Master of Philosophy

The Master of Philosophy (abbr. M.Phil. or MPhil, sometimes Ph.M.; Latin Magister Philosophiae or Philosophiae Magister) is a postgraduate degree. In most cases, it is an advanced research degree with the prerequisites required for a Master of Philosophy degree making it the most advanced research degree before the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D. or D.Phil.).[1] A M.Phil. is in most cases thesis-only and is regarded as a senior or second master’s degree, standing between a taught master’s and a Ph.D.[2] An M.Phil. may be awarded to graduate students after completing several years of original research, but before the defence of a dissertation, and can serve as a provisional enrollment for a Ph.D.

Contents

  • 1 Australia
  • 2 Belgium and Netherlands
  • 3 Canada
  • 4 India
  • 5 Finland
  • 6 Malaysia
  • 7 Norway
  • 8 Pakistan
  • 9 Spain
  • 10 United Kingdom
  • 11 United States
  • 12 See also
  • 13 References

Australia

The Master of Philosophy is offered by many universities in Australia, and it is often the only option to undertake a master’s degree in select schools. In Australia, the Master of Philosophy is a research degree which mirrors a Doctorate of Philosophy (PhD) in breadth of research and structure. The candidates are assessed solely on the basis of a thesis. A standard full-time degree often takes two years to complete.[3][4] The Australian National University, University of Sydney, Curtin University, Griffith University and Melbourne University are also examples of Australian universities offering Masters of Philosophy.[5][6][7][8][9][10]

Belgium and Netherlands

In Belgium and the Netherlands, the M.Phil. is a special research degree, and is only awarded by selected departments of a university (mostly in the fields of arts, social sciences, archaeology, philosophy and theology). Admission to these programmes is highly selective and primarily aimed at those students aiming for an academic career. After finishing these programmes, students normally enroll in a Ph.D. programme. The Dutch Department of Education, Culture and Science has decided not to recognize the MPhil degree. Accordingly, some Dutch universities have decided to continue to offer MPhil programs, though award the legally-recognized Master of Research degrees, as the MA(Res) or MSc(Res).[11][12]

Canada

Very few Canadian universities offer M.Phil. degrees. Among their number, however, is Memorial University of Newfoundland’s interdisciplinary two-year M.Phil. in Humanities and at Queen’s University in English Language and Literature[13].

India

Indian universities offer M.Phil degrees mostly in the streams of arts, science and humanities. The duration is typically two years long. Several universities offer enrolment in their integrated M.Phil-Ph.D program and M.Phil degree holders are usually exempted from doctoral coursework requirement.

Finland

In Finland, the regular (first) Master’s degree filosofian maisteri translates to “Master of Philosophy”. However, the term “philosophy” is to be understood to the maximum extent, because this is the name of the basic master’s degree in all natural sciences and humanities. It does not imply a specialization in theoretical philosophy or even other than introductory studies. In fact, most of the students majoring in philosophy get a degree with a different name (Master of Sociology or Politics). These degrees are regular master’s degrees, not special “higher” degrees (cf. Licentiate and Doctor of Philosophy). In the past, filosofian maisteri signified that the degree was earned through actual studying, in contrast to honorary master’s degrees that could be granted by application to Bachelors.

Malaysia

In Malaysia, the M.Phil. degree is not common. There are only a handful of universities in Malaysia that offer M.Phil. program, such as the University of Malaya, Multimedia University (MMU),Wawasan Open University, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus (UNMC) Monash University Sunway Campus (MUSC) and Curtin Malaysia Campus. In most cases, the M.Phil. is a pure research degree. On a case by case basis, candidates must pass a viva voce examination before the degree is awarded. For UNMC and MUSC, the Faculty of Engineering offer a standalone M.Phil. degree which will lead to the Ph.D. The M.Phil is normally regarded as a more prestigious master’s degree than typical taught master’s degree such as M.Sc. or M.Eng.. Specifically for the University of Malaya, if the desired field of research does not belong to any of the specialized faculties, it is normally categorized under the M.Phil. supervised by the Postgraduate Institute. In November 2012, Malaysian Qualifications Agency has issued programme standards for postgraduate studies in which MPhil is attributed to Master programme by research and mixed mode (coursework and research).[14]

Norway

In Norway, the degree of M.Phil is a ‘standard’ Master’s degree (120 ECTS credits) at a level equivalent to an M.A. or M.Sc. However, unlike a standard MA or MSc, which have a thesis worth 30 ECTS, the M.Phil has a research workload of 60 ECTS.[15] Upon completion, the M.Phil graduate usually qualifies for acceptance to a Ph.D program. Nevertheless, the M.Phil is most often taken as a standalone qualification. The M.Phil is not a common degree in Norway; most universities award an M.A. (in humanities or social sciences) or M.Sc. (in technical and scientific subjects) degrees.[16]

Pakistan

In Pakistan, the degree of MPhil is offered by Public and Private Universities in several different fields of study. [17]This is a two years full-time research based program that completes 18 years of education and leads to PhD. The degree of MPhil is also a requirement to get admission into a Doctoral program in Pakistan.

Spain

In Spain, the M.Phil degree is equivalent to the Diploma de Estudios Avanzados, or DEA. In order to obtain it, the student has to complete a full year of doctoral courses, plus do original research.

United Kingdom

In most UK universities, completion of an M.Phil. typically requires two years of full-time or five years or more of part-time study (being five or eight years from initially entering university) and the submission of a thesis comprising a body of original research undertaken by the candidate. It is common for students admitted into a Ph.D. program at a UK university to be initially registered for the degree of M.Phil., and then to transfer (or upgrade) to the Ph.D. upon successful completion of the first (or sometimes the second) year of study: this will often involve the submission of a short report or dissertation by the student, and possibly an oral examination or presentation. In addition, most universities allow examiners to recommend award of an M.Phil. if a Ph.D. candidate’s thesis is deemed not to be of the requisite length or standard for a doctorate.[18] However, many students register for an M.Phil. with no intention of upgrading to a Ph.D. Others are not able to do a Ph.D. because their research does not have sufficient scope for a Ph.D. or because they are seeking a shorter program.

At a few UK universities, an M.Phil. research degree can be awarded after only one year of study and is viewed as being equivalent to a taught M.A. or M.Sc. degree. However, in some institutions, such as University College London and the University of Aberdeen, a clear set of requirements must be met for the award of an M.Phil, under which candidates are required to submit and defend a thesis against external and internal examiners, a process which may in itself take up to a year, and, as such, the award may be regarded as a mini-PhD. [1][permanent dead link] For example, the degree of Master of Philosophy of the University of Aberdeen requires the submission of a thesis of up to 70,000 words plus a viva voce examination; this is a considerably larger piece of work than is required for the same qualification at other institutions.[19] At the University of Manchester, the candidate may also be required by the examiners to undergo a written or other examination. Each candidate is examined by two or more examiners of whom at least one shall be an external examiner.[20]

Cambridge University offers the M.Phil. as a one-year master’s degree program.[21] This is to distinguish it from the Cambridge M.A. degree, to which B.A. graduates usually awarded after a certain period of time without any further study (a procedure which has been followed at the universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin since the seventeenth century). The Cambridge M.Phil. can be either a taught degree or a research-based degree, depending on the course. At Oxford University, the M.Phil. is usually a two-year master’s degree, although some programs are one-year.[22] The M.Phil. requires a lengthy thesis and more examinations than a one-year master’s degree (such as M.Sc., M.St.). The ancient Scottish universities, who for historical reasons award the Scottish M.A. degree upon completion of four-year first degree programs in arts and humanities subjects, differ in their use of M.Phil. or M.Litt. for postgraduate research degrees, but are slowly standardizing to the M.Phil. as a research degree and the M.Litt. as a taught degree.

United States

Although most American universities do not award the M.Phil., a few award it under certain circumstances. At those institutions (including Yale University, Columbia University, Pardee RAND Graduate School, George Washington University, Rutgers University, The New School for Social Research and the CUNY Graduate Center), the degree is awarded to Ph.D. candidates when they complete their required coursework and qualifying examinations prior to the completion and defense of a doctoral dissertation. This recognizes achievement beyond the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees conferred after 1–3 years of graduate study and formalizes the more colloquial “All But Dissertation” status; as such, defense of a dissertation proposal is sometimes required for conferral.

Many Ph.D. candidates at these universities view the M.Phil. as a formality and elect not to receive it in order to avoid the paperwork and costs involved. However, some programs do not offer an en route M.A. or M.S., so the M.Phil. is the first opportunity to receive a degree between the bachelor’s and Ph.D; others may elect not to take the nominally lower M.A. or M.S. degree in favor of the M.Phil. or the Ph.D itself. Some colleges and universities, such as the College of the Atlantic, the University of Michigan,[23] the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Utah, offer a standalone M.Phil. degree in various fields.

See also

  • Bachelor of Philosophy
  • Candidate of Philosophy
  • Doctor of Philosophy
  • Master’s degree

    • Master of Research
    • Master of Letters
  • Master of Studies (M.St.)

References

  1. ^ “Courses at Curtin”. curtin.edu.au. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 20 January 2016..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “Minimum Entry Requirements”. The University of Sydney Business School. Archived from the original on 2013-07-03. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
  3. ^ UWA. “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2014-02-18. Retrieved 2014-01-22.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2014-01-22.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ Australian National University. “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2016-06-11. Retrieved 2016-06-22.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ UNSW,“Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2014-02-02. Retrieved 2014-01-22.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ Curtin University, “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2016-01-20.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ Griffith University, “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2014-01-22.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ Melbourne University,“Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2014-02-02. Retrieved 2014-01-22.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ Newcastle University “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2015-11-17. Retrieved 2015-10-30.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ De MPhil graad wordt niet meer verleend, Leiden University. Archived July 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ Veelgestelde vragen Welke titel mag ik voeren? Archived 2008-05-12 at the Wayback Machine. Dutch-Flemish Accreditation Organization.
  13. ^ “Master of Philosophy Program”. Queens University. Queens University Canada. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  14. ^ “404”. Archived from the original on 6 July 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
  15. ^ Fossen, Christian. “Programme components – Master of Philosophy in English Linguistics and Language Acquisition”. www.ntnu.edu. Archived from the original on 28 April 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  16. ^ studyinnorway.no Archived 2010-01-10 at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2016-11-09. Retrieved 2016-11-05.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ University, The Open. “MPhil – Research Degrees – Open University”. www.open.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 28 September 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2018.
  19. ^ “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-12-23. Retrieved 2015-12-23.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2017-07-02. Retrieved 2014-12-03.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ “Qualifications”. Archived from the original on 28 January 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2016.
  22. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2009-02-05. Retrieved 2009-05-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ “Department of Philosophy – U-M LSA Philosophy”. lsa.umich.edu. Archived from the original on 1 April 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2018.


Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin)

In the universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin, Bachelors of Arts with Honours of these universities are promoted to the title of Master of Arts or Master in Arts (MA) on application after six or seven years’ seniority as members of the university (including years as an undergraduate). As such, it is an academic rank, and not a postgraduate qualification. No further examination or study is required for this promotion.[1][2][3]

This practice differs from most other universities worldwide, at which the degree reflects further postgraduate study or achievement. These degrees are therefore sometimes referred to as the Oxford and Cambridge MA and the Dublin or Trinity MA, to draw attention to the difference.[4] However, as with gaining a postgraduate degree from another university, once incepted and promoted to a Master, the graduate no longer wears the academic dress or uses the post-nominal letters pertaining to a Bachelor of Arts, being no longer of that rank: i.e. the Master of Arts degree is not awarded separately (for instance, in addition to that of Bachelor of Arts), but rather the new rank is treated as a conversion of one degree to another.

All three universities have other masters’ (i.e. postgraduate) degrees that require further study and examination, but these have other titles, such as Master of Letters (M.Litt.), Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.), Master of Studies (M.St.), Master of Engineering (M.A.I., or MEng), and Master of Science (M.Sc.).

In the ancient universities of Scotland, a degree with the same name is awarded as a first degree to graduates in certain subjects (see Master of Arts (Scotland)).

Contents

  • 1 Initials
  • 2 Requirements
  • 3 History and rationale
  • 4 Rights and privileges
  • 5 Precedence
  • 6 MA status
  • 7 Recognition
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 External links

Initials

Masters of Arts of the three universities may use the post-nominal letters “MA”. Although honours are awarded for the examinations leading to the BA degree (hence “BA (Hons)”), it is technically incorrect to use the style “MA (Hons),” as there is no examination for the MA degree. The abbreviated name of the university (Oxon, Cantab or Dubl) is therefore almost always appended in parentheses to the initials “MA” in the same way that it is to higher degrees, e.g. “John Smith, MA (Cantab), PhD (Lond),” principally so that it is clear (to those who are aware of the system) that these are nominal and unexamined degrees.[citation needed][1][2][3]

If someone incorporates from one of the above universities to another, the Latin et can be inserted between the university names, e.g. “MA(Oxon. et Cantab)”, etc. as opposed to “MA(Oxon), MA (Cantab)” which would indicate that the holder graduated BA at both universities.[citation needed]

The Oxford University Gazette and University Calendar have, since 2007, used Oxf rather than Oxon (also Camb rather than Cantab and Dub rather than Dubl) to match the style used for other universities, stating that: “It is not feasible to use the form ‘Oxon’ because to do so would entail
Latinising all of the very many university names which occur in the Calendar”.

This style is used equally for all degrees, with no distinction being made between incorporated, incepted, and examined MAs except that BA is not shown if the graduate has taken the MA – “BA MA Oxf should not appear”. For example, someone who gained a BA at Oxford and took the MA, studied for an MA in London, then moved to Cambridge and became an MA by incorporation, would be shown as MA Camb, MA Lond, MA Oxf (note the universities are ordered alphabetically), while someone who had taken both a BA and an MA in London would be shown as BA MA Lond.[5]

Requirements

In all three universities, a Bachelor of Arts may “incept” as a Master of Arts after a given lapse of time or as soon as a person is of the required academic standing. No further examinations or residence are required, but some institutions require the incipient to pay a fee.

  • At Oxford, the rank of MA may be conferred during or after the twenty-first term from matriculation (i.e., ordinarily seven years after joining the University) upon anyone holding an Oxford BA or Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA) degree.[6] An exception is that a Bachelor of Arts who attains the degree of Doctor of Philosophy may immediately incept as a Master of Arts, before the requisite number of terms have passed.
  • At Cambridge, the MA degree may be conferred six years after the end of the first term in residence to a person holding a Cambridge Bachelor of Arts (BA) degree, provided they have held it for at least two years.[7] The MA degree can also be awarded by the University of Cambridge to senior members of staff of the university or colleges, after three years of employment, if they have not previously graduated from Cambridge.
  • At Dublin, the rank of MA may be conferred to anyone who has held a Dublin BA degree (or another bachelor’s degree after at least nine terms’ residence) for at least three years. A fee (€637 in 2012) is payable, but is waived in the case of graduates of more than fifty years’ standing.[8]

The MA degree may be conferred in some other situations, but these are by far the most common. Details of these other instances may be found in the sections referenced.

In accordance with the formula of ad eundem gradum, a form of recognition that exists among the three universities, a graduate of Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin who is entitled to an MA degree may be conferred with the equivalent degree at either of the other two universities without further examination.[9][10] The Board of Trinity College, Dublin currently restricts its ad eundem awards to eligible members of the Dublin academic staff, or those who wish to register for a higher degree at Dublin;[11] Cambridge restricts its awards to those “matriculated as a member of the University”;[12] Oxford considers applicants who are undertaking a course of study or fulfil some educational role at Oxford, or who have “rendered valuable services to the University or to its members.”[13] This process is called ‘incorporation.’

History and rationale

This system dates from the Middle Ages, when the study of the liberal arts took seven years. In the late Middle Ages most students joined their university at an earlier age than is now usual, often when aged only 14 or 15. The basic university education in the liberal arts comprised the Trivium (grammar, rhetoric and dialectic) and the Quadrivium (geometry, arithmetic, astronomy and music), and typically took seven years of full-time study.

In between matriculation and licence to teach, which was awarded at the end of an undergraduate’s studies (whereafter he was incepted as a Master of Arts), he took an intermediate degree known as the baccalaureate, or degree of Bachelor of Arts. The division into trivium and quadrivium did not always correspond with the division between the studies required for the BA and MA degrees, but was adopted in Cambridge in the Tudor era and maintained long after it was abandoned elsewhere in Europe. In the University of Paris the baccalaureate was granted soon after responsions (the examination for matriculation), whereas in Oxford and Cambridge the bachelor’s degree was postponed to a much later stage, and gradually developed a greater significance.

On inception and admission to the degree of Master of Arts, a student would become a full member of the university, and was allowed to vote in discussions of the house of Convocation. The new MA would be required to teach in the university for a specified number of years (during which time he was a ‘regent’ or ‘regent master’). Upon completion of these duties, he would become a ‘non-regent master’ and would be allowed either to leave the university (often to become a clerk or to enter the priesthood), or to remain and undertake further studies in one of the specialised or ‘higher’ faculties:. Divinity, Canon or Civil Law, and Medicine.

Later, it became possible to study in the higher faculties as a BA, though the higher degree could not be taken until the graduate had the required seniority to incept as an MA. While the requirements for the bachelor’s degree increased, those for the master’s degree gradually diminished. By the 18th century, the ancient system of disputations had degenerated into a mere formality, and it was possible to satisfy the prescribed terms of residence, which formerly included compulsory attendance at set lectures, by keeping one’s name on the college books. Examinations along modern lines were introduced for the BA and MA degrees in Oxford by the first great statute to reform the examination system in 1800, but the MA examination was abolished by a second statute in 1807. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the most select group of students at Cambridge, noblemen, ‘were given an MA degree after two years residence only, and without any formal exercises- thus bypassing the BA degree’; students of the next rank, fellow-commoners, ‘if entitled by birth… might take their MA in two years’, being ‘excused from attending college lectures and performing their exercises for the plain BA’. Nevertheless, both categories of student still ‘had to take the Senate House Examination if they wished to have an honours degree’.[14]

While the length of the undergraduate degree course has been shortened to three or four years in all subjects, all three universities still require roughly seven years to pass before the awarding of the MA degree. The shortening of the degree course reflects the fact that much of the teaching of the liberal arts was taken over by grammar schools, and undergraduates now enter universities at an older age, in most cases between 17 and 19. (It may be noted that the school-leaving certificate in France today is known as the baccalaureate.)

Durham University (first MA awarded 1838) and the University of London (first MA awarded 1840) broke away from the ancient model of England by considering the MA to be a higher degree distinct from the initial degree, awarded after further examination.[15][16][17] However, in instituting a course of further study beyond the initial baccalaureate, these universities can be seen to have reverted to the ancient model. Almost all newer universities followed their lead, with the result that the Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin model is now the anomaly. Some followed that model for some years (allowing progressions in the same faculty such as from BSc to MSc, etc.) but changed to the newer system afterwards.

