dorms decorate their halls with a traditional item (e.g., Zahm Hall’s two-story banner). Traditional activities begin at the stroke of midnight with the Drummers’ Circle. This tradition involves the drum line of the Band of the Fighting Irish and ushers in the rest of the festivities that will continue the rest of the gameday Saturday. Later that day, the trumpet section will play the Notre Dame Victory March and the Notre Dame Alma Mater under the dome. The entire band will play a concert at the steps of Bond Hall, from where they will march into Notre Dame Stadium, leading fans and students alike across the campus to the game.[265]

Men’s basketball

The Joyce Center, where basketball is played

As of the 2014–2015 season, the men’s basketball team has over 1,898 wins; only 8 other schools have more wins,[266] and Fighting Irish teams have appeared in 28 NCAA tournaments.[267] Former player Austin Carr holds the record for most points scored in a single game of the tournament with 61.[268] Although the team has never won the NCAA Tournament, they were named by the Helms Athletic Foundation as national champions twice.[267] The team has orchestrated a number of upsets of number one ranked teams, the most notable of which was ending UCLA’s record 88-game winning streak in 1974.[269] The team has beaten an additional eight number-one teams, and those nine wins rank second, to UCLA’s 10, all-time in wins against the top team.[267] The team plays in newly renovated Purcell Pavilion (within the Edmund P. Joyce Center), which reopened for the beginning of the 2009–2010 season.[270] The team is coached by Mike Brey, who, as of the 2015–16 season, his fifteenth at Notre Dame, has achieved a 356–177 record.[271] In 2009 they were invited to the NIT, where they advanced to the semi-finals but were beaten by Penn State who went on and beat Baylor in the championship. The 2010–11 team concluded its regular season ranked number seven in the country, with a record of 25–5, Brey’s fifth straight 20-win season, and a second-place finish in the Big East. During the 2014–15 season, the team went 32–6 and won the ACC conference tournament, later advancing to the Elite 8, where the Fighting Irish lost on a missed buzzer-beater against then undefeated Kentucky. Led by NBA draft picks Jerian Grant and Pat Connaughton, the Fighting Irish beat the eventual national champion Duke Blue Devils twice during the season. The 32 wins were the most by the Fighting Irish team since 1908–09.

Other sports

Notre Dame has been successful in other sports besides football, with an additional 14 national championships in various sports. Three teams have won multiple national championships with the fencing team leading them with ten,[272] followed by the men’s tennis and women’s soccer teams each with two.[273][274] The men’s cross country,[274] men’s golf,[274] teams have one one and the women’s basketball has won two in their histories.[275]

In the first ten years that Notre Dame competed in the Big East Conference its teams won a total of 64 championships.[276] As of 2010[update], the women’s swimming and diving team holds the Big East record for consecutive conference championships in any sport with 14 straight conference titles (1997–2010).[277]

Band and “Victory March”

The Band of the Fighting Irish is the oldest university band in continuous existence.[278] It was formed in 1846. The all-male Glee Club was formed in 1915.[279] The Internationally recognized “Notre Dame Folk Choir” was founded by Steven “Cookie” Warner in 1980.[280]

The Notre Dame Band of the Fighting Irish

The “Notre Dame Victory March” is the fight song for the University of Notre Dame. It was written by two brothers who were Notre Dame graduates. The Rev. Michael J. Shea, a 1904 graduate, wrote the music, and his brother, John F. Shea, who earned degrees in 1906 and 1908, wrote the original lyrics. The lyrics were revised in the 1920s; it first appeared under the copyright of the University of Notre Dame in 1928. The chorus is, “Cheer cheer for old Notre Dame, wake up the echos cheering her name. Send a volley cheer on high, shake down the thunder from the sky! What though the odds be great or small, old Notre Dame will win over all. While her loyal sons are marching, onward to victory!”

The chorus of the song is one of the most recognizable collegiate fight songs in the United States, and was ranked first among fight songs by Northern Illinois University Professor William Studwell, who remarked it was “more borrowed, more famous and, frankly, you just hear it more”.[243]

In the film Knute Rockne, All American, Knute Rockne (played by Pat O’Brien) delivers the famous “Win one for the Gipper” speech, at which point the background music swells with the “Notre Dame Victory March”. George Gipp was played by Ronald Reagan, whose nickname “The Gipper” was derived from this role. This scene was parodied in the movie Airplane! with the same background music, only this time honoring George Zipp, one of Ted Striker’s former comrades. The song also was prominent in the movie Rudy, with Sean Astin as Daniel “Rudy” Ruettiger, who harbored dreams of playing football at the University of Notre Dame despite significant obstacles.

Alumni

Notre Dame alumni number near 120,000, and are members of 275 alumni clubs around the world.[citation needed] Many alumni give yearly monetary support to the university, with a school-record 53.2% giving some donation in 2006.[281] Many buildings on campus are named for those whose donations allowed their building, including residence halls,[282][283] classroom buildings,[284] and the performing arts center.[74]

Notre Dame alumni work in various fields. Alumni working in political fields include state governors,[285] members of the United States Congress,[286] and former United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.[287] Notable alumni from the College of Science are Eric F. Wieschaus, winner of the 1995 Nobel Prize in medicine,[288] and Philip Majerus, discoverer of the cardioprotective effects of aspirin.[289] A number of university heads are alumni, including Notre Dame’s current president, the Rev. John Jenkins.[290] Additionally, many alumni are in the media, including talk show hosts Regis Philbin[291] and Phil Donahue,[292] and television and radio personalities such as Mike Golic[293] and Hannah Storm.[294] With the university having high-profile sports teams itself, a number of alumni went on to become involved in athletics outside the university, including professional baseball, basketball, football, and ice hockey players, such as Joe Theismann, Joe Montana,[295]Tim Brown, Ross Browner, Rocket Ismail, Ruth Riley, Jeff Samardzija,[296]Jerome Bettis, Brett Lebda, Olympic gold medalist Mariel Zagunis, professional boxer Mike Lee, former football coaches such as Charlie Weis,[297]Frank Leahy and Knute Rockne,[298][299] and Basketball Hall of Famers Austin Carr and Adrian Dantley. Other notable alumni include prominent businessman Edward J. DeBartolo, Jr. and astronaut Jim Wetherbee.[300][301]

Popular culture

The University of Notre Dame is the setting for numerous works of fiction, as well of the alma mater of many fictional characters. In mid-20th century America it became “perhaps the most popular symbol of Catholicism,” as noted by The Routledge Companion to Religion and Popular Culture:

By combining religion, ethnicity, masculinity, and athletics into a potent mixture of an aggressive and uniquely Catholic gospel of athletics, Notre Dame football became the emblematic program that represented American Catholic self-identity.[302]

Dealing with the era before coeducation, James P. Leary, an alumnus who is now a folklore professor at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, has contrasted two self-images of the Notre Dame student. They coexist uneasily, the first appearing in official documents the second in popular culture. Leary states:

Two opposing cultural systems have long coexisted at the University of Notre Dame. The former is normative, overt, official while the latter is deviant, largely covert, and unofficial. Catholicism, academic excellence, and athletics are prominently featured in university publications, in the rhetoric of administrator and alumni, and in serious histories of the campus. Meanwhile, the drunken rowdiness of sex-starved, animalistic dirtballs is confined to dormitory rooms, the talk of students, occasional periods of license, and playful ephemeral publications. Both systems have been integral to the experience of Notre Damers.[303]

