1968 Summer Olympics

Games of the XIX Olympiad
1968 Mexico emblem.svg

Logo for the 1968 Summer Olympics, designed by Lance Wyman
Host city Mexico City, Mexico
Nations 112
Athletes 5,516 (4,735 men, 781 women)
Events 172 in 18 sports (24 disciplines)
Opening 12 October
Closing 27 October
Opened by
President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz[1]
Cauldron
Enriqueta Basilio[1]
Stadium Estadio Olímpico Universitario
Summer
← Tokyo 1964 Munich 1972 →
Winter
← Grenoble 1968 Sapporo 1972 →

The 1968 Summer Olympics (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1968), officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, Mexico, from October 12 to 27, 1968.

These were the first Olympic Games to be staged in Latin America and the first to be staged in a Spanish-speaking country. They were the first Games to use an all-weather (smooth) track for track and field events instead of the traditional cinder track.

The 1968 Games were the third to be held in the last quarter of the year, after the 1956 Games in Melbourne and the 1964 Games in Tokyo. The Mexican Student Movement of 1968 happened concurrently and the Olympic Games were correlated to the government’s repression.

Contents

  • 1 Host city selection
  • 2 Olympic torch relay
  • 3 Highlights
  • 4 Controversies

    • 4.1 South Africa
    • 4.2 Tlatelolco massacre
    • 4.3 Black Power salute
    • 4.4 Věra Čáslavská
  • 5 Venues
  • 6 Sports

    • 6.1 Demonstration sports
  • 7 Participating National Olympic Committees
  • 8 Calendar
  • 9 Boycotting countries
  • 10 Medal count
  • 11 See also
  • 12 References
  • 13 External links

Host city selection

Opening ceremony of the 1968 Summer Olympic Games at the Estadio Olímpico Universitario in Mexico City

On October 18, 1963, at the 60th IOC Session in Baden-Baden, West Germany, Mexico City finished ahead of bids from Detroit, Buenos Aires and Lyon to host the Games.[2]

1968 Summer Olympics bidding result[3]
City Country Round 1
Mexico City  Mexico 30
Detroit  United States 14
Lyon  France 12
Buenos Aires  Argentina 2

Olympic torch relay

The 1968 torch relay recreated the route taken by Christopher Columbus to the New World, journeying from Greece through Italy and Spain to San Salvador Island, Bahamas, and then on to Mexico.[citation needed] American sculptor James Metcalf, an expatriate in Mexico, won the commission to forge the Olympic torch for the 1968 Summer Games.[4]

Highlights

Adolfo López Mateos, President of Mexico from 1958 to 1964 and first chairman of the Organization Committee of the 1968 Summer Olympics

  • In the medal award ceremony for the men’s 200 meter race, black American athletes Tommie Smith (gold) and John Carlos (bronze) took a stand for civil rights by raising their black-gloved fists and wearing black socks in lieu of shoes. The Australian Peter Norman, who had run second, wore an American “civil rights” badge as support to them on the podium. In response, the IOC banned Smith and Carlos from the Olympic Games for life, and Norman’s omission from Australia’s Olympic team in 1972 was allegedly as punishment.[5][6]
  • American (and future professional world’s champion) George Foreman won the gold medal for boxing (Heavyweight Division) by defeating Soviet Ionas Chepulis via a second-round TKO. After the victory, Foreman waved a small American flag as he bowed to the crowd.[7]
  • The high elevation of Mexico City, at 2,240 m (7,350 ft) above sea level, influenced many of the events, particularly in track and field. No other Summer Olympic Games before or since have been held at high elevation. Although a performance reducer for endurance athletes, the thin air contributed to many record-setting jumps, leaps, vaults, and throws, as well as all of the men’s track events of 400 meters and less.[8] As a reminder of this fact, one of the promotional articles of these Olympics was a small metallic box labeled “Aire de México” (Air of Mexico), that was “Especial para batir récords” (Special for breaking records).[citation needed]
  • In addition to high elevation, this was the first Olympics to use a synthetic all-weather surface for track and field events; the “Tartan” surface was originally developed by 3M for horse racing, but did not catch on. The tracks at previous Olympics were conventional cinder.[9]
  • For the first time, East and West Germany competed as separate teams, after being forced by the IOC to compete as a combined German team in 1956, 1960, and 1964. Beethoven’s Ode to Joy was played when East and West Germany arrived in the stadium.[citation needed]
  • Al Oerter of the U.S. won his fourth consecutive gold medal in the discus to become only the second athlete to achieve this feat in an individual event, and the first in track & field (athletics).[10]
  • Bob Beamon of the U.S. leapt 8.90 m (29.2 ft) in the long jump, an incredible 55 cm (22 in) improvement over the previous world record. It remained the Olympic record and stood as the world record for 23 years, until broken by American Mike Powell in 1991. American athletes Jim Hines, Tommie Smith and Lee Evans also set long-standing world records in the 100 m, 200 m and 400 m, respectively.[citation needed]
  • In the triple jump, the previous world record was improved five times by three different athletes. Winner Viktor Saneev also won in 1972 and 1976, and won silver in 1980.
  • Dick Fosbury of the U.S. won the gold medal in the high jump using his unconventional Fosbury flop technique, which quickly became the dominant technique in the event.[11]
  • Věra Čáslavská of Czechoslovakia won four gold medals in gymnastics and protested the Soviet invasion of her country.
  • Debbie Meyer of the U.S. became the first swimmer to win three individual gold medals, in the 200, 400 and 800 m freestyle events. The 800 m was a new long-distance event for women. Meyer was only 16 years old, a student at Rio Americano High School in Sacramento, California. Meyer was the first of several American teenagers to win the 800 m.[citation needed]
  • American swimmer Charlie Hickcox won three gold medals (200m IM, 400m IM, 4 × 100 m medley relay) and one silver medal (100m backstroke).[12][citation needed]
  • The introduction of doping tests resulted in the first disqualification because of doping: Swedish pentathlete Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall was disqualified for alcohol use (he drank several beers just prior to competing).[citation needed]
  • John Stephen Akhwari of Tanzania became internationally famous after finishing the marathon, in the last place, despite a dislocated knee.[13]
  • This was the first of three Olympic participation by Jacques Rogge. He competed in yachting and would later become the president of the IOC.[14]
  • Norma Enriqueta Basilio de Sotelo of Mexico became the first woman to light the Olympic cauldron with the Olympic flame.[citation needed]
  • It was the first games at which there was a significant African presence in men’s distance running. Africans won at least one medal in all running events from 800 meters to the marathon, and in so doing they set a trend for future games. Most of these runners came from high-altitude areas of countries like Kenya and Ethiopia, and they were well-prepared for the 2240 m elevation of Mexico City.[citation needed]
  • Kipchoge Keino of Kenya, competing in spite of unexpected bouts of severe abdominal pain later diagnosed as a gall bladder infection, finished the 10,000 meters in spite of collapsing from pain with two laps to go, won silver in the 5000, and won gold in the 1500 meters.[15][16]
  • It was the first Olympic games in which the closing ceremony was transmitted in color to the world, as well as the events themselves.[17]

Controversies

South Africa

South Africa was provisionally invited to the Games, on the understanding that all segregation and discrimination in sport would be eliminated by the 1972 Games. However, African countries and African American athletes promised to boycott the Games if South Africa was present, and Eastern Bloc countries threatened to do likewise. In April 1968 the IOC conceded that “it would be most unwise for South Africa to participate”.[18]

Tlatelolco massacre

Responding to growing social unrest and protests, the government of Mexico had increased economic and political suppression, against labor unions in particular, in the decade building up to the Olympics. A series of protest marches in the city in August gathered significant attendance, with an estimated 500,000 taking part on August 27. President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz ordered the occupation[by whom?] of the National Autonomous University of Mexico in September, but protests continued. Using the prominence brought by the Olympics, students gathered in Plaza de las Tres Culturas in Tlatelolco to call for greater civil and democratic rights and showed disdain for the Olympics with slogans such as ¡No queremos olimpiadas, queremos revolución! (“We don’t want Olympics, we want revolution!”).[19][20]

Ten days before the start of the Olympics, the government ordered the gathering in Plaza de las Tres Culturas to be broken up. Some 5000 soldiers and 200 tankettes surrounded the plaza. Hundreds of protesters and civilians were killed and over 1000 were arrested. At the time, the event was portrayed in the national media as the military suppression of a violent student uprising, but later analysis indicates that the gathering was peaceful prior to the army’s advance.[21][22][23]

Black Power salute

Gold medalist Tommie Smith (center) and bronze medalist John Carlos (right) showing the raised fist on the podium after the 200 m race

On October 16, 1968, African American sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos, the gold and bronze medalists in the men’s 200-meter race, took their places on the podium for the medal ceremony wearing black socks without shoes and civil rights badges, lowered their heads and each defiantly raised a black-gloved fist as the Star Spangled Banner was played, in solidarity with the Black Freedom Movement in the United States. Both were members of the Olympic Project for Human Rights. International Olympic Committee (IOC) president Avery Brundage deemed it to be a domestic political statement unfit for the apolitical, international forum the Olympic Games were intended to be. In response to their actions, he ordered Smith and Carlos suspended from the US team and banned from the Olympic Village. When the US Olympic Committee refused, Brundage threatened to ban the entire US track team. This threat led to the expulsion of the two athletes from the Games.[24]

Peter Norman, the Australian sprinter who came second in the 200 m race, also wore an Olympic Project for Human Rights badge during the medal ceremony. Norman was the one who suggested that Carlos and Smith wear one glove each. His actions resulted in him being ostracized by Australian media[25] and a reprimand by his country’s Olympic authorities. He was not sent to the 1972 games, despite several times making the qualifying time,[26] though opinion differ over whether that was due to the 1968 protest.[27] When Australia hosted the 2000 Summer Olympics, he had no part in the opening ceremony, though the significance of that is also debated.[27] In 2006, after Norman died of a heart attack, Smith and Carlos were pallbearers at Norman’s funeral.[28]

Věra Čáslavská

In another notable incident in the gymnastics competition, while standing on the medal podium after the balance beam event final, in which Natalia Kuchinskaya of the Soviet Union had controversially taken the gold, Czechoslovakian gymnast Věra Čáslavská quietly turned her head down and away during the playing of the Soviet national anthem. The action was Čáslavská’s silent protest against the recent Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. Her protest was repeated when she accepted her medal for her floor exercise routine when the judges changed the preliminary scores of the Soviet Larisa Petrik to allow her to tie with Čáslavská for the gold. While Čáslavská’s countrymen supported her actions and her outspoken opposition to Communism (she had publicly signed and supported Ludvik Vaculik’s “Two Thousand Words” manifesto), the new regime responded by banning her from both sporting events and international travel for many years and made her an outcast from society until the fall of communism.

Venues

  • Agustín Melgar Olympic Velodrome – Cycling (track)
  • Arena México – Boxing
  • Avándaro Golf Club – Equestrian (eventing)
  • Campo Marte – Equestrian (dressage, jumping individual)
  • Campo Militar 1 – Modern pentathlon (riding, running)
  • Club de Yates de Acapulco – Sailing
  • Estadio Azteca – Football (final)
  • Estadio Cuauhtémoc – Football preliminaries
  • Estadio Nou Camp – Football preliminaries
  • Estadio Olímpico Universitario – Athletics (also 20 km and 50 km walk), Ceremonies (opening/ closing), Equestrian (jumping team)
  • Fernando Montes de Oca Fencing Hall – Fencing, Modern pentathlon (fencing)
  • Francisco Márquez Olympic Pool – Diving, Modern pentathlon (swimming), Swimming, Water polo
  • Arena Insurgentes – Wrestling
  • Insurgentes Theatre – Weightlifting
  • Jalisco Stadium – Football preliminaries
  • Juan de la Barrera Olympic Gymnasium – Volleyball
  • Juan Escutia Sports Palace – Basketball, Volleyball
  • Municipal Stadium – Field hockey
  • National Auditorium – Gymnastics
  • Arena Revolución – Volleyball
  • Satellite Circuit – Cycling (individual road race, road team time trial)
  • University City Swimming Pool – Water polo
  • Vicente Suárez Shooting Range – Modern pentathlon (shooting), Shooting
  • Virgilio Uribe Rowing and Canoeing Course – Canoeing, Rowing
  • Zócalo – Athletics (marathon start)

Sports

The 1968 Summer Olympic program featured 172 events in the following 18 sports:

  • Aquatics
    • Diving (4)
    • Swimming (29)
    • Water polo (1)
  • Athletics (36)
  • Basketball (1)
  • Boxing (11)
  • Canoeing (7)
  • Cycling

    • Road (2)
    • Track (5)
  • Equestrian

    • Dressage (2)
    • Eventing (2)
    • Jumping (2)
  • Fencing (8)
  • Football (1)
  • Gymnastics (14)
  • Field hockey (1)
  • Modern pentathlon (2)
  • Rowing (7)
  • Sailing (5)
  • Shooting (7)
  • Volleyball (2)
  • Weightlifting (7)
  • Wrestling

    • Freestyle (8)
    • Greco-Roman (8)

Demonstration sports

  • Basque pelota
  • Tennis

The organizers declined to hold a judo tournament at the Olympics, even though it had been a full-medal sport four years earlier. This was the last time judo was not included in the Olympic games.

Participating National Olympic Committees

East Germany and West Germany competed as separate entities for the first time in at a Summer Olympiad, and would remain so through 1988. Barbados competed for the first time as an independent country.
Also competing for the first time in a Summer Olympiad were British Honduras (now Belize), Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (as Congo-Kinshasa), El Salvador, Guinea, Honduras, Kuwait, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Sierra Leone, and the United States Virgin Islands.
Singapore returned to the Games as an independent country after competing as part of the Malaysian team in 1964. Suriname and Libya actually competed for the first time (in 1960 and 1964, respectively, they took part in the Opening Ceremony, but their athletes withdrew from the competition.)