Rights and privileges

The degree of Master of Arts traditionally carried various rights and privileges, the chief of which was membership of the legislative bodies of the universities – Convocation at Oxford and the Senate at Cambridge and Dublin. These were originally important decision-making bodies, approving changes to the statutes of the universities and electing various officials, including the two members of Parliament for each university. Inception to the MA degree was the principal way of becoming a member of these bodies, though it is not the only way, e.g. at Oxford Doctors of Divinity, Medicine and Civil Law were always also automatically members of Convocation. Today, the main role of Convocation and Senate is the election of the Chancellor of each university as well as the Professor of Poetry at Oxford and the High Steward at Cambridge.

The privileges accorded to MAs and other members of Convocation/Senate were formerly very important. At Oxford, until 1998 the Proctors only had the power to discipline “junior members” (those who had not been admitted to membership of Convocation), which meant that any graduate student who had incepted as an MA was immune from their authority. At Cambridge, MAs and those with MA status continue to be exempt from the rules governing the ownership of motor vehicles by students. Other privileges intended for academic staff and alumni, e.g. the right to dine at High Table, to attend Gaudies, to walk upon college lawns, etc., are in most colleges restricted to MAs, which excludes the majority of graduate students.

For Cambridge, membership of the Senate is not limited to the MA any more[18] and in 2000, Oxford opened membership of Convocation to all graduates.[19]

For Dublin, the right to elect senators to the upper house of the Irish parliament, Seanad Éireann, is now restricted to those who are Irish citizens and since 1918 the franchise was extended to include all graduates, not only those with an MA.[20]

Precedence

The MA degree gives its holder a particular status in the universities’ orders of precedence/seniority.[21][22] In the University of Oxford a Master of Arts enjoys precedence, standing, and rank before all doctors, masters, and bachelors of the university who are not Masters of Arts, apart from Doctors of Divinity and Doctors of Civil Law. However, members of the university with undergraduate master’s degrees automatically gain the precedence of a Master of Arts 21 terms after matriculation. Precedence, standing, and rank were formerly important for determining eligibility for appointments such as fellowships, but now generally have only a ceremonial significance.

MA status

In Oxford, until 2000 the university statutes required that all members of Congregation (the academic and senior staff of the university) have at least the degree of DD, DM, DCL or MA or have MA status. This linked back to the MA as the licence to teach in the university. MA status was thus routinely granted to academics from other universities who came to take up positions within the university; while it is no longer granted in this way, many members of Congregation appointed before 2000 retain MA status.

In Cambridge, the status of MA is automatically accorded to graduates of other universities studying in Cambridge who are aged 24 or older (graduate students under 24 years are given BA status). This entitles them to wear the appropriate Cambridge gown, but without strings.

For the above cases, the status is not a degree so is automatically relinquished upon leaving the University (in the case of Oxford) or completion of their degree (for Cambridge).

Recognition

In 2000, research by the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education showed that 62% of employers were unaware that the Cambridge MA did not represent any kind of postgraduate achievement involving study.[23] The same survey found widespread ignorance amongst employers regarding university-level qualifications in general: 51% believed the Edinburgh MA to be a postgraduate qualification, 22% were unaware that a Doctorate in Business Administration was a higher qualification than an undergraduate Diploma of Higher Education, and 40% thought that a BA or BSc was a postgraduate degree.[24]

In February 2011, the Labour MP for Nottingham East, Chris Leslie, sponsored a private member’s bill in Parliament, the master’s degrees (Minimum Standards) Bill 2010–12,[25] to “prohibit universities awarding Master’s degrees unless certain standards of study and assessment are met”. The Bill’s supporters described the practice as a “historical anachronism” and argued that unearned qualifications should be discontinued to preserve the academic integrity of the taught MA. Further, they warned that the title gave Oxbridge graduates an unfair advantage in the job market. The Bill’s opponents disputed that the title provided an unfair advantage in practice, noted that the QAA had previously investigated the matter and was unconcerned, and questioned whether it was desirable for Parliament to interfere in the academic procedures of autonomous universities, especially when there was no suggestion that analogous practices at Scottish universities be similarly reformed.[26] The Bill received its second reading on 21 October 2011, during which many of these points were raised, but subsequently failed to complete its passage through Parliament before the end of the session and thus made no further progress.[25]

See also

  • Wooden spoon (award)
  • Wrangler (University of Cambridge)

References

  1. ^ ab “The Oxford MA”. Oriel College. Retrieved 13 December 2015..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ ab “The Cambridge MA”. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  3. ^ ab “Regulations for the degree of Master in Arts (M.A.)”. Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved 13 December 2015.
  4. ^ See for instance a reader’s letter to Times Higher Education: [1], an Independent article [2] and an article in The Oxford Student “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ “Calendar Style Guide 2015” (PDF). University of Oxford. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
  6. ^ “Chapter 4: Regulations for the Degree of Master of Arts”. University of Oxford Examination Decrees and Regulations for the Academic Year 2005–2006. Oxford University Press. 2005. p. 563.
  7. ^ Ordinances of the University of Cambridge regarding Master of Arts degree
  8. ^ “Degrees and Diplomas – II. REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE AWARD OF DEGREES – 4. Masters”. College Calendar, Trinity College Dublin (PDF). 2007. p. E5.
  9. ^ “Statute X: Degrees, Diplomas, and Certificates”. Statutes and Regulations, University of Oxford.
  10. ^ “Chapter XXII: Chapter relating to the Degrees conferred by the University”. The 1966 Consolidated Statutes of Trinity College, Dublin, and the University of Dublin (PDF). 2006. p. 83.
  11. ^ “Degrees and Diplomas – II. REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE AWARD OF DEGREES – 10. Degrees awarded in special cases: degrees ad eundem gradum“. College Calendar, Trinity College Dublin (PDF). 2007. p. E5.
  12. ^ “Ordinances Chapter II: Matriculation, Residence, Admission to Degrees, Discipline” (PDF). Statutes and Ordinances of the University of Cambridge and Passages from Acts of Parliament relating to the University. Cambridge University Press. 2007. p. 179.
  13. ^ “Regulations for Degrees, Diplomas, and Certificates, Part 1: Admission to Degrees – Incorporation”. Statutes and Regulations, University of Oxford. 2002.
  14. ^ A History of the University of Cambridge, vol. III, 1750-1870, Peter Searby, Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp. 68-69
  15. ^ C. E. Whiting (29 June 1937). “Durham University Centenary”. Yorkshire Post. Retrieved 12 December 2015 – via British Newspaper Archive. (Subscription required (help)). The M.A. degree at Oxford and Cambridge had degenerated, and was granted to Bachelors of three years’ standing on the payment of certain fees. At Durham the B.A. had to keep residence for three extra terms, and to pass what seems have been an honours examination in order to proceed to the Master’s degree, and for a number of years classes were awarded in the M.A. examination.
  16. ^ “Examination for the degree of Matter of Arts”. Regulations of the University of London on the Subject of Degrees in Arts. 1839. pp. 21–23.
  17. ^ “Regulations”. The Durham University Calendar. 1842. pp. xxv–xxvi.
  18. ^ “Statutes and Ordinances of the University of Cambridge: Statute A Chapter 1”. Admin.cam.ac.uk. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  19. ^ “Statutes and Regulations: Statute III – Convocation”. Admin.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  20. ^ “Representation of the University in Seanad Éireann” (PDF). Retrieved 21 November 2012.
  21. ^ “Ordinances Chapter II: Matriculation, Residence, Admission to Degrees, Discipline” (PDF). Statutes and Ordinances of the University of Cambridge and Passages from Acts of Parliament relating to the University. Cambridge University Press. 2005. p. 186.
  22. ^ “Regulations for Degrees, Diplomas and Certificates, Part 2: Academic Precedence and Standing”. Statutes and Regulations, University of Oxford. 2002.
  23. ^ “Oxbridge students’ MA ‘degrees’ under threat”. Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  24. ^ “QAA to tighten reins on MAs”. Times Higher Education Supplement. 7 July 2000. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  25. ^ ab “Master’s Degrees (Minimum Standards) Bill 2010–2012”. UK Parliament. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  26. ^ “Master’s Degrees (Minimum Standards) Bill 2010–2012: Second Reading”. House of Commons Hansard Debates. 21 October 2011.

External links

  • Ordinances of the University of Cambridge regarding Master of Arts degree
  • The Oxford MA, Oriel College, Oxford
  • Oxbridge MA degrees under threat (BBC website)


Master of Business Administration

The Master of Business Administration (MBA or M.B.A.) degree originated in the United States in the early 20th century when the country industrialized and companies sought scientific approaches to management.[1] The core courses in an MBA program cover various areas of business such as accounting, applied statistics, business communication, business ethics, business law, finance, managerial economics, management, entrepreneurship, marketing and operations in a manner most relevant to management analysis and strategy.

Most programs also include elective courses and concentrations for further study in a particular area, for example accounting, finance, and marketing. MBA programs in the United States typically require completing about sixty credits, nearly twice the number of credits typically required for degrees that cover some of the same material such as the Master of Economics, Master of Finance, Master of Accountancy, Master of Science in Marketing and Master of Science in Management.

The MBA is a terminal degree and a professional degree.[2][3]Accreditation bodies specifically for MBA programs ensure consistency and quality of education. Business schools in many countries offer programs tailored to full-time, part-time, executive (abridged coursework typically occurring on nights or weekends) and distance learning students, many with specialized concentrations.

Contents

  • 1 History
  • 2 Accreditation

    • 2.1 United States
    • 2.2 Other countries
  • 3 Programs
  • 4 Admissions criteria
  • 5 Content

    • 5.1 Exit examination
  • 6 Honor societies
  • 7 Careers
  • 8 Europe

    • 8.1 History
    • 8.2 Bologna Accord
    • 8.3 Accreditation standards
    • 8.4 Austria
    • 8.5 Czech Republic
    • 8.6 France and French speaking countries
    • 8.7 Germany
    • 8.8 Italy
    • 8.9 Poland
    • 8.10 Portugal
    • 8.11 Spain
    • 8.12 Switzerland
    • 8.13 Ukraine
    • 8.14 United Kingdom
  • 9 Africa

    • 9.1 Nigeria
    • 9.2 South Africa
    • 9.3 Ghana
    • 9.4 Kenya
  • 10 Asia-Pacific

    • 10.1 Bangladesh
    • 10.2 India
    • 10.3 Malaysia
    • 10.4 Singapore
    • 10.5 Japan
    • 10.6 Pakistan
    • 10.7 Australia
    • 10.8 New Zealand
    • 10.9 South Korea
  • 11 Program rankings
  • 12 Criticism
  • 13 See also

    • 13.1 Related graduate business degrees

      • 13.1.1 Executive
      • 13.1.2 Doctoral
  • 14 References
  • 15 Further reading
  • 16 External links

History

The first school of business in the United States was The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania established in 1881 through a donation from Joseph Wharton[4]. In 1900, the Tuck School of Business was founded at Dartmouth College[4] conferring the first advanced degree in business, specifically, a Master of Science in Commerce, the predecessor to the MBA.[5]

The Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration established the first MBA program in 1908, with 15 faculty members, 33 regular students and 47 special students.[6][7] Its first-year curriculum was based on Frederick Winslow Taylor’s scientific management. The number of MBA students at Harvard increased quickly, from 80 in 1908, over 300 in 1920, and 1,070 in 1930.[8] At this time, only American universities offered MBAs. Other countries preferred that people learn business on the job.[8]

Other milestones include:

  • 1930: First management and leadership education program for executives and mid-career experienced managers (the Sloan Fellows Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology).[9][10]
  • 1943: First Executive MBA (EMBA) program for working professionals at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.[11] Chicago was also the first business school to establish permanent campuses on three continents in Chicago (USA), Barcelona (Europe), and Singapore (Asia). Most business schools today offer a global component to their executive MBA. Since the program was established, the school has moved its campuses and is now based in Chicago, London, and Hong Kong.
  • 1946: First MBA focused on global management at Thunderbird School of Global Management.[12]
  • 1950: First MBA outside of the United States, in Canada (Richard Ivey School of Business at The University of Western Ontario),[13] followed by the University of Pretoria in South Africa in 1951.[14]
  • 1955: First MBA offered at an Asian school at the Institute of Business Administration Karachi at the University of Karachi in Pakistan, in collaboration with the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.[15]
  • 1957: First MBA offered at a European school (INSEAD).[16]
  • 1963: First MBA offered in Korea by Korea University Business School (KUBS).[17]
  • 1986: First MBA program requiring every student to have a laptop computer in the classroom at the Roy E. Crummer Graduate School of Business at Rollins College (Florida).[18] Beginning with the 1992–1993 academic year, Columbia Business School required all incoming students to purchase a laptop computer with standard software, becoming the first business school to do so.[19][20]
  • 1994: First online executive MBA program at Athabasca University (Canada).[21]

The MBA degree has been adopted by universities worldwide in both developed and developing countries.[22]

Accreditation

United States

Business school or MBA program accreditation by external agencies provides students and employers with an independent view of the school or program’s quality, as well as whether the curriculum meets specific quality standards. The three major accrediting bodies in the United States are:

  • Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB),
  • Accreditation Council for Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP), and
  • International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education (IACBE).[23]

All of these groups also accredit schools outside the US. The ACBSP and the IACBE are themselves recognized in the United States by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA).[24] MBA programs with specializations for students pursuing careers in healthcare management also eligible for accreditation by the Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Management Education (CAHME).

US MBA programs may also be accredited at the institutional level. Bodies that accredit institutions as a whole include:

  • Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools (MSA),
  • New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC),
  • Higher Learning Commission (HLC),
  • Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities (NWCCU),
  • Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS), and
  • Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC).[25]

Other countries

Accreditation agencies outside the United States include the Association of MBAs (AMBA), a UK-based organization that accredits MBA, DBA and MBM programs worldwide, government accreditation bodies such as the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), which accredits MBA and Postgraduate Diploma in Management (PGDM) programs across India. Some of the leading bodies in India that certify MBA institutions and their programs are the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and the University Grants Commission (UGC). A distance MBA program needs to be accredited by the Distance Education Council (DEC) in India. The Council on Higher Education (CHE) in South Africa, the European Foundation for Management Development operates the European Quality Improvement System (EQUIS) for mostly European, Australian, New Zealand and Asian schools, the Foundation for International Business Administration Accreditation (FIBAA), and Central and East European Management Development Association (CEEMAN) in Europe.

Programs

Full-time MBA programs normally take place over two academic years (i.e. approximately 18 months of term time). For example, in the Northern Hemisphere they often begin in late August or early September of year one and continue until May or June of year two, with a three to four month summer break in between years one and two. Students enter with a reasonable amount of prior real-world work experience and take classes during weekdays like other university students. A typical full-time, accelerated, part-time, or modular MBA requires 60 credits (600 class hours) of graduate work.[26]

Accelerated MBA programs are a variation of the two-year programs. They involve a higher course load with more intense class and examination schedules and are usually condensed into one year. They usually have less down time during the program and between semesters. For example, there is no three to four-month summer break, and between semesters there might be seven to ten days off rather than three to five weeks vacation. Accelerated programs typically have a lower cost than full-time two-year programs.

Part-time MBA programs normally hold classes on weekday evenings after normal working hours, or on weekends. Part-time programs normally last three years or more. The students in these programs typically consist of working professionals, who take a light course load for a longer period of time until the graduation requirements are met.

Evening (second shift) MBA programs are full-time programs that normally hold classes on weekday evenings, after normal working hours, or on weekends for a duration of two years. The students in these programs typically consist of working professionals, who can not leave their work to pursue a full-time regular shift MBA. Most second shift programs are offered at universities in India.

Modular MBA programs are similar to part-time programs, although typically employing a lock-step curriculum with classes packaged together in blocks lasting from one to three weeks.

Executive MBA (EMBA) programs developed to meet the educational needs of managers and executives, allowing students to earn an MBA (or another business-related graduate degree) in two years or less while working full-time. Participants come from every type and size of organization – profit, nonprofit, government – representing a variety of industries. EMBA students typically have a higher level of work experience, often 10 years or more, compared to other MBA students. In response to the increasing number of EMBA programs offered, The Executive MBA Council was formed in 1981 to advance executive education.

Full-time executive MBA programs are a new category of full-time 1 year MBA programs aimed at professionals with approx. 5 years or more. They are primarily offered in countries like India where the 2-year MBA program is targeted at fresh graduates with no experience or minimal experience. These full-time executive MBA programs are similar to 1 year MBA programs offered by schools like Insead and IMD.

Distance learning MBA programs hold classes off-campus. These programs can be offered in a number of different formats: correspondence courses by postal mail or email, non-interactive broadcast video, pre-recorded video, live teleconference or videoconference, offline or online computer courses. Many schools offer these programs.

Blended learning programs combine distance learning with face-to-face instruction.[27] These programs typically target working professionals who are unable to attend traditional part-time programs.[28]

MBA dual degree programs combine an MBA with others (such as an MS, MA, or a JD, etc.) to let students cut costs (dual programs usually cost less than pursuing 2 degrees separately), save time on education and to tailor the business education courses to their needs. This is generally achieved by allowing core courses of one program count as electives in the other. Some business schools offer programs in which students can earn both a bachelor’s degree in business administration and an MBA in five years.

Mini-MBA is a term used by many non-profit and for-profit institutions to describe a training regimen focused on the fundamentals of business. In the past, Mini-MBA programs have typically been offered as non-credit bearing courses that require less than 100 hours of total learning. However, due to the criticisms of these certificates, many schools have now shifted their programs to offer courses for full credit so that they may be applied towards a complete traditional MBA degree. This is to allow students to verify business related coursework for employment purposes and still allow the option to complete a full-time MBA degree program at a later period, if they elect to do so.

Admissions criteria

Many programs base their admission decisions on a combination of undergraduate grade point average, academic transcripts, entrance exam scores, a résumé containing significant work experience, essays, letters of recommendation, and personal interviews. Some schools are also interested in extracurricular activities, community service activities or volunteer work and how the student can improve the school’s diversity and contribute to the student body as a whole.

The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is the most prominently used entrance exam for admissions into MBA programs. The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) is also accepted by almost all MBA programs in order to fulfill any entrance exam requirement they may have.[29] Some schools do not weigh entrance exam scores as heavily as other criteria, and some programs do not require entrance exam scores for admission. In order to achieve a diverse class, business schools also consider the target male-female ratio and local-international student ratios. In rare cases, some MBA degrees do not require students to have an undergraduate degree and will accept significant management experience in lieu of an undergraduate degree. In the UK, for example an HND or even HNC is acceptable in some programs.