Film

  • Knute Rockne, All American (1940) is a 1940 biographical film which tells the story of Knute Rockne, Notre Dame football coach.
  • The “Win one for the Gipper” speech was parodied in the 1980 movie Airplane! when, with the Victory March rising to a crescendo in the background, Dr. Rumak, played by Leslie Nielsen, urged reluctant pilot Ted Striker, played by Robert Hays, to “win just one for the Zipper”, Striker’s war buddy, George Zipp. The Victory March also plays during the film’s credits.
  • Rudy (1993) is an account of the life of Daniel “Rudy” Ruettiger, who harbored dreams of playing football at the University of Notre Dame despite significant obstacles.
  • In Mr. & Mrs. Smith (2005), Brad Pitt’s character Mr. Smith majored in art history at Notre Dame.[304]
  • In the film Something Borrowed, Ginnifer Goodwin’s character is not accepted into Notre Dame Law School, which is depicted as a crushing event because her competitive best friend (Kate Hudson) manages to get in. Later, it is revealed that it was a lie and she did not get in.[304]
  • Lt. Walter J. “Touchdown” Schinoski, claims to have played football at Notre Dame in Stanley Kubrick’s Full Metal Jacket.[305]

Television

  • President Josiah Bartlet from the show The West Wing is a Notre Dame graduate, and the First Lady Abigail Bartlet attended Saint Mary’s College. Danny Concannon, member of the White House press corps, is also a graduate of Notre Dame. Actor Martin Sheen specifically asked that his character be a Notre Dame alumnus, a choice rooted in the Catholicism shared by both the actor and the character.[306]
  • Notre Dame was featured several times on The Simpsons. In the episode “Sunday, Cruddy Sunday” the character Rudy wearing his ND jacket makes an appearance. On the episode “The Father, the Son, and the Holy Guest Star” Homer and Bart go to Catholic Heaven, where there is a group of Irish, among whom a man wearing a ND sweatshirt.
  • In the drama Friday Night Lights, Jason Street is ranked as one of the top high school quarterbacks in the nation with a scholarship offer to the University of Notre Dame, but during the first game of the season he suffers a severe spinal cord injury.[304]
  • Paul Lassiter, Press secretary on Spin City,[307] Edward Montgomery (Greg’s father on Dharma and Greg), and William Walden (Vice President on Homeland) are fictional alumni.
  • The character Sean Donahue, from the ABC primetime sitcom The Middle attends Notre Dame to become a doctor.
  • Li’l Sebastian, a miniature horse on Parks and Recreation, holds an honorary Notre Dame degree.[308]

Other media

  • The Notre Dame Leprechaun and coach Ara Parseghian were featured on the cover of Time magazine in November 1964.[309]

See also

  • Catholic university
  • History of Science Society
  • Summer Shakespeare

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Further reading

  • Burns, Robert E. Being Catholic, Being American: The Notre Dame Story, 1934–1952, Vol. 2. (2000). 632pp. excerpt and text search
  • Corson, Dorothy V. A Cave of Candles: The Spirit, History, Legends and Lore of Notre Dame and Saint Mary’s (2006), 222pp.
  • Hesburgh, Theodore M. God, Country, Notre Dame: The Autobiography of Theodore M. Hesburgh (2000)
  • McAvoy, Thomas T. “Notre Dame, 1919–1922: The Burns Revolution.” Review of Politics 1963 25(4): 431–450. in JSTOR
  • McAvoy, Thomas T. Father O’Hara of Notre Dame (1967)
  • Massa, Mark S. Catholics and American Culture: Fulton Sheen, Dorothy Day, and the Notre Dame Football Team. (1999). 278 pp.
  • O’Brien, Michael. Hesburgh: A Biography. (1998). 354 pp.
  • O’Connell, Marvin R. Edward Sorin. (2001). 792 pp.
  • Pilkinton, Mark C. Washington Hall at Notre Dame: Crossroads of the University, 1864–2004 (University of Notre Dame Press, 2011) 419 pp.
  • Rice, Charles E., Ralph McInerny, and Alfred J. Freddoso. What Happened to Notre Dame? (2009) laments the weakening of Catholicism at ND
  • Robinson, Ray. Rockne of Notre Dame: The Making of a Football Legend. (1999). 290 pp.
  • Sperber, Murray. Shake Down the Thunder: The Creation of Notre Dame Football. (1993) 634 pp.
  • Yaeger, Don and Looney, Douglas S. Under the Tarnished Dome: How Notre Dame Betrayed Its Ideals for Football Glory. (1993). 299 pp.

External links

  • Official website Edit this at Wikidata
  • Notre Dame Athletics website


Beech Grove City Schools

Beech Grove City Schools
Indianapolis school districts.png

Map of School Districts in Marion County. The Beech Grove City Schools is shaded in light blue.
Location
Beech Grove, Indiana, USA
Information
Type Public
Enrollment 2,293
Superintendent Dr. Paul Kaiser

Beech Grove City Schools is the public school district serving the city of Beech Grove, Indiana. The district has five schools, with a total of 2,293 students.[1] The district superintendent is Dr. Paul Kaiser.

Schools

  • Hornet Park Elementary
  • Central Elementary
  • South Grove Intermediate
  • Beech Grove Middle School
  • Beech Grove High School

References

  1. ^ “Corporation Snapshot, Beech Grove City Schools”. School Data. n.d. Archived from the original on 2003-03-08. Retrieved 2007-12-29..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}

Beech Grove, Indiana

City in Indiana, United States
Beech Grove, Indiana
City
Motto(s): 

“Where Tradition Welcomes Progress”
Location of Beech Grove in Marion County, Indiana.

Location of Beech Grove in Marion County, Indiana.
Coordinates: 39°43′4″N 86°5′29″W / 39.71778°N 86.09139°W / 39.71778; -86.09139Coordinates: 39°43′4″N 86°5′29″W / 39.71778°N 86.09139°W / 39.71778; -86.09139[1]
Country United States
State Indiana
County Marion
Founded 1906
Government

 • Type Mayor-council
 • Mayor Dennis Buckley (D)
 • City Council[3] Elizabeth Lamping (D, 1st)[2]
Vito Mascari (D, 2nd)
Chris Duffer (R, 3rd)
Kevin Day (R, 4th)
Dave Harrison (D, 5th)
Jim Brooks (D, AL)
Buddy Templin (D, AL)
Area

[4]
 • Total 4.39 sq mi (11.38 km2)
 • Land 4.39 sq mi (11.38 km2)
 • Water 0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)
Elevation

804 ft (245 m)
Population

(2010)[5]
 • Total 14,192
 • Estimate 

(2017)[6]
14,795
 • Density 3,366.33/sq mi (1,299.85/km2)
Time zone UTC-5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST) UTC-4 (EDT)
ZIP code
46107
Area code(s) 317
FIPS code 18-04204[7]
GNIS feature ID 0430719[8]
Interstate Spurs I-465
Public transit IndyGo
Website http://www.beechgrove.com/

Beech Grove is an excluded city in Marion County, Indiana, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city’s population is 14,192. The city is located within the Indianapolis metropolitan area.

Contents

  • 1 Geography

    • 1.1 Climate
  • 2 History and notable people
  • 3 Transportation
  • 4 Demographics

    • 4.1 2010 census
    • 4.2 2000 census
  • 5 Government
  • 6 Education
  • 7 Medical institutions
  • 8 Religious institutions
  • 9 Civic institutions
  • 10 Local media
  • 11 Youth activities
  • 12 References
  • 13 External links

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.39 square miles (11.37 km2), all land.[9]

The city’s elevation, measured in feet above sea level, ranges from 766 (the Beech Creek waterway, where it is crossed by South 9th Avenue) to 845 (the northeastern portion of the Amtrak railroad property). It is higher than that of downtown Indianapolis.