Participating countries

Calendar

All dates are in Central Time Zone (UTC-6)
OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Gold medal events CC Closing ceremony
October 12th
Sat
13th
Sun
14th
Mon
15th
Tue
16th
Wed
17th
Thu
18th
Fri
19th
Sat
20th
Sun
21st
Mon
22nd
Tue
23rd
Wed
24th
Thu
25th
Fri
26th
Sat
27th
Sun
Events
Olympic Rings Icon.svg Ceremonies OC CC N/A
Athletics 1 4 4 7 6 5 2 7 36
Basketball 1 1
Boxing 11 11
Canoeing 7 7
Cycling 1 1 1 1 2 1 7
Diving 1 1 1 1 4
Equestrian 2 1 1 1 1 6
Fencing 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
Field hockey 1 1
Football 1 1
Gymnastics 2 2 4 6 14
Modern pentathlon 2 2
Rowing 7 7
Sailing 5 5
Shooting 2 1 1 1 2 7
Swimming 2 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 28
Volleyball 2 2
Water polo 1 1
Weightlifting 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
Wrestling 8 8 16
Daily medal events 2 5 6 9 13 10 17 20 14 5 12 8 16 34 1 172
Cumulative total 2 7 13 22 35 45 62 82 96 101 113 121 137 171 172
October 12th
Sat
13th
Sun
14th
Mon
15th
Tue
16th
Wed
17th
Thu
18th
Fri
19th
Sat
20th
Sun
21st
Mon
22nd
Tue
23rd
Wed
24th
Thu
25th
Fri
26th
Sat
27th
Sun
Total events

Boycotting countries

North Korea withdrew from the 1968 Games because of two incidents that strained its relations with the IOC. First, the IOC had barred North Korean track and field athletes from the 1968 Games because they had participated in the rival Games of the New Emerging Forces (GANEFO) in 1966. Secondly, the IOC had ordered the nation to compete under the name “North Korea” in the 1968 Games, whereas the country itself would have preferred its official name: “Democratic People’s Republic of Korea”.[29]

Medal count

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1968 Games. Host Mexico won 3 of each color of medal.

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States 45 28 34 107
2  Soviet Union 29 32 30 91
3  Japan 11 7 7 25
4  Hungary 10 10 12 32
5  East Germany 9 9 7 25
6  France 7 3 5 15
7  Czechoslovakia 7 2 4 13
8  West Germany 5 11 10 26
9  Australia 5 7 5 17
10  Great Britain 5 5 3 13
Totals (10 nations) 133 114 117 364

See also

  • 1968 Summer Paralympics
  • 1968 Winter Olympics
  • Summer Olympic Games
  • Olympic Games
  • International Olympic Committee
  • List of IOC country codes
  • 1968 Olympics Black Power salute

References

  1. ^ ab “Factsheet – Opening Ceremony of the Games of the Olympiad” (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 9 October 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ IOC Vote History
  3. ^ “Past Olympic host city election results”. GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
  4. ^ Dannatt, Adrian (2012-02-17). “James Metcalf: US sculptor who led a community of artists and artisans in Mexico”. The Independent. Retrieved 2012-02-25.
  5. ^ “2 Black Power Advocates Ousted From Olympics”. archive.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
  6. ^ CNN, By James Montague,. “The third man: The forgotten Black Power hero – CNN”. CNN. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
  7. ^ George Foreman (2011-11-12), George Foreman vs Ionas Chepulis (1968 Gold medal boxing match), retrieved 2018-06-04
  8. ^ Matthews, Peter (2012-03-22). Historical Dictionary of Track and Field. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810879850.
  9. ^ Matthews, Peter (2012-03-22). Historical Dictionary of Track and Field. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810879850.
  10. ^ Litsky, Frank (2 October 2007). “Al Oerter, Olympic Discus Champion, Is Dead at 71”. Retrieved 25 January 2017 – via Proquest Newspapers.
  11. ^ The Sports of the Times: A Day-by-Day Selection of the Most Important, Thrilling and Inspired Events of the Past 150 Years, edited by William Taaffe, David Fischer, New York, N.Y, U.S.: New York Times and St. Martin’s Press, 2003, “October 20, 1968: Fearless Fosbury Flops to Glory,” Joseph Durso, page 333.
  12. ^ “Mexico 1968 Swimming – Results & Videos”. International Olympic Committee. 2016-09-08. Retrieved 2017-02-13.
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ “Count Jacques ROGGE – Comité Olympique et Interfédéral Belge, IOC Member since 1991”. International Olympic Committee. 2017-01-17. Retrieved 2017-01-19.
  15. ^ The Complete Book of the Olympics, 2012 edition, David Wallechinsky, Jaime Loucky, London, England, UK: Aurum Press Ltd, 2012, “Track & Field (Men): 1500 Meters,” page 108.
  16. ^ Keino Reflects on Legendary Race: Now 63 and an IOC member, ever-humble Kenyan takes a lap around Mexico City track where he ran memorable 1,500, Los Angeles Times, Alan Abrahamson, Nov. 28, 2002.
  17. ^ Guinness World Records – First summer Olympic Games to be televised in colour
  18. ^ Espy, Richard (1981). The Politics of the Olympic Games: With an Epilogue, 1976-1980. University of California Press. pp. 125–8. ISBN 9780520043954. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  19. ^ México 1968: Las Olimpiadas 10 días después de la matanza Archived 2013-07-04 at the Wayback Machine.. ADN Politico (2012-08-08). Retrieved on 2013-07-03.
  20. ^ 1968: Student riots threaten Mexico Olympics. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2013-07-03.
  21. ^ Werner, Michael S., ed. Encyclopedia of Mexico: History, Society & Culture. Vol. 2 Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1997.
  22. ^ Mexican students protest for greater democracy, 1968. Global Non-Violent Action Database. Retrieved on 2013-07-03.
  23. ^ The Dead of Tlatelolco. The National Security Archive. Retrieved on 2013-07-03.
  24. ^ On This Day: Tommie Smith and John Carlos Give Black Power Salute on Olympic Podium. Findingdulcinea.com. Retrieved on 13 June 2015.
  25. ^ Wise, Mike (5 October 2006). “Clenched fists, helping hand”. The Washington Post. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
  26. ^ Frost, Caroline (17 October 2008). “The other man on the podium”. BBC. Archived from the original on October 20, 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
  27. ^ ab Messenger, Robert (24 August 2012). “Leigh sprints into wrong lane over Norman”. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  28. ^ Flanagan, Martin (6 October 2006). “Olympic protest heroes praise Norman’s courage”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
  29. ^ Grasso, John; Mallon, Bill; Heijmans, Jeroen (2015). “Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of (North Korea) (PRK)”. Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement (5th ed.). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 316. ISBN 978-1-4422-4860-1.

External links

  • “Mexico 1968”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • “Results and Medalists — 1968 Summer Olympics”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • The Politics of Hypocrisy – Mexico ’68
  • Luis Castañeda, “Beyond Tlatelolco: Design, Media and Politics at Mexico ‘68” article in Grey Room 40 (Summer 2010)
  • Result of the 1968 Summer Olympics host city candidacies
  • An article on the American Sprinters Controversy
  • The program of the 1968 Mexico City Olympics
  • Research Guide to Latin American and Caribbean Sport at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Preceded by
Tokyo
Summer Olympic Games
Mexico City

XIX Olympiad (1968)
Succeeded by
Munich


1960 Summer Olympics

Games of the XVII Olympiad
1960 Summer Olympics logo.png
Host city Rome, Italy
Nations 83
Athletes 5,338 (4,727 men, 611 women)
Events 150 in 17 sports (23 disciplines)
Opening 25 August
Closing 11 September
Opened by
President Giovanni Gronchi[1]
Cauldron
Giancarlo Peris[1]
Stadium Stadio Olimpico
Summer
← Melbourne 1956 Tokyo 1964 →
Winter
← Squaw Valley 1960 Innsbruck 1964 →

The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad (Italian: Giochi della XVII Olimpiade), was an international multi-sport event that was held from August 25 to September 11, 1960, in Rome, Italy. The city of Rome had previously been awarded the administration of the 1908 Summer Olympics, but following the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 1906, Rome had no choice but to decline and pass the honour to London.

Contents

  • 1 Host city selection
  • 2 Highlights

    • 2.1 Lowlights
    • 2.2 Historical landmarks
    • 2.3 Non-medal winners
  • 3 Broadcasting
  • 4 Venues
  • 5 Games

    • 5.1 Participating National Olympic Committees
    • 5.2 Sports
    • 5.3 Calendar
    • 5.4 Medal count
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links

Host city selection

On June 15, 1955, at the 50th IOC Session in Paris, France, Rome won the rights to host the 1960 Games, having beaten Brussels, Mexico City, Tokyo, Detroit, Budapest (the first city of the Eastern Bloc to make an Olympic bid) and finally Lausanne. Tokyo and Mexico City would subsequently host the proceeding 1964 and 1968 Summer Olympics respectively.[2]

Toronto was initially interested in the bidding, but appears to have dropped out during the final phase of the bid process.[3] This was the first of five unsuccessful attempts by Toronto to secure the Summer Olympics from then until the 2008 games.

1960 Summer Olympics bidding results[4]
City Country Round 1 Round 2 Round 3
Rome  Italy 15 26 35
Lausanne   Switzerland 14 21 24
Detroit  United States 6 11
Budapest  Hungarian People’s Republic 8 1
Brussels  Belgium 6
Mexico City  Mexico 6
Tokyo  Japan 4

Highlights

The Olympic torch

  • Swedish sprint canoeist Gert Fredriksson won his sixth Olympic title.
  • Fencer Aladár Gerevich of Hungary won his sixth consecutive gold medal in the team sabre event.
  • The Japanese men’s gymnastics team won the first of five successive golds (see 1976 Summer Olympics).
  • The United States men’s national basketball team—led by future Basketball Hall of Famers Walt Bellamy, Jerry Lucas, Oscar Robertson and Jerry West—captured its fifth straight Olympic gold medal.
  • Danish sailor Paul Elvstrøm won his fourth straight gold medal in the Finn class. Others to emulate his performance in an individual event are Al Oerter, Carl Lewis, Michael Phelps, Kaori Icho and, if the Intercalated (Interspaced) Games of 1906 are included, Ray Ewry.
  • German Armin Hary won the 100 metres in an Olympic record time of 10.2 seconds.
  • Wilma Rudolph (US), a former polio patient, won three gold medals in sprint events on the track. She was acclaimed as “the fastest woman in the world”.
  • Jeff Farrell, US, won two gold medals in swimming. He underwent an emergency appendectomy six days before the Olympic Trials.[5]

Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia wins the marathon barefooted

  • Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia won the marathon barefooted to become the first black African Olympic champion.
  • Cassius Clay, US, later known as Muhammad Ali, won boxing’s light-heavyweight gold medal. Ramon “Buddy” Carr was one of the coaches that led this team to winning gold.[6]
  • Herb Elliott, AUS, won the men’s 1500 meters in one of the most dominating performances in Olympic history.
  • Rafer Johnson, US, defeated his rival and friend C.K. Yang in one of the greatest Decathlon events in Olympic history.[7]
  • Lance Larson, US, was controversially denied a 100 metres freestyle swimming gold, despite showing the best time.
  • The future Constantine II, last King of Greece (abdicated and ended hybrid monarchy, 1973) won his country a gold in sailing: dragon class.
  • The Pakistani Men’s Field Hockey team broke a run of Indian team victories since 1928, defeating India in the final and winning Pakistan’s first Olympic gold medal.
  • Wrestlers Shelby Wilson, and Doug Blubaugh, US, who wrestled together growing up, won gold medals in their respective weight classes.

Lowlights

  • Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen collapsed during his race under the influence of Roniacol and later died in the hospital. It was the second time an athlete died in competition at the Olympics, after the death of Portuguese marathon runner Francisco Lázaro at the 1912 Summer Olympics.[8]

Historical landmarks

  • South Africa appeared in the Olympic arena for the last time under its apartheid regime. It would not be allowed to return until 1992, by when apartheid in sport was being abolished.
  • Singapore competed for the first time under its own flag, which was to become its national flag after independence, as the British had granted it self-government a year earlier. Tan Howe Liang won silver in the Weightlifting lightweight category, which was the first time (and the only time until 2008) that an athlete from Singapore won an Olympic medal.

Non-medal winners

  • Finnish Vilho Ylönen, a field shooter, shot a bullseye to a wrong target, and in so doing he dropped from second place to fourth.
  • Peter Camejo, a 2004 American vice-presidential candidate for the Green Party, competed in yachting for Venezuela.
  • The future Queen Sofía of Spain (consort to the Constitutional monarch) represented her native Greece in sailing events.