Depending on the program, type and duration of work experience can be a critical admissions component for many MBA programs.[30] Many top-tier programs require five or more years of work experience for admission.[31][32]

MBA admissions consulting services exist to counsel MBA applicants to improve their chances of getting admission to their desired Business Schools. These services range from evaluating a candidate’s profile, GMAT preparation, suggesting the schools to which they can apply, writing and editing essay, conducting mock interviews as preparation for MBA admission interviews, as well as post-MBA career counseling.

Content

In general, MBA programs are structured around core courses (an essentially standard curriculum[33][34]) and elective courses that (may) allow for a subject specialty or concentration.[35] Thus,
in the program’s first year (or part), students acquire both a working knowledge of management functions and the analytical skills required for these, while in the second year (part), students pursue elective courses, which may count towards a specialization. (Topics in business ethics may be included at the generalist or specialist level.) After the first year, many full-time students seek internships. The degree culminates with coursework in business strategy, the program capstone. A dissertation or major project is usually a degree requirement after the completion of coursework. Many MBA programs end with a comprehensive exit examination; see below.

For Executive MBA programs, the core curriculum is generally similar, but may seek to leverage the strengths associated with the more seasoned and professional profile of the student body, emphasizing leadership, and drawing more from the specific experience of the individual students.[36][37]

Programs are designed such that students gain exposure to theory and practice alike.[38] Courses include lectures, case studies, and team projects; the mix though, will differ by school[39] and by format. Theory is covered in the classroom setting by academic faculty, and is reinforced through the case method, placing the student in the role of the decision maker. Similar to real world business situations, cases include both constraints and incomplete information. Practical learning (field immersion) often comprises consulting projects with real clients, and is generally undertaken in teams (or “syndicates”).[40][41] The practical elements (as well as the case studies) often involve external practitioners—sometimes business executives—supporting the teaching from academic faculty. (See Business school #Use of case studies and #Other approaches.)

MBA Course Structure
Core
Analytical Accounting, economics (managerial economics, aggregate economics), organizational behavior, quantitative analysis (operations research and business statistics).
Functional Financial management, human resource management, marketing management, operations management.
Ethics Business ethics, corporate social responsibility, corporate governance.
Electives Common broad electives include: entrepreneurship, international business, management information systems, business law, market research, organizational design, negotiations, international finance, project management, managing non-profits and real estate investing. Additionally, many other elective options of a more specialized nature are offered by various institutions.
Capstone Strategy Strategic management and business leadership.
Research Research methodology and dissertation/major project.
Common MBA Specializations/Concentrations
Accounting, entrepreneurship, finance (including corporate finance and investment management), international business, healthcare administration, human resources, management information systems, management science, marketing, operations management, organizational design, project management, real estate, risk management and strategy, among others.

As above, courses begin with underlying topics[33] and then progress to more advanced functional topics where these are applied; see aside.

The analytic skills required for management are usually covered initially. The accounting course(s) may treat financial and management accounting separately or in one hybrid course. Financial accounting deals mainly in the preparation of financial statements while management accounting deals mainly in analysis of internal results. Managerial economics is a technical course that mainly focuses on product pricing as influenced by many micro-economic theories and principals, while the aggregate or macro-economics course deals with topics like the banking system, the money supply, and inflation. Operations Research and statistics are sometimes combined as “Managerial Decision-Making” or “Quantitative Decision-Making”; organizational behavior and human resource management may similarly be combined. In many programs, applicants with appropriate background may be exempt from various of the analytical courses.

As regards the functional courses, some programs treat the curricula here in two parts: the first course provides an overview, while the second revisits the subject in depth (perhaps as specializations); alternatively, the first addresses short-term, tactical problems, while the second addresses long-term, strategic problems (e.g., “Financial Management I” might cover working capital management, while part II covers capital investment decisions). An Information systems / technology course is increasingly included as a core functional course rather than an elective. Ethics training is often delivered with coursework in corporate social responsibility and corporate governance. Note that courses here, although technical in content are, ultimately, oriented toward corporate management. (For example, the principal finance course may cover the technicalities of financial instrument valuation and capital raising, but is in fact focused on managerial- and corporate finance.) Technically-oriented courses, if offered, will be via a specialization.

Programs may also include (coursework-based) training in the skills needed at senior levels of management: soft skills, such as (general) leadership and negotiation; hard skills, such as spreadsheets and project management; thinking skills such as innovation and creativity. Training in areas such as multiculturalism and corporate social responsibility is similarly included. Company visits (including overseas travel), and guest lectures or seminars with CEOs and management personalities may also be included. These, with the core subjects, provide the graduate with breadth, while the specialty courses provide depth.

For the business strategy component, the degree capstone, the focus is on finding competitive advantage and the long-term positioning and management of the entity as a whole. Here, the key functional areas are thus synthesized or integrated into an overall view and the strategy course depicts how the various sub-disciplines integrate to tell one continuous story with each discipline complementing the others. Corresponding training in business leadership may also be scheduled and participation in a business simulation or game is also a common degree requirement. “Strategy” may be offered as a sequence of courses, beginning in the first part (planning) and culminating in the second (execution), or as a single intensive course, offered during the second part. Some programs offer a specialization in “strategy”, others in management consulting which substantially addresses the same issues.

The MBA dissertation (or thesis in some universities) will, in general, comprise the following in some combination:[42] a discussion of the literature, providing a critical review and structuring of what is known on a given topic, with a view to addressing a specific problem; a case study that goes beyond simple description, containing the analysis of hitherto unpublished material; a test of the application or limitations of some known principle or technique in a particular situation, and / or suggested modifications. As an alternative to the dissertation, some programs instead allow for a major project.[43] Here (part-time) students will address a problem current in their organization; particularly in programs with an action learning orientation, these may be practically oriented.[43] Most MBA programs require additional course work in research methodology, preceding the dissertation or project. Some programs allow that the research component as a whole may be substituted with additional elective coursework.

Exit examination

Many MBA programs culminate in a comprehensive exit examination. The national standardized exam known as the Major Field Test for MBAs (MFT-MBA) has been administered in the MBA programs of over 300 U.S. universities.[44] The MFT-MBA aims to assess skills, knowledge, and reasoning ability within the domain of standard MBA curriculum.[34] It is administered by Educational Testing Service. Another prominent option for comprehensive exit exams is the Common Professional Component Comprehensive Exam for MBAs (CPC COMP Exam for MBAs) owned by Peregrine Academic Services.[45] Many programs choose to administer their own in-house exam rather than a standardized test.

Honor societies

Honor societies recognize individuals for high achievement in MBA programs. These honor societies include:

  • Beta Gamma Sigma – membership requires one to be in the top 20% of their program’s class after completing half of the program.[46]
  • Delta Mu Delta – membership requires one to be in the top 20% of their program’s class and have a GPA of at least 3.6 after completing half of the program.[47]
  • Financial Management Association – membership requires one to have a 3.5 overall GPA, or a 3.5 GPA in finance and finance-related courses, after completing half of the program.[48]
  • T10 – membership requires one to have scored in the top 10% in the country on a national comprehensive MBA exam.[49]

Careers

An MBA prepares individuals for many types of careers. According to a survey by the Graduate Management Admissions Council, 64% of year 2012 MBA graduates used their MBA to change careers.[50] Some of the more common jobs an MBA prepares one for include:

  • Business analyst or strategist
  • Business development analyst, associate, or manager
  • Director (of a department)
  • Entrepreneur/founder
  • Financial analyst
  • Management consultant
  • Marketing associate, analyst, or manager
  • Portfolio manager
  • Project, product, or program manager
  • Operations analyst, associate, or manager[51][52]

Europe

History

In 1957, INSEAD (French name “Institut Européen d’Administration des Affaires”, or European Institute of Business Administration) became the first European university offering the MBA degree,[53] followed by EDHEC Business School in 1959 and ICADE in 1960 (who had started offering in 1956 a “Technical Seminary for Business Administration”),[54]ESADE[55] and IESE Business School (first two-year program in Europe) in 1964,[56]UCD Smurfit Business School and Cranfield School of Management in 1964, Manchester Business School and London Business School in 1965, The University of Dublin (Trinity College), the Rotterdam School of Management in 1966, the Vlerick Business School in 1968[57] and in 1969 by the HEC School of Management (in French, the École des Hautes Études Commerciales) and the Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris. In 1972, Swiss business school IMEDE (now IMD) began offering a full-time MBA program, followed by IE Business School (in Spanish, Instituto de Empresas) in 1973, and AGH University of Science and Technology in Cracow, Poland in 1974. In 1991, IEDC-Bled School of Management became the first school in the ex-socialist block of the Central and Eastern to offer an MBA degree.

Bologna Accord

In Europe, the recent Bologna Accord established uniformity in three levels of higher education: Bachelor (three or four years), Masters (one or two years, in addition to three or four years for a Bachelor), and Doctorate (an additional three or four years after a Master). Students can acquire professional experience after their initial bachelor’s degree at any European institution and later complete their masters in any other European institution via the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System.

Accreditation standards

Accreditation standards are not uniform in Europe. Some countries have legal requirements for accreditation (e.g. most German states), in some there is a legal requirement only for universities of a certain type (e.g. Austria), and others have no accreditation law at all. Even where there is no legal requirement, many business schools are accredited by independent bodies voluntarily to ensure quality standards.

Austria

In Austria, MBA programs of private universities have to be accredited by the Austrian Accreditation Council (Österreichischer Akkreditierungsrat). State-run universities have no accreditation requirements, however, some of them voluntarily undergo accreditation procedures by independent bodies. There are also MBA programs of non-academic business schools, who are entitled by the Austrian government to offer these programs until the end of 2012 (Lehrgang universitären Charakters). Some non-academic institutions cooperate with state-run universities to ensure legality of their degrees.

Czech Republic

January 1999 saw the first meeting of the Association of the Czech MBA Schools (CAMBAS). The association is housed within the Centre for Doctoral and Managerial Studies of UEP, Prague. All of the founding members of the association to have their MBA programs accredited by partner institutions in the United Kingdom or United States of America.[58]

France and French speaking countries

In France and in the Francophone countries such as Switzerland, Monaco, Belgium, and Canada, the MBA degree programs at the public accredited schools are similar to those offered in the Anglo-Saxon countries. Most French Business Schools are accredited by the Conférence des Grandes Écoles, which is an association of higher educational establishments outside the mainstream framework of the public education system.

Germany

Germany was one of the last Western countries to adopt the MBA degree. In 1998, the Hochschulrahmengesetz (Higher Education Framework Act), a German federal law regulating higher education including the types of degrees offered, was modified to permit German universities to offer master’s degrees. The traditional German degree in business administration was the Diplom in Betriebswirtschaft (Diplom-Kaufmann) but since 1999, bachelor’s and master’s degrees have gradually replaced the traditional degrees due to the Bologna process. Today most German business schools offer the MBA. Most German states require that MBA degrees have to be accredited by one of the six agencies officially recognized by the German Akkreditierungsrat[59] (accreditation council), the German counterpart to the American CHEA. The busiest of these six agencies (in respect to MBA degrees) is the Foundation for International Business Administration Accreditation (FIBAA). All universities themselves have to be institutionally accredited by the state (staatlich anerkannt).

Italy

Italian MBAs programs at public accredited schools are similar to those offered elsewhere in Europe. Italian Business Schools are accredited by EQUIS and by ASFOR.

Poland

There are several MBA programs offered in Poland. Some of these are run as partnerships with American or Canadian Universities. Others rely on their own faculty and enrich their courses by inviting visiting lecturers. Several MBA programs in Poland are also offered in English.

Portugal

Several business schools offer highly ranked MBA programs in Portugal. Portuguese MBA programs are increasingly internationally oriented, being taught in English.

Spain

Spain has a long history in offering MBA programs with three MBA programs frequently being ranked in the Top 25 worldwide by several international rankings. Spanish MBAs are culturally diverse and taught in English.

Switzerland

There are several schools in Switzerland that offer an MBA as full-time, part-time and executive education programs. Some business schools that offer MBA programs with specializations such as Finance and Healthcare, technology management, and others. As a country with four different national languages (German, French, Italian and Romansh),[60] Switzerland offers most of its programs in English to attract international students to the country.

Ukraine

Recently MBA programs appeared in Ukraine where there are now about twenty schools of business offering a variety of MBA programs. Three of these are subsidiaries of European schools of business, while the remaining institutions are independent. Ukrainian MBA programs are concentrated mainly on particulars of business and management in Ukraine.
For example, 2/3 of all case studies are based on real conditions of Ukrainian companies.[61]

United Kingdom

The UK-based Association of MBAs (AMBA) was established in 1967 and is an active advocate for MBA degrees. The association’s accreditation service is internationally recognised for all MBA, DBA and Masters in Business and Management (MBM) programs. AMBA also offer the only professional membership association for MBA students and graduates. UK MBA programs typically consist of a set number of taught courses plus a dissertation or project.

Africa

The Financial Times in its Executive Education Rankings for 2012 included 5 African business schools.

Nigeria

Business schools administered as colleges within the traditional universities offer a variety of MBA programs. In addition, a few standalone business schools allied with foreign business schools exist in Nigeria.

South Africa

In 2004 South Africa’s Council on Higher Education (CHE) completed an extensive re-accreditation of MBA degrees offered in the country.[62]

Ghana

Business schools of the traditional universities run a variety of MBA programs. In addition, foreign accredited institutions offer MBA degrees by distance learning in Ghana.

Kenya

MBA programs are offered in many public and private universities.

Students choose to specialize in one of the following areas: Accounting, Finance, Entrepreneurship, Insurance and Human Resources. The course takes 4 semesters of about 4 months each.

Asia-Pacific

International MBA programs are acquiring brand value in Asia. For example, while a foreign MBA is still preferred in the Philippines, many students are now studying at one of many “Global MBA” English language programs being offered. English-only MBA programs are also offered in Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. For international students who want a different experience, many Asian programs offer scholarships and discounted tuition to encourage an international environment in the classroom.

Rankings have been published for Asia Pacific schools by the magazine Asia Inc. which is a regional business magazine with distribution worldwide. The importance of MBA education in China has risen, too.[63]

Bangladesh

Bangladesh was one of the first countries in Asia to offer MBA degree. There are now more than 50 business schools in Bangladesh offering the MBA, predominantly targeting graduates without any work experience. Most MBAs are two years full-time. There is little use of GMAT. The Business Schools conduct their own admission tests instead. Classes are taught in English.

India

There are many business schools and colleges in India offering two-year MBA or PGDM programs accredited by AICTE or UGC.

The Indian Institutes of Management are among the world’s most selective schools according to Bloomberg magazine.[64] They offer a post graduate degree in management. There are 20 IIMs in total, 12 of which were established after the year 2010.[citation needed]

Malaysia

Malaysia is one of the pioneer country in South East Asia to offer MBA programs. Both public and private universities offers MBA degrees. Most MBAs are in full-time mode and part-time mode. All MBA degrees are conducted in English.

Singapore

Singapore is South East Asia’s leading financial hub. Its competitive educational system starts from primary schools to universities and eventually post-graduate studies such as EMBA programs.[65]

Japan

In Japan 2 business schools offer the accredited MBA degree (AACSB, AMBA or EQUIS). The concept of an MBA is still not considered mainstream as traditional companies still perceive that knowledge and learning with respect to business and management can only be effectively gained through experience and not within a classroom. In fact, some companies have been known to place recent MBA recipients in unrelated fields, or try to re-acclimate their Japanese employees who have spent years overseas earning the degree. As a consequence, academic institutions in Japan are attempting to reinvent the perception of the MBA degree, by taking into account the local corporate culture.[66]

Pakistan

Pakistan first offered an MBA program outside the United States in 1955 in collaboration with the University of Pennsylvania. Now in Pakistan, there are 187 Universities/Institutes which are recognized by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, offering MBA programs to students and professionals.[citation needed]

Australia

In Australia, 42 Australian business schools offer the MBA degree (16 are AACSB, AMBA or EQUIS accredited[67]). Universities differentiate themselves by gaining international accreditation and focusing on national and international rankings. Most MBAs are one to two years full-time. There is little use of GMAT, and instead each educational institution specifies its own requirements, which normally entails several years of management-level work experience as well as proven academic skills.[68]

Graduate Management Association of Australia carries out ratings for Australian MBAs and annually publishes Australian MBA Star Ratings.
The Financial Review Boss carries out biennial rankings of Australian MBAs.[69]

New Zealand

In New Zealand, most universities offer MBA classes, typically through part-time arrangement or evening classes. Only two universities offer full-time programs to international students – University of Otago (Otago MBA) and Auckland University of Technology (AUT). The Otago MBA is the longer established of the two, offering a 240 points program while AUT MBA is a 180-point program.

South Korea

Korean universities offer full-time and part-time MBA programs that usually consist of a two-year curriculum. The first MBA program was offered in 1963 by Korea University Business School (KUBS). In 2007, the Korean Government established “BK21,” a project that supports Korean universities in order to develop their competitiveness in the global MBA market. Korea University Business School topped the evaluation of BK21 professional business graduate schools for six consecutive years. In the meantime, only two universities in Korea ranked in the “2015 Global Top 100 Executive MBA (EMBA) Rankings” conducted by UK Financial Times (Korea University Business School and Yonsei University ranked 27th and 45th worldwide, respectively).