The city contains several small non-navigable waterways. Beech Creek, McFarland Creek, Pullman Creek, and Victory Run all feed into Lick Creek, which (after leaving the city limits) feeds into the West Fork of the White River.

The city is located within parts of four of Marion County’s townships. In order of city land size, those townships are Perry, Franklin, Center, and Warren. In order of city population, the list is Perry, Center, and Franklin; the Warren Township section is uninhabited railroad land.

Climate

The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Beech Grove has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated “Cfa” on climate maps.[10]

History and notable people

By the turn of the 20th century, the Beech Grove area was a rural section of Marion County. Notable residents included poet and women’s-rights activist Sarah Tittle (Barrett) Bolton (1814–1893) and Indianapolis financier Francis McClintock Churchman (1833–1891).

Bolton’s farm, “Beech Bank”, and Churchman’s cattle farm, “Beech Grove Farm”, both reflected the abundance of beech trees in this area. This would eventually provide the reason for the city’s name, although an early railroad stop in the area was known as “Ingallstown”. The city’s Sarah T. Bolton Park, situated on some of the former Beech Bank farmland, still contains several large beech trees along its southern boundary.

Amtrak trains are serviced at the Beech Grove Shops in 1980.

The actual city came into existence as a company town for a new railroad repair facility, the Beech Grove Shops, constructed by the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago, and St. Louis Railroad (nicknamed the “Big Four”). Through acquisitions and mergers over the years, the railroad shops have been run by the New York Central, Penn Central and, presently, Amtrak rail systems. The complex sits on 108 acres (0.44 km2) with 700,000 square feet (65,000 m2) underroof. In 2007, Amtrak had 550 employees working there.[11]
In recognition of the city’s heritage as a railroad town, Amtrak’s business car 10001 is named The Beech Grove[12] and is often used by agency officials when they travel the system.

Although Beech Grove was incorporated in late 1906, it did not see rapid growth until the completion of the railroad facility in 1908; by July 1907, for example, there were only four homes and two businesses in place.

Beech Grove grew with two annexations after World War II, with the final one (1967) taking place just before the Unigov legislation which merged Indianapolis with most of the rest of Marion County, preventing future annexation.

Two famous actors have listed Beech Grove as their birthplace—Clifton Webb (November 19, 1889–1966) and Steve McQueen (March 24, 1930–1980). Webb was born before Beech Grove came into existence as a separate entity, while McQueen was born at the city’s St. Francis Hospital. Both moved away from the area while they were still infants; neither one grew up or lived in Beech Grove.

On October 15, 1948, Beech Grove received the honor of a visit by a sitting President of the United States. Harry S. Truman, a Mason, came to the city’s Masonic Lodge during his legendary ‘whistle stop’ re-election campaign to participate in a ceremony involving a member of his staff who was one of its members.

Within the traditional focus in Indiana on high-school basketball, the Beech Grove Hornets have earned one IHSAA State Championship—that of its girls team, in Class 3A of the 2003 tournament. From that team, senior Katie Gearlds won both the IHSAA’s Patricia Roy Mental Attitude Award (for Class 3A) and the “Miss Basketball” honor for the entire State. She went on to be a four-year starter for Purdue University from 2003 to 2007, and was the first Hornet graduate to play in an American professional sports major league (for the WNBA’s Seattle Storm in the 2007 season). During the non-class years before 1996, the school had earned only three Sectional (equivalent to District in some states) titles (two by the boys’ team in 1966 and 1992, and one by the girls’ team in 1978); since the change to classes in Indiana high-school basketball, the boys’ team has won one Class 3A Sectional title (2008).

The Hornets’ most consistent state-level athletic success has come in wrestling, in which five students have won a total of seven individual state titles (Ralf Edwards and Gary Pierson in 1972, Ethan Harris in 2005, Danny Coyne in 2006, and a three-year unbeaten run by Steven Bradley from 1996 to 1998). The 1972 wrestling team endured the closest-ever runner-up finish in IHSAA wrestling history, ending up a half-point behind Bloomington. 60 Hornet wrestlers have qualified for the IHSAA State Finals (with several appearing two, three or four times), winning 55 placement medals. Also, in swimming, Andy McVey won two IHSAA individual titles in 1986, setting State records for that time; he had come back from a false-start disqualification in the 1985 finals, in which he had been favored to win. Andy won also this Herman F. Keller Mental Attitude Award.

Beech Grove High School’s “Marching Hornets” band program has earned four Indiana State School Music Association (ISSMA) State Band Finals berths in its history, during the long service of former director James Williams. The present band, directed by alumnus Cory Wynn with the help of Scott Bradford and Chad Barton, has sought to return to that level of success, earning their first ISSMA Regional Gold rating in nine years in 2005. The Marching Hornets continue to achieve great levels of success on the marching music field. After 2005, the band has returned to the level of success that they had during the James Williams years. They have grown to become one of ISSMAs Class C “powerhouses” in the South. In 2009, 2010 and 2011, the Marching Hornets returned to the state finals in Lucas Oil Stadium in Indianapolis, for the first time in 19 years, where they placed 5th in Class C on 2009, 7th in Class C in 2010, and 2nd in Class C in 2011. They would continue to reach state finals in Class C in 2012, 2013, 2015, and 2016. During the 2017 season, Beech Grove High School’s growing enrollment reclassified the Marching Hornets as a Class B program. The Marching Hornets would take 5th place in 2017— their inaugural season in Class B[13].

Some Beech Grove streets have been named in honor of notable citizens, such as Byland Drive (Mayor Richard Byland); Fletcher Lane (former Fire Chief, City Councilman, and business owner Robert Fletcher); Killian Drive (Father Peter Killian); Newcomer Lane (Town Board member and businessman W. S. Newcomer); and Ticen Street (Town Board member Willard Ticen). A quartet of parallel streets in the northern part are named, in alphabetical order from south to north, for the cities of Albany, Buffalo, Cleveland and Detroit. In June 2007, a sign post on Hornet Avenue was given in honor of Katie Gearlds, honoring her arrival into the WNBA. In 2015 a new senior housing addition included the street Buckley Drive honoring former Fire Chief and Mayor Dennis Buckley.

Transportation

The city has direct access to the Interstate Highway System as it straddles exit 52 of Interstate 465. It is served by local public bus routes of Indianapolis’ IndyGo system. Routes 12-Minnesota and 13-Raymond serve 17th Avenue (Sherman Drive) from Southern Avenue to Main Street, with select trips serving Albany Street from 17th Avenue to 25th Avenue. Route 14-Prospect serves Emerson Avenue from the Amtrak railroad crossing all the way to Thompson Road, the southern end of Beech Grove. Route 16-Beech Grove serves Albany Street from 25th Avenue to 17th Avenue, 17th from Albany to Main, Main from 17th to Emerson Avenue, and Emerson to Thompson Road. Routes 12, 13, and 14 run seven days a week, while Route 16 runs only Monday through Saturday. There is currently no light rail or streetcar service, although one existed in the past.

Beech Grove maintains an address-numbering system distinct from surrounding Indianapolis. Addresses are numbered as either east/west or north/south from the intersection of Main Street and First Avenue.

The city’s street grid reflects two distinct urban planning styles. The original roadway connecting Beech Grove to Indianapolis was Churchman Avenue, running northwest from Beech Grove. The original city was built to the north of Churchman Avenue, on a north/south grid pattern with alleys, centered on the widened roads of Main Street and Fifth Avenue. While a parkway was planned for both sides of Lick Creek, only a small segment of it was actually established.

With the post-World War II “Baby Boom” population growth, new streets were built south of Churchman Avenue in the modern style of sweeping curves and cul-de-sacs.