Broadcasting

  • CBS paid $394,000 ($3340000 in today’s dollars) for the exclusive right to broadcast the Games in the United States. This was the first Summer Olympic games to be telecast in North America. In addition to CBS in the United States, the Olympics were telecast for the first time in Canada (on CBC Television) and in Mexico (through the networks of Telesistema Mexicano). Since television broadcast satellites were still two years into the future, CBS, CBC, and TSM shot and edited videotapes in Rome, fed the tapes to Paris where they were re-recorded onto other tapes which were then loaded onto jet planes to North America. Planes carrying the tapes landed at Idlewild Airport in New York City, where mobile units fed the tapes to CBS, to Toronto for the CBC, and to Mexico City for TSM. Despite this arrangement, many daytime events were broadcast in North America, especially on CBS and CBC, the same day they took place.[9]

Venues

Opening Ceremony in 1960 Summer Olympics in Stadio Olimpico in Rome, Italy

  • Olympic Stadium² (Stadio Olimpico) – opening/closing ceremonies, athletics, equestrian events
  • Flaminio Stadium¹ (Stadio Flaminio) – football finals
  • Swimming Stadium¹ – swimming, diving, water polo, modern pentathlon (swimming)
  • Sports Palace¹ (Palazzo dello sport) – basketball, boxing
  • Olympic Velodrome¹ – cycling (track), field hockey
  • Small Sports Palace¹ (Palazzetto dello Sport) – basketball, weightlifting
  • Marble Stadium² (Stadio dei Marmi) – field hockey preliminaries
  • Baths of Caracalla – gymnastics
  • Basilica of Maxentius – wrestling
  • Palazzo dei Congressi – fencing
  • Umberto I Shooting Range¹ – modern pentathlon (shooting), shooting (pistol/ rifle)
  • Roses Swimming Pool¹ (Piscina delle Rose) – water polo
  • Lake Albano, Castelgandolfo – rowing, canoeing
  • Piazza di Siena, Villa Borghese gardens – equestrian (dressage, eventing – jumping, jumping – individual)
  • Pratoni del Vivaro, Rocca di Papa – equestrian (eventing)
  • Gulf of Naples, Naples – yachting
  • Communal Stadium, Florence – football/soccer preliminaries
  • Communal Stadium, Grosseto – football/soccer preliminaries
  • Communal Stadium, L’Aquila – football/soccer preliminaries
  • Ardenza Stadium, Livorno – football/soccer preliminaries
  • Adriatico Stadium, Pescara – football/soccer preliminaries
  • Saint Paul’s Stadium, Naples – football/soccer preliminaries
  • Campo Tre Fontane – field hockey preliminaries
  • Acqua Santa Golf Club Course – modern pentathlon (running)
  • Arch of Constantine – athletics (marathon finish)
  • Cesano Infantry School Range – shooting (300 m free rifle)
  • Lazio Pigeon Shooting Stand – shooting (trap shotgun)
  • Passo Corese – modern pentathlon (riding)
  • Grande Raccordo Anulare – athletics (marathon)
  • Via Appian Antica – athletics (marathon)
  • Via Cassia – cycling (individual road race)
  • Via Flaminia – cycling (individual road race)
  • Via Cristoforo Colombo – athletics (marathon), cycling (road team time trial)
  • Via di Grottarossa – cycling (individual road race)

¹ New facilities constructed in preparation for the Olympic Games. ² Existing facilities modified or refurbished in preparation for the Olympic Games.

Games

Participating National Olympic Committees

Participants

Number of athletes per country

A total of 83 nations participated at the Rome Games. Athletes from Morocco, San Marino, Sudan, and Tunisia competed at the Olympic Games for the first time.
Athletes from Barbados, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago would represent the new (British) West Indies Federation, competing as “Antilles”, but this nation would only exist for this single Olympiad. Athletes from Northern Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia competed under the Rhodesia name while representing the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Athletes from East Germany and West Germany would compete as the United Team of Germany from 1956 to 1964. The number in parentheses indicates the number of participants that each country contributed.

Participating National Olympic Committees
  •  Afghanistan (13)
  •  British West Indies (13)
  •  Argentina (101)
  •  Australia (209)
  •  Austria (118)
  •  Bahamas (17)
  •  Belgium (108)
  •  Bermuda (9)
  •  Brazil (72)
  •  Guyana (5)
  •  Bulgaria (116)
  •  Burma (10)
  •  Canada (86)
  •  Ceylon (5)
  •  Chile (9)
  •  Colombia (17)
  •  Cuba (12)
  •  Czechoslovakia (116)
  •  Denmark (100)
  •  Ethiopia (12)
  •  Fiji (2)
  •  Finland (117)
  •  Republic of China (27)
  •  France (238)
  •  United Team of Germany (293)
  •  Ghana (13)
  •  Great Britain (253)
  •  Greece (48)
  •  Haiti (1)
  •  Hong Kong (4)
  •  Hungary (184)
  •  Iceland (9)
  •  India (45)
  •  Indonesia (22)
  •  Iran (23)
  •  Iraq (21)
  •  Ireland (49)
  •  Israel (23)
  •  Italy (280) (host)
  •  Japan (162)
  •  Kenya (27)
  •  South Korea (35)
  •  Lebanon (19)
  •  Liberia (4)
  •  Liechtenstein (5)
  •  Luxembourg (52)
  •  Malaya (9)
  •  Malta (10)
  •  Mexico (69)
  •  Monaco (11)
  •  Morocco (47)
  •  Netherlands (110)
  •  Netherlands Antilles (5)
  •  New Zealand (37)
  •  Nigeria (12)
  •  Norway (40)
  •  Pakistan (44)
  •  Panama (6)
  •  Peru (31)
  •  Philippines (40)
  •  Poland (185)
  •  Portugal (65)
  •  Puerto Rico (27)
  •  Rhodesia (14)
  •  Romania (98)
  •  San Marino (9)
  •  Singapore (5)
  •  South Africa (55)
  •  Soviet Union (283)
  •  Spain (144)
  •  Sudan (10)
  •  Sweden (134)
  •  Switzerland (149)
  •  Thailand (20)
  •  Tunisia (42)
  •  Turkey (49)
  •  Uganda (10)
  •  Egypt (74)
  •  United States (292)
  •  Uruguay (34)
  •  Venezuela (36)
  •  Vietnam (3)
  •  Yugoslavia (116)
  •  Suriname also made its first Olympic appearance, but its lone athlete (Wim Esajas) withdrew from competition due to a scheduling error.[10]

Sports

The 1960 Summer Olympics featured 17 different sports encompassing 23 disciplines, and medals were awarded in 150 events. In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

  • Aquatics
    • Diving (4)
    • Swimming (15)
    • Water polo (1)
  • Athletics (34)
  • Basketball (1)
  • Boxing (10)
  • Canoeing (7)
  • Cycling

    • Road (2)
    • Track (4)
  • Equestrian

    • Dressage (1)
    • Eventing (2)
    • Jumping (2)
  • Fencing (8)
  • Field hockey (1)
  • Football (1)
  • Gymnastics (14)
  • Modern pentathlon (2)
  • Rowing (7)
  • Sailing (5)
  • Shooting (6)
  • Weightlifting (7)
  • Wrestling

    • Freestyle (8)
    • Greco-Roman (8)

Calendar

All dates are in Central European Time (UTC+1)
OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Gold medal events CC Closing ceremony
August / September 25
Thu
26
Fri
27
Sat
28
Sun
29
Mon
30
Tue
31
Wed
1
Thu
2
Fri
3
Sat
4
Sun
5
Mon
6
Tue
7
Wed
8
Thu
9
Fri
10
Sat
11
Sun
Events
Ceremonies OC CC N/A
Athletics 2 4 7 3 3 4 4 6 1 34
Basketball 1 1
Boxing 10 10
Canoeing 7 7
Cycling 2 1 2 1 6
Diving 1 1 1 1 4
Equestrian 1 1 2 1 5
Fencing 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
Field hockey 1 1
Football 1 1
Gymnastics 2 5 7 14
Modern pentathlon 2 2
Rowing 7 7
Sailing 5 5
Shooting 1 1 1 2 1 6
Swimming 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 15
Water polo 1 1
Weightlifting 2 2 2 1 7
Wrestling 8 8 16
Daily medal events 2 4 0 11 5 14 8 11 15 0 14 15 12 12 11 15 1 150
Cumulative total 2 6 6 17 22 36 44 55 70 70 84 99 111 123 134 149 150
August / September 25
Thu
26
Fri
27
Sat
28
Sun
29
Mon
30
Tue
31
Wed
1
Thu
2
Fri
3
Sat
4
Sun
5
Mon
6
Tue
7
Wed
8
Thu
9
Fri
10
Sat
11
Sun
Total events

Medal count

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1960 Games:[11]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Soviet Union 43 29 31 103
2  United States 34 21 16 71
3  Italy* 13 10 13 36
4  United Team of Germany 12 19 11 42
5  Australia 8 8 6 22
6  Turkey 7 2 0 9
7  Hungary 6 8 7 21
8  Japan 4 7 7 18
9  Poland 4 6 11 21
10  Czechoslovakia 3 2 3 8
Totals (10 nations) 134 112 105 351

See also

  • 1960 Summer Paralympics
  • 1960 Winter Olympics
  • Olympic Games celebrated in Italy
    • 1956 Winter Olympics – Cortina D’Ampezzo
    • 1960 Summer Olympics – Rome
    • 2006 Winter Olympics – Turin
  • Summer Olympic Games
  • Olympic Games
  • International Olympic Committee
  • List of IOC country codes

References

  1. ^ ab “Factsheet – Opening Ceremony of the Games of the Olympiad” (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 9 October 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “IOC VOTE HISTORY”.
  3. ^ “Toronto has made 5 attempts to host the Olympics. Could the sixth be the winner?”. thestar.com. 24 July 2015.
  4. ^ “Past Olympic host city election results”. GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
  5. ^ Coplan, Joseph (July 19, 2000). “Profiling Jeff Farrell, 1968 ISHOF Honor Swimmer”. USMS. Retrieved March 23, 2011.
  6. ^ Zaborney, Mark (March 11, 2016). “Ramon ‘Buddy’ Carr (1926-2016): TPD officer coached gold-medalist boxer”. Toledo Blade.
  7. ^ Henderson, Jon (June 26, 2012). “Great Olympic Moments: UCLA friends Rafer Johnson and Yang Chuan-kwang make decathlon history in 1960”. The Telegraph. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
  8. ^ Maraniss, David (2008). Rome 1960: The Olympics That Changed the World (1st ed.). New York City, NY: Simon & Schuster. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-4165-3407-5.
  9. ^ “OLYMPICS AND TELEVISION – The Museum of Broadcast Communications”. Museum.tv. Retrieved March 23, 2011.
  10. ^ Official Olympic Reports. Archived from the original on 2006-06-22.
  11. ^ Byron, Lee; Cox, Amanda; Ericson, Matthew (August 4, 2008). “A Map of Olympic Medals”. The New York Times. Retrieved February 26, 2012.

External links

  • “Rome 1960”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • “Results and Medalists — 1960 Summer Olympics”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • Rome 1960: The Olympics That Changed the World, David Maraniss, New York, NY, U.S.: Simon & Schuster, 2008.
  • The program of the 1960 Rome Olympics
  • LIFE 12 Sep 1960
Preceded by
Melbourne/Stockholm
Summer Olympic Games
Rome

XVII Olympiad (1960)
Succeeded by
Tokyo


1920 Summer Olympics

Games of the VII Olympiad
1920 olympics poster.jpg

Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics
Host city Antwerp, Belgium
Nations 29
Athletes 2,626 (2,561 men, 65 women)
Events 156 in 22 sports (29 disciplines)
Opening 14 August
Closing 12 September
Opened by
King Albert I[1]
Stadium Olympisch Stadion
Summer
← Stockholm 1912
Berlin 1916
Paris 1924 →
Winter
Chamonix 1924 →

The 1920 Summer Olympics (French: Les Jeux olympiques d’été de 1920; Dutch: Olympische Zomerspelen van de VIIe Olympiade; German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1920), officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium.

In March 1912, during the 13th session of the IOC, Belgium’s bid to host the 1920 Summer Olympics was made by Baron Édouard de Laveleye, president of the Belgian Olympic Committee and of the Royal Belgian Football Association. No fixed host city was proposed at the time.

The 1916 Summer Olympics, to be held in Berlin, capital of the German Empire, were cancelled due to World War I. The aftermath of the war and the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 affected the Olympic Games not only due to new states being created, but also by sanctions against the nations that lost the war and were blamed for starting it. Hungary, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire were banned from competing in the Games. Germany did not return to Olympic competition until 1928 and instead hosted a series of games called Deutsche Kampfspiele, starting with the Winter edition of 1922 (which predated the first Winter Olympics).

The sailing events were held in Ostend, Belgium, and two in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Contents

  • 1 Host city selection
  • 2 Organization
  • 3 Highlights
  • 4 Sports/Events

    • 4.1 Demonstration sport
  • 5 Venues
  • 6 Participating nations

    • 6.1 Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees
  • 7 Medal count
  • 8 See also
  • 9 Notes
  • 10 External links

Host city selection

In March 1912, during the 13th session of the IOC, the bid on the behalf of Belgium to host the 1920 Summer Olympics. It was made by Baron Édouard de Laveleye, president of the Belgian Olympic Committee and of the Royal Belgian Football Association. No fixed host city was proposed at the time.[2]

The organising committee was created on 9 August 1913. It had four presidents:

  • Édouard de Laveleye, president of the Belgian Olympic Committee
  • Henri de Baillet-Latour, member of the IOC
  • Robert Osterrieth, president of the Royal Yacht Club of Belgium
  • Charles Cnoops, vice-president of the Belgian Fencing Association

Among the 22 vice-presidents of the committee were people with a military or industrial background, and further people from sports organizations like Paul Havenith, president of the football and athletics club K. Beerschot V.A.C. and Nicolaas Jan Cupérus, president of the Belgian Gymnastics Federation.[3]

The first action of the committee was to send an official letter to the IOC in Paris, confirming Antwerp as the city for the Belgian Olympic bid. On 13 September 1913, Pierre de Coubertin, president of the IOC, visited the grounds of the future Olympic Stadion in Beerschot.