Program rankings

Since 1967, publications have ranked MBA programs using various methods.[70] The Gourman Report (1967–1997) did not disclose criteria or ranking methods,[71] and these reports were criticized for reporting statistically impossible data, such as no ties among schools, narrow gaps in scores with no variation in gap widths, and ranks of nonexistent departments.[72] In 1977 The Carter Report ranked MBA programs based on the number of academic articles published by faculty, the Ladd & Lipset Survey ranked business schools based on faculty surveys, and MBA Magazine ranked schools based on votes cast by business school deans.[70]

Today, publications by the Aspen Institute, Business Week, The Economist, Financial Times, Forbes, Quacquarelli Symonds, US News & World Report, and the Wall Street Journal make their own rankings of MBA programs. Schools’ ranks can vary across publications, as the methodologies for rankings differ among publications:

  • The Aspen Institute publishes the Beyond Grey Pinstripes rankings which are based on the integration of social and environmental stewardship into university curriculum and faculty research. Rankings from a small sample of well-known schools are calculated on the amount of sustainability coursework made available to students (20%), amount of student exposure to relevant material (25%), amount of coursework focused on stewardship by for-profit corporations (30%), and relevant faculty research (25%).[73] The 2011 survey and ranking include data from 150 universities.[74]
  • Business Weeks rankings are based on student surveys, a survey of corporate recruiters, and an intellectual capital rating.[75]
  • The Economist Intelligence Unit, published in The Economist, surveys both business schools (80%) and students and recent graduates (20%). Ranking criteria include GMAT scores, employment and salary statistics, class options, and student body demographics.[76]
  • Financial Times uses survey responses from alumni who graduated three years prior to the ranking and information from business schools. Salary and employment statistics are weighted heavily.[77]
  • Forbes considers only the return of investment five years after graduation. MBA alumni are asked about their salary, the tuition fees of their MBA program and other direct costs as well as opportunity costs involved. Based on this data, a final “5-year gain” is calculated and determines the MBA ranking position.[78]
  • Quacquarelli Symonds QS Global 200 Business Schools Report compiles regional rankings of business schools around the world. Ranks are calculated using a two-year moving average of points assigned by employers who hire MBA graduates.[79]
  • U.S. News & World Report incorporates responses from deans, program directors, and senior faculty about the academic quality of their programs as well as the opinions of hiring professionals. The ranking is calculated through a weighted formula of quality assessment (40%), placement success (35%), and student selectivity (25%).[80]
  • UT-Dallas Top 100 Business School Research Rankings ranks business schools on the research faculty publish, similar to The Carter Report of the past.[81]
  • The Wall Street Journal, which stopped ranking full-time MBA programs in 2007, based its rankings on skill and behavioral development that may predict career success, such as social skills, teamwork orientation, ethics, and analytic and problem-solving abilities.[82]

The ranking of MBA programs has been discussed in articles and on academic websites.[83] Critics of ranking methodologies maintain that any published rankings should be viewed with caution for the following reasons:[84]

  • Rankings exhibit intentional selection bias as they limit the surveyed population to a small number of MBA programs and ignore the majority of schools, many with excellent offerings.
  • Ranking methods may be subject to personal biases and statistically flawed methodologies (especially methods relying on subjective interviews of hiring managers, students, or faculty).
  • Rankings use no objective measures of program quality.
  • The same list of schools appears in each ranking with some variation in ranks, so a school ranked as number 1 in one list may be number 17 in another list.
  • Rankings tend to concentrate on representing MBA schools themselves, but some schools offer MBA programs of different qualities and yet the ranking will only rely upon information from the full-time program (e.g., a school may use highly reputable faculty to teach a daytime program, but use adjunct faculty in its evening program or have drastically lower admissions criteria for its evening program than for its daytime program).
  • A high rank in a national publication tends to become a self-fulfilling prophecy.
  • Some leading business schools including Harvard, INSEAD, Wharton and Sloan provide limited cooperation with certain ranking publications due to their perception that rankings are misused.[85]

One study found that ranking MBA programs by a combination of graduates’ starting salaries and average student GMAT score can approximately duplicate the top 20 list of the national publications, and concluded that a truly objective ranking would use objective measures of program quality and be individualized to the needs of each prospective student.[84] National publications have recognized the value of rankings against different criteria, and now offer lists ranked different ways: by salary, GMAT score of students, selectivity, and so forth. While useful, these rankings have yet to meet the critique that rankings are not tailored to individual needs, that they use an incomplete population of schools, may fail to distinguish between the different MBA program types offered by each school, or rely on subjective interviews.

Criticism

The media raised questions about the value and content of business school programs after the financial crisis of 2007–2010. In general, graduates had reportedly tended to go into finance after receiving their degrees.[86] As financial professionals are widely seen as responsible for the global economic meltdown, anecdotal evidence suggests new graduates are choosing different career paths.[87]

Deans at top business schools have acknowledged that media and public perception of the MBA degree shifted as a result of the financial crisis.[88] Articles have been written about public perceptions of the crisis, ranging from schools’ acknowledgment of issues with the training students receive[86][88] to criticisms of the MBA’s role in society.[89]

The MBA title has acquired a mixed reputation in that the MBA curriculum tends to educate students in the “greed is good” direction based on various simplistic assumptions about human behaviour.[90]

See also

  • Outline of business management
  • Bachelor of Business Administration

Related graduate business degrees

see: Business education#Postgraduate education.
  • Master of Accountancy (MAcc or MAcy) / Master of Professional Accountancy (MPA, or MPAcc), a postgraduate degree in accounting
  • Master of Commerce (MCom or MComm), a postgraduate business degree usually focused on a particular area
  • Master of Economics (M.Econ./M.Ec.)
  • Master of Enterprise (MEnt), a postgraduate, technology & enterprise-based qualification
  • Master of Bioscience Enterprise (MBioEnt), a postgraduate degree focused on the commercialization of biotechnology
  • Master of Finance (MFin), a postgraduate degree in finance
  • Master of Health Administration (MHA), a postgraduate health administration degree
  • Master of International Business (MIB), a postgraduate degree focused on International Business
  • Master of Management (MM), a postgraduate business degree
  • Master of Science in Management (MSM), a postgraduate business management degree
  • Master of Marketing Research (MMR) a postgraduate degree focusing on research in the field of marketing
  • Master of Nonprofit Organizations (MNO or MNPO), the postgraduate degree for philanthropy and voluntary sector professionals
  • Master of Public Administration (MPA), a postgraduate public administration degree
  • Master of Social Science (MSS), a postgraduate degree
  • Master of Project Management (MSPM or MPM), a postgraduate project management degree
  • Masters of Management: Co-operatives and Credit Unions, a post-graduate degree for co-operative and credit union managers
  • Master in Sustainable Business (MSB)
  • Master of Real Estate (MScRE), a postgraduate degree focusing on real estate.
  • Master of Information Management (MIM), a postgraduate degree focusing on information management.

Executive

  • Executive Master of Science in Business Administration (Executive MScBA), a postgraduate degree focusing advanced-level conceptual foundation in a student’s chosen field such as operational excellence in the biotech/pharma industry.

Doctoral

  • Doctor of Business Administration (DBA), a doctorate in business administration
  • Doctor of Management (D.M.)
  • PhD in Management (PhD), a business doctoral degree
  • D.Phil in Management (D.Phil), a doctorate in business
  • Engineering Doctorate (EngD), A professional doctorate involving a management thesis and taught MBA courses in the UK

References

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Further reading

  • Patterson, Sarah E.; Damaske, Sarah; Sheroff, Christen (June 2017). “Gender and the MBA: differences in career trajectories, institutional support, and outcomes”. Gender & Society. 31 (3): 310–332. doi:10.1177/0891243217703630. PMC 5915327. PMID 29706689.

External links


Candidate of Medicine

Candidate of Medicine (Latin: candidatus medicinae (male), candidata medicinae (female), abbreviated cand.med.) is an academic degree awarded in Denmark, Iceland and Norway following a six-year medical school education.

Medical students in Germany, Austria and Switzerland carry this title during their medical studies before being awarded the degree of Dr.med. (Germany) or Dr.med.univ. (Austria) after defending a doctoral or diploma thesis before a jury. Defence of a thesis is optional in Germany and can be prepared during or after the medical studies, while in Austria it is compulsory to defend a thesis before completion of the medical curriculum.

The degree can also be written as candidatus/candidata medicinæ (Æ instead of AE). In Danish and Norwegian, the degree is, similar to other Latin degrees, generally not capitalized (i.e. it’s written as candidatus/candidata medicinae and abbreviated cand.med.). The abbreviation of the Latin term is almost exclusively used, i.e. they are not translated.

The term candidate refers to those running for public office in Ancient Rome. Traditionally, many doctors (and lawyers) in Denmark and Norway would hold positions directly appointed by the King.

In Denmark and Norway, a higher doctorate of medicine is known as dr.med. (doctor medicinae, literally, Doctor of Medicine). Formally it is not, however, required in Denmark to hold a cand.med. degree to acquire the doctorate. In practice most Doctors of Medicine are also Candidates of Medicine. In Denmark there are currently two research degrees that can be obtained in the field of medicine, the ph.d., which is not officially a doctorate (although being called the lesser doctorate informally) and the doctorate, dr.med. (informally the higher doctorate). Dr.med. was abolished in Norway in 2008 and replaced by the PhD.

Norway

In Norway the education is offered at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University of Bergen, University of Oslo, and University of Tromsø. Enrollment in a program leading to a medical degree is highly competitive in Norway. The required grades obtained in secondary education are consistently higher for medical degrees than for any other university subject. Following the education, candidates are permitted to work as rotation doctor, first at a hospital for one year and then six months as a general practitioner. After the rotation service, the candidate may receive formal qualifications as a medical practitioner, after which they may apply for training in a medical specialty.

The first Norwegian to receive this degree was Carl Schultz in 1817. Along with the cand.med.vet., cand.psychol. and cand.theol. it is one of the few Latin titles to survive the “Quality Reform” in Norway.

Medical students

In Denmark and Norway, the term stud.med. (abbreviation of the Latin studiosus medicinae (masculine) or studiosa medicinae (feminine)) is used to denote medical students, at any stage, in a six-year programme leading towards a cand.med. degree. However, the descriptive Danish terms medicinstuderende and lægestuderende (meaning medical student and physician student) and the Norwegian term medisinstudent (meaning medical student) are commonly used in less formal parlance.

Other uses

In Finland, Germany and Switzerland, the term cand. med. is commonly used to denote a medical student in a six-year program who has passed the First Medical State Examination after two years of pre-clinical study and has entered the clinical part.


Master of Arts

A Master of Arts (Latin: Magister Artium; abbreviated M.A.; also Latin: Artium Magister, abbreviated A.M.) is a person who was admitted to a type of master’s degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech. The degree is usually contrasted with the Master of Science. Those admitted to the degree typically study linguistics, history, communication studies, diplomacy, public administration, political science, or other subjects within the scope of the humanities and social sciences; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the natural sciences and mathematics. The degree can be conferred in respect of completing courses and passing examinations, research, or a combination of the two.

The Master of Arts traces its origin to the teaching license or Licentia docendi of the University of Paris.[1]

Contents

  • 1 Europe

    • 1.1 Germany
    • 1.2 Netherlands
    • 1.3 Poland
    • 1.4 Nordic countries
    • 1.5 United Kingdom and Ireland

      • 1.5.1 Most universities
      • 1.5.2 Scotland
      • 1.5.3 Oxford, Cambridge, Dublin (conferred)

        • 1.5.3.1 Confusion
      • 1.5.4 Oxford, Cambridge (earned)
  • 2 North America
  • 3 References

Europe

Germany

In Germany, the traditional equivalent of the postgraduate Master of Arts was the Magister Artium. This degree, which usually required 5 years of studies, did exist in former West Germany and in reunited Germany, but not in former East Germany where all degree courses led to Diplom degrees. Traditional Magister degrees were granted in social sciences and most of the humanities (International Business, Affairs, European Studies and Economics included), with the exception of visual and performing arts such as music and theatre.

The Magister Artium was either a double major degree or a combination of one major and two minors. German postgraduate Master’s of Arts and Master’s of Science degrees were introduced in 2001. Therefore, the new Master of Arts and the old Magister Artium degrees existed side by side until the phase out of the old degrees since 2010; Magister Artium degrees are still awarded (as of 2014). The new Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees together also require 5 years of studies, which is the reason why the new Master of Arts and the old Magister Artium degrees are considered equivalent.

MA degree can be obtained after completion of 120 credits and 2 years of studies at the University of Hamburg.

Netherlands

In the Netherlands, the master of Arts and the Master of Science degrees were introduced in 2002. Until that time, a single program that led to the doctorandus degree (or the ingenieur degree in the case of technical subjects) was in effect, which comprised the same course load as the Bachelor and Master programs put together. Those who had already started the doctorandus program could, upon completing it, opt for the doctorandus degree (before their name, abbreviated to ‘drs.’; in the case of ingenieur, this would be ‘ir.’), or simply use the master’s degree (behind their name) in accordance with the new standard (so, ‘MA’ or ‘MSc’). Because these graduates do not have a separate bachelor’s degree (which is in fact – in retrospect – incorporated into the program), the master’s degree is their first academic degree.

Poland

The Polish equivalent of Master of Arts is “magister” (its abbreviation “mgr” is placed before one’s name, like dr). At the technical universities, one is awarded with inżynier (engineer) after three years and then with “magister” after completing another two years of study and graduating. Such persons use titles “mgr inż”. In the 1990s, the MA programs usually lasting 5 years were replaced by separate 3-year bachelor’s and 2-year master’s programs. The degree is awarded in the arts (literature, foreign languages, filmmaking, theatre etc.), natural sciences, mathematics, computer science fields, and economics. The completion of a research thesis is required. All master’s degrees in Poland qualify for a doctorate program.

Nordic countries

In Finland, Denmark and Norway, the master’s degree is a combined taught/research degree, awarded after 2 years of studies after completing the bachelor’s degree. The student is required to write a scientific thesis.

In Finland, this master’s degree is called a filosofian maisteri (Finnish) or filosofie magister (Swedish) degree, and it is abbreviated as FM or “fil.mag.”.

In Sweden, there is still an intermediate degree between the Bachelor (kandidat) and Master called magister which only requires one year of studies, including a scientific thesis after completing the bachelor’s degree. This fourth year typically constitutes the first half of Master programme. If not, it may be supplemented by a fifth year and a Master’s thesis to obtain a master’s degree in the field of study.

United Kingdom and Ireland

Most universities

The MA is typically a “taught” postgraduate degree, involving lectures, examination, and a dissertation based on independent research. Taught master’s programs involve one or two years of full-time study. Many can be done part-time as well. Until recently, both the undergraduate and postgraduate master’s degrees were awarded without grade or class (like the class of an honours degree). Nowadays, however, master’s degrees are normally classified into the categories of Fail, Pass, Pass with Merit, or Pass with Distinction. This education pattern in the United Kingdom is followed in India and many Commonwealth Nations.

The Master of Laws (LLM) is the standard degree taught for law, but certain courses may lead to MA, MLitt, Master of Studies (MSt), and the Bachelor of Civil Law (BCL) at Oxford. All of these degrees are considered substitutes to one another and are thus generally equivalent.

Scotland

In the ancient universities of Scotland, the degree of Master of Arts is awarded in universities as a four-year undergraduate degree, see Master of Arts (Scotland).

The Master of Arts is awarded in arts, humanities, theology, and social sciences. However, some universities—particularly those in Scotland—award the Master of Letters (MLitt) to students in the arts, humanities, divinity, and social sciences.

Oxford, Cambridge, Dublin (conferred)

At Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin, the MA is conferred after a certain number of years without further examination to those who are Bachelors of Arts.

The title of Master of Arts may also be awarded, in the case of the oldest British universities only, without further examination to those who have graduated as Bachelor of Arts and who have the requisite years’ standing as members of the university or as graduates. This happens, in England, only at the universities of Oxford, four years after completing a bachelor’s degree, and Cambridge, six years after the first term of study. It is also the case at the University of Dublin in Ireland. The abbreviated name of the university (Oxon, Cantab or Dubl) is therefore almost always appended in parentheses to the initials “MA” in the same way that it is to higher degrees, e.g. “John Smith, MA (Cantab), PhD (Lond)”, principally so that it is clear (to those who are aware of the system) that these are nominal and unexamined degrees.[2]

The MLitt is a research degree at the University of Cambridge, where the Master of Philosophy (MPhil) is the name given to the standard one-year taught degree with a unique research element, in contrast to the use of MPhil at other institutions for a research degree.

Confusion

In February 2011, Labour MP for Nottingham East, Chris Leslie, sponsored a private member’s bill in Parliament, the master’s degrees (Minimum Standards) Bill 2010–12, in order to “prohibit universities awarding Master’s degrees unless certain standards of study and assessment are met”. The Bill’s supporters described the practice as a “historical anachronism” and argued that unearned qualifications should be discontinued in order to preserve the academic integrity of the taught MA. Further, they warned that the title gave Oxbridge graduates an unfair advantage in the job market.

Research by the universities watchdog, the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education, in 2000, showed that two-thirds of employers were unaware that the Cambridge MA did not represent any kind of post-graduate achievement involving study.[3]

On 21 October 2011, the master’s degrees (Minimum Standards) Bill 2010–12 received its second reading. The Bill failed to complete its passage through Parliament before the end of the session, meaning it made no further progress.[4]

Oxford, Cambridge (earned)

A number of different master’s degrees may be earned at Oxford and Cambridge. The most common, the Master of Philosophy (MPhil), is a two-year research degree. The Master of Science (MSc) and the Master of Studies (MSt) degrees each take one year. They often combine some coursework with research. The Master of Letters (MLitt) is a pure research master’s degree. More recently, Oxford and Cambridge offer a Masters of Business Administration. Master’s degrees are generally offered without classification, though the top five percent may be deemed worthy of Distinction.[5] Both universities also offer a variety of four-year undergraduate integrated master’s degrees such as MEng or MMath.[6][7][8]

North America

In Canada and the United States, the Master of Arts (Magister Artium) and Master of Science (Magister Scientiæ) are the basic graduate-level degrees in most subjects and may be course-based, research-based, or, more typically, a combination of the two.[9]

Admission to a master’s program is normally contingent upon holding a bachelor’s degree. Some programs provide for a joint bachelor’s and master’s after about five years.[10] Some universities use the Latin degree names, such as Artium Magister (AM) or Scientiæ Magister (SM). For example, Harvard University, Dartmouth College, the University of Chicago, MIT, the University of Pennsylvania, and Brown University use the abbreviations AM and SM for some of their master’s degrees.[11][12] A Master of Arts may be given in a scientific discipline, common at Ivy League universities.

Many universities offer Master of Arts programs, which are differentiated either as Thesis or Non-Thesis programs. Usually, the duration for a Non-Thesis option is one to two years of full-time study. The period for a Thesis option may last longer, depending also on the required level of courses and complexity of the thesis. Sometimes, qualified students who are admitted to a “very high research” Master of Arts might have to earn credits also at the PhD level, and they may need to complete their program in about three years of full-time candidature e.g. at the universities Harvard in the US and McGill in Canada.

A thesis must be a distinct contribution to knowledge. It must demonstrate ability to plan and carry out research, organize results, and defend the approach and conclusions in a scholarly manner. The research presented must meet current standards of the discipline. Finally, the thesis must clearly demonstrate how the research advances knowledge in the field.

References

  1. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). “Master of Arts”. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Debretts Correct Form (2013 edn) – Academics
  3. ^ “Oxbridge students’ MA ‘degrees’ under threat”. Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  4. ^ “Parliamentary business”. http://www.parliament.uk/. Retrieved 2 January 2013. External link in |publisher= (help)
  5. ^ “Graduate courses A-Z listing – University of Oxford”.
  6. ^ “The structure of undergraduate courses at the University of Cambridge”. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  7. ^ “Mathematics”. University of Oxford. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  8. ^ “Engineering Science”. University of Oxford. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  9. ^ Structure of the U.S. Education System: Master’s Degrees, International Affairs Office, U.S. Department of Education, February 2008, retrieved 2010-02-25
  10. ^ See, for example, the program run by Claremont Graduate University for graduates of the Claremont Colleges
  11. ^ “Degree Programs – The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences”. Harvard University. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  12. ^ “Degree Abbreviations – Harvard University”. Harvard University. Retrieved 3 October 2015.