The growth of Indianapolis toward Beech Grove led to certain streets changing names at the Beech Grove city limits. Indianapolis’ Troy Avenue becomes Beech Grove’s Albany Street; Indianapolis’ Sherman Drive becomes Beech Grove’s 17th Avenue; and Indianapolis’ Emerson Avenue becomes (in places) Beech Grove’s 1st Avenue.

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1910 568
1920 1,459 156.9%
1930 3,552 143.5%
1940 3,847 8.3%
1950 5,612 45.9%
1960 10,973 95.5%
1970 13,559 23.6%
1980 13,196 −2.7%
1990 13,383 1.4%
2000 14,880 11.2%
2010 14,192 −4.6%
Est. 2017 14,795 [6] 4.2%
Source: US Census Bureau

2010 census

As of the census[5] of 2010, there were 14,192 people, 5,898 households, and 3,567 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,232.8 inhabitants per square mile (1,248.2/km2). There were 6,479 housing units at an average density of 1,475.9 per square mile (569.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 91.5% White, 3.2% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 2.1% from other races, and 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.2% of the population.

There were 5,898 households of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.3% were married couples living together, 16.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.2% had a male householder with no wife present, and 39.5% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.98.

The median age in the city was 37.7 years. 24.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 9.2% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25.7% were from 25 to 44; 25.5% were from 45 to 64; and 14.9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 46.5% male and 53.5% female.

2000 census

As of the census[7] of 2000, there were 14,880 people, 6,085 households, and 3,839 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,462.5 people per square mile (1,336.1/km²). There were 6,506 housing units at an average density of 1,513.9 per square mile (584.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 96.24% White, 0.89% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.81% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.78% from other races, and 1.04% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.07% of the population.

Beech Grove from the air (southeastern part of the city; Amtrak repair yards visible at left center). I-465 is clearly visible in this photo, and its interchange with I-74 is in the northeastern corner

There were 6,085 households out of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.1% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with no husband present and 36.9% were non-families. 31.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.2% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 30.8% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, and 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $41,548 and the median income for a family was $46,944. Males had a median income of $37,500 versus $26,135 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,647. About 4.4% of families and 6.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.1% of those under age 18 and 9.5% of those age 65 or over.

Government

Although geographically completely surrounded by Indianapolis, Beech Grove is an excluded city so it maintains its own police, fire, public works, and parks departments and operates its own senior-citizens’ center.

Beech Grove’s government was first organized as a “Town Board” system on November 12, 1906. The system remained until 1935, consisting of three elected ward representatives and a clerk-treasurer. From 1911 to 1939, Board members were elected as representatives of locally organized political parties (e.g., Progressive, Citizens’s Ticket, Peoples’s Ticket).

Upon legally becoming an Indiana fifth-class city in 1935, its first mayor and four city council members were elected (three district members, and one at-large). Beech Grove achieved Indiana fourth-class city status in 1961. The present city council consists of five district members and two at-large members, plus an elected clerk-treasurer.

The mayors, their political affiliations, and their terms of office, have been:

  • Charles Adams (Progressive, 1935–1938); (Democratic, 1939–1942)
  • E. Allen Hunter (Republican, 1943–1948 and 1952–1955)
  • Richard H. Byland (Democratic, 1948–1951)
  • David D. Finney (Democratic, 1956–1958)
  • Elton H. Geshwiler (Democratic, 1959–1991)
  • J. Warner Wiley (Democratic, 1991–2003)
  • Donald “Joe” Wright (Republican, 2004–2011)
  • John Jennings (Republican, interim, 2011)
  • Terry Dilk (Republican, 2011)
  • Dennis Buckley (Democratic, 2012)

Mayor Joe Wright announced his resignation from the office as of January 14, 2011; city councilman John Jennings was named as interim mayor, until the appointment of Terry Dilk on January 25, 2011 by the Marion County Republican Committee to fill out Wright’s term through the 2011 elections. Dilk was defeated in the November 8, 2011 election by former City fire chief Dennis Buckley, who became the first Mayor to have been the child of a former candidate for the same office (his father, Robert Buckley, was defeated in the 1967 election).

The 1951 Mayoral election featured Democrat Alice Stratton, one of Indiana’s first female candidates for such an office.

The city flag was not adopted until the 1970s, when a competition was held in which citizens were invited to submit designs. The winning designer was Mike Hart. The flag features an orange, black and white logo on a blue field; the logo shows the profile of an old-style railroad locomotive, in orange, with a white circle superimposed in the center. The circle contains a depiction of the tower complex of St. Francis Hospital, and bears the name of the city, the year “1906” and the motto “Where Tradition Welcomes Progress.”

Education

The city has its own school district, the Beech Grove City Schools, but Franklin Township Community School Corporation also serves some of this region. Beech Grove City Schools consists of five facilities (Hornet Park, Central Elementary, South Grove Intermediate, Beech Grove Middle, and Beech Grove High). Its high school athletic teams, the “Hornets” (colors: orange and black) participate as members of the statewide Indiana High School Athletic Association (IHSAA), the Marion County Athletic Association and the Indiana Crossroads Conference.

The city’s first school was opened in 1907 in the upstairs of the Wheat Grocery Store at 423 Main Street. Between 1909 and 1929, a series of school buildings and additions were built on the 1000 block of Main; only the original gymnasium remains from these structures. The high school was begun in 1917 and its first graduating class was in 1922.

A new combined junior high/high school was built in 1955 at 1248 Buffalo Street, just northwest of the existing school site. The previous complex became Central Elementary. The new facility operated on a split-day schedule, with high school students attending in the morning and junior high students attending in the afternoon.

By 1960, the city’s growth to the south prompted the building of South Grove Elementary (later Intermediate) at the 800 block of South 9th Avenue. With the population growth, the present high school was built in 1966 just east of the 4000 block of South Emerson Avenue and the 1955 facility remained as the junior high (later middle) school.

Before the 1990s, the kindergarten education experience was only offered in the city by private specialty schools (past examples being Cassidy’s and Happy Time). As part of the state’s trend to incorporate this age level within the public schools, the city school system joined with the City’s Parks Department in the development of Hornet Park, a dual-use facility built on the grounds of the former Olympia Club (a private swimming/recreation club). Kindergarten (and, added recently, 1st-Grade) classes are held in the south part, while the city offers meeting rooms and exercise facilities in the north part.

At different times in the city schools’ history, certain grade-levels have been moved between schools. Ninth-graders were moved from high school to junior high from 1964 to 1973. Sixth-graders were in elementary school until 1977, when they were moved to middle school level, but were returned to the elementary level in 2004.

Also within the city limits are the Holy Name of Jesus School (Roman Catholic, grades pre-school to 8 only), built in 1922. Many students from Holy Name of Jesus continue their high school studies at Beech Grove High School or the nearby Roncalli High School.

Beech Grove has a public library, a branch of the Indianapolis Public Library.[14] For many years the city maintained its own library, but in April 2016, the boards of the Indianapolis and the Beech Grove public libraries voted to merge, with the Beech Grove library becoming the 23rd branch library of the Indianapolis library system on June 1, 2016.[15]

Medical institutions

Franciscan Health Indianapolis, formerly known as St. Francis Hospital, was founded in Beech Grove by the monastic order of the Sisters of St. Francis of Perpetual Adoration in 1914. The Beech Grove hospital closed in 2012 after most medical services were transferred to a more modern, suburban hospital campus in south Indianapolis.[16]

Religious institutions

Beech Grove’s oldest churches have existed since the earliest days of the city. Father Peter J. Killian established the Blessed Sacrament Parish (Roman Catholic Church) in the upstairs of his home in 1908; its present name of Holy Name of Jesus Parish was taken in 1918. A Methodist Episcopal meeting in the Clapp family home in 1908 eventually led to the present Beech Grove United Methodist Church. A noon-time Christian men’s meeting of “Big Four” railroad employees in 1910 was the genesis of the present Beech Grove Christian Church. In late 1912, the First Baptist Church (since 1937, General Association of Regular Baptist Churches) was organized and is now in its second location within the city.