In 1914, a 109-page brochure was created to promote the idea of Antwerp as a host city for the Olympics: Aurons-nous la VIIème Olympiade à Anvers? (Will we have the 7th Olympiad at Antwerp?). It was sent to all IOC members and was used during the 6th Olympic Congress in Paris in 1914, where the candidacies of Amsterdam, Antwerp, Budapest, and Rome were discussed. Despite a slight preference at the time for Budapest, no final choice was made, and the outbreak of World War I soon afterwards prevented any further progress.[4]

In 1915, Lyon made a bid for the 1920 games, but after some discussion, they agreed to support Antwerp and postpone their bid until 1924 if Antwerp was liberated in time to organize the games. The support for Belgium by cousin country France, then the leading country of the IOC, also meant that Amsterdam, and Budapest, in an enemy state, made no chance for the 1920 games against Antwerp. New candidacies from American cities did not have that disadvantage and bids were received from Cleveland, Philadelphia, and Atlanta (which would eventually host the 1996 Summer Olympics), and Cuba also planned a bid for Havana. But shortly after the armistice in November 1918, the IOC decided to give Antwerp the first choice, if they still wanted to host the 1920 Games. In March 1919, the Belgian Olympic Committee decided to go ahead with the organization, and on 5 April 1919, in a meeting in Lausanne, Antwerp was officially declared the host city for the games of the VIIth Olympiad.[5]

Organization

An executive committee was established on 17 April 1919, with Henri de Baillet-Latour as chairman and Alfred Verdyck, the secretary of the Belgian Union of Football Clubs, as general secretary. Seven commissions were created, to deal with finances, accommodation, press relations, propaganda, schedules, transport, and festivities. Finances and scheduling proved to be the two hardest parts to tackle: the program of events only was published in February 1920, six months before the official start of the Games.

Between 23 and 30 April 1920, an ice hockey tournament marked the early start of the Games. Held in the “Palais de Glace” or Ice Palace in Antwerp, it was the first time that ice hockey was an Olympic sport.[6]

The first stone of the new Olympic Stadium at Beerschot was laid on 4 July 1919 by Jan De Vos, mayor of Antwerp, and inaugurated less than a year later on 23 May 1920 with a gymnastics demonstration.[7]

The nautical stadium or Stade Nautique d’Antwerp was built at the end of the Jan Van Rijswijcklaan, using the city ramparts there as a spectator’s stand. Other events, like shooting, boxing, and equestrian sports, were held at pre-existing locations in and around Antwerp and as far away as Ostend.[8]

Highlights

  • These Olympics were the first in which the Olympic Oath was voiced, the first in which doves were released to symbolize peace, and the first in which the Olympic Flag was flown.
  • The USA won 41 gold, 27 silver, and 27 bronze medals, the most won by any of the 29 nations attending. Sweden, Great Britain, Finland, and Belgium rounded out the five most successful medal-winning nations.
  • The Games also featured a week of winter sports, with figure skating appearing for the first time since the 1908 Olympics, and ice hockey making its Olympic debut.
  • Nedo Nadi won 5 gold medals in the fencing events.
  • At the age of 72, Sweden’s 100 metre running deer double-shot event champion Oscar Swahn, who had participated in the 1908 and 1912 Games, came in second in the team event to become the oldest Olympic medal winner ever.
  • 23-year-old Paavo Nurmi won the 10,000 m and 8000 m cross country races, took another gold in team cross country, and a silver in the 5000 m run. His contributions for Finland broke the U.S. dominance record in track and field with 9 medals.
  • Duke Kahanamoku retained the 100 m swimming title he won before the war.
  • In a rather strange moment in Olympic history, the 12-foot dinghy event in sailing took place in two different countries. The final two races in the event were independently held in the Netherlands, on its own accord, supposedly because the only two competitors in the event were Dutch.[9]
  • Sport shooter Guilherme Paraense won Brazil’s very first gold medal at the Olympic Games.
  • The United States sent a women’s swim team for the first time, having refused during the 1912 Games on the grounds that it was “obscene”. The six-woman team produced two gold medals.

Sports/Events

France national football team.

156 events[10] in 29 disciplines, comprising 22 sports, were part of the Olympic program in 1920. The Sailing program was open for a total of 16 sailing classes, but actually only 14 sailing events were contested. The number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

  • Aquatics
    • Diving (5)
    • Swimming (10)
    • Water polo (1)
  • Archery (10)
  • Athletics (29)
  • Boxing (8)
  • Cycling

    • Road (2)
    • Track (4)
  • Equestrian

    • Dressage (2)
    • Eventing (1)
    • Show jumping (2)
    • Vaulting (2)
  • Fencing (6)
  • Figure skating (3)
  • Football (1) (Soccer)
  • Gymnastics

    • Artistic (4)
  • Field hockey (1)
  • Ice hockey (1)
  • Modern pentathlon (1)
  • Polo (1)
  • Rowing (5)
  • Rugby
    • Rugby union (1)
  • Sailing (14)
  • Shooting (21)
  • Tennis (5)
  • Tug of war (1)
  • Weightlifting (5)
  • Wrestling

    • Freestyle (5)
    • Greco-Roman (5)

Demonstration sport

  • Korfball

Venues

Seventeen sports venues were used in the 1920 Summer Olympics. This marked the first time that the football tournament was spread throughout the country, which has mostly been the case since.[11]

Venue Sports Capacity Ref.
Antwerp Cycling (road) Not listed. [12][13]
Antwerp Zoo Boxing, Wrestling Not listed. [14][15]
Beerschot Tennis Club Tennis Not listed. [16]
Beverloo Camp Shooting (pistol/rifle) Not listed. [17]
Brussels–Scheldt Maritime Canal Rowing Not listed. [18]
Buiten Y (Amsterdam) Sailing (12 foot dinghy) Not listed. [19]
Gardens of the Egmont Palace (Brussels) Fencing Not listed. [20]
Hoogboom Military Camp Shooting (trap shooting, running target) Not listed. [17]
Jules Ottenstadion (Ghent) Football (Italy-Egypt match). Not listed. [21]
Nachtegalen Park Archery Not listed. [22]
Olympisch Stadion Athletics, Equestrian, Field hockey, Football (final), Gymnastics, Modern pentathlon, Rugby union, Tug of war, Weightlifting 30,000 [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]
Ostend Polo, Sailing Not listed. [32][33]
Palais de Glace d’Anvers Figure skating, Ice hockey Not listed. [34][35]
Stade Joseph Marien (Brussels) Football Not listed. [26]
Stade Nautique d’Antwerp Diving, Swimming, Water polo Not listed. [36][37][38]
Stadion Broodstraat Football Not listed. [26]
Vélodrome d’Anvers Zuremborg Cycling (track) Not listed. [39]

Participating nations

Participants in the 1920 games, with the nations in blue participating for the first time.

Number of athletes

A total of 29 nations participated in the Antwerp Games, only one more than in 1912, as Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and Ottoman Empire were not invited, having lost World War I. From the newly created European states, only Estonia took part, and Czechoslovakia, succeeding Bohemia which had sent athletes prior to World War I as part of the Austrian Empire. Poland was busy with the Polish-Soviet War and therefore was unable to form an Olympic team. Soviet Russia was also not invited as part of its political embargo by the West. Argentina, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Brazil, and Monaco competed as nations at the Olympic Games for the first time. New Zealand, which had competed as part of a combined team with Australia in 1908 and 1912, competed on its own for the first time.

Participating National Olympic Committees
  •  Argentina (1)
  •  Australia (13)
  •  Belgium (336) (host)
  •  Brazil (19)
  •  Canada (53)
  •  Chile (2)
  •  Czechoslovakia (121)
  •  Denmark (154)
  •  Egypt (22)
  •  Estonia (14)
  •  Finland (63)
  •  France (304)
  •  Great Britain (235)
  •  Greece (57)
  •  India (5)
  •  Italy (174)
  •  Japan (15)
  •  Luxembourg (25)
  •  Monaco (4)
  •  Netherlands (113)
  •  New Zealand (4)
  •  Norway (194)
  •  Portugal (13)
  •  South Africa (39)
  •  Spain (32)
  •  Sweden (260)
  •  Switzerland (77)
  •  United States (288)
  •  Yugoslavia (12)
  • The  Dominion of Newfoundland had one competitor, Eric Robertson. But as the dominion had no official Olympic committee, his nationality could not be confirmed and he had to represent Britain.[40]

As the local Olympic Organizing Committee went bankrupt during the Antwerp 1920 Games, no official report of the Games was ever produced. The documents of the Games were archived at the Belgium Olympic Committee headquarters in Brussels.[41]

Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees

Medal count

One of the 154 (identical) gold medals awarded at the Games of the VII Olympiad

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1920 Games.

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States 41 27 27 95
2  Sweden 19 20 25 64
3 United Kingdom Great Britain 15 15 13 43
4  Finland 15 10 9 34
5  Belgium* 14 11 11 36
6  Norway 13 9 9 31
7  Italy 13 5 5 23
8  France 9 19 13 41
9  Netherlands 4 2 5 11
10  Denmark 3 9 1 13
Totals (10 nations) 146 127 118 391

See also

  • Summer Olympic Games
  • Olympic Games
  • International Olympic Committee
  • List of IOC country codes

Notes

  1. ^ “Factsheet – Opening Ceremony of the Games f the Olympiad” (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. September 13, 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. p. 11. ISBN 90-5325-051-4.
  3. ^ Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. p. 12. ISBN 90-5325-051-4.
  4. ^ Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. p. 13. ISBN 90-5325-051-4.
  5. ^ Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. p. 14. ISBN 90-5325-051-4.
  6. ^ Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. pp. 15–17. ISBN 90-5325-051-4.
  7. ^ Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. pp. 18–19. ISBN 90-5325-051-4.
  8. ^ Renson, Roland (1996). The Games Reborn. The VIIth Olympiad Antwerp 1920. Antwerp: Pandora. pp. 20–21. ISBN 90-5325-051-4.
  9. ^ “Antwerp 1920”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  10. ^ The IOC site for the 1920 Olympic Games gives erroneous figure of 154 events, while the IOC database lists 156 ones.
  11. ^ “Football at the 1920 Antwerpen Summer Games | Olympics at Sports-Reference.com”. Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Retrieved 2018-02-04.
  12. ^ “1920 Summer Olympics cycling individual road race”. Sports-reference.com. 12 August 1920. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  13. ^ “1920 Summer Olympics cycling team road race”. Sports-reference.com. 12 August 1920. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  14. ^ “1920 Summer Olympics boxing”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  15. ^ “1920 Summer Olympics wrestling”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  16. ^ “profile of Tennis at the 1920 Summer Olympics”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  17. ^ ab “Shooting overview of the 1920 Summer Olympics”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  18. ^ “1920 Summer Olympics rowing website”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  19. ^ Sports-Reference.com 1920 Summer Olympics sailing mixed 12-foot results..
  20. ^ “profile of the 1920 Summer Olympics fencing events”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  21. ^ FIFA.com 1920 Summer Olympics ITA-EGY results. Archived 1 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. – accessed 6 October 2010.
  22. ^ “1920 Summer Olympics archery profile”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  23. ^ “1920 Summer Olympics athletics”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  24. ^ “1920 Summer Olympics equestrian”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  25. ^ “1920 Summer Olympics men’s field hockey”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  26. ^ abc “1920 Summer Olympics football”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  27. ^ “1920 Summer Olympics gymnastics”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  28. ^ “1920 Summer Olympics modern pentathlon”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  29. ^ “1920 Summer Olympics rugby union”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  30. ^ “1920 Summer Olympics tug of war”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  31. ^ “1920 Summer Olympics weightlifting”. Sports-reference.com. 29 August 1920. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  32. ^ “1920 Summer Olympics polo”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  33. ^ “1920 Summer Olympics sailing”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  34. ^ “profile of Figure skating at the 1920 Summer Olympics”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  35. ^ “profile of the men’s Ice Hockey at the 1920 Summer Olympics”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  36. ^ “profile of Diving at the 1920 Summer Olympics”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  37. ^ “profile of Swimming at the 1920 Summer Olympics”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  38. ^ “profile of Men’s water polo at the 1920 Summer Olympics”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  39. ^ “profile of Cycling at the 1920 Summer Olympics”. Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
  40. ^ Dohey, Larry. “Newfoundlanders and Olympic Connections”. Archivalmoments.ca. Archived from the original on 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  41. ^ “Olympic Games Official Report 1920” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011.

External links

  • “Antwerp 1920”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • “Results and Medalists — 1920 Summer Olympics”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • Openingsceremonie An article about the opening ceremonies of the 1920 Antwerp Olympiade in Flemish.
Preceded by
Berlin
cancelled due to World War I
Summer Olympic Games
Antwerp

VII Olympiad (1920)
Succeeded by
Paris


1948 Summer Olympics

Games of the XIV Olympiad
The Palace of Westminster, a Gothic architecture building with two towers, sits behind the Olympic rings. The words "XIVth Olympiad" is written across the top in a semi-circular shape, while the words "London 1948" is written at the bottom of the logo.
Host city London, United Kingdom
Nations 59
Athletes 4,104 (3,714 men, 390 women)
Events 136 in 17 sports (23 disciplines)
Opening 29 July
Closing 14 August
Opened by
King George VI[1]
Cauldron
John Mark[1]
Stadium Empire Stadium
Summer
← Berlin 1936
London 1944
Helsinki 1952 →
Winter
← St. Moritz 1948 Oslo 1952 →

The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in London, United Kingdom from 29 July to 14 August 1948.

After a twelve-year hiatus caused by the outbreak of World War II; these were the first Summer Olympics held since the 1936 Games in Berlin. The 1940 Olympic Games had been scheduled for Tokyo, and then for Helsinki; the 1944 Olympic Games had been provisionally planned for London. This was the second occasion that London had hosted the Olympic Games, having previously hosted them in 1908, forty years earlier. The Olympics would again return to London 64 years later in 2012, making London the first city to have hosted the games three times, and the only such city until Paris and Los Angeles host their third games in 2024 and 2028, respectively. The 1948 Olympic Games were the first of two summer Olympic Games held under the IOC presidency of Sigfrid Edström.