Master’s degree

A master’s degree[fn 1] (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.[1] A master’s degree normally requires previous study at the bachelor’s level, either as a separate degree or as part of an integrated course. Within the area studied, master’s graduates are expected to possess advanced knowledge of a specialized body of theoretical and applied topics; high order skills in analysis, critical evaluation, or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think rigorously and independently.

Contents

  • 1 Historical development

    • 1.1 Medieval era to 18th century
    • 1.2 Nineteenth century
    • 1.3 Twentieth century
    • 1.4 Twenty-first century
  • 2 Titles

    • 2.1 Types
  • 3 Structure

    • 3.1 Duration
    • 3.2 Admission
  • 4 Comparable European degrees
  • 5 South America

    • 5.1 Brazil
  • 6 Asia

    • 6.1 Hong Kong
    • 6.2 Pakistan
    • 6.3 India
    • 6.4 Israel
    • 6.5 Nepal
    • 6.6 Taiwan
  • 7 See also
  • 8 Notes
  • 9 References

Historical development

Medieval era to 18th century

The master’s degree dates back to the origin of European universities, with a Papal bull of 1233 decreeing that anyone admitted to the mastership in the University of Toulouse should be allowed to teach freely in any other university. The original meaning of the master’s degree was thus that someone who had been admitted to the rank (degree) of master (i.e. teacher) in one university should be admitted to the same rank in other universities. This gradually became formalised as the licentia docendi (licence to teach). Originally, masters and doctors were not distinguished, but by the 15th century it had become customary in the English universities to refer to the teachers in the lower faculties (arts and grammar) as masters and those in the higher faculties as doctors.[2] Initially, the Bachelor of Arts (BA) was awarded for the study of the trivium and the Master of Arts (MA) for the study of the quadrivium.[3]

From the late Middle Ages until the nineteenth century, the pattern of degrees was therefore to have a bachelor’s and master’s degree in the lower faculties and to have bachelor’s and doctorates in the higher faculties. In the United States, the first master’s degrees (Magister Artium, or Master of Arts) were awarded at Harvard University soon after its foundation.[4] In Scotland, the pre-Reformation universities (St Andrews, Glasgow and Aberdeen) developed so that the Scottish MA became their first degree, while in Oxford, Cambridge and Trinity College, Dublin, the MA was awarded to BA graduates of a certain standing without further examination from the late seventeenth century, its main purpose being to confer full membership of the university.[5] At Harvard the 1700 regulations required that candidates for the master’s degree had to pass a public examination,[6] but by 1835 this was awarded Oxbridge-style 3 years after the BA.[7]

Nineteenth century

The nineteenth century saw a great expansion in the variety of master’s degrees offered. At the start of the century, the only master’s degree was the MA, and this was normally awarded without any further study or examination.The Master in Surgery degree was introduced by the University of Glasgow in 1815.[8] By 1861 this had been adopted throughout Scotland as well as by Cambridge and Durham in England and the University of Dublin in Ireland.[9] When the Philadelphia College of Surgeons was established in 1870, it too conferred the Master of Surgery, “the same as that in Europe”.[10]

In Scotland, Edinburgh maintained separate BA and MA degrees until the mid nineteenth century,[11] although there were major doubts as to the quality of the Scottish degrees of this period. In 1832 Lord Brougham, the Lord Chancellor and an alumnus of the University of Edinburgh, told the House of Lords that “In England the Universities conferred degrees after a considerable period of residence, after much labour performed, and if they were not in all respects so rigorous as the statutes of the Universities required, nevertheless it could not be said, that Masters of Arts were created at Oxford and Cambridge as they were in Scotland, without any residence, or without some kind of examination. In Scotland all the statutes of the Universities which enforced conditions on the grant of degrees were a dead letter.”[12]

It was not until 1837 that separate examinations were reintroduced for the MA in England, at the newly established Durham University (even though, as in the ancient English universities, this was to confer full membership), to be followed in 1840 by the similarly new University of London, which was only empowered by its charter to grant degrees by examination.[13][14][15] However, by the middle of the century the MA as an examined second degree was again under threat, with Durham moving to awarding it automatically to those who gained honours in the BA in 1857, along the lines of the Oxbridge MA, and Edinburgh following the other Scottish universities in awarding the MA as its first degree, in place of the BA, from 1858.[16] At the same time, new universities were being established around the then British Empire along the lines of London, including examinations for the MA: the University of Sydney in Australia and the Queen’s University of Ireland in 1850, and the Universities of Bombay (now the University of Mumbai), Madras and Calcutta in India in 1857.

In the US, the revival of master’s degrees as an examined qualification began in 1856 at the University of North Carolina, followed by the University of Michigan in 1859,[17] although the idea of a master’s degree as an earned second degree was not well established until the 1870s, alongside the PhD as the terminal degree.[18] Sometimes it was possible to earn an MA either by examination or by seniority in the same institution, e.g. in Michigan the “in course” MA was introduced in 1848 and was last awarded in 1882, while the “on examination” MA was introduced in 1859.[19]

Probably the most important master’s degree introduced in the 19th century was the Master of Science (MS in the US, MSc in the UK). At the University of Michigan this was introduced in two forms in 1858: “in course”, first awarded in 1859, and “on examination”, first awarded in 1862. The “in course” MS was last awarded in 1876.[19] In Britain, however, the degree took a while longer to arrive. When London introduced its Faculty of Sciences in 1858, the University was granted a new charter giving it the power “to confer the several Degrees of Bachelor, Master, and Doctor, in Arts, Laws, Science, Medicine, Music”,[20] but the degrees it awarded in science were the Bachelor of Science and the Doctor of Science.[21] The same two degrees, again omitting the master’s, were awarded at Edinburgh, despite the MA being the standard undergraduate degree for Arts in Scotland.[22] In 1862, a Royal Commission suggested that Durham should award master’s degrees in theology and science (with the suggested abbreviations MT and MS, contrary to later British practice of using MTh or MTheol and MSc for these degrees),[23] but its recommendations were not enacted. In 1877, Oxford introduced the Master of Natural Science, along with the Bachelor of Natural Science, to stand alongside the MA and BA degrees and be awarded to students who took their degrees in the honours school of natural sciences.[24] In 1879 a statute to actually establish the faculty of Natural Sciences at Oxford was promulgated,[25] but in 1880 a proposal to rename the degree as a Master of Science was rejected along with a proposal to grant Masters of Natural Sciences a Master of Arts degree, in order to make them full members of the University.[26] This scheme would appear to have then been quietly dropped, with Oxford going on to award BAs and MAs in science.

The Master of Science (MSc) degree was finally introduced in Britain in 1878 at Durham,[27] followed by the new Victoria University in 1881.[28] At the Victoria University both the MA and MSc followed the lead of Durham’s MA in requiring a further examination for those with an ordinary bachelor’s degree but not for those with honours.[29]

Twentieth century

At the start of the twentieth century there were therefore four different sorts of master’s degree in the UK: the Scottish MA, granted as a first degree; the Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin), granted to all BA graduates a certain period after their first degree without further study; master’s degrees that could be gained either by further study or by gaining an honours degree (which, at the time in the UK involved further study beyond the ordinary degree, as it still does in Scotland and some Commonwealth countries); and master’s degrees that could only be obtained by further study (including all London master’s degrees). In 1903, the London Daily News criticised the practice of Oxford and Cambridge, calling their MAs “the most stupendous of academic frauds” and “bogus degrees”.[30] Ensuing correspondence pointed out that “A Scotch M.A., at the most, is only the equivalent of an English B.A.” and called for common standards for degrees, while defenders of the ancient universities said that “the Cambridge M.A. does not pretend to be a reward of learning” and that “it is rather absurd to describe one of their degrees as a bogus one because other modern Universities grant the same degree for different reasons”.[31][32]

In 1900, Dartmouth College introduced the Master of Commercial Science (MCS), first awarded in 1902. This was the first master’s degree in business, the forerunner of the modern MBA.[33] The idea quickly crossed the Atlantic, with Manchester establishing a Faculty of Commerce, awarding Bachelor and Master of Commerce degrees, in 1903.[34] Over the first half of the century the automatic master’s degrees for honours graduates vanished as honours degrees became the standard undergraduate qualification in the UK. In the 1960s, new Scottish universities (with the exception of Dundee, which inherited the undergraduate MA from St Andrews) reintroduced the BA as their undergraduate degree in Arts, restoring the MA to its position as a postgraduate qualification. Oxford and Cambridge retained their MAs, but renamed many of their postgraduate bachelor’s degrees in the higher faculties as master’s degrees, e.g. the Cambridge LLB became the LLM in 1982,[35] and the Oxford BLitt, BPhil (except in philosophy) and BSc became the MLitt, MPhil and MSc.[36]

In 1983, the Engineering Council issued a “‘Statement on enhanced and extended undergraduate engineering degree courses”, proposing the establishment of a 4-year first degree (Master of Engineering).[37][38] These were up and running by the mid 1980s and were followed in the early 1990s by the MPhys for physicists and since then integrated master’s degrees in other sciences such as MChem, MMath, and MGeol, and in some institutions general or specific MSci (Master in Science) and MArts (Master in Arts) degrees. This development was noted by the Dearing Report into UK Higher Education in 1997, which called for the establishment of a national framework of qualifications and identified five different routes to master’s degrees:[39]

  • Four year (five in Scotland) undergraduate degrees such as the MEng
  • Conversion degrees, sometimes below the standard of undergraduate degrees in the same subject
  • The undergraduate arts degree of the ancient universities of Scotland
  • Specialist postgraduate programmes, such as the MA and MSc
  • The Oxbridge MA, awarded without additional work

This led to the establishment of the Quality Assurance Agency, which was charged with drawing up the framework.

Twenty-first century

In 2000 renewed pressure was put on Oxbridge MAs in the UK Parliament, with Labour MP Jackie Lawrence introducing an early day motion calling for them to be scrapped and telling the Times Higher Education it was a “discriminatory practice” and that it “devalues and undermines the efforts of students at other universities”.[40][41] The following month the Quality Assurance Agency announced the results of a survey of 150 major employers showing nearly two thirds mistakenly thought the Cambridge MA was a postgraduate qualification and just over half made the same error regarding the Edinburgh MA, with QAA chief executive John Randall calling the Oxbridge MA “misleading and anachronistic”.[42]

The QAA released the first “framework for higher education qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland” in January 2001. This specified learning outcomes for M-level (master’s) degrees and advised that the title “Master” should only be used for qualifications that met those learning outcomes in full. It addressed many of the Dearing Report’s concerns, specifying that shorter courses at H-level (honours), e.g. conversion courses, should be styled Graduate Diploma or Graduate Certificate rather than as master’s degrees, but confirmed that the extended undergraduate degrees were master’s degrees, saying that “Some Masters degrees in science and engineering are awarded after extended undergraduate programmes that last, typically, a year longer than Honours degree programmes”. It also addressed the Oxbridge MA issue, noting that “the MAs granted by the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge are not academic qualifications”.[43] The first “framework for qualifications of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland”, also published in January 2001, used the same qualifications descriptors, adding in credit values that specified that a stand-alone master should be 180 credits and a “Masters (following an integrated programme from undergraduate to Masters level study)” should be 600 credits with a minimum of 120 at M-level. It was specified that the title “Master” should only be used for qualifications that met the learning outcomes and credit definitions, although it was noted that “A small number of universities in Scotland have a long tradition of labelling certain first degrees as ‘MA’. Reports of Agency reviews of such provision will relate to undergraduate benchmarks and will make it clear that the title reflects Scottish custom and practice, and that any positive judgement on standards should not be taken as implying that the outcomes of the programme were at postgraduate level.”[44]

The Bologna declaration in 1999 started the Bologna Process, leading to the creation of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This established a three-cycle bachelor’s—master’s—doctorate classification of degrees, leading to the adoption of master’s degrees across the continent, often replacing older long-cycle qualifications such as the Magister (arts), Diplom (sciences) and state registration (professional) awards in Germany.[45] As the process continued, descriptors were introduced for all three levels in 2004, and ECTS credit guidelines were developed. This led to questions as to the status of the integrated master’s degrees and one-year master’s degrees in the UK.[46] However, the Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and the Framework for Qualifications of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland have both been aligned with the overarching framework for the EHEA with these being accepted as master’s-level qualifications.

Titles

Master’s degrees are commonly titled using the form ‘Master of …’, where either a faculty (typically Arts or Science) or a field (Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Business Administration, etc.) is specified. The two most common titles of master’s degrees are the Master of Arts (MA/M.A./A.M) and Master of Science (MSc/M.S./S.M.) degrees; which normally consist of a mixture of research and taught material.[47][48] Integrated master’s degrees and postgraduate master’s degrees oriented towards professional practice are often more specifically named for their field of study (“tagged degrees”), including, for example, the Master of Business Administration, Master of Divinity, Master of Engineering and Master of Physics. A few titles are more general, for example Master of Philosophy (MPhil), used (in the same manner as Doctor of Philosophy) to indicate degrees with a large research component,[49]Master of Studies (MSt)/Master of Advanced Study (MASt)/Master of Advanced Studies (M.A.S.), and Professional Master’s (MProf).

The form “Master in …” is also sometimes used, particularly where a faculty title is used for an integrated master’s in addition to its use in a traditional postgraduate master’s, e.g. Master in Science (MSci) and Master in Arts (MArts). This form is also sometimes used with other integrated master’s degrees,[50] and occasionally for postgraduate master’s degrees (e.g. Master’s in Accounting).[51] Some universities use Latin degree names; because of the flexibility of syntax in Latin, the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees may be known in these institutions as Magister artium and Magister scientiæ or reversed from the English order to Artium magister and Scientiæ magister. Examples of the reversed usage include Harvard University, the University of Chicago and MIT, leading to the abbreviations A.M. and S.M. for these degrees. The forms “Master of Science” and “Master in Science” are indistinguishable in Latin, thus MSci is “Master of Natural Sciences” at the University of Cambridge.

In the UK, fullstops (periods) are not used in degree abbreviations.[52][53] In the US, The Gregg Reference Manual recommends placing periods in degrees (e.g. B.S., Ph.D.), however The Chicago Manual of Style recommends writing degrees without periods (e.g. BS, PhD).[54]

Master of Science is generally abbreviated M.S. or MS in countries following United States usage and MSc in countries following British usage, where MS would refer to the degree of Master of Surgery. In Australia, some extended master’s degrees use the title “doctor”: Juris doctor and Doctors of Medical Practice, Physiotherapy, Dentistry, Optometry and Veterinary Practice. Despite their titles these are still master’s degree and may not be referred to as doctoral degrees, nor may graduates use the title “doctor”.[55]

Types

  • Postgraduate/graduate master’s degrees (MA/M.A./A.M., MSc/M.S./SM, MBA/M.B.A., MSt, LLM/LL.M., etc.) are the traditional formal form of master’s degree, where the student already holds an undergraduate (bachelor’s) degree on entry. Courses normally last one year in the UK and two years in the US.[47][48]
  • Integrated master’s degrees (MChem, MEng, MMath, MPharm, MPhys, MPsych, MSci, etc.) are UK degrees that combine an undergraduate bachelor’s degree course with an extra year at master’s level (i.e. a total of four years in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and five years in Scotland). A 2011 survey of UK Higher Education Institutes found that 64% offered integrated master’s course, mostly in STEM disciplines, with the most common degrees being MEng, MSci and MChem. 82% of respondents conferred only a master’s degree for the course, while 9% conferred a bachelor’s degree at the end of the bachelor’s-level stage and a master’s degree at the end of the course and a further 9% conferred both bachelor’s and master’s degrees at the end of the course.[56][57]
  • Non-master’s level master’s degrees The ancient universities of the UK and Ireland have traditionally awarded MAs in a different manner to that usual today. The Scottish MA is a bachelor’s-level qualification offered by the ancient universities of Scotland. The Oxbridge MA is not an academic qualification; it is granted without further examination to those who have gained a BA from Oxford or Cambridge Universities in England,[56] and the MA of Trinity College Dublin in Ireland is granted to its graduates in a similar manner.[58]

The UK Quality Assurance Agency defines three categories of Master’s degrees:[59]

  • Research master’s degrees are primarily research based, although may contain taught elements, particularly on research methods. Examples are the MPhil (always a research degree, often linked to a doctoral programme), MLitt (usually, but not always a research degree) and Master’s by Research. They aim to prepare students for research careers. Care should be taken not to confuse the Master by Research (MbyRes, ResM or MPhil), which is a research degree more aligned to the Master of Philosophy (MPhil) in a specific subject, with the Master of Research (MRes), which is a taught degree concentrating on research methods.[60]
  • Specialised or advanced study master’s degrees are primarily taught degrees, although commonly at least a third of the course is devoted to a research project assessed by dissertation. These may be stand-alone master’s courses, leading to, e.g., MSc, MA or MRes degrees, or integrated master’s degrees.
  • Professional or practice master’s degrees (see also professional degree) are designed to prepare students for a particular professional career and are primarily taught, although they may include work placements and independent study projects. Some may require professional experience for entry. Examples include MBA, MDiv, LLM and MSW as well as some integrated master’s degrees. The name of the degree normally includes the subject name.

The United States Department of Education classifies master’s degrees as research or professional. Research master’s degrees in the US (e.g., M.A./A.M. or M.S.) require the completion of taught courses and examinations in a major and one or more minor subjects, as well as (normally) a research thesis. Professional master’s degrees may be structured like research master’s (e.g., M.E./M.Eng.) or may concentrate on a specific discipline (e.g., M.B.A.) and often substitute a project for the thesis.[48]

The Australian Qualifications Framework classifies master’s degrees as research, coursework or extended. Research master’s degrees typically take one to two years, and two thirds of their content consists of research, research training and independent study. Coursework master’s degrees typically also last one to two years, and consist mainly of structured learning with some independent research and project work or practice-related learning. Extended master’s degrees typically take three to four years and contain significant practice-related learning that must be developed in collaboration with relevant professional, statutory or regulatory bodies.[61]

In Ireland, master’s degrees may be either Taught or Research. Taught master’s degrees are normally one to two year courses, rated at 60 – 120 ECTS credits, while research master’s degrees are normally two year courses, either rated at 120 ECTS credits or not credit rated.[62]

Structure

There is a range of pathways to the degree with entry based on evidence of a capacity to undertake higher level studies in a proposed field. A dissertation may or may not be required depending on the program. In general, structure and duration of a program of study leading to a master’s degree will differ by country and university.