Churches established in the city in later years include Beech Grove Wesleyan Church (formerly Pilgrim Holiness Church, in the 1920s); Faith Assembly of God (Assemblies of God, 1958); South Emerson Church of God (Reformation Movement, Church of God (Anderson), 1961); Southwood Baptist Church (Southern Baptist Convention, 1962); and Ascension Lutheran Church (Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, 1972). In recent years, independent community churches have appeared (e.g., Body of Christ Fellowship, Church on The Word, Omega Harvest).

The Benedict Inn is a multi-use facility operated by the local Our Lady of Grace Monastery of the Sisters of the Order of St. Benedict. It contains meeting rooms, a gymnasium, and an indoor pool, which were part of the former Our Lady of Grace all-girls Catholic high school.

Civic institutions

Established service groups include chapters of the Lions International and Kiwanis. The local Beech Grove Promoters Club was founded in 1953 as a chapter of the National Exchange Club, but left that organization in 1957 and adopted its present name. It organizes the city’s two main public festivals—the 3rd of July Fireworks and the Fall Festival (since 1959) in September.

The city also contains Lodges of the Free and Accepted Masons, Fraternal Order of Eagles and Loyal Order of Moose. Posts of the American Legion and the Veterans of Foreign Wars are also active.

Past civic organizations which, while no longer in existence, performed service to the city include the Beech Grove Civic League and the Beech Grove Jaycees. The Jaycees organized a “Buck-A-Brick” campaign in the 1950s to build a house-sized Beech Grove Civic Center on South 3rd Avenue, offering meeting rooms to the citizens. (This facility is now the home of the Body of Christ Fellowship.)

Local media

Beech Grove has no daily newspaper, but its news events were mainly covered for many years by a free weekly newspaper headquartered within the city. Titled The Southside Times, the weekly was for most of its existence known as the Perry Township Weekly. The Southside Times left its longtime Main Street home in November 2012 in favor of a house on US 31 South, while the space was filled by Shupe’s Lawn Care company. Past Beech Grove newspapers included the Independent, the Graphic and the Spotlight. The city has no local radio or television station. It is part of the Indianapolis radio/television market and has its own cable TV Government-access television channel available on the Comcast system.

Youth activities

Among the organizations sponsoring youth athletics are the Beech Grove Little League, the Beech Grove Athletic Boosters (football, volleyball, basketball), the Beech Grove Wrestling Club, the Beech Grove Girls Softball Association,[17] the Beech Grove Soccer Club and the Beech Grove Swimming Club. Teams representing Holy Name of Jesus School participate in Indianapolis’ Catholic Youth Organization sports league, in sports such as football, wrestling, kickball, and basketball.

The Scouting movement, both the Boy Scouts of America and the Girl Scouts of the USA, have had a long history within Beech Grove. For many years, Boy Scout Troop 79 was the city’s main unit; present troops are 108. Various Girl Scout and Brownie Troops have existed. Beech Grove, although not a rural community, also has an active chapter of the traditionally-rural 4-H Club.

References

  1. ^ “US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990”. United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “Marion County election guide”. Indianapolis Star. 1 May 2015. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  3. ^ “Beech Grove City Council”. City of Beech Grove. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  4. ^ “2017 U.S. Gazetteer Files”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Dec 30, 2018.
  5. ^ ab “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  6. ^ ab “Population and Housing Unit Estimates”. Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  7. ^ ab “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  8. ^ “US Board on Geographic Names”. United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  9. ^ “US Gazetteer files 2010”. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2012-01-24. Retrieved 2012-12-11.
  10. ^ “Beech Grove, Indiana Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)”. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  11. ^ Guenzler, Chris. “Amtrak Beech Grove Shop Tour 4/13/2007”. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  12. ^ “RailroadPix.Com Railroad Photos : Amtrak 10001, Beech Grove”. www.railroadpix.com.
  13. ^ http://www.issma.net/statembplacings.php
  14. ^ “Locations & Hours”. Indianapolis Public Library. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  15. ^ “Indy Library Board approves merger of Beech Grove Library”. WISHTV.com. April 28, 2016. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
  16. ^ Rudavski, Shari (October 27, 2016). “Franciscan Health to raze Beech Grove hospital”. The Indianapolis Star. Retrieved March 10, 2018.
  17. ^ “Beech Grove Girls Softball Association”. Retrieved October 8, 2018.

External links

  • Official website


Hammond, Indiana

City in Indiana, United States
Hammond, Indiana
City
City of Hammond
DowntownHammondIn.jpg
Flag of Hammond, Indiana
Flag
Location of Hammond in Lake County, Indiana.

Location of Hammond in Lake County, Indiana.
Coordinates: 41°36′40″N 87°29′35″W / 41.61111°N 87.49306°W / 41.61111; -87.49306Coordinates: 41°36′40″N 87°29′35″W / 41.61111°N 87.49306°W / 41.61111; -87.49306
Country  United States
State  Indiana
County Lake
Township North
Settled 1847
Incorporated (town) December 4, 1883[1]
Incorporated (city) April 21, 1884[1]
Named for George H. Hammond
Government

[3]
 • Type Mayor-Council
 • Mayor Thomas M. McDermott, Jr. (D)
 • City Council
 • City Clerk Robert J. Golec (D)
 • City Judge Amy L. Jorgensen (R)[2]
Area

[4]
 • Total 24.89 sq mi (64.46 km2)
 • Land 22.77 sq mi (58.97 km2)
 • Water 2.12 sq mi (5.49 km2)
Elevation

577–610 ft (176–186 m)
Population

(2010)[5]
 • Total 80,830
 • Estimate 

(2016)[6]
77,134
 • Density 3,387.83/sq mi (1,308.03/km2)
Standard of living (2008–12)

[5]
 • Per capita income $18,148
 • Median home value $94,800
Time zone UTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST) UTC−5 (Central)
ZIP codes
46320, 46323-25, 46327
Area code 219
FIPS code 18-31000[7]
GNIS feature ID 0435658[8]
Interstates I-80.svgIndiana Toll Road logo 1968.svgI-90.svgI-94.svg


U.S. Routes US 6.svgUS 12.svgUS 20.svgUS 41.svg


State Roads Indiana 152.svgIndiana 312.svgIndiana 912.svg


Waterways Grand Calumet River
Lake Michigan


Amtrak station Hammond-Whiting


South Shore Line station Hammond
Website www.gohammond.com
Demographics (2010)[9]
White Black Asian
59.4% 22.5% 1.0%
Islander Native Other Hispanic
(any race)
0.0% 0.5% 16.6% 34.1%

Hammond (/ˈhæmənd/) is a city in Lake County, Indiana, United States. It is part of the Chicago metropolitan area. First settled in the mid-19th century, it is one of the oldest cities of northern Lake County. As of the 2010 United States census, it is also the largest in population: the 2010 population was 80,830, replacing Gary as the most populous city in Lake County. From north to south, Hammond runs from Lake Michigan down to the Little Calumet River; from east to west along its southern border, it runs from the Illinois state line to Cline Avenue. The city is traversed by numerous railroads and expressways, including the South Shore Line, Borman Expressway, and Indiana Toll Road.

Notable local landmarks include the parkland around Wolf Lake and the Horseshoe Hammond riverboat casino. Part of the Rust Belt, Hammond has been industrial almost from its inception, but is also home to a Purdue University campus and numerous historic districts that showcase the residential and commercial architecture of the early 20th century.