The event came to be known as the Austerity Games, because of the difficult economic climate and rationing imposed in the aftermath of World War II. No new venues were built for the games (with events taking place mainly at Wembley Stadium and the Empire Pool at Wembley Park), and athletes were housed in existing accommodation at the Wembley area instead of an Olympic Village, as were the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games and the subsequent 1952 Games. A record 59 nations were represented by 4,104 athletes, 3,714 men and 390 women, in 19 sport disciplines. Germany and Japan were not invited to participate in the games; however, the Soviet Union was invited but chose not to send any athletes. The United States team won the most total medals, 84, and the most gold medals, 38. The host nation won 23 medals, three of them gold.

One of the star performers at the Games was Dutch sprinter Fanny Blankers-Koen. Dubbed “The Flying Housewife”, the thirty-year-old mother of two won four gold medals in athletics. In the decathlon, American Bob Mathias became the youngest male ever to win an Olympic gold medal at the age of seventeen. The most individual medals were won by Veikko Huhtanen of Finland who took three golds, a silver and a bronze in men’s gymnastics.

Contents

  • 1 Election as host city
  • 2 Organization
  • 3 Opening ceremony
  • 4 Sports

    • 4.1 Athletics
    • 4.2 Arts
    • 4.3 Basketball
    • 4.4 Boxing
    • 4.5 Canoeing
    • 4.6 Cycling
    • 4.7 Diving
    • 4.8 Equestrian
    • 4.9 Fencing
    • 4.10 Field hockey
    • 4.11 Football
    • 4.12 Gymnastics
    • 4.13 Lacrosse
    • 4.14 Modern pentathlon
    • 4.15 Rowing
    • 4.16 Sailing
    • 4.17 Shooting
    • 4.18 Swimming
    • 4.19 Water polo
    • 4.20 Weightlifting
    • 4.21 Wrestling
  • 5 Political defection
  • 6 Broadcasting
  • 7 Venues
  • 8 Participating NOCs

    • 8.1 Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees (by highest to lowest)
  • 9 Medal count
  • 10 See also
  • 11 Notes
  • 12 References
  • 13 External links

Election as host city

In June 1939, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) awarded the 1944 Olympic Summer Games to London, ahead of Rome, Detroit, Budapest, Lausanne, Helsinki, Montreal and Athens.[2] World War II stopped the plans and the Games were cancelled so London again stood as a candidate for 1948. Great Britain almost handed the 1948 games to the United States due to post-war financial and rationing problems, but King George VI said that this could be the chance to restore Britain from World War II. The official report of the London Olympics shows that there was no case of London being pressed to run the Games against its will. It says:

The Games of 1944 had been allocated to London and so it was that in October 1945, the Chairman of the British Olympic Council, Lord Burghley, went to Stockholm and saw the president of the International Olympic Committee to discuss the question of London being chosen for this great event. As a result, an investigating committee was set up by the British Olympic Council to work out in some detail the possibility of holding the Games. After several meetings they recommended to the council that the Lord Mayor of London should be invited to apply for the allocation of the Games in 1948.[3]

In May 1946 the IOC, through a postal vote, gave the summer Games to London and the winter competition to St Moritz. London was selected ahead of Baltimore, Minneapolis, Lausanne, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia.[4]

London, which had previously hosted the 1908 Summer Olympics, became the second city to host the Olympics twice; Paris hosted the event in 1900 and 1924. London later became the first city to host the Olympics for a third time when the city hosted the 2012 Summer Olympics.

Organization

Lord Burghley, a gold medal winner at the 1928 Olympics, member of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and President of the Amateur Athletics Association was named Chairman of the Organising and Executive Committees.[5] The other members of the committees were: Colonel Evan Hunter, General Secretary of the British Olympic Association, and Chef de mission for Great Britain; Lord Aberdare, the other British member of the IOC; Sir Noel Curtis-Bennett; Alderman H.E. Fern; E.J. Holt; J. Emrys Lloyd, who became the committee’s legal advisor; C.B. Cowley of the London Press and Advertising; R.B. Studdert, Managing Director of the Army & Navy Stores; A.E. Porritt, a member of the IOC for New Zealand who resided in London; S.F. Rous, Secretary of The Football Association; and Jack Beresford.[6]

Olympic pictograms were introduced for the first time. There were twenty of them—one for each Olympic sport and three separate pictograms for the arts competition, the opening ceremony and the closing ceremony. They were called “Olympic symbols” and intended for use on tickets. The background of each pictogram resembled an escutcheon.[7][8] Olympic pictograms appeared again 16 years later, and were used at all subsequent Summer Olympics.

At the time of the Games food, petrol and building were still subject to the rationing imposed during the war in Britain; because of this the 1948 Olympics came to be known as the “Austerity Games”.[9] Athletes were given the same increased rations as dockers and miners, 5,467 calories a day instead of the normal 2,600. Building an Olympic Village was deemed too expensive, and athletes were housed in existing accommodation. Male competitors stayed at RAF camps in Uxbridge and West Drayton, and an Army camp in Richmond; female competitors in London colleges. The British Red Cross provided medical facilities at the Richmond Park camp.[10]

These were the first games to be held following the death of Pierre de Coubertin, founder of the International Olympic Committee, in 1937. They were also the last to include an arts competition, which took place at the Victoria and Albert Museum.[11]

Opening ceremony

The XIV Olympic Games opens in London, 1948

The Games opened on 29 July. Army bands began playing at 2 pm for the 85,000 spectators in Wembley Stadium at Wembley Park. The international and national organisers arrived at 2.35 pm and King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, with Queen Mary and other members of the Royal Family, at 2.45 pm. Fifteen minutes later the competitors entered the stadium in a procession that took 50 minutes. The last team was that of the United Kingdom. When it had passed the saluting base, Lord Burghley began his welcome:

Your Majesty: The hour has struck. A visionary dream has today become a glorious reality. At the end of the worldwide struggle in 1945, many institutions and associations were found to have withered and only the strongest had survived. How, many wondered, had the great Olympic Movement prospered?

After welcoming the athletes to two weeks of “keen but friendly rivalry”, he said London represented a “warm flame of hope for a better understanding in the world which has burned so low.”[12]

At 4 pm, the time shown on Big Ben on the London Games symbol, the King declared the Games open, 2,500 pigeons were set free and the Olympic Flag raised to its 35 ft (11 m) flagpole at the end of the stadium. The Royal Horse Artillery sounded a 21-gun salute and the last runner in the Torch Relay ran a lap of the track – created with cinders from the domestic coal fires of Leicester – and climbed the steps to the Olympic cauldron. After saluting the crowd, he turned and lit the flame. After more speeches, Donald Finlay of the British team (given his RAF rank of Wing Commander) took the Olympic Oath on behalf of all competitors. The National Anthem was sung and the massed athletes turned and marched out of the stadium, led by Greece, tailed by Britain.

The 580-page official report concluded:

Thus were launched the Olympic Games of London, under the most happy auspices. The smooth-running Ceremony, which profoundly moved not only all who saw it but also the millions who were listening-in on the radio throughout the world, and the glorious weather in which it took place, combined to give birth to a spirit which was to permeate the whole of the following two weeks of thrilling and intensive sport.[13]

The opening ceremony and over 60 hours of Games coverage was broadcast live on BBC television, which was then only available to a small audience in the London area. The BBC paid £1,000 for the broadcasting rights.[14]

Sports

A Boy Scout who fainted in the intense heat was the first ‘casualty’ of the 1948 Olympic Games. The temperature was in the nineties (32°C) as the sun blazed down mercilessly.

The 1948 Summer Olympics featured 136 medal events, covering 23 disciplines in 17 different sports and in arts.

In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

  • Aquatics
    • Diving (4)
    • Swimming (11)
    • Water polo (1)
  • Athletics (33)
  • Basketball (1)
  • Boxing (8)
  • Canoeing (9)
  • Cycling

    • Road (2)
    • Track (4)
  • Equestrian

    • Dressage (2)
    • Eventing (2)
    • Show jumping (2)
  • Fencing (7)
  • Field hockey (1)
  • Football (1)
  • Gymnastics (9)
  • Modern pentathlon (1)
  • Rowing (7)
  • Sailing (5)
  • Shooting (4)
  • Weightlifting (6)
  • Wrestling

    • Freestyle (8)
    • Greco-Roman (8)

These Games also included Lacrosse as a demonstration sport.

Athletics

Start of the 50 km walk

Delfo Cabrera crossing the finish line to take gold in the marathon

Wembley stadium was the venue for 33 athletics events at the Games; 24 for men and nine for women. Of these, four were making their Olympic debut – the men’s 10 km walk, and the women’s 200 metres, long jump and shot put. A total of 754 athletes from 53 countries participated in athletics.[15]Fanny Blankers-Koen of the Netherlands, a 30-year-old mother of three children nicknamed “The Flying Housewife”, won four gold medals, in the 100 metres, 200 metres, 80 metre high hurdles, and 4 x 100 metre relay. As world record holder in the long jump and high jump Blankers-Koen may have been able to win further medals but, at this time, female athletes were limited to three individual events.[16]Duncan White won the first medal of any kind for Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) when he finished second in the 400 metre hurdles. Arthur Wint became the first Jamaican to win an Olympic gold medal, in the men’s 400 metres; he also won silver in the men’s 800 metres.[17][18]Alice Coachman became the first woman of color in the world and the first African American woman to win a gold medal in track and field in the history of the modern Olympics with a jump of 1.68 m (5′ 6​14“). She also was the only American woman to win an athletics gold medal during the 1948 Olympics.[19]

The marathon saw a dramatic finish with the first man to enter the stadium, Etienne Gailly of Belgium, exhausted and nearly unable to run. While he was struggling, Argentinian athlete Delfo Cabrera and Tom Richards of Great Britain passed him, with Cabrera winning the gold medal and Richards obtaining the silver. Gailly managed to recover enough to cross the line for the bronze.[20]

The decathlon was won by 17-year-old Bob Mathias of the United States. He became the youngest ever Olympic gold medallist in athletics and when asked how he would celebrate he replied: “I’ll start shaving, I guess.”[21][22]

Arts

Categories: sports-related architecture, literature, music, painting, and sculpture.

Basketball

Basketball made its second appearance as a medal sport, appearing as an indoor competition for the first time after poor weather disrupted the matches at the 1936 Berlin Games. The event, for men only, was contested by 23 nations split into four pools for the preliminary round; the top two in each pool advanced to the quarterfinals with the other teams entering playoffs for the minor placings. The United States and France reached the final which was won by the Americans 65–21 to claim the gold medal. This was the second of the United States’ seven consecutive gold medals in Olympic men’s and women’s basketball.[23] Brazil defeated Mexico 52–47 to claim bronze.[24]

Boxing

Eight different classifications were contested ranging from flyweight, for boxers weighing less than 51 kg, to heavyweight, for boxers over 80 kg. South Africa, Argentina and Hungary each won two gold medals.

Canoeing

Nine events were contested, eight for men and one for women. This marked the first time that a women’s canoeing event had been contested in the Olympics. Sweden won four gold medals (two by Gert Fredriksson) and Czechoslovakia three.

Cycling

Six events were contested – two road bicycle racing events and four track cycling events. No women’s cycling events were contested. France won three gold medals and Italy two, while Great Britain captured five medals overall, but none were gold.

Diving

Four diving events were contested, two for men, and two for women. The events are labelled as 3  metre springboard and 10  metre platform by the International Olympic Committee but appeared on the 1948 Official Report as springboard diving and highboard diving, respectively.[25] All four gold medals, and 10 out of 12 awarded in total, were won by the United States. Victoria Manalo Draves, who won both gold medals in the women’s events, and Sammy Lee, who took a gold and a bronze in the men’s events, became the first Asian Americans to win gold medals at an Olympic Games.[26]

Equestrian

Six gold medals were awarded in equestrian, individual and team dressage, individual and team eventing and individual and team show jumping. Harry Llewellyn and Foxhunter, who would claim a gold medal in Helsinki, won bronze in the team jumping event.

Fencing

Seven events were contested, six for men and one for women. Ilona Elek, who had won the women’s foil competition in Berlin, was one of only two competitors to successfully defend an Olympic title in London.[11] Elek’s sister, Margit, placed sixth in the same event.[27]Edoardo Mangiarotti won three medals, two silver and a bronze, having previously won a gold medal in the 1936 Games. Throughout his career the Italian won 13 Olympic fencing medals and 27 world championship medals, both of which remain records.[28][29]

Field hockey

Thirteen nations participated in the field hockey competition. The tournament was ultimately won by India, who defeated Great Britain to claim the country’s first gold medal as an independent nation under captain Kishan Lal and Vice-Captain Kunwar Digvijay Singh.

Football

Eighteen teams entered the football competition at these Olympics. Due to the rise of the professional game during the 12 years since the Berlin Olympics the number of talented amateurs for teams to select from was reduced. The gold medal was won by Sweden, who defeated Yugoslavia 3–1 in the final. Denmark defeated hosts Great Britain, managed by Matt Busby of Manchester United, 5–3 to win the bronze medal. In the tournament’s 18 matches a total of 102 goals were scored; an average 5.66 goals per match. The joint top scorers with seven goals each were Gunnar Nordahl of Sweden and Denmark’s John Hansen. Nordahl and Swedish teammates Gunnar Gren and Nils Liedholm went on to play for A.C. Milan and together were nicknamed Gre-No-Li.[30]

Gymnastics

Nine events were contested, eight for men, and one for women. In the men’s pommel horse, a tie was declared between three competitors, all Finns, and no medals other than gold were awarded in this event. Finland won six gold medals overall, and Switzerland three.

Lacrosse

Lacrosse was an exhibition sport at these Olympics. An English team composed of players from various universities played a U.S. team represented by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at the Empire Stadium.

Modern pentathlon

Gold medalist William Grut of Sweden (foreground) competing in the running component of the modern pentathlon.