Duration

Stand-alone master’s programs in the US are normally two years in length. In some fields/programs, work on a doctorate begins immediately after the bachelor’s degree, but a master’s may be granted along the way as an intermediate qualification if the student petitions for it.[48] Some universities offer evening options so that students can work during the day and earn a master’s degree in the evenings.[63]

In the UK, postgraduate master’s degrees may be either “research” or “taught”, with taught degrees being further subdivided into “specialist or advanced study” or “professional or practice” (see above). Taught degrees (of both forms) typically take a full calendar year (i.e. three semesters, 12 months), although some may be completed within an academic year (i.e. two semesters, 8 months), while research degrees often take either a full calendar year or two academic years.[47] The UK integrated master’s degree is combined with a bachelor’s degree for a four (England, Wales and Northern Ireland) or five (Scotland) academic year total period – one academic year longer than a normal bachelor’s degree.[56]

In Australia, master’s degrees vary from 1 year for a “research” or “coursework” master’s following on from an Australian honours degree in a related field, with an extra six months if following on straight from an ordinary bachelor’s degree and another extra six months if following on from a degree in a different field, to four years for an “extended” master’s degree.[61]

In the Overarching Framework of Qualifications for the European Higher Education Area defined as part of the Bologna process, a “second cycle” (i.e. master’s degree) programme is typically 90–120 ECTS credits, with a minimum requirement of at least 60 ECTS credits at second-cycle level.[64] The definition of ECTS credits is that “60 ECTS credits are allocated to the learning outcomes and associated workload of a full-time academic year or its equivalent”,[65] thus European master’s degrees should last for between one calendar year and two academic years, with at least one academic year of study at master’s level. The Framework for Higher Education Qualification (FHEQ) in England Wales and Northern Ireland level 7 qualifications and the Framework for Qualification of Higher Education Institutes in Scotland (FQHEIS) level 11 qualifications (postgraduate and integrated master’s degrees, with the exception of MAs from the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge MAs) have been certified as meeting this requirement.[66][67]

Irish master’s degrees are 1 – 2 years (60 – 120 ECTS credits) for taught degrees and 2 years (not credit rated) for research degrees. These have also been certified as compatible with the FQ-EHEA.[68]

Admission

Admission to a master’s degree normally requires successful completion of study at bachelor’s degree level either (for postgraduate degrees) as a stand-alone degree or (for integrated degrees) as part of an integrated scheme of study. In countries where the bachelor’s degree with honours is the standard undergraduate degree, this is often the normal entry qualification.[59][69] In addition, students will normally have to write a personal statement and, in the arts and humanities, will often have to submit a portfolio of work.[70]

In the UK, students will normally need to have a 2:1 or 2:2 for students who can provide evidence of their ability to successfully pursue a postgraduate degree to be accepted into a taught master’s course, and possibly higher for a research master’s.[71] Graduate schools in the US may require students to take one or more standardised tests, such as the GRE, GMAT or LSAT.[72]

Comparable European degrees

In some European countries, a magister is a first degree and may be considered equivalent to a modern (standardized) master’s degree (e.g., the German, Austrian and Polish university Diplom/Magister, or the similar five-year Diploma awarded in several subjects in Greek,[73]Spanish, Portuguese, and other universities and polytechnics).[clarification needed]

Under the Bologna Process, countries in the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) are moving to a three cycle (bachelor’s – master’s – doctorate) system of degrees. Two thirds of EHEA countries have standardised on 120 ECTS credits for their second-cycle (master’s) degrees, but 90 ECTS credits is the main form in Cyprus, Ireland and Scotland and 60-75 credits in Montenegro, Serbia and Spain.[74] The combined length of the first and second cycle varies from “3 + 1” years (240
ECTS credits), through “3 + 2” or “4 + 1” years (300 ECTS credits), to “4 + 2” years (360 ECTS credits). As of 2015, 31 EHEA countries have integrated programmes that combine the first and second cycle and lead to a second-cycle qualification (e.g. the UK integrated master’s degree), particularly in STEM subjects and subjects allied to medicine. These typically have a duration of 300 – 360 ECTS credits (five to six years), with the integrated master’s degrees in England, Wales and Northern Ireland being the shortest at 240 ECTS credits (four years).[75]

  • In Denmark there are two forms of master’s degree. The Master’s Degree or candidatus is a FQ-EHEA second-cycle qualification worth 120 ECTS credits. These degrees are research-based and offered through universities (e.g. University of Copenhagen and Copenhagen Business School). The second form is the Master Degree (no possessive) within the adult further education system, which is worth 60 ECTS credits and is taught part-time.[76] The candidatus degree is abbreviated cand. and upon completion of, for instance, an engineering master’s degree, a person becomes cand.polyt. (polytechnical). Similar abbreviations, inspired by Latin, apply to a large number of fields, e.g.: sociology (cand.scient.soc), economics (cand.merc., cand.polit. or cand.oecon), law (cand.jur), humanities (cand.mag) etc. Use of a cand. title requires a master’s degree. Holders of a cand. degree are also entitled to use M.Sc. or M.A. titles, depending on the field of study. In Finland and Sweden, the title of kand. equates to a bachelor’s degree.
  • In France, the master’s degree (diplôme de master) takes two years and is worth 120 ECTS credits.[77] The French master’s degree is the combination of two individual years : the master 1 (M1) and master 2 (M2), following the Bologna Process. Depending on the goal of the student (a doctorate or a professional career) the master 2 can also be called a “Master Recherche” (research master) and a “Master Professionnel” (professional master), each with different requirements. To obtain a national diploma for the master 2 requires a minimum of one year of study after the master 1.
    A French “diplôme d’Ingénieur” is also the equivalent of a master’s degree, provided the diploma is recognised by the Commission des titres d’ingénieur, as are qualifications recognised at Level I of the répertoire national des certifications professionnelles (national register of professional certificates).[78][79]
  • In Italy the master’s degree is equivalent to the two-year Laurea magistrale, which can be earned after a Laurea (a three-year undergraduate degree, equivalent to a bachelor’s degree). In particular fields, namely law, pharmacy and medicine, this distinction is not made. University courses are therefore single and last five to six years, after which the master’s degree is awarded (in this case referred to as Laurea magistrale a ciclo unico). The old Laurea degree (Vecchio Ordinamento, Old Regulations), which was the only awarded in Italy before the Bologna process, is equivalent[80] to the current Laurea Magistrale.
  • In the Netherlands the titles ingenieur (ir.), meester (mr.) and doctorandus (drs.) may be rendered, if obtained in the Netherlands from a university, after the application of the Bologna process, as: MSc instead of ir., LLM instead of mr. and MA or MSc instead of drs.[81] This is because a single program that led to these degree was in effect before 2002, which comprised the same course load as the bachelor and master programs put together. Those who had already started the program could, upon completing it, bear the appropriate title (MSc, LLM or MA), but alternatively still use the old-style title (ir., mr. or drs.), corresponding to their field of study. Since these graduates do not have a separate bachelor’s degree (which is in fact – in retrospect – incorporated into the program), the master’s degree is their first academic degree. Bearers of foreign master’s degree are able to use the titles ir., mr. and drs. only after obtaining a permission to bear such titles from the Dienst Uitvoering Onderwijs. Those who received their mr., ir. or drs. title after the application of the Bologna process have the option of signing as A. Jansen, MA or A. Jansen, MSc, depending on the field in which the degree was obtained, since the ir., mr. and drs. titles are similar to a master’s degree, and the shortcut MA or MSc. may officially be used in order to render such title as an international title.[82][83][84][85]
  • In Switzerland, the old Licence or Diplom (4 to 5 years in duration) is considered equivalent to the master’s degree.[86]
  • In Slovenia and Croatia, during the pre-Bologna process education, all academic degrees were awarded after a minimum of four years of university studies and a successful defence of a written thesis and are considered equivalent to the master’s degree.[citation needed] After the completion of that first cycle of the pre-Bologna higher education, the students obtained professional degrees with the titles of Professor (abbreviation “prof.”) for educational studies, Engineer (abbreviation “ing.”) for technical studies, or Licensed professional of their field of expertise (abbreviation “dipl.” with a reference to the profession) for other studies. The title of Magister Scientiae (abbreviation “mr. sc.”) was awarded to students who completed a postgraduate university programme (and therefore qualified for a doctorate programme), while the title of Scientiae Doctor (abbreviation “dr. sc.”) was awarded to students who completed a postgraduate doctoral programme. Slovenia is a full member of the Bologna Process since 1999[87] and Croatia since 2001.[88]
  • In Baltic countries there is a two-year education program that offers a chance to gain a master’s degree in interdisciplinary issues. The system offers an education in different areas, such as humanities, environmental and social issues, whilst paying specific consideration to the Baltic Sea area. It is a joint-degree program, which is part of a team effort with four universities. There is the University of Tartu in Estonia, the University of Turku in Finland, Vytautas Magnus University in Lithuania and the University of Latvia. The educational programmes allow students to be mobile within the system, for example one semester may be taken in a confederate school without paying additional membership or tuition fees. Subsequently, after passing the qualifications provided, people may procure teaching qualifications and continue their scholastic research around doctoral studies, or carry on studying within their career in the private or public sector. Graduates of the program, within the Baltic Sea area are also given the chance to continue onwards with their studies within the postgraduate system if they have studied the social sciences or humanities field.
  • In Greece, the metaptychiako (μεταπτυχιακό) which literally translates as post-degree (…programme or title), lasts normally from one to, more often, two years, and can be studied after a, at least, four-years undergraduate ptychio, which means degree.
    Also, the five-year diploma (δίπλωμα) awarded in all Polytechnics (schools of engineering) and the Athens School of Fine Arts is considered equal to a graduate degree plus a master’s degree.[73]
  • In Russia master (магистр) degree can be obtained after a two-year master course (магистратура) which is available after a 4-year bachelor or a 5-year specialist course. A graduate may choose a master course completely different from his/her previous one. During these two years master students attend specialized lectures in chosen profile, choose a faculty advisor and prepare their master thesis which is eventually defended before certifying commission consisting mostly of professors, leading by the professor from another university.
  • In the United Kingdom, first degrees in medicine, dentistry and veterinary science are considered equivalent to master’s degrees despite, for historical reasons, often having the titles of bachelor’s degrees.[56]
  • The old Spanish degrees of Licenciado (Licenciate), Arquitecto (Architect) and Ingeniero (Engineer) are also equivalent to master’s degrees. They were integrated programmes of study that combined first and second cycles and led to a second cycle qualification. The Spanish government issued a royal decree in 2014 establishing the official equivalences between the Spanish pre-Bologna degrees and the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) levels.[89] Most (if not all) Licenciado, Arquitecto and Ingeniero degrees were placed in level 7 (Master) of the EQF. These programmes have been phased out and replaced with the new Bologna programmes of Máster, to be completed after completion of a programme of Grado (Bachelor’s).

South America

Brazil

After acquiring a Bachelor’s or Licenciate Degree, students are qualified to continue their academic career through Master’s Degree (“mestrado”, in Portuguese, a.k.a. stricto sensu post-graduation) or Specialization Degree (“especialização”, in Portuguese, a.k.a. lato sensu post-graduation) programs. At the Master’s program there are 2–3 years of graduate-level studies. Usually focused on academic research, the Master’s Degree requires, on any specific knowledge area, the development of a thesis to be presented and defended before a board of professors after the period of research. Conversely, the Specialization Degree, also comprehends a 1–2 years studies, but does not require a new thesis to be proposed and defended, being usually attended by professionals looking for complementary training on a specific area of their knowledge.

In addition, many Brazilian universities offer a MBA program. However, those are not the equivalent to a United States MBA degree, as it does not formally certifies the student with a Master’s degree (stricto sensu) but with a Specialization Degree (lato sensu) instead. A regular post-graduation course has to comply with a minimum of 360 class-hours, while a M.B.A. degree has to comply with a minimum of 400 class-hours. Master’s degree (stricto sensu) does not requires minimum class-hours, but it’s practically impossible to finish it before 1.5 year due the workload and research required; an average time for the degree is 2.5 years[citation needed]. Specialization (lato sensu) and M.B.A. degrees can be also offered as distance education courses, while the master’s degree (stricto-sensu) requires physical attendance. In Brazil, the degree often serves as additional qualification for those seeking to differentiate themselves in the job market, or for those who want to pursue a Ph.D. It corresponds to the European (Bologna Process) 2nd Cycle or the North American master’s.

Asia

Hong Kong

M.Arch., M.L.A., M.U.D., M.A., M.Sc., M.Soc.Sc., M.S.W., M.Eng., LL.M.

  • Hong Kong requires one or two years of full-time coursework to achieve a master’s degree.

For part-time study, two or three years of study are normally required to achieve a postgraduate degree.

M.Phil.

  • As in the United Kingdom, M.Phil. or Master of Philosophy is a research degree awarded for the completion of a thesis, and is a shorter version of the Ph.D.

Pakistan

In Pakistani education system, there are two different master’s degree programmes[citation needed]:

  • 2 years master’s programmes: these are mostly Master of Arts (M.A.) leading to M.Phil.
  • 4 years master’s programmes: these are mostly Master of Science (M.S.) leading to Ph.D

Both M.A. and M.S. are offered in all major subjects.

India

In the Indian system, a master’s degree is a postgraduate degree following a Bachelor’s degree and preceding a Doctorate, usually requiring two years to complete. The available degrees include but are not limited to the following:

  • Master of Arts (M.A.)
  • Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.)
  • Master of Computer Applications (M.C.A.)
  • Master of Engineering (M.Eng.)
  • Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.)
  • Master of Science (M.Sc.)
  • Master of Technology (M.Tech.)
  • Master of Statistics (M.Stat.)
  • Master of Laws (LL.M.)
  • Master of Commerce (M.Com.)
  • Master of Architecture (M.Arch.)
  • Master of Veterinary Science (MVSc)

Israel

  • M.A., M.Sc., M.B.A.: postgraduate studies in Israel require the completion of a bachelor’s degree and is dependent upon this title’s grades. There exists also a direct track to a doctorate degree for graduate students, which lasts four to five years. Taking this route, the students must prepare a preliminary research paper during their first year, they then have to pass an exam after which they are automatically awarded a master’s degree.
  • M.Eng.: It is given by the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology. Comparing to the M.Sc., it is a non-thesis track.[90]

Nepal

In Nepal, after bachelor’s degree about to at least three or four years with full-time study in college and university with an entrance test for those people who want to study further can study in master and further Ph.D. and doctorate degree. All doctoral and Ph.D. or third cycle degree are based on research and experience oriented and result based. Master of Engineering (M.Eng.), Master of Education (M.Ed.), Master of Arts (M.A.) and all law and medicine related courses are studied after completion of successful bachelor towards doctoral degree. M.B.B.S. is only a medical degree with six and half years of study resulting medical doctor and need to finish its study o 4 years of period joining after master degree with minimum education with 15 or 16 years of university bachelor’s degree education. The most professional and internationalised program in Nepal are as follows:

  • Master of Business Administration (M.B.A.)
  • Master of Computer Applications (M.C.A.)
  • Master of Engineering (M.Eng.)
  • Master of Science (M.Sc.)
  • Master of Science in Information Technology (M.Sc.I.T.)
  • Master of Business Studies (M.B.S.)
  • Master of Education (M.Ed)
  • Master of Arts (M.A.)
  • Master of Science in Agriculture (M.Sc.Ag.)
  • Master of Laws (LL.M.)
  • Master of Management (M.M.)

Taiwan

In Taiwan, bachelor’s degrees are about four years (with honors) and there is an entrance examination required for people who want to study in master and Ph.D. degrees. The courses offered for master and PhD normally are research-based. The most foreign student-friendly programs in Taipei, Taiwan are at:

  • National Taiwan University College of Management – Global M.B.A. (M.B.A. in Finance, Accounting, Management, International Business and Information Management)
  • National ChengChi University – I.M.B.A.

Programs are entirely in English and tuition is less than would be paid in North America, with as little as US$5000 for an M.B.A.[citation needed] As an incentive to increase the number of foreign students, the government of Taiwan and universities have made extra efforts to provide a range of quality scholarships available.[citation needed] These are university-specific scholarships ranging from tuition waivers, up to NT$20,000 per month. The government offers the Taiwan Scholarship ranging from NT$20,000–30,000 per month for two years. (US$18,000–24,000 for a two-year program)

See also

  • Associate’s degree
  • Bachelor’s degree
  • British degree abbreviations
  • Diploma mill
  • Doctorate
  • Educational specialist
  • Engineer’s degree
  • Euromaster
  • European Joint Master degree in Economics
  • Graduate school
  • Licentiate
  • List of master’s degrees
  • Magister (degree)
  • Master of Advanced Studies
  • Master of Arts (Oxbridge and Dublin)
  • Master of Arts (Scotland)
  • Master of Engineering
  • Master of Laws
  • Master of Science
  • Master’s degree in Europe
  • Master’s degree in North America
  • Master’s degree non-Euroamerican
  • Professional Science Master’s degree
  • Terminal degree

Notes

  1. ^ The spelling of master’s degree and master’s without an apostrophe is considered a mistake by many (see non-standard apostrophe use), but it is becoming more common. It is considered incorrect by most if not all US and most UK and Australian universities, style guides, and dictionaries, for example OED, Collins, Cambridge Dictionaries Online, American Heritage (master’s), American Heritage (master’s degree), Merriam-Webster, and the Macquarie Dictionary (not free online) as shown in the following Monash University quotation. Monash University’s style guide directly admits that the incorrectly missing apostrophe used to be more widespread in publications of this and therefore presumably other Australian universities: “Note that both ‘bachelor’s degree’ and ‘master’s degree’, when used in a generic sense, require an apostrophe. While some dislike this convention, it is prescribed by the Macquarie Dictionary (the Australian standard) and the Oxford English Dictionary (the UK standard), and aligns with our key institutional partner Warwick University. Currently you will find the terms used both with and without an apostrophe throughout our online and print publications – gradually, we need to move toward correct usage.

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  67. ^ “Verification of the compatibility of The framework for higher education qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (FHEQ) with the Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area(FQ-EHEA)” (PDF). Quality Assurance Agency. November 2008.
  68. ^ “Verification of Compatibility of Irish National Framework of Qualifications with the Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area” (PDF). November 2006.
  69. ^ “Verification of Compatibility of Irish National Framework of Qualifications with the Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area” (PDF). November 2006. p. 7.
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  76. ^ Verification of compatibility of the Danish National Qualifications Framework for Higher Education with the Framework for Qualifications of the European Higher Education Area (PDF). The Danish Evaluation Institute. November 2009. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-87-7958-556-0.
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  84. ^ “Citizens’ questions letter from Dutch Department of Education, Culture and Science” (PDF). Members.home.nl. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
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  90. ^ “Graduate School, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology”. technion.ac.il.


Master of Science

A graduation ring with the Master of Science designation

A Master of Science (Latin: Magister Scientiae; abbreviated MS, M.S., MSc, M.Sc., SM, S.M., ScM or Sc.M.) is a master’s degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries or a person holding such a degree.[1] In contrast to the Master of Arts degree, the Master of Science degree is typically granted for studies in sciences, engineering and medicine and is usually for programs that are more focused on scientific and mathematical subjects; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the humanities and social sciences. While it ultimately depends upon the specific program, earning a Master of Science degree typically includes writing a thesis.