Contents

  • 1 Geography

    • 1.1 Lakes and rivers
    • 1.2 Adjacent cities, towns and villages
  • 2 Demographics

    • 2.1 2010 census
    • 2.2 2000 census
  • 3 Neighborhoods
  • 4 Infrastructure

    • 4.1 Transportation

      • 4.1.1 Public transportation
    • 4.2 Medical centers and hospitals
    • 4.3 Utilities
  • 5 History

    • 5.1 National Register of Historic Places
  • 6 Major businesses
  • 7 Education

    • 7.1 School City of Hammond
    • 7.2 Privately owned and operated schools
    • 7.3 Colleges and universities
  • 8 Public libraries
  • 9 City government

    • 9.1 List of mayors
  • 10 Sports

    • 10.1 The Hammond Pros (1920–1924)
  • 11 Notable people
  • 12 Sister city
  • 13 References
  • 14 External links

Geography

Hammond is located at 41°36′40″N 87°29′35″W / 41.61111°N 87.49306°W / 41.61111; -87.49306 (41.611185, −87.493080).[10]

The city’s elevation above sea level ranges from 577 feet (176 m) to 610 feet (186 m). The city sits within the boundaries of the former Lake Chicago, and much of its land area consists of former dune and swale terrain that was subsequently leveled. Most of the city is on sandy soil with a layer of black topsoil that varies from non-existent to several feet (a meter or more) thick. Much of the exposed sand was removed for purposes such as industrial use to make concrete and glass.
According to the 2010 census, Hammond has a total area of 24.886 square miles (64.45 km2), of which 22.78 square miles (59.00 km2) (or 91.54%) is land and 2.106 square miles (5.45 km2) (or 8.46%) is water.[11]

Lakes and rivers

  • Grand Calumet River (partial)
  • Lake George
  • Lake Michigan (partial)
  • Little Calumet River (partial)
  • Oxbow Lake
  • Wolf Lake (partial)

Adjacent cities, towns and villages

Illinois
  • Burnham
  • Calumet City
  • Chicago
  • Lansing
Indiana
  • East Chicago
  • Gary
  • Griffith
  • Highland
  • Munster
  • Whiting

Demographics

Welcome to Hammond

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880 699
1890 5,284 655.9%
1900 12,376 134.2%
1910 20,925 69.1%
1920 36,004 72.1%
1930 65,559 82.1%
1940 70,183 7.1%
1950 87,595 24.8%
1960 111,698 27.5%
1970 107,983 −3.3%
1980 91,985 −14.8%
1990 84,236 −8.4%
2000 83,048 −1.4%
2010 80,830 −2.7%
Est. 2016 77,134 [6] −4.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[12]

2010 census

As of the 2010 United States Census,[5] there were 80,830 people, 29,949 households, and 19,222 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,548.3 inhabitants per square mile (1,370.0/km2). There were 32,945 housing units at an average density of 1,446.2 per square mile (558.4/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 59.4% White, 22.5% African American, 0.5% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 13.3% from other races, and 3.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 34.1% of the population.

There were 29,949 households of which 36.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.0% were married couples living together, 19.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 7.5% had a male householder with no wife present, and 35.8% were non-families. 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.36.

The median age in the city was 33.3 years. 27.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 10.1% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 27.3% were from 25 to 44; 24.2% were from 45 to 64; and 10.7% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.0% male and 51.0% female.

2000 census

As of the 2000 United States Census,[7] there were 83,048 people, 32,026 households and 20,880 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,630.0 per square mile (1,401.4/km2). There were 34,139 housing units at an average density of 1,492.2 per square mile (576.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 72.35% White, 14.57% African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 9.32% from other races, and 2.81% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.04% of the population.

There were 32,026 households out of which 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were married couples living together, 16.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.8% were non-families. 29.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.23.

In the city, the population was spread out with 27.3% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, and 13.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $35,528, and the median income for a family was $42,221. Males had a median income of $35,778 versus $25,180 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,254. About 12.0% of families and 14.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.7% of those under age 18 and 9.3% of those age 65 or over.

Neighborhoods

  • Central Hammond
  • Hessville
  • North Hammond
  • Robertsdale
  • South Hammond
  • Woodmar

Infrastructure

Transportation

Borman Expressway

Most of Hammond’s streets are laid out in a grid pattern similar to Chicago’s streets. While Madison Street in Chicago acts as the reference point for north-south street numbering the first “1” is removed; this makes what would be a five digit address number in Illinois into a four digit address number in Hammond. The state line is used as the reference point for east-west street numbering.

Other cities and towns in Northwest Indiana that use the Hammond numbering system are Whiting, Munster and Highland. Dyer also uses the Hammond numbering system but the first number removed from the north-south streets is a “2,” as by that point the Illinois numbers across the state line start with the number 2 (Munster’s street numbers start with a “1” north of the Dyer line, making them 5 digits); and East Chicago uses the canal located in the middle of the city as the east-west reference point, while embodying Hammond’s numbering system for the north-south streets.

  • I-90 – Indiana Toll Road, exits:
  • Calumet Avenue – U.S. 41
  • Cline Avenue – State Road 912
  • Indianapolis Boulevard – U.S. 12/20/41
  • I-80/94 – Borman Expressway, exits:
  • Calumet Avenue – U.S. 41 North
  • Cline Avenue – State Road 912
  • Indianapolis Boulevard – U.S. 41 South/State Road 152
  • Kennedy Avenue

Public transportation

The South Shore Line, a Chicago to South Bend, Indiana commuter rail line, has a station on Hohman Avenue. It is operated by the Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District.

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides twice-daily service in both directions, operating its Wolverine through the Hammond–Whiting station between Chicago and Pontiac, Michigan, just north of Detroit.

The nearest commercial airport is Chicago Midway International Airport about 25 miles away in Chicago.

Bus transit was provided by the Northwest Indiana Regional Bus Authority, which assumed responsibility from the city’s Hammond Transit System in 2010, establishing EasyGo Lake Transit system in its place.[13] All EasyGo buses were discontinued on June 30, 2012 due to a lack of funding.[14] In addition, Pace routes 350 and 364 and GPTC Tri-City Connection Route 12 from Gary, Indiana stop at Hammond’s Dan Rabin Transit Plaza.

Medical centers and hospitals

The only hospital in Hammond is Franciscan St. Margaret Health on Stateline Road, across the street from Calumet City, Illinois. It is an accredited chest pain center serving Northwest Indiana and the south suburbs of Chicago. The hospital was founded in late 1898 and was originally called St. Margaret Hospital, later merging with Our Lady Of Mercy Hospital in Dyer, Indiana, in the 1990s and was part of the former Sisters of St. Francis Health Services.

Utilities

Former State Line Generating Plant in Robertsdale

  • Electricity and Natural gas – Nearly all of the electricity and natural gas used in Hammond is produced by NIPSCO, a NiSource company.
  • Water – Water service for nearly all consumers of water in the city is provided by the Hammond Water Department, a state-owned utility that is operated by the civil city government.