Only one modern pentathlon event was contested, the five component sports– riding, fencing, shooting, swimming, and running- being held over six days. Scoring was by point-for-place system across the five phases with the winner being the athlete with the lowest combined ranking. The sport’s international federation, the Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne was founded during the Games, on 3 August 1948. Sweden won two medals in the event; William Grut won the gold, with a final points total of 16, and Gösta Gärdin took bronze. American George Moore won the silver medal.[31]

Rowing

Seven rowing events were contested, all open to men only. Great Britain and the United States each claimed two gold medals. The events were held on the same course as the Henley Royal Regatta.

Sailing

The sailing events at the Games took place in Torquay, in the southwest of Great Britain.[32] Five events were contested, with the United States winning four total medals.[33] One of host nation Great Britain’s three gold medals at the Games came in the Swallow class from Stewart Morris and David Bond. In the Firefly class Danish sailor Paul Elvstrøm won gold the despite the Danish Olympic Committee having misgivings about sending him to compete as the 18-year-old could speak no English. This was the first of four consecutive Olympics with a gold medal for Elvstrøm.[32]

Shooting

Four events were contested, all open to both men and women, although all medals were won by men. In the 50 metre rifle, prone position, only two points separated the top three competitors. Károly Takács had been a member of the Hungary’s world champion pistol shooting team in 1938 when a grenade shattered his right hand – his pistol hand. Takács taught himself to shoot with his left hand and, 10 years after his injury, he won an Olympic gold medal in the rapid-fire pistol event.[34]

Swimming

Eleven events were contested, six for men and five for women. The United States won eight gold medals, including all six men’s events, and 15 medals in total.

Water polo

Eighteen nations fielded a team in these games, which were ultimately won by Italy, who were undefeated throughout. The tournament was conducted in a mult-tier bracket, with the best four teams from the group stages participating in a final round-robin bracket. Silver was claimed by Hungary, and bronze by the Netherlands.

Weightlifting

Six events were contested, all for men only. These games marked the addition of the bantamweight class to the Olympic programme, the first change to the programme since 1920. The United States won four gold medals, and eight overall; the remaining two gold medals were claimed by Egypt.[35]Rodney Wilkes won the first medal for Trinidad and Tobago in an Olympic games, winning silver in the featherweight division; the featherweight gold medal was won by Egyptian Mahmoud Fayad, with a new Olympic and World record of 332.5 kg.[36][37]

Wrestling

Sixteen wrestling events were held, eight Greco-Roman and eight freestyle. All were open to men only. Both categories were dominated by two nations. Turkey was the most successful nation with six gold medals followed by Sweden receiving 5 gold medals. These two teams claimed 24 total medals, in other words half of the total medals given.

Political defection

London was the first Olympics to have a political defection. Marie Provazníková, the 57-year-old Czechoslovakian President of the International Gymnastics Federation, refused to return home, citing “lack of freedom” after the Czech coup in February led to the country’s inclusion in the Soviet Bloc.[38][39]

Broadcasting

For the 1948 Olympics, the Technicolor Corporation devised a bipack colour filming process – dubbed “Technichrome” – whereby hundreds of hours of film documented the events in colour, without having to use expensive and heavy Technicolor cameras.[40]

Slightly over 2,000 journalists attended the 1948 Games.[41]

Venues

Poster promoting the 1948 Olympics

No new venues were built for the Games. A cinder track was laid inside Wembley Stadium and all other venues were adapted.[9] For the first time at the Olympics swimming events were held undercover, at the 8000 capacity Empire Pool. As the pool was longer than the standard Olympic length of 50 metres a platform was constructed across the pool which both shortened it and housed officials.[34] In 2010 one of the last remaining venues from the Games, the Herne Hill Velodrome where cycling events were staged, was saved when a new 15-year lease was agreed meaning that repairs could take place. Campaigners and users of the track had feared that it would be forced to close as it was in desperate need of refurbishment.[42]

  • Wembley Empire Exhibition Grounds
    • Empire Stadium – opening and closing ceremonies, athletics, equestrian (jumping), football finals, field hockey finals
    • Empire Pool – boxing, diving, swimming, water polo
    • Palace of Engineering – fencing
  • Other venues
    • Empress Hall, Earl’s Court – boxing preliminaries, wrestling, weightlifting, gymnastics
    • Harringay Arena, Harringay – basketball & wrestling
    • Royal Regatta Course, Henley-on-Thames – canoeing, rowing
    • Herne Hill Velodrome, Herne Hill – track cycling
    • Windsor Great Park – cycling road race
    • Central Stadium, Military Headquarters, Aldershot – equestrian (jumping), modern pentathlon (riding, fencing, swimming)
    • Tweseldown Racecourse – equestrian (dressage, eventing)
    • Arsenal Stadium, Highbury – football preliminaries
    • Selhurst Park – football preliminaries
    • Craven Cottage, Fulham – football preliminaries
    • Ilford – football preliminaries
    • Griffin Park, Brentford – football preliminaries
    • Champion Hill, Dulwich – football preliminaries
    • Green Pond Road Stadium, Walthamstow – football preliminaries
    • White Hart Lane, Tottenham – football preliminaries
    • Lyons’ Sports Club, Sudbury – field hockey preliminaries
    • Guinness Sports Club, Park Royal – field hockey preliminaries
    • Polytechnic Sports Ground, Chiswick – field hockey preliminaries
    • National Rifle Association Ranges, Bisley – shooting, modern pentathlon (shooting)
    • Finchley Lido, Finchley – water polo preliminaries
    • English Channel, Torbay – yachting
    • Fratton Park, Portsmouth – football preliminaries
    • Goldstone Ground, Brighton – football preliminaries
    • Royal Military Academy – modern pentathlon (running)

Participating NOCs

Participants

Number of athletes per country

A total of 59 nations sent athletes. Fourteen made their first official appearance: British Guiana (now Guyana), Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Korea, Lebanon, Pakistan, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Syria, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela.[43] It was the first time that the Philippines, India and Pakistan competed as fully independent nations at the Olympic Games. Germany and Japan, both under Allied military occupations, were not allowed to send athletes to the games. German forced labour was used for the construction of the facilities.[44] Italy, although originally an Axis power, defected to the Allies in 1943 following Benito Mussolini being deposed, and was allowed to send athletes. The Soviet Union was invited but they chose not to send any athletes.[45] The number in parentheses indicates the number of participants that each country contributed.

Participating National Olympic Committees
  •  Afghanistan (25)
  •  Argentina (199)
  •  Australia (75)
  •  Austria (144)
  •  Belgium (152)
  •  Bermuda (12)
  •  Brazil (70)
  •  Burma (4)
  •  Canada (118)
  •  Ceylon (7)
  •  Chile (54)
  •  Republic of China (31)
  •  Colombia (6)
  •  Cuba (53)
  •  Czechoslovakia (87)
  •  Denmark (162)
  •  Egypt (85)
  •  Finland (129)
  •  France (316)
  •  Great Britain (398) (host)
  •  Greece (61)
  •  Guyana (4)
  •  Hungary (129)
  •  Iceland (20)
  •  India (79)
  •  Iran (36)
  •  Iraq (11)
  •  Ireland (73)
  •  Italy (213)
  •  Jamaica (13)
  •  South Korea (46)
  •  Lebanon (8)
  •  Liechtenstein (2)
  •  Luxembourg (45)
  •  Malta (1)
  •  Mexico (88)
  •  Monaco (4)
  •  Netherlands (149)
  •  New Zealand (7)
  •  Norway (81)
  •  Pakistan (35)
  •  Panama (1)
  •  Peru (41)
  •  Philippines (26)
  •  Poland (37)
  •  Portugal (48)
  •  Puerto Rico (9)
  •  Singapore (1)
  •  South Africa (35)
  •  Spain (65)
  •  Sweden (181)
  •  Switzerland (181)
  •  Syria (1)
  •  Trinidad and Tobago (5)
  •  Turkey (58)
  •  United States (300)
  •  Uruguay (61)
  •  Venezuela (1)
  •  Yugoslavia (90)

Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees (by highest to lowest)

Medal count

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1948 Summer Games, ranked by number of gold medals won. The host nation was 12th, with 23 medals, including three golds.[46]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States 38 27 19 84
2  Sweden 16 11 17 44
3  France 10 6 13 29
4  Hungary 10 5 12 27
5  Italy 8 11 8 27
6  Finland 8 7 5 20
7  Turkey 6 4 2 12
8  Czechoslovakia 6 2 3 11
9  Switzerland 5 10 5 20
10  Denmark 5 7 8 20
Totals (10 nations) 112 90 92 294

See also

  • Art competitions at the 1948 Summer Olympics
  • 1948 Winter Olympics
  • Summer Olympic Games
  • Olympic Games
  • International Olympic Committee
  • List of IOC country codes
  • 1908 Summer Olympics and 2012 Summer Olympics – also hosted by London

Notes

References

  1. ^ ab “Factsheet – Opening Ceremony of the Games f the Olympiad” (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. September 13, 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “Past Olympic Host City Election Results”. gamesbids.com. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  3. ^ Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948(1951), pp. 17
  4. ^ “Olympic Games Fonds” (PDF). International Olympic Committee Historical Archives. 6 November 2007. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  5. ^ “David George Burghley – lord of the hurdles (photos attached)”. The official website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  6. ^ Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948(1951), pp. 18
  7. ^ Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948(1951), pp. 131, 135
  8. ^ Two sample tickets from 1948 Summer Olympics Archived 23 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine. at the Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games
  9. ^ ab “British Olympic Movement”. British Olympic Association. Archived from the original on 8 April 2008. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  10. ^ Mike Rowbotham (7 July 2005). “1948 Olympics: ‘We had much more fun and a greater sense of achievement than modern athletes do“. The Independent. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  11. ^ ab “London 1948”. British Olympic Association. Archived from the original on 8 April 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  12. ^ Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948(1951), pp. 221
  13. ^ Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948(1951), pp. 225
  14. ^ “Landmarks in the history of the media and the Olympics” (PDF). The British Library. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 April 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  15. ^ “Athletics at the 1948 London Summer Games”. sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  16. ^ “1948 London Summer Games”. sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 11 May 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  17. ^ Chris Dhambarage (4 February 2010). “Sports striving for greater heights after Independence”. Daily News. Archived from the original on 9 February 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  18. ^ Donald McRae (1 April 2010). “Cradle of champions where Jamaican sprinters earn their spurs”. The Guardian. Archived from the original on 30 April 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  19. ^ “Alice Coachman – First African American Gold Medallist”. olympics30.com. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  20. ^ Martin, David E.; Roger W. H. Gynn (2000). The Olympic marathon. Human Kinetics. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-88011-969-6.
  21. ^ “Former congressman Bob Mathias dies at 75”. USA Today. Associated Press. 3 September 2006. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  22. ^ Martin Weil (3 September 2006). “Bob Mathias; Congressman, Twice Olympic Champion”. The Washington Post. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  23. ^ “Basketball Men’s Basketball Medalists”. sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  24. ^ “Basketball at the 1948 London Summer Games: Men’s Basketball Final Round”. sports-reference.com. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  25. ^ Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948(1951), pp. 637
  26. ^ Melody Merin (30 May 2008). “Asian Americans First Won Olympic Gold 60 Years Ago”. america.gov. Archived from the original on 22 March 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  27. ^ “Ilona Elek”. The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  28. ^ “Portraits: The Great “Edoardo Mangiarotti“. schermaonline.com. Archived from the original on 8 March 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  29. ^ “Edoardo Mangiarotti”. sports-reference.com. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  30. ^ “London, 1948”. FIFA. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  31. ^ “Modern Pentathlon at the 1948 London Summer Games”. sports-reference.com. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  32. ^ ab “1948 London Olympic Sailing Competition”. The International Sailing Federation. Archived from the original on 25 April 2010. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  33. ^ “Sailing at the 1948 London Summer Games”. sports-reference.com. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  34. ^ ab “London 1948”. olympic.org. Archived from the original on 4 October 2009. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  35. ^ “Weightlifting at the 1948 London Summer Games”. sports-reference.com. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  36. ^ Patrick Watson (27 November 2008). “Help Wilkes now”. Trinidad and Tobago Express. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  37. ^ “Weightlifting at the 1948 London Summer Games: Men’s Featherweight”. sports-reference.com. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  38. ^ Alan Hubbard (17 February 2008). “London 1948 to London 2012: Rags to riches for the ‘high-class Del Boy’ who dreamt of gold, not money”. The Independent. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  39. ^ “A Political Refugee”. The Guardian. 19 August 1948. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  40. ^ “The History and Technology of Technicolor”. The American Widescreen Museum. 2003.
  41. ^ Toney, James (20 December 2012). Sports Journalism: The Inside Track. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 9781408178348.
  42. ^ “Last remaining 1948 Olympic Games venue is saved”. BBC Sport. 21 April 2011. Archived from the original on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  43. ^ Christopher Lyles (14 July 2008). “Countdown to the Beijing Olympics”. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  44. ^ Wembley Way’ built by German Prisoners of War”. BBC News. 15 March 2010. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
  45. ^ A very British Olympics“. BBC Sport. 18 October 2005. Archived from the original on 4 October 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
  46. ^ “Medal Table”. British Olympic Association. Archived from the original on 18 September 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2010.