Contents

  • 1 Algeria
  • 2 Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Panamá, Perú and Uruguay
  • 3 Australia
  • 4 Bangladesh
  • 5 Canada

    • 5.1 Quebec
  • 6 Chile
  • 7 Czech Republic, Slovakia
  • 8 Egypt
  • 9 Finland
  • 10 Germany
  • 11 Southeastern Europe
  • 12 Guyana
  • 13 Iran
  • 14 Ireland
  • 15 Israel
  • 16 India
  • 17 Italy
  • 18 Nepal
  • 19 Netherlands
  • 20 New Zealand
  • 21 Norway
  • 22 Pakistan
  • 23 Poland
  • 24 Russia
  • 25 Spain
  • 26 Sweden
  • 27 Syria
  • 28 United Kingdom
  • 29 United States
  • 30 See also
  • 31 References

Algeria

Algeria follows the Bologna Process.

Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Panamá, Perú and Uruguay

In Argentina, Brazil, Ecuador, Mexico, Colombia, Panamá, Perú and Uruguay, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration.[2] The admission to a Master’s program (Spanish: Maestría; Portuguese: Mestrado) requires the full completion of a four to five years long undergraduate degree, bachelor’s degree or a Licentiate’s degree of the same length. Defense of a research thesis is required. All master’s degrees qualify for a doctorate program.

Australia

Australian universities commonly have coursework or research-based Master of Science courses for graduate students. They typically run for 1–2 years full-time, with varying amounts of research involved.

Bangladesh

In Bangladesh, all universities, including Bangladesh Agricultural University Jagannath University, Dhaka University, University of Chittagong, Jahangirnagar University, Islamic University, Bangladesh and Rajshahi University have Master of Science courses as postgraduate degrees. After passing Bachelor of Science, any student becomes eligible to study in this discipline.

Canada

In Canada, Master of Science (MSc) degrees may be entirely course-based, entirely research-based or (more typically) a mixture. Master’s programs typically take one to three years to complete and the completion of a scientific thesis is often required. Admission to a master’s program is contingent upon holding a four-year university bachelor’s degree. Some universities require a master’s degree in order to progress to a doctoral program (PhD).

Quebec

In the province of Quebec, the Master of Science follows the same principles as in the rest of Canada. There is one exception, however, regarding admission to a master’s program. Since Québécois students complete two to three years of college before entering university, they have the opportunity to complete a bachelor’s degree in three years instead of four. Some undergraduate degrees such as the Bachelor of Education and the Bachelor of Engineering requires four years of studies. Following the obtention of their bachelor’s degree, students can be admitted into a graduate program to eventually obtain a master’s degree.

Chile

Commonly the Chilean universities have used “Magíster” for a master degree, but other than that is similar to the rest of South America.

Czech Republic, Slovakia

Like all EU member states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia follow the Bologna Process. The Czech Republic and Slovakia are using two master’s degree systems. Both award a title of Mgr. or Ing. to be used before the name.
The older system requires a 5-year program. The new system takes only 2 years but requires a previously completed 3-year bachelor program (a Bc. title). It is required to write a thesis (in both master and bachelor program) and also to pass final exams. It is mostly the case that the final exams cover the main study areas of the whole study program, i.e. a student is required to prove his/her knowledge in many subjects he attended during the 2 resp. 3 years.

Egypt

The Master of Science (M.Sc.) is an academic degree for a post-graduate candidates or researchers, it usually takes from 4 to 7 years after passing the Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree. Master programs are awarded in many sciences in the Egyptian Universities. A completion of the degree requires finishing a pre-master studies followed by a scientific thesis or research. All M.Sc. degree holders are allowable to take a step forward in the academic track to get the PhD degree.

Finland

Like all EU member states, Finland follows the Bologna Process. The Master of Science (M.Sc.) academic degree usually follows the Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) studies which typically last five years. For the completion of both the bachelor and the master studies the student must accumulate a total of 300 ECTS credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits. The completion of a scientific thesis is required.

Germany

Like all EU member states, Germany follows the Bologna Process. The Master of Science (M.Sc.) academic degree replaces the once common Diplom or Magister programs that typically lasted four to five years. It is awarded in science related studies with a high percentage of mathematics. For the completion the student must accumulate 300 ECTS Credits, thus most Masters programs are two-year programs with 120 credits. The completion of a scientific thesis is required.

Southeastern Europe

In Slavic countries in European southeast (particularly former Yugoslavian republics), the education system was largely based on the German university system (largely due to the presence and influence of the Austria-Hungary Empire[3] in the region). Prior to the implementation of the Bologna Process, academic university studies comprised a 4-5 year long graduate Diplom program, which could have been followed by a 2-4 year long Magister program and then later with 2-4 year long Doctoral studies.

After the Bologna Process implementation, again based on the German implementation, Diplom titles and programs were replaced by the M.Sc. and M.A. programs (depending on the field of study). The studies are structured such that a Master program lasts long enough for the student to accumulate a total of 300 ECTS credits, so its duration would depend on a number of credits acquired during the Bachelor studies. Pre-Bologna Magister programs were abandoned – after earning an M.Sc/M.A. degree and satisfying other academic requirements a student could proceed to earn a Doctor of Philosophy degree directly.

Guyana

In Guyana, all universities, including University of Guyana, Texila American University, American International School of Medicine have Master of Science courses as postgraduate degrees. Students who have completed undergraduate Bachelor of Science degree are eligible to study in this discipline

Iran

In Iran, similar to Canada, Master of Science (MSc) or in Iranian form Karshenasi-arshad degrees may be entirely course-based, entirely research-based or sometimes a mixture. Master’s programs typically take two to three years to complete and the completion of a scientific thesis is often required.

Ireland

Like all EU member states, Ireland follows the Bologna Process. In Ireland, Master of Science (MSc) may be course-based with a research component or entirely research based. The program is most commonly a one-year program and a thesis is required for both course-based and research based degrees.

Israel

In Israel, Master of Science (MSc) may be entirely course-based or include research. The program is most commonly a two-year program and a thesis is required only for research based degrees.

India

In India, universities offer MSc programs usually in science subjects. Generally speaking, in India, post-graduate scientific courses lead to MSc degree while post-graduate engineering courses lead to ME or MTech degree. For example, a master’s in automotive engineering would normally be an ME or MTech, while a master’s in physics would be an MSc. A few top universities also offer undergraduate programs leading to a master’s degree which is known as integrated masters.

A Master of Science in Engineering (M.Sc.Eng.) degree is also offered in India. It is usually structured as an engineering research degree, lesser than Ph.D. and considered to be parallel to M.Phil. degree in humanities and science. Some institutes such as IITs offer an MS degree for postgraduate engineering courses. This degree is considered a research-oriented degree where as MTech or ME degree is usually not a research degree in India. M.S. degree is also awarded by various IISERs which are one of the top institutes in India.

Italy

Like all EU member states, Italy follows the Bologna Process. The degree Master of Science is awarded in the Italian form, Laurea Magistrale (formerly Laurea specialistica; before the introduction of the Laurea the corresponding degree was Laurea quinquennale or Vecchio Ordinamento).

Nepal

In Nepal, universities offer the master of science degree usually in science and engineering areas. Tribhuvan University offers MSc degree for all the science and engineering courses. Pokhara University offers ME for engineering and MSc for science. Kathmandu University offers MS by Research and ME degrees for science and engineering.

Netherlands

Like all EU member states, the Netherlands follows the Bologna Process. A graduate who is awarded the title Master of Science (abbreviated as MSc) may still use the previously awarded Dutch title ingenieur (abbreviated as ir.) (for graduates who followed a technical or agricultural program), meester (abbreviated as mr.) (for graduates who followed an LLM law program) or doctorandus (abbreviated as drs.)(in all other cases).

New Zealand

New Zealand universities commonly have coursework or research-based Master of Science courses for graduate students. They typically run for 2 years full-time, with varying amounts of research involved.

Norway

Norway follows the Bologna Process. For engineering, the Master of Science academic degree has been recently introduced and has replaced the previous award forms “Sivilingeniør” (engineer, a.k.a. engineering master) and “Hovedfag” (academic master). Both were awarded after 5 years university-level studies and required the completion of a scientific thesis.

“Siv.ing”, is a protected title exclusively awarded to engineering students who completed a five-year education at The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norwegian: Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, NTNU) or other universities. Historically there was no bachelor’s degree involved and today’s program is a five years master’s degree education. The “Siv.ing” title is in the process of being phased out, replaced by (for now, complemented by) the “M.Sc.” title. By and large, “Siv.ing” is a title tightly being held on to for the sake of tradition. In academia, the new program offers separate three-year bachelor and two-year master programs. It is awarded in the natural sciences, mathematics and computer science fields. The completion of a scientific thesis is required. All master’s degrees are designed to certify a level of education and qualify for a doctorate program.

Master of Science in Business is the English title for those taking a higher business degree, “Siviløkonom” in Norwegian. In addition, there is, for example, the ‘Master of Business Administration’ (MBA), a practically oriented master’s degree in business, but with less mathematics and econometrics, due to its less specific entry requirements and smaller focus on research.

Pakistan

Pakistan inherited its conventions pertaining to higher education from United Kingdom after independence in 1947. Master of Science degree is typically abbreviated as M.Sc. (as in the United Kingdom) and which is awarded after 16 years of education (equivalent with a bachelor’s degree in the USA and many other countries). Recently, in pursuance to some of the reforms by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (the regulatory body of higher education in Pakistan), the traditional 2-year Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree has been replaced by the 4-year Bachelor of Science degree, which is abbreviated as B.S. to enable the Pakistani degrees with the rest of the world. Subsequently, students who pass 4-year B.S. degree that is awarded after 16 years of education are then eligible to apply for M.S. degree, which is considered at par with Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) degree.

Poland

Like all EU member states, Poland follows the Bologna Process. The Polish equivalent of Master of Science is “magister” (abbreviated “mgr”, written pre-nominally much like “Dr”). Starting in 2001, the MSc programs typically lasting 5 years began to be replaced as below:

  • 3-year associates programs (termed “licencjat”. No abbreviated pre-nominal or title.)
  • 3.5-year engineer programs (termed “inżynier”, utilizing the pre-nominal abbreviation “inż.”)
  • 2-year master programs open to both “licencjat” and “inż.” graduates.
  • 1.5-year master programs open only to “inż.” graduates.

The degree is awarded predominantly in the natural sciences, mathematics, computer science, economics, as well as in the arts and other disciplines. Those who graduate from an engineering program prior to being awarded a master’s degree are allowed to use the “mgr inż.” pre-nominal (“master engineer”). This is most common in engineering and agricultural fields of study. Defense of a research thesis is required. All master’s degrees in Poland qualify for a doctorate program.

Russia

The title of “master” was introduced by Alexander I at 24 January 1803. The Master had an intermediate position between the candidate and doctor according to the decree “About colleges structure”. The master’s degree was abolished from 1917 to 1934. Russia follows the Bologna Process for higher education in Europe since 2011.

Spain

Like all EU member states, Spain follows the Bologna Process. The Master of Science (MSc) degree is a program officially recognized by the Spanish Ministry of Education. It usually involves 1 or 2 years of full-time study. It is targeted at pre-experience candidates who have recently finished their undergraduate studies. An MSc degree can be awarded in every field of study. An MSc degree is required in order to progress to a PhD. MSci, MPhil and DEA are equivalent in Spain.

Sweden

Like all EU member states, Sweden follows the Bologna Process. The Master of Science academic degree has, like in Germany, recently been introduced in Sweden. Students studying Master of Science in Engineering programs are rewarded both the English Master of Science Degree, but also the Swedish equivalent “Teknologisk masterexamen”. Whilst “Civilingenjör” is an at least five year long education[4] .

Syria

The Master of Science is a degree that can be studied only in public universities. The program is usually 2 years, but it can be extended to 3 or 4 years, the student is required to pass a specific bachelor’s degree to attend a specific master of science degree program, the master of science is mostly a research master (except for some types of programs held with cooperation of foreign universities), The student should attend some courses in the first year of the master then he/she should prepare a research thesis. Publishing two research papers is recommended and will increase the final evaluation grade.

United Kingdom

The Master of Science (MSc) is typically a taught postgraduate degree, involving lectures, examinations and a project dissertation (normally taking up a third of the program). Master’s programs usually involve a minimum of 1 year of full-time study (180 UK credits, of which 150 must be at master’s level) and sometimes up to 2 years of full-time study (or the equivalent period part-time).[5] Taught master’s degrees are normally classified into Pass, Merit and Distinction (although some universities do not give Merit).[6] Some universities also offer MSc by research programs, where a longer project or set of projects is undertaken full-time; master’s degrees by research are normally pass/fail, although some universities may offer a distinction.[3][7]

The more recent Master in Science (MSci or M.Sci.) degree (Master of Natural Science at the University of Cambridge), is an undergraduate (UG) level integrated master’s degree offered by UK institutions since the 1990s. It is offered as a first degree with the first three (four in Scotland) years similar to a BSc course and a final year (120 UK credits) at master’s level, including a dissertation.[5][8] The final MSci qualification is thus at the same level as a traditional MSc.

United States

The Master of Science (Magister Scientiæ) degree is normally a full-time two-year degree often abbreviated “MS” or “M.S.” It is the primary type in most subjects and may be entirely course-based, entirely research-based or (more typically) a combination of the two. The combination often involves writing and defending a thesis or completing a research project which represents the culmination of the material learned.

Admission to a master’s program is normally contingent upon holding a bachelor’s degree and progressing to a doctoral program may require a master’s degree. In some fields or graduate programs, work on a doctorate can begin immediately after the bachelor’s degree. Some programs provide for a joint bachelor’s and master’s degree after about five years. Some universities use the Latin degree names and due to the flexibility of word order in Latin, Artium Magister (A.M.) or Scientiæ Magister (S.M. or Sc.M.) may be used in some institutions.

See also

  • Master of Science in Computer Science
  • Master of Science in Accounting
  • Master of Science in Administration
  • Master of Science in Corporate Communication
  • Master of Science in Project Management
  • Master of Science in Economics
  • Master of Science in Engineering
  • Master of Science in Finance
  • Master of Science in Information Systems
  • Master of Science in Information Technology
  • Master of Science in Management
  • Master of Science in Nursing

References

  1. ^ “Master of Science”. Oxford Living Dictionaries. Oxford University Press..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “CONEAU: Graduate Courses”. Ministerio de Education Republica Argentina. Retrieved 2014-02-10.
  3. ^ ab “Masters Degree Grades”. Postgrad.com. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  4. ^ “Datateknik, civilingenjör 300 hp – KTH”. www.kth.se.
  5. ^ ab “Master’s Degree Characteristics Statement”. Quality Assurance Agency. September 2015. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  6. ^ “MSc Classification”. Postgrad.com. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  7. ^ “MSc by Research in Mathematics”. University of Oxford. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  8. ^ “The Frameworks for Higher Education Qualifications of UK Degree-Awarding Bodies”. Quality Assurance Agency. November 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2017.


Master of Arts (Scotland)

The degree of Master of Arts (MA) in Scotland typically refers to an undergraduate degree (either a three-year general degree or four-year Honours degree) in humanities or social sciences awarded by one of the ancient universities of Scotland (the University of St Andrews, the University of Glasgow, the University of Aberdeen and the University of Edinburgh) plus the University of Dundee (as a result of its history as a constituent college of the University of St Andrews) and Heriot-Watt University (at honours level only).[1] The first two years of the Scottish Master of Arts consist of ordinary Bachelor level courses; however, after these, students who are accepted to pursue the Honours route will complete more advanced subjects and write a dissertation in their fourth year.[2] Students who choose to do a “general” degree will complete their third year at a lower level of specialisation,[3] and receive a Bachelor of Arts (BA) or MA without Honours.[4] For the postgraduate degree referred to in other places as “Master of Arts”, Scottish universities usually award the degree of Master of Letters (MLitt). Generally, non-ancient universities in Scotland (e.g. University of Strathclyde, The Robert Gordon University, Edinburgh Napier University, etc.), award arts degrees as Bachelor of Arts.

Subjects awarded

At these ancient Scottish universities, the degree of Master of Arts (MA) is usually awarded only in the liberal arts, the humanities, the fine arts, the social sciences and theology. For some science subjects, the degree of Bachelor of Science (BSc) is awarded for four years of study and that of Bachelor of Laws (LLB) after a four-year course in law. Both of these can be awarded with honours after four years or as ordinary or designated degrees after three years. An LLB can also be awarded in two years on an accelerated program if the student has already obtained a first degree.

Degrees in some disciplines, such as psychology, can lead either to the degree of MA or that of BSc. For example, those studying psychology or management at the University of St Andrews or the University of Dundee may graduate MA or BSc, depending on whether they are a member of the Faculty of Arts or the Faculty of Sciences respectively. At the University of Aberdeen, students studying psychology are awarded an MA or a BSc, depending on which of the two they register for; while the psychology content is identical for both, the difference lies in the non-psychology constituent courses taken in the first and second years. Those on MA programs study psychology alongside the lit arts (such as languages) or social sciences, while those on BSc programs study pure sciences such as biology.

The Universities of Glasgow, Aberdeen, and Edinburgh also offer the degree of Bachelor of Divinity (BD) as a four-year course. This degree is offered at St Mary’s College, St Andrews, but as a postgraduate degree for a graduate who is already a Master of Arts, while the undergraduate degree in divinity (theology) is designated Master of Theology (MTheol)).

Newer undergraduate courses lead either to a bachelor’s degree or to a master’s degree in the advanced undergraduate degree scheme as above.

References

  1. ^ “United Kingdom (Scotland) Bachelor”. Eurydice. European Commission. Certification..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Davies, Graeme (4 February 2000). “Why I believe the Scottish MA should be preserved”. Times Higher Education. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
  3. ^ “The General Degree”. University of St Andrews. Archived from the original on 26 October 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
  4. ^ “Studying for a degree in Social Sciences”. University of Glasgow. Retrieved 2015-02-18.


Master of Engineering

A Master of Engineering degree (abbreviated MEng, M.E. or M.Eng.) can be either an academic or professional master’s degree in the field of engineering.

Contents

  • 1 International variations

    • 1.1 Australia
    • 1.2 Brazil
    • 1.3 Canada
    • 1.4 Colombia
    • 1.5 Croatia
    • 1.6 Finland
    • 1.7 France
    • 1.8 Germany
    • 1.9 India
    • 1.10 Italy
    • 1.11 New Zealand
    • 1.12 Nepal
    • 1.13 Japan
    • 1.14 Singapore
    • 1.15 South Korea
    • 1.16 Poland
    • 1.17 Slovakia
    • 1.18 Spain
    • 1.19 Sweden
    • 1.20 United Kingdom

      • 1.20.1 Structure
      • 1.20.2 History
      • 1.20.3 Other undergraduate masters
    • 1.21 United States and Canada
  • 2 See also
  • 3 References

International variations

Australia

In Australia, the Master of Engineering degree is a research degree requiring completion of a thesis. Like the Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.), it is considered a lesser degree than Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), and a higher degree than coursework master. It is not to be confused with Master of Engineering Science, Master of Engineering Studies or Master of Professional Engineering which are coursework master’s degrees. Exceptions are Monash University which awards a Master of Engineering Science by either research or coursework, the University of Melbourne which offers a Master of Engineering by coursework,[1] and the University of Tasmania which offer a Master of Engineering Science by research.[2]

The University of Melbourne accepted the first intake of Master of Engineering students in February 2010. The coursework Master of Engineering is offered in 11 specialisations, and accepts graduates with three-year degrees in Science and Maths.

The entry requirement is completion of a bachelor’s degree at or above the second class honours level. Some universities do not offer direct enrolment into Doctor of Philosophy degree and students must first enrol in a lesser research degree before “upgrading”.

Brazil

In Brazil, the rough equivalent of a Master of Engineering degree is a professional master’s degree of typically two years’ length that involves mostly coursework and a thesis or research paper in applied engineering. Entrance to a Master of Engineering degree is a 5-year bachelor engineering degree.
Another variant (academic master) is equivalent to a Master of Science, such degree is tied to extensive research and is valid for a Ph.D. entry.
Both can be stricto sensu classified and it depends of the course provider institution..

Canada

In Canada, the Master of Engineering degree is a professional degree of typically two years length that involves coursework and a thesis or research paper of significant depth. Some Canadian universities offer a Master of Engineering, or either a Master of Science or Master of Applied Science in engineering, or both. Master of Engineering degrees usually require more coursework and examination and less research, whereas Master of Applied Science degrees require less coursework and more research. However, this is not absolute since some universities only offer a Master of Engineering and some only offer a Master of Science or Master of Applied Science. Some universities differentiate only by the requirement to be resident and therefore assist in teaching/tutoring for a Master of Science Degree.

Colombia

In Colombia, the Master of Engineering, which takes a minimum of two years, is a postgraduate program that follows the undergraduate of five years. Depending upon the emphasis is called Ms.Eng. with emphasis in Energy, Chemistry, Environment, and so on. At the end, it is required to make a publication of the developed work in a recognized journal of scientific spreading as a requirement for the degree.

Croatia

Introduced with the Bologna process, the Croatian Master of Engineering is typically a two-year program and a direct continuation of a three-year Bachelor course. The degree is abbreviated mag. ing. and followed by the field of study (for example: mag. ing. računarstva – Master of Computer Engineering)

Finland

There are two distinct degrees in Finland, a taught university degree (diplomi-insinööri) and a polytechnic master’s degree’s (insinööri (ylempi AMK)).[3] While the former is translated as “Master of Science in Technology”, the term “Master of Engineering” is predominantly used by Universities of Applied Sciences, which offer master’s degree programmes to holders of polytechnic bachelor’s degrees (insinööri (amk)). As European Bologna process directs, in order to get a M.Eng. degree, B.Sc. engineers have to additionally study full-time one or two years and finalize a Master’s thesis. Most of the M.Eng. degree programs are taught in Finnish, but some Swedish and English language programs also exist.[4]

France

In France, two diploma exist for 5 years of study in the field of engineering: the Master’s diploma in engineering (diplôme de master en sciences de l’ingénieur) which is usually delivered by Universities, and the Engineer’s degree (“diplôme d’ingénieur”) which can only be delivered by some Engineering schools called grandes écoles—very selective schools that are generally smaller than universities—and provides “a level of education comparable to a master’s degree in engineering in the United States” (AACRAO).

The Engineer’s degree usually prepare students for professional careers. Courses always include management, economy or more generally transverse courses. Training periods in industry or in laboratories are also required. The Master’s diploma in engineering offers a more focused approach on a field of engineering. A Ph.D. program can be joined by acquiring a Master’s diploma in engineering or an Engineer’s degree.

Germany

In Germany, the local engineer’s degrees (Diplomingenieur (Dipl.-Ing.), a first degree after 5 years of study at a university and Dipl.-Ing. (FH), the engineering degree offered by Fachhochschulen after 4 years of study) were abolished in most universities in 2010, and were replaced by postgraduate master’s degrees (M.Sc. and M.Eng.).

The first Master of Engineering courses were introduced in Germany in 2000 as result of the Bologna process. This type of master’s degree is offered by German universities[5] and Fachhochschulen (Universities of Applied Sciences) alike and is typically a two-year program with application-oriented coursework and an applied research thesis. The entry requirement is the successful completion of a bachelor’s degree, or an equivalent from before the Bologna process, with good marks.

India

In India, Master of Engineering (ME) or Master of Technology (MTech) or Master of Science in Engineering (M.Sc.Eng.) degree is a postgraduate program in engineering field. This is generally a 2-year programs (2 or more years in case of M.Sc.Eng. degree) after completing a 4-year undergraduate program in engineering resulting in the award of a Bachelor of Engineering or Bachelor of Technology degree.

Master of Science in Engineering (M.Sc.Eng.) degree in India is usually structured as an engineering research degree, lesser than Ph.D. and considered to be parallel to M.Phil. degree in humanities and science.

Italy

In Italy, the local engineer’s degrees (Laurea in Ingegneria), a first degree after 5 years of study at a university were abolished in most universities in 2008.
The equivalent of a Master of Engineering degree is a professional master’s degree (Laurea Magistrale) of two years length that involves mostly coursework and a thesis paper in applied engineering. Entry requirements to a Master of Engineering degree include a 3-year bachelor engineering degree (Laurea).

New Zealand

In New Zealand, the Master of Engineering degree is generally a research based degree requiring completion of a thesis in key universities (University of Auckland, University of Canterbury, etc.).[6][7] Similar to the UK’s Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) in engineering or technology, it is considered a lesser degree than Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), and a higher degree than a coursework master. It is not to be confused with Master of Engineering Studies which is coursework master’s degree.

In Auckland University of Technology (AUT), this degree can be achieved either by completing a thesis (research pathway), or a combination of coursework and research project (coursework pathway)[8].

Nepal

In Nepal, Master of Engineering or Master of Technology degree is a postgraduate program in engineering. This is generally a 2-year specialization program in a specific branch of engineering field. Students typically enter the ME/MTech program after completing a 4-year undergraduate program in engineering resulting in the award of a Bachelor of Engineering or Bachelor of Technology degree. Kathmandu University, Tribhuwan University, Pokhara University and Purvanchal University offer this degree.

Japan

In Japan, the master of engineering (工学修士, Kogaku Shushi), which takes a minimum of two years, is a postgraduate program that follows the undergraduate of four years. It is a research degree between the bachelor’s degree and the doctor’s degree, and requires completion of a thesis.

Singapore

In Singapore, the master of engineering is a research-based postgraduate program that typically lasts 2 to 3 years including coursework and must be completed by a comprehensive thesis evaluated by an examination committee. It is generally awarded as a pre-doctoral qualification in the field of engineering. This is in contrast to the “master of science” programs in engineering which are coursework-based and do not require a research thesis.

South Korea

In South Korea, the master of engineering, which takes a minimum of two years, is a postgraduate program that follows the undergraduate of four years. It is commonly awarded for specializations in the field of engineering rather than the science. For example, the degree “master of science in computer science” differs from the degree “master of engineering in computer science” in that the latter one is mainly concentrated on the applicability of the design with strong relation with the hardware rather than the software. Generally, the master of engineering program includes both coursework and research.

Poland

Magister inżynier (mgr inż., literally: master engineer) academic degree that can be obtained after 2 years post-graduate education (for students having already B.Eng.—inż.), or formerly (until full adaptation of Bologna process by university) through integrated 5 years B.Eng.–M.Eng. (or B.Sc.–M.Sc) programme, giving double degree mgr inż.

Slovakia

FIIT STU Software engineering IEE accreditation

FEI STU engineering IEE accreditation

Spain

Before the introduction of the Bologna Process, there were two different Spanish Engineering degrees: “Ingeniería”, which took 5 or in some cases 6 full-time yearly courses; and “Ingeniería Técnica”, of a shorter duration: 3 years or in some cases 4 full-time yearly courses.

In the wake of the Bologna Process, the Spanish Educational System implanted the “Máster Habilitante en Ingeniería” and the “Máster Universitario en Ingeniería” degrees (Postgraduate Studies), which use the ECTS system designed by the European Union. They are slightly shorter to the second half of the former Engineering (“Ingeniería”) academic degree, whereas the Technical Engineering Degree is approximately similar to the Bachelor’s Degree within the Bologna system.

Education in Engineering in Spain had traditionally not too many specialties (Naval, Aerospatial, Industrial, Civil, Telecommunications, Informatics, among others) as in the past specialization was not so necessary but after Bologna the Degrees and Masters branched out numerously, giving birth to hundreds of different combinations, opening the possibility to do a bachelor’s degree in one university and specialty, and then to take a Master´s degree on another specialty, perhaps at a different university, having usually passed an individual interview by the Dean and/or a “Propedeutics” exam or test of some sort, designed to guarantee a solid basis upon which to build further knowledge, that must take into consideration the relationship between the two branches of knowledge and among the subjects being taught at both degrees at the origin and the destination.

Sweden

The “Master of Engineering” title was introduced in some Swedish universities proceeding the Bologna process. The title “civilingenjör” (literally translated “Civilian engineer”, the English term “Civil engineer” is not equivalent to “civilingenjör”) is the equivalent of a M.Eng. as well as the “Master of Science in Engineering” title. A Master of Science in Engineering is awarded after a minimum of 5 years of studies. Before 2007-07-01, it was awarded after a minimum of 4½ year of studies. Students starting with their studies before 2007-07-01, but finishing them before 2015-06-30 and after 2007-07-01, may choose to obtain the title either after 4½ year or after 5 years.

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom the degree of Master of Engineering (MEng) is the highest award for undergraduate studies in engineering. It is the standard university-level qualification taken by people wishing to become chartered engineers registered with the Engineering Council (EngC). The MEng degree represents the minimum educational standard required to become a chartered engineer, but there are other equally satisfactory ways to demonstrate this standard such as the completion of a BEng Honours and a subsequent postgraduate diploma, MA or MSc, or by completion of the Engineering Council Postgraduate Diploma administered by City and Guilds. The UK MEng (undergraduate degree) is typically equivalent to the European Diplom Ingenieur (Dipl.-Ing.) and Civilingenjör degrees.

EngC’s minimum requirement for entry to a recognised MEng course is BBB at A-level, compared to CCC for a BEng Honours course. Universities are free to set higher entry requirements if they wish. Some universities, such as Oxford, Cambridge, and some courses at Imperial only admit students to study for the MEng degree. (Their courses usually allow a student to leave with a bachelor’s degree after three years, but these shortened degrees are not ECUK-recognised and therefore do not count towards the educational requirements for becoming a chartered engineer) Other universities, such as the University of Greenwich, University of Surrey, Coventry University, Brunel University and Swansea University, admit students to read for BEng Honours and MEng courses and allow students to change between the two during the early years of the course. The Open University offers the MEng degree as a postgraduate qualification but requires students to complete its course within four years of completing a BEng Honours degree.

In England, Northern Ireland and Wales the degree is a four-year course, or a ‘sandwich’ five-year course (with one year spent working in industry). In Scotland, it is a five-year course. The Bachelor of Engineering degree (BEng) is usually a three-year course (four in Scotland), or can also include a year in industry. Many universities offer the BEng, and may then allow a transfer onto the MEng The Graduateship in engineering, awarded by the City & Guilds of London Institute (Institution Established in 1878 recognized by Royal Charter n.117 year 1900), is mapped to a British Bachelor of Engineering (Honours)—BEng (Honours)—degree. The Post Graduate Diploma is mapped to a British Master of Engineering (MEng) degree. The Membership in Engineering (MCGI)(NQF at Level 7) is a strategic Management/Chartered professional level and a Post Graduate Diploma, mapped to a British master’s degree, awarded by the City & Guilds of London Institute. This will be supported by a minimum of ten years of seasoned experience (peer reviewed) in areas as the Engineering + a British bachelor/graduateship (or by CEng).

Engineers who have been awarded a BEng(Ordinary) or BEng(Honours) and have appropriate training and experience in the work place are able to apply to become an Incorporated Engineer (IEng). If an engineer has studied beyond the BEng for an MSc or has an MEng, they may apply to become a Chartered Engineer (CEng), once they have completed the required amount of post graduate work-based competency training and experience. Competency and training requirements are met over a period of 4–8 years in practice for a total of 8–12 years education, training and professional responsibility. Formal structured post graduate training schemes such as the monitored professional development IMechE enable the Engineer in training to satisfy the requirements for Chartered Engineer faster.[9]

Chartered Engineer and Incorporated Engineer titles awarded by the Engineering Council UK, are very broadly equivalent to (but not the same as) North American Professional Engineer (PEng / PE) and Professional Technologist (PTech) designations, but with often a far greater geographical recognition. However, P.Eng/PE serve a very different purpose than the CEng qualification. PE/P.Eng are licenses to practice engineering in the public domain with legal liability at the state or provincial level. Unlike C.Eng they are not qualifications or titles. Under government legislations they allow one to engage in professional practice in a defined geographic region. For example, in Ontario the P.Eng license is issued within the Professional Engineers Act (established in 1922). Despite the Washington accord PE/PEng does not equal C.Eng. The ability of a C.Eng to practice engineering in the public domain in North America is determined on a case by case basis usually by state or province. Agreements to recognize qualifications between EngC or Engineers Ireland and Engineers Canada or the USA ABET are not recognized by individual states or provinces.

Structure

MEng degrees usually follow the pattern familiar from bachelor’s degrees with lectures, laboratory work, coursework and exams each year. There is usually a substantial project to be completed in the fourth year which may have a research element to it, and a more teaching-based project to be completed in the third year. At the end of the third year, there is usually a threshold of academic performance in examinations to allow progression to the final year. At some universities, the structure of the final year is rather different from that of the first three, for example, at the University of York, the final year for the Computer Systems and Software programme consists entirely of project work and intensive advanced seminar courses rather than traditional lectures and problem classes. Final results are, in most cases, awarded on the standard British undergraduate degree classification scale, although some universities award something structurally similar to ‘Distinction’, ‘Merit’, ‘Pass’ or ‘Fail’ as this is often the way that taught postgraduate master’s degrees are classified.

History

At some universities in the UK in the early 1980s, the MEng was awarded as a taught postgraduate degree after 12 months of study. Its entry requirements would typically be like those for other taught postgraduate courses, including holding an undergraduate degree, and its format would be similar to the modern MEng although, as with many postgraduate master’s degrees, the project would extend over a longer period. MEng courses in their modern, undergraduate form were introduced in the mid-1980s in response to growing competition from technical-degree graduates from continental Europe, where undergraduate bachelor’s degree courses are often longer than the usual three years in the UK. There was a feeling among recent graduates, the engineering institutions, employers and universities, that the longer and more in-depth study offered on the continent needed to be made available to UK students as well. Since to obtain a taught master’s degree in the UK typically took an additional year beyond a bachelor’s degree, it was decided that this extra year would be integrated into the undergraduate program and, instead of pursuing both a bachelor’s and master’s degree, students would proceed directly to a master’s degree.

Since its introduction, the MEng has become the degree of choice for most undergraduate engineers, as was intended. The most common exception to this is international students who, because of the substantially higher fees they are charged, sometimes opt to take the tradition BEng/B.Sc. route where that is available[citation needed]. Most of the engineering institutions have now made an MEng the minimum academic standard necessary to become a Chartered Engineer. Students who graduated before the changes in the rules will still be allowed to use their bachelor’s degree for this purpose and those who have earned a bachelor’s degree since the changes can usually take some additional courses (known as ‘further learning’) over time to reach an equivalent standard to the MEng Some older universities such as Durham[10][not in citation given] allow students to obtain the BEng degree after the third year before continuing on to the fourth year.

Other undergraduate masters

The MEng is one of a number of integrated master’s degrees introduced in the UK since the late 20th century, the other major degree introduced being MSci (Master in Science). Some universities, however, have chosen to award subject specific integrated master’s degrees, in subjects such as Mathematics (MMath), Computer Science (MCompSci), Physics (MPhys), Chemistry (MChem) and Biology (MBiol).

United States and Canada

In the United States, and Canada the Master of Engineering degree is generally a professional degree offered as a coursework-based alternative to the traditional research-based Master of Science. It is typically a two-year program, entered after the completion of a 4-year bachelor’s degree and many universities allow students to choose between the Master of Engineering and the Master of Science.
The Master of Engineering degree is offered at many leading universities in the United States, and Canada on either a full-time and part-time (weekends or evenings) basis[11] and is considered a terminal degree in the field of engineering.

Some M.Eng. degree programs require a scholarly project in addition to coursework. Some Master of Engineering programs require additional courses beyond those required for Master of Science students in order to better prepare students for professional careers. Some Master of Engineering programs highly encourage students to participate in collaborative consulting projects.[12] These courses may include topics such as business fundamentals, management and leadership.[13]

See also

  • ABET, Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (United States)
  • Bachelor’s degree
  • Bachelor of Engineering
  • British degree abbreviations
  • Engineer’s degree
  • Engineering Doctorate
  • Master’s degree
  • Master of Science

References

  1. ^ “404”. www.eng.unimelb.edu.au..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ University of Tasmania Engineering Course Guide Accessed 16 September 2009
  3. ^ Finnish legislation 423/2005 on degrees at Universities of Applied Sciences Accessed: 21 June 2009
  4. ^ Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Master’s degrees Accessed: 21 June 2009
  5. ^ “Software Engineering for Embedded Systems”. www.zfuw.uni-kl.de. Retrieved 2017-01-20.
  6. ^ http://www.canterbury.ac.nz/future-students/qualifications-and-courses/masters-degrees/master-of-engineering/
  7. ^ “Master of Engineering – The University of Auckland”. www.engineering.auckland.ac.nz.
  8. ^ http://www.aut.ac.nz/study-at-aut/study-areas/engineering/postgraduate/master-of-engineering/
  9. ^ http://www.engc.org.uk/documents/EC0006_UKSpecBrochure_MR.pdf
  10. ^ “Engineering and Computing Science – Durham University”. www.dur.ac.uk.
  11. ^ “Flexible Schedule – Gordon Institute at Tufts University”. tufts.edu.
  12. ^ “MSEM Curriculum – Gordon Institute”. tufts.edu.
  13. ^ Master of Engineering, Duke University, http://meng.pratt.duke.edu/