History

The first permanent residents arrived around 1847 to settle on land between the Grand and Little Calumet Rivers, on the south end of Lake Michigan. Those first residents were German farmers newly arrived from Europe looking for land and opportunity. Before that time, the area was a crossroad for Indian tribes, explorers, stagecoach lines and supply lines to the West. Convenient location and abundant fresh water from Lake Michigan led to the beginning of Hammond’s industrialization in 1869 with the George H. Hammond Company meat-packing plant following merchants and farmers to the area. Hammond was incorporated on April 21, 1884, and was named after the Detroit butcher.[15] Hammond is one of the oldest cities in Lake County, with Crown Point being the oldest, established in 1834.
According to the Encyclopedia of Chicago, George Henry Hammond, a pioneer in the use of refrigerated railcars for the transport of fresh meat, first used this method with his small packing company in Detroit, Michigan. In 1868, Hammond received a patent for a refrigerator car design. In the early 1870s, he built a new plant in northern Indiana along the tracks of the Michigan Central Railroad. By 1873, the George H. Hammond Co. was selling $1 million worth of meat a year; by 1875, sales were nearly $2 million. The company’s large packing house in Hammond—the town had taken the name of its most powerful resident—rivaled those located at the Union Stock Yard in Chicago. By the middle of the 1880s, when it built a new plant in Omaha, Nebraska, Hammond was slaughtering over 100,000 cattle a year and owned a fleet of 800 refrigerator cars. After Hammond died in 1886, the company became less important and no longer challenged the giant Chicago packers, who acquired Hammond at the turn of the century and merged it into their National Packing Co.

The Hammond Whiting & East Chicago Electric Railway Company trolley service ran from 1893 to 1940.[16]

On June 22, 1918, the Hammond circus train wreck occurred about 5.5 miles (8.9 km) east of the city, killing 86 and injuring 127 persons.[17]

The downtown Hammond shopping district along State Street and Hohman Avenue included major chains such as Sears and J. C. Penney. The largest stores in downtown were the Goldblatt’s and E.C. Minas department stores.[18] The E.C. Minas store was constructed in 1894 and was in business until August 1984.[19] The building which housed the Goldblatt’s store had been purchased by the Chicago-based retailer in 1931 and operated until 1982 when it closed due to bankruptcy.[20]

The Pullman Standard Car Company built M4 Sherman tanks in Hammond during World War II.[21][22]

Architect Victor Gruen designed the Woodmar Mall[23] in the Woodmar neighborhood. The mall opened in 1954 and was anchored by a Carson Pirie Scott and Co. store.[24]

According to the 1960 United States Census Hammond’s population reached a record high of 111,698 residents.[25] Hammond, like other industrial cities in the Rust Belt, went into decline during the 1970s and 1980s, with the city’s population plunging to 94,000 in 1980, and 83,000 in 2000. However, Hammond’s economy was more diversified than neighboring Gary, Indiana, East Chicago, Indiana, and the south side of Chicago, which all relied on heavy industry (primarily steel production). Hammond’s economy, on the other hand, depended on light manufacturing, transportation & warehousing, retail, banking & insurance, healthcare, hospitality & food service, and construction. Prominent manufacturing companies in Hammond include Unilever’s soap factory, Atlas Tube, Cargill food processing, Munster Steel, Lear Seating Corporation, Jupiter Aluminum, Tri-State Automation, and Dover Chemical. Warehousing and storage is also prominent, with ExxonMobil and Marathon Petroleum having large oil storage facilities, and FedEx has a distribution center. Large railroad marshalling yards are also present in the city, with the Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad’s headquarters in the city. The State Line Generating Plant operated on the Indiana-Illinois state line from 1929 to 2012, and was demolished in 2014.

The Empress Casino opened in Hammond in June 1996 and was replaced with the Horseshoe Hammond casino in 2001.[26]

In February 2006, the decision was made to demolish Woodmar Mall except for the Carson’s store.[27] The Hammond Redevelopment Commission announced plans in June 2016 for a $12 million sports complex to be built on the site of the former mall.[28] The Carson’s store will close in 2018 as part of its parent company’s liquidation.[29]

National Register of Historic Places

The following single properties and national historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places:

  • Morse Dell Plain House and Garden
  • Forest-Ivanhoe Residential Historic District
  • Forest-Moraine Residential Historic District
  • Forest-Southview Residential Historic District
  • Glendale Park Historic District
  • Hohman Avenue Commercial Historic District
  • Indi-Illi Park Historic District
  • Northern States Life Insurance Company
  • Pullman-Standard Historic District
  • Roselawn-Forest Heights Historic District
  • Southmoor Apartment Hotel
  • State Bank of Hammond Building
  • State Street Commercial Historic District
  • George John Wolf House

Major businesses

Horseshoe Casino

According to the city, those businesses employing 200 or more employees in Hammond are:[30]

# Employer # of employees
1 School City of Hammond 2,418
2 Horseshoe Casino 2,094
3 St. Margaret Mercy Healthcare 1,588
4 Lear Seating Corporation 783
5 City of Hammond 760
6 Indiana Harbor Belt Railroad 756
7 Walmart 531
8 Contract Services Group 300
9 Strack and Van Til 284
10 Cargill 256
11 Unilever 252
12 Morrison Construction Company 235
13 Cabela’s 214

Education

School City of Hammond

Hammond is served by the School City of Hammond, a school corporation under Indiana state law that is independent of the civil city.

  • High schools

    • Area Career Center
    • George Rogers Clark High School
    • Gavit High School
    • Hammond High School
    • Morton High School
  • Middle schools

    • George Rogers Clark Middle School
    • Henry W. Eggers Middle School
    • Gavit Middle School
    • Scott Middle School
  • Elementary schools

    • Columbia Elementary School
    • Edison Elementary School
    • Benjamin Franklin Elementary School
    • Warren G. Harding Elementary School
    • Joseph Hess Elementary School
    • Washington Irving Elementary School
    • Thomas Jefferson Elementary School
    • Kenwood Elementary School
    • Lafayette Elementary School
    • Lincoln Elementary School
    • Maywood Elementary School
    • Morton Elementary School
    • Frank O’Bannon Elementary School
    • Lew Wallace Elementary School
  • Charter schools

    • Hammond Academy of Science and Technology (6–12)

Privately owned and operated schools

  • Bishop Noll Institute (high school)
  • City Baptist High School [31]
  • Hazel Young Academy
  • Montessori Children’s Schoolhouse
  • St. Casimir (elementary school)
  • St. Catherine of Siena (elementary school)
  • St. John Bosco (elementary school)
  • St. John the Baptist (elementary school)

Colleges and universities

  • Calumet College of St. Joseph
  • Kaplan University
  • Purdue University Northwest

Public libraries

Hammond Public Library, located at 564 State Street, includes the Suzanne G. Long Local History Room. The system used to operate the E.B. Hayward Branch at 1212 172nd Street and the Howard Branch at 7047 Grand Avenue. Both branches have since been closed. The Hammond Public Library was the first library in the state to form a recognized union, a local of AFSCME. Patricia E. Robinson was the first president of the library union.[32]

City government

Hammond is incorporated as a city under Indiana law. It therefore has a mayor and a nine-member city council. Hammond’s City Hall is located at 5925 Calumet Avenue. The Hammond City Council has meetings scheduled for the second and fourth Mondays of each month.

The city maintains a city court on the second floor of the City Hall,[33] exercising a limited jurisdiction within Lake County. The court handles not only local ordinance violations and certain minor criminal matters, but also a significant portion of the debt collection and eviction actions brought in Lake County.