External links

  • “London 1948”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • “Results and Medalists — 1948 Summer Olympics”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948 (1951). The Official Report of the Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948 (PDF). Organising Committee for the XIV Olympiad London 1948. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 May 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  • Exploring 20th century London – 1948 Olympics Objects and photographs from the collections of the Museum of London, London Transport Museum, Jewish Museum and Museum of Croydon.
Preceded by
London (1944)
cancelled due to World War II
Summer Olympic Games
London

XIV Olympiad (1948)
Succeeded by
Helsinki


1952 Summer Olympics

Games of the XV Olympiad
Helsinki 1952.png

A soild blue background is intruded on its left side by a structure, shaded in white, representing the tower and stand of the Helsinki Olympic Stadium. The Olympic rings, also white, lie at the top of the blue background, partly obscured by the stadium’s tower. The word “1952” is written in white in the middle of the blue background, while “XV Olympia Helsinki” is written in blue, beneath the image.
Host city Helsinki, Finland
Nations 69
Athletes 4,955 (4,436 men, 519 women)
Events 149 in 17 sports (23 disciplines)
Opening July 19
Closing August 3
Opened by
President Juho Kusti Paasikivi[1]
Cauldron
Hannes Kolehmainen[1]
Paavo Nurmi
Stadium Helsingin Olympiastadion
Summer
← London 1948 Melbourne 1956 →
Winter
← Oslo 1952 Cortina 1956 →

The 1952 Summer Olympics (Finnish: Kesäolympialaiset 1952; Swedish: Olympiska sommarspelen 1952), officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Helsinki, Finland from July 19 to August 3, 1952.

Helsinki had been earlier selected to host the 1940 Summer Olympics, which were cancelled due to World War II. It is the northernmost city at which a summer Olympic Games have been held. These were the first games to be held in a non-Indo-European language speaking country. It was also the Olympic Games at which the most number of world records were broken until surpassed by the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.[2] The Soviet Union, the People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Israel, Thailand, and Saarland made their Olympic debuts in Helsinki 1952.

Contents

  • 1 Host city selection
  • 2 Highlights

    • 2.1 Participation by the Soviet Union
  • 3 Sports

    • 3.1 Demonstration sports
  • 4 Venues
  • 5 Participating NOCs
  • 6 Medal count
  • 7 50th anniversary coin
  • 8 See also
  • 9 References
  • 10 External links

Host city selection

Helsinki was chosen as the host city over bids from Amsterdam and five American cities at the 40th IOC Session on June 21, 1947, in Stockholm, Sweden. Minneapolis and Los Angeles finished tied for second in the final voting.

The voting results in chart below:[3]

1952 Summer Olympics bidding results[4]
City Country Round 1 Round 2
Helsinki  Finland 14 15
Minneapolis  United States 4 5
Los Angeles  United States 4 5
Amsterdam  Netherlands 3 3
Detroit  United States 2
Chicago  United States 1
Philadelphia  United States 0

Highlights

Paavo Nurmi and the Olympic Flame

  • These were the final Olympic Games organised under the IOC presidency of Sigfrid Edström.
  • Israel made its Olympic debut. The Jewish state had been unable to participate in the 1948 Games because of its War of Independence. A previous Palestine Mandate team had boycotted the 1936 Games in protest of the Nazi regime.
  • Indonesia made its Olympic debut with three athletes.
  • The newly established People’s Republic of China (PRC) participated in the Olympics for the first time, although only one swimmer (Wu Chuanyu) of its 40-member delegation arrived in time to take part in the official competition.[5] The PRC would not return to the Summer Olympics until Los Angeles 1984.
  • The Republic of China (Taiwan) withdrew from the Games on July 20, in protest of the IOC decision to allow athletes from the People’s Republic of China to compete.[6]
  • The Olympic Flame was lit by two Finnish heroes, runners Paavo Nurmi and Hannes Kolehmainen. Nurmi first lit the cauldron inside the stadium, and later the flame was relayed to the stadium tower where Kolehmainen lit it. Only the flame in the tower was burning throughout the Olympics.
  • Soviet Union’s loss to political rival Yugoslavia hit Soviet football hard, and after just three games played in the season, CDKA Moscow, who had made up most of the USSR squad, was forced to withdraw from the league and later disbanded. Furthermore, Boris Arkadiev, who coached both USSR and CDKA, was stripped of his Merited Master of Sports of the USSR title.[7]
  • Hungary’s Golden Team won the football tournament, beating Yugoslavia 2–0 in the final.
  • Germany and Japan were invited after being barred in 1948. Following the post-war occupation and partition, three German states had been established. Teams from the Federal Republic of Germany and the Saarland (which joined the FRG after 1955) participated; the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) was absent. Though they won 24 medals, the fifth-highest total at the Games, German competitors failed to win a gold medal for the only time.
  • Rules in equestrianism now allowed non-military officers to compete, including women. Lis Hartel of Denmark became the first woman in the sport to win a medal.
  • Emil Zátopek of Czechoslovakia won three gold medals in the 5000 m, 10,000 m and the Marathon (which he had never run before).
  • The India national field hockey team won its fifth consecutive gold under captaincy of Kunwar Digvijay Singh
  • Bob Mathias of the United States became the first Olympian to successfully defend his decathlon title with a total score of 7,887 points.
  • Josy Barthel of Luxembourg pulled a major surprise by winning the 1500 m.
  • Eva Perón, the celebrated First Lady of Argentina, died of cancer in July 1952 while the Olympics were taking place, so a memorial was held at the Games for the Argentine team.[8]

Participation by the Soviet Union

For the first time, a team from the Soviet Union participated in the Olympics. The first gold medal for the USSR was won by Nina Romashkova in the women’s discus throwing event.

As the 1952 Olympics took place during the early years of the Cold War, during the height of the Korean War and the Red Scare, less than two years before the McCarthy hearings in the United States, American fear of the mystery team from a nation that had shunned international athletic contact since 1917 was at a height.

.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}

“There will be seventy-one nations in the Olympics at Helsinki. The United States would like to beat all of them but the only one that counts is Soviet Russia. The communist propaganda machine must be silenced so that there can’t be even one distorted bleat out of it in regard to the Olympics. In sports the Red brothers have reached the put-up-or-shut-up stage. Let’s shut them up.

— Arthur Daley, sportswriter, The New York Times

“I guess old Joe Stalin thinks he is going to show up our soft capitalistic Americans. We’ve got to cut him down to size.”

— Bob Hope

The Soviets also turned the athletic competition into a metaphor for political propaganda.

“Every record won by our sportsmen, every victory in international contests, graphically demonstrates to the whole world the advantages and strength of the Soviet system.”

— Sovetsky Sport

Although the U.S. won a narrow victory in the final medal count, the Soviets made controversial counter-claims of victory due to the different points systems used by the two teams. The American press depicted the Soviet team as sore losers who showed a lack of sportsmanship.

“There were many more pressures on American athletes because of the Russians than in 1948. They were in a sense the real enemy. You just loved to beat ’em. You just had to beat ’em. It wasn’t like beating some friendly country like Australia.”

— Bob Mathias, decathlon champion in 1948 and 1952[9]

Sports

Finnish postage stamp featuring the Helsinki Olympic Stadium

The 1952 Summer Olympics featured 17 different sports encompassing 23 disciplines, and medals were awarded in 149 events. In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

  • Aquatics
    • Diving (4)
    • Swimming (11)
    • Water polo (1)
  • Athletics (33)
  • Basketball (1)
  • Boxing (10)
  • Canoeing (9)
  • Cycling

    • Road (2)
    • Track (4)
  • Equestrian

    • Dressage (2)
    • Eventing (2)
    • Show jumping (2)
  • Fencing (7)
  • Field hockey (1)
  • Football (1)
  • Gymnastics (15)
  • Modern pentathlon (2)
  • Rowing (7)
  • Sailing (5)
  • Shooting (7)
  • Weightlifting (7)
  • Wrestling

    • Freestyle (8)
    • Greco-Roman (8)

Demonstration sports

  • Handball
  • Pesäpallo

Venues

With an annual average temperature of 5.9 °C, Helsinki is one of the coldest cities to have hosted the Summer Olympics.[10]

  • Hämeenlinna – Modern pentathlon
  • Harmaja – Sailing
  • Helsinki Football Grounds – Football
  • Huopalahti – Shooting (shotgun)
  • Käpylä – Cycling (road)
  • Kotka – Football
  • Laakso – Equestrian (eventing – riding)
  • Lahti – Football
  • Liuskasaari – Sailing
  • Malmi Rifle Range – Shooting (pistol/ rifle)
  • Maunula – Cycling (road)
  • Meilahti – Rowing
  • Messuhalli – Basketball (final), boxing, gymnastics, weightlifting, wrestling
  • Olympic Stadium – Athletics, Equestrian (jumping), Football (final)
  • Pakila – Cycling (road)
  • Ruskeasuo Equestrian Hall – Equestrian (dressage, eventing)
  • Swimming Stadium – Diving, Swimming, Water polo
  • Taivallahti – Canoeing
  • Tali Race Track – Equestrian (eventing steeplechase)
  • Tampere – Football
  • Tennis Palace – Basketball
  • Turku – Football
  • Velodrome – Cycling (track), Field hockey
  • Westend Tennis Hall – Fencing

Participating NOCs

Participating nations. Pictured in blue are nations participating for the first time. Yellow dot: Helsinki

Number of athletes per country

A total of 69 nations participated in these Games, up from 59 in the 1948 Games. Thirteen nations made their first Olympic appearance in 1952: The Bahamas, the People’s Republic of China, Gold Coast (now Ghana), Guatemala, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Israel, Netherlands Antilles, Nigeria, Soviet Union (USSR), Thailand, and Vietnam.

Japan and Germany were both reinstated and permitted to send athletes after being banned for 1948 for their instigation of World War II. Due to the division of Germany, German athletes from Saar entered a separate team for the only time. Only West Germany would provide athletes for the actual Germany team, since East Germany refused to participate in a joint German team.

Participating National Olympic Committees
  •  Argentina (123)
  •  Australia (87)
  •  Austria (112)
  •  Bahamas (7)
  •  Belgium (135)
  •  Bermuda (6)
  •  Brazil (97)
  •  Bulgaria (63)
  •  Burma (5)
  •  Canada (107)
  •  Ceylon (5)
  •  Chile (59)
  •  China (1)
  •  Cuba (29)
  •  Czechoslovakia (99)
  •  Denmark (129)
  •  Egypt (106)
  •  Finland (258) (host)
  •  France (245)
  •  Germany (205)
  •  Ghana (7)
  •  Great Britain (257)
  •  Greece (53)
  •  Guatemala (21)
  •  Guyana (1)
  •  Hong Kong (4)
  •  Hungary (189)
  •  Iceland (9)
  •  India (69)
  •  Indonesia (3)
  •  Iran (22)
  •  Ireland (19)
  •  Israel (26)
  •  Italy (231)
  •  Jamaica (8)
  •  Japan (69)
  •  Lebanon (9)
  •  Liechtenstein (2)
  •  Luxembourg (44)
  •  Mexico (64)
  •  Monaco (8)
  •  Netherlands (104)
  •  Netherlands Antilles (11)
  •  New Zealand (15)
  •  Nigeria (9)
  •  Norway (102)
  •  Pakistan (38)
  •  Panama (1)
  •  Philippines (25)
  •  Poland (125)
  •  Portugal (71)
  •  Puerto Rico (21)
  •  Romania (114)
  •  Saar (36)
  •  Singapore (5)
  •  South Africa (64)
  •  South Korea (19)
  •  Soviet Union (295)
  •  Spain (30)
  •  Sweden (206)
  •  Switzerland (157)
  •  Thailand (8)
  •  Trinidad and Tobago (2)
  •  Turkey (51)
  •  United States (286)
  •  Uruguay (32)
  •  Venezuela (38)
  •  Vietnam (8)
  •  Yugoslavia (96)

Medal count

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1952 Games.[11]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States 40 19 17 76
2  Soviet Union 22 30 19 71
3  Hungary 16 10 16 42
4  Sweden 12 13 10 35
5  Italy 8 9 4 21
6  Czechoslovakia 7 3 3 13
7  France 6 6 6 18
8  Finland* 6 3 13 22
9  Australia 6 2 3 11
10  Norway 3 2 0 5
Totals (10 nations) 126 97 91 314

50th anniversary coin

The 50th anniversary of the Helsinki Olympic Games was the main motif for one of the first Finnish euro silver commemorative coins, the €10 silver coin minted in 2002. The reverse depicts part of the Helsinki Olympic Stadium, as well as a section of the 1952 500 markka coin. The obverse has lettering SUOMI FINLAND 10 EURO, a flame, and Finland is the only country highlighted on earth.

See also

  • 1952 Winter Olympics
  • Summer Olympic Games
  • Olympic Games
  • International Olympic Committee
  • List of IOC country codes
  • Finlandization

References

  1. ^ ab “Factsheet – Opening Ceremony of the Games of the Olympiad” (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. September 13, 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Bascomb, Neal (2005). The Perfect Mile: Three Athletes, One Goal, and Less Than Four Minutes to Achieve It. Mariner Books. ISBN 9780618562091.
  3. ^ “International Olympic Committee Vote History”. 9 September 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2015.
  4. ^ “Past Olympic Host City Election Results”. Games Bids. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
  5. ^ Mulvenney, Nick (7 August 2008). “Chen Chengda, China’s almost Olympian”. Reuters. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
  6. ^ “On This Day: 1952: 20 July: Zatopek wins gold at Helsinki”. BBC News. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
  7. ^ “USSR – Yugoslavia, the Story of Two Different Football Conceptions”. russianfootballnews.com. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
  8. ^ 1952 Summer Olympics official report. p. 91. – accessed 1 August 2010.[dead link]
  9. ^ Erin Redihan (February 8, 2018). “The 1952 Olympic Games, the US, and the USSR”. www.processhistory.org. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
  10. ^ Marc Sollinger (February 6, 2014). “The 9 weirdest cities that have hosted the Olympics (and why!)”. www.marketplace.org.
  11. ^ Byron, Lee; Cox, Amanda; Ericson, Matthew (4 August 2008). “A Map of Olympic Medals”. The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2015.

External links

  • “Helsinki 1952”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • “Results and Medalists — 1952 Summer Olympics”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • Helsinki 1952 Official Olympic Report la84foundation.org
  • Helsinki 1952 Official Olympic Report olympic-museum.de
Preceded by
London
Summer Olympic Games
Helsinki

XV Olympiad (1952)
Succeeded by
Melbourne/Stockholm


1956 Summer Olympics

Games of the XVI Olympiad
1956 Summer Olympics logo.png
Host city Melbourne, Australia
Nations 72
Athletes 3,314 (2,938 men, 376 women)
Events 151 in 17 sports (23 disciplines)
Opening 22 November
Closing 8 December
Opened by
The Duke of Edinburgh[1]
Cauldron
Ron Clarke[1]
Stadium Melbourne Cricket Ground
Summer
← Helsinki 1952 Rome 1960 →
Winter
← Cortina 1956 Squaw Valley 1960 →

The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, from 22 November to 8 December 1956, with the exception of the equestrian events, which were held in Stockholm, Sweden, in June 1956.

These Games were the first to be staged in the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania, as well as the first to be held outside Europe and North America. Melbourne is the most southerly city ever to host the Olympics. Due to the Southern Hemisphere’s seasons being different from those in the Northern Hemisphere, the 1956 Games did not take place at the usual time of year, because of the need to hold the events during the warmer weather of the host’s spring/summer (which corresponds to the Northern Hemisphere’s autumn/winter).

The Olympic equestrian events could not be held in Melbourne due to Australia’s strict quarantine regulations, so they were held in Stockholm five months earlier. This was the second time that the Olympics were not held entirely in one country, the first being the 1920 Summer Olympics, which were held in Antwerp, Belgium, with some events taking place in Amsterdam and Ostend. Despite uncertainties and various complications encountered during the preparations, the 1956 Games went ahead in Melbourne as planned and turned out to be a success. The enduring tradition of national teams parading as one during the closing ceremony was started at these Olympics.

Contents

  • 1 Host city selection
  • 2 Prelude
  • 3 Participation and boycotts
  • 4 Events
  • 5 Highlights

    • 5.1 Olympic torch relay
  • 6 Sports

    • 6.1 Demonstration sports
  • 7 Venues
  • 8 Participating National Olympic Committees
  • 9 Medal count
  • 10 See also
  • 11 References
  • 12 External links

Host city selection

Melbourne was selected as the host city over bids from Buenos Aires, Mexico City, Montreal and six American cities on 28 April 1949, at the 43rd IOC Session in Rome, Italy.[2]

1956 Summer Olympics bidding results[3]
City Country Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Round 4
Melbourne  Australia 14 18 19 21
Buenos Aires  Argentina 9 12 13 20
Los Angeles  United States 5 4 5
Detroit  United States 2 4 4
Mexico City  Mexico 9 3
Chicago  United States 1
Minneapolis  United States 1
Philadelphia  United States 1
San Francisco  United States 0
Montreal  Canada 0

Prelude

Many members of the IOC were sceptical about Melbourne as an appropriate site. Its location in the Southern Hemisphere was a major concern, since the reversal of seasons would mean the Games must be held during the northern winter. The November–December schedule was thought likely to inconvenience athletes from the Northern Hemisphere, who were accustomed to resting during their winter.[citation needed]

Notwithstanding these concerns, the field of candidates eventually narrowed to two Southern Hemisphere cities, these being Melbourne and Buenos Aires, Argentina. Melbourne was selected, in 1949, to host the 1956 Olympics by a one-vote margin. The first sign of trouble was the revelation that Australian equine quarantine would prevent the country from hosting the equestrian events.[citation needed] Stockholm was selected as the alternative site, so equestrian competition began on 10 June, five and a half months before the rest of the Olympic Games were to open, half a world away.

The above problems of the Melbourne Games were compounded by bickering over financing among Australian politicians. Faced with a housing shortage, the Premier of Victoria (Henry Bolte) refused to allocate money for the Olympic Village (eventually sited in Heidelberg West), and the country’s Prime Minister (Robert Menzies) barred the use of federal funds.[citation needed]

At one point, IOC President Avery Brundage suggested that Rome, which was to host the 1960 Games, was so far ahead of Melbourne in preparations that it might be ready as a replacement site in 1956.

As late as April 1955, Brundage was still doubtful about Melbourne, and was not satisfied by an inspection trip to the city. Construction was well under way by then, thanks to a $4.5 million federal loan to Victoria, but it was behind schedule. He still held out the possibility that Rome might have to step in.

By the beginning of 1956, though, it was obvious that Melbourne would be ready for the Olympics.[4]

Participation and boycotts

Countries boycotting the 1956 Games are shaded blue

Egypt, Iraq, and Lebanon announced that they would not participate in the Olympics in response to the Suez Crisis when Egypt was invaded by Israel, the United Kingdom, and France after Egypt nationalised the Suez Canal. Meanwhile, in 1956 the Soviet Union crushed the Hungarian Revolution, and the Soviet presence at the Games led to the withdrawal of the Netherlands, Cambodia, Spain, and Switzerland.

Less than two weeks before the 22 November opening ceremony, the People’s Republic of China chose to boycott the event because the Republic of China had been allowed to compete.

Although the number of countries participating (67) was almost the same as in 1952 (69), the number of athletes competing dropped sharply, from 4,925 to 3,342. (This figure does not include the 158 athletes from 29 countries who took part in the Stockholm equestrian competition.)

Events

Once underway, the Games progressed smoothly, and came to be known as the “Friendly Games”. Betty Cuthbert, an 18-year-old from Sydney, won the 100 and 200 metre sprint races and ran an exceptional final leg in the 4 x 100 metre relay to overcome Great Britain’s lead and claim her third gold medal. The veteran Shirley Strickland repeated her 1952 win in the 80 metre hurdles and was also part of the winning 4 x 100 metre relay team, bringing her career Olympic medal total to seven: three golds, a silver, and three bronze medals.

Australia also triumphed in swimming. They won all of the freestyle races, men’s and women’s, and collected a total of eight gold, four silver and two bronze medals. Murray Rose became the first male swimmer to win two freestyle events since Johnny Weissmuller in 1924, while Dawn Fraser won gold medals in the 100 metre freestyle and as the leadoff swimmer in the 4 x 100 metre relay team.

The men’s track and field events were dominated by the United States. They not only won 15 of the 24 events, they swept four of them and took first and second place in five others. Bobby Morrow led the way with gold medals in the 100 and 200 metre sprints and the 4 x 100 metre relay. Tom Courtney barely overtook Great Britain’s Derek Johnson in the 800 metre run, then collapsed from the exertion and needed medical attention.

Ireland’s Ronnie Delany ran an outstanding 53.8 over the last 400 metres to win the 1,500 metre run, in which favourite John Landy of Australia finished third.

There was a major upset, marred briefly by controversy, in the 3,000 metre steeplechase. Little-known Chris Brasher of Great Britain finished well ahead of the field, but the judges disqualified him for interfering with Norway’s Ernst Larsen, and they announced Sándor Rozsnyói of Hungary as the winner. Brasher’s appeal was supported by Larsen, Rozsnyói, and fourth-place finisher Heinz Laufer of Germany. Subsequently, the decision was reversed and Brasher became the first Briton to win a gold medal in track and field since 1936.

Only two world records were set in track and field. Mildred McDaniel, the first American woman to win gold in the sport, set a high jump record of 1.76 metres (5.8 ft), and Egil Danielsen of Norway overcame blustery conditions with a remarkable javelin throw of 85.71 metres (281.2 ft).

Throughout the Olympics, Hungarian athletes were cheered by fans from Australia and other countries. Many of them gathered in the boxing arena when thirty-year-old Laszlo Papp of Hungary won his third gold medal by beating José Torres for the light-middleweight championship.

A few days later, the crowd was with the Hungarian water polo team in its match against the Soviet Union which took place against the background of the Soviet invasion of Hungary. The game became rough and, when a Hungarian was forced to leave the pool with a bleeding wound above his eye, a riot almost broke out. The police restored order and the game was called early, with Hungary leading 4–0, and the Hungarians went on to win the gold medal.

In a much publicized Olympic romance, American hammer throw champion Hal Connolly would marry Czechoslovak discus throw champion, Olga Fikotová. After moving to the United States, Olga wanted to continue representing Czechoslovakia, but the Czech Olympic Committee would not allow her to do so.[5] Thereafter, as Olga Connolly, she took part in every Olympics until 1972[5] competing for the U.S.[6] She was the flag bearer for the U.S. team at the 1972 Summer Olympics.

Despite the international tensions of 1956—or perhaps because of them—a young Melburnian, John Ian Wing, came up with a new idea for the closing ceremony. Instead of marching as separate teams, behind their national flags, the athletes mingled together as they paraded into and around the arena for a final appearance before the spectators. It was the start of an Olympic tradition that has been followed ever since.[7]

Highlights

  • These were the first Summer Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Avery Brundage.
  • Hungary and the Soviet Union (who were engaged in an armed conflict at the time) were both present at the Games which, among other things, led to a hotly contested and emotionally charged water polo encounter between the two nations.
  • Athletes from both East and West Germany competed together as a combined team, a remarkable display of unity that was repeated in 1960 and 1964, but was then discontinued.
  • Australian athlete Betty Cuthbert became the “Golden Girl” by winning three gold medals in track events. Another Australian, Murray Rose, won three gold medals in swimming.
  • U.S. sprinter Bobby Morrow won three gold medals, in the 100m and 200m sprints, and the 4x100m relay.
  • Soviet runner Vladimir Kuts won both the 5,000 metre and 10,000 metre events.
  • Inspired by Australian teenager John Ian Wing, an Olympic tradition began when athletes from different nations were allowed to parade together at the closing ceremony, rather than separately with their national teams, as a symbol of world unity.
During the Games there will be only one nation. War, politics and nationalities will be forgotten. What more could anybody want if the world could be made one nation.
—Extract from a letter by John Wing to the Olympic organisers, 1956
  • Laszlo Papp defended his light-middleweight boxing title, gaining a record third Olympic gold medal.
  • Ronnie Delany won gold for Ireland in the 1,500m final, the last Olympic gold medal that Ireland has won in a track event.
  • The India national field hockey team won its sixth consecutive Olympic gold.

Olympic torch relay

Torch relay monument, Cairns

The Olympic flame was relayed to Melbourne after being lit at Olympia on 2 November 1956.

  • Greek runners took the flame from Olympia to Athens.
  • The flame was transferred to a miner’s lamp, then flown by Qantas Super Constellation aircraft “Southern Horizon” to Darwin, Northern Territory.
  • A Royal Australian Air Force English Electric Canberra jet bomber transported the flame to Cairns, Queensland, where it arrived on 9 November 1956.
  • The Mayor of Cairns, Alderman W.J. Fulton, lit the first torch.
  • The torch design was identical to that used for the 1948 London Games (except for the engraved city name and year).
  • The first runner was Con Verevis, a local man of Greek parentage.
  • The flame was relayed down the east coast of Australia using die cast aluminium torches weighing about 3 pounds (1.8 kg).
  • The flame arrived in Melbourne on 22 November 1956, the day of the opening ceremony.
  • The flame was lit at the Olympic stadium by Ron Clarke, who accidentally burned his arm in the process.

While the Olympic flame was being carried to Sydney, an Australian veterinary student named Barry Larkin carried a fake Olympic Flame and fooled the mayor of Sydney.[8]

Sports

The 1956 Summer Olympics featured 17 different sports encompassing 23 disciplines, and medals were awarded in 151 events (145 events in Melbourne and 6 equestrian events in Stockholm).[9] In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

  • Aquatics
    • Diving (4)
    • Swimming (13)
    • Water polo (1)
  • Athletics (33)
  • Basketball (1)
  • Boxing (10)
  • Canoeing (9)
  • Cycling

    • Road (2)
    • Track (4)
  • Equestrian

    • Dressage (2)
    • Eventing (2)
    • Show jumping (2)
  • Fencing (7)
  • Association football (1)
  • Gymnastics (15)
  • Field hockey (1)
  • Modern pentathlon (2)
  • Rowing (7)
  • Sailing (5)
  • Shooting (7)
  • Weightlifting (7)
  • Wrestling

    • Freestyle (8)
    • Greco-Roman (8)

Demonstration sports

  • Australian football (1)
  • Baseball (1)

Venues

The heritage registered former Olympic Pool (now the Holden Centre), viewed from the Yarra River

Ballarat
  • Lake Wendouree – Canoeing, Rowing
Melbourne
  • Broadmeadows – Cycling (road)
  • Hockey Field – Field hockey
  • Melbourne Cricket Ground – Athletics, Field hockey (final), Football (final)
  • Oaklands Hunt Club – Modern pentathlon (riding, running)
  • Olympic Park Stadium – Football
  • Port Phillip Bay – Sailing
  • Royal Australian Air Force, Laverton Air Base – Shooting (shotgun)
  • Royal Exhibition Building – Basketball (final), Modern pentathlon (fencing), Weightlifting, Wrestling
  • St Kilda Town Hall – Fencing
  • Swimming/Diving Stadium (Olympic Pool) – Diving, Modern pentathlon (swimming), Swimming, Water polo
  • Velodrome – Cycling (track)
  • West Melbourne Stadium – Basketball, Boxing, Gymnastics
  • Williamstown – Modern pentathlon (shooting), Shooting (pistol, rifle)
Stockholm
  • Lill-Jansskogen – Equestrian (eventing)
  • Olympic Stadium – Equestrian (dressage, eventing, jumping)
  • Ulriksdal – Equestrian (eventing)

Participating National Olympic Committees

Participating countries, those making their début are shown in blue.

Number of athletes per country

A total of 67 nations competed in the 1956 Olympics. Eight countries made their Olympic debuts: Cambodia (only competed in the equestrian events in Stockholm), Ethiopia, Fiji, Kenya, Liberia, Federation of Malaya, North Borneo (modern-day Sabah