List of mayors

# Name Term Party
1 Marcus Towle 1884–1888 Republican
2 Thomas Hammond 1888–1893 Democratic
3 Patrick Reilly 1893–1894 Democratic
4 Fred R. Mott 1894–1898 Republican
5 Patrick Reilly 1898–1902 Democratic
6 Armanis F. Knotts 1902–1904 Republican
7 Lawrence Becker 1904–1911 Democratic
8 John D. Smalley 1911–1918 Democratic
9 Daniel Brown 1918–1925 Republican
10 Adrian E. Tinkham 1925–1930 Republican
11 Charles O. Schonert 1930–1935 Republican
12 Frank Martin 1935–1942 Democratic
13 G. Bertram Smith 1942–1948 Democratic
14 Vernon C. Anderson 1948–1956 Republican
15 Edward Dowling 1956–1968 Democratic
16 Joseph Klen 1968–1976 Democratic
17 Edward J. Raskosky 1976–1984 Democratic
18 Thomas M. McDermott, Sr. 1984–1992 Republican
19 Duane Dedelow, Jr. 1992–2004 Republican
20 Thomas M. McDermott, Jr. 2004–present Democratic

Sports

Hammond was defeated by the team from Taipei, Taiwan in the 1972 Little League World Series.[34]

  • Past teams
    • Hammond Rollers, an American Basketball Association team founded in 2006, was sold to the owner of the Quad City Riverhawks the same year. The team relocated and became the Sauk Valley Rollers of Rock Falls, Illinois.
    • Hammond Ciesar All-Americans (1938–41) and Hammond Calumet Buccaneers (1948–49), were professional basketball teams in the National Basketball League. Baseball Hall of Famer Lou Boudreau and UCLA basketball coach John Wooden both played for the Ciesar All-Americans.

The Hammond Pros (1920–1924)

The Hammond Pros was one of the earliest professional football teams in the United States. When the American Professional Football League was formed in 1920, the Hammond Pros was a charter member, as it also was when the league changed its name to National Football League in 1922. However, four years later, when the NFL decided to reduce the number of teams, it did so by simply folding smaller franchises. The Hammond Pros never played a home game in Hammond.

During the four years of the Hammond Pros’ existence, the NFL had nine African-American players, six of whom played for the Pros. The NFL’s first African-American head coach was Hall-of-Famer coach Fritz Pollard of the Pros.

Notable people

Sister city

  • Galaţi, Romania (since 1997)

References

  1. ^ ab “Hammond’s 125th Anniversary Day”. City of Hammond, Indiana. Retrieved 2016-11-22..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ ab Steve Garrison (November 22, 2016). “Pence appoints new Hammond city judge”. The Times of Northwest Indiana. Retrieved 2016-11-22.
  3. ^ abcd “2014 Public Officials Directory”. Lake County Board of Elections and Voter’s Registration. Retrieved 2014-06-10.
  4. ^ “2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jul 28, 2017.
  5. ^ abc “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-06-10.
  6. ^ ab “Population and Housing Unit Estimates”. Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  7. ^ ab “American FactFinder”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  8. ^ “US Board on Geographic Names”. United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  9. ^ U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics 2010, Table DP-1, 2010 Demographic Profile Data. American FactFinder. Retrieved 2014-06-30.
  10. ^ “US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990”. United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  11. ^ “G001 – Geographic Identifiers – 2010 Census Summary File 1”. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-07-28.
  12. ^ “U.S. Decennial Census”. Census.gov. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
  13. ^ “Transit System: Routes and Schedules”. Northwest Indiana Regional Bus Authority. Retrieved 2010-07-05.
  14. ^ http://www.rba-nwi.org/index.cfm
  15. ^
    “Profile for Hammond, Indiana”. ePodunk. Retrieved 2010-06-03.
  16. ^ McKinlay, Archibald (January 26, 1997), “Calumet Roots. Trolleys were Hammond success”, The Times of Northwest Indiana, Munster, Indiana, archived from the original on June 17, 2018
  17. ^ Lytle, Richard M. (2010). The Great Circus Train Wreck of 1918: Tragedy on the Indiana Lakeshore. Stroud, Gloucestershire, England: The History Press. ISBN 978-1596299313.
  18. ^ Burton, Jeff (November 27, 2009), “Hammond’s downtown shopping district once a retail mecca”, The Times of Northwest Indiana, Munster, Indiana, archived from the original on June 17, 2018, At various points in the city’s 125-year history, major national retailers like Sears, J.C. Penney, Kresge’s and F.W. Woolworth all had downtown storefronts, but the giants of Hohman and State were local stores, E.C. Minas and Goldblatt’s. The two department stores occupied more than 300,000 square feet of retail space.
  19. ^ Porta, Sharon (February 6, 2002), “Minas building downtown fixture for 108 years”, The Times of Northwest Indiana, Munster, Indiana, archived from the original on June 17, 2018, The Minas building was constructed in 1894 and the neighboring building, the Henderson building, was constructed prior to 1904…The store closed its doors for good on Aug. 15, 1984.
  20. ^ Skertic, Alison (October 12, 1999), “When Goldblatts closed, Hammond lost a part of its identity”, The Times of Northwest Indiana, Munster, Indiana, archived from the original on June 17, 2018, The Goldblatts building had stood on Hohman Avenue since the 1920s, when it was known as the Lion’s store. Goldblatt Brothers Inc. bought the store in 1931 and retained control until the store closed in 1982.
  21. ^ Pete, Joseph S. (October 25, 2014), “Hammond-made tanks star in World War II movie Fury“, The Times of Northwest Indiana, Munster, Indiana, archived from the original on January 28, 2015, Pullman made railroad cars on Chicago’s South Side but was pressed into military service during the war. In less than a year, Hammond native Raymond Fox set up a tank and weapons factory at 165th Street and Columbia Avenue in south Hammond.
  22. ^ “WWII veteran joins historians for program on Hammond tank production”, The Times of Northwest Indiana, Munster, Indiana, April 16, 2015, archived from the original on June 17, 2018, Hammond was one of 10 locations in the U.S. that built the M4 medium tank.
  23. ^ Hardwick, M. Jeffrey (2003). “Chapter Five: A ‘Shopper’s Paradise’ for Suburbia”. Mall Maker: Victor Gruen, Architect of an American Dream. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0812237627.
  24. ^ Bierschenk, Edwin (June 7, 2016), “A sporting chance for revival at former Woodmar site”, The Times of Northwest Indiana, Munster, Indiana, archived from the original on January 16, 2017
  25. ^ http://www.hammondindiana.com/history2.htm
  26. ^ Steele, Andrew (June 26, 2016), “For NWI casinos, it’s been 20 years and $20 billion”, The Times of Northwest Indiana, Munster, Indiana, archived from the original on October 2, 2016, The original Empress Casino in Hammond — officially open for business on June 29, 1996 — was a standard boat at 43,000 square feet of gaming space.
  27. ^ Holecek, Andrea (February 8, 2006), “Wrecking ball aimed at Woodmar Mall”, The Times of Northwest Indiana, Munster, Indiana, archived from the original on January 16, 2017
  28. ^ Quinn, Michelle L. (June 8, 2016), “Former Woodmar property eyed for sports complex”, Post-Tribune, Merrillville, Indiana, archived from the original on June 9, 2016
  29. ^ Pete, Joseph S. (April 29, 2018). “Carson’s to close in Southlake Mall, Hammond and Michigan City”. The Times of Northwest Indiana. Munster, Indiana. Archived from the original on May 4, 2018. Carson’s will close its department stores in Southlake Mall in Hobart, the Marquette Mall in Michigan City and in Hammond, where the three-story store is all that remains of the once-thriving but now largely demolished Woodmar Mall.
  30. ^ “Hammond’s Top 10 Employers”. City of Hammond, Indiana. Mayor’s Office of Economic Development. March 25, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-01.
  31. ^ City Baptist High School
  32. ^ “Library Information, Locations, Hours Archived 2008-12-15 at the Wayback Machine..” Hammond Public Library. Retrieved on January 21, 2009.
  33. ^ “Courts – Lake County Bar Association – Indiana”. lakecountybar.com. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  34. ^ “Little League World Series”. littleleague.org. Retrieved March 20, 2018.

External links

  • City of Hammond, Indiana website
  • Photo History of Hammond, Indiana by HHS Class of 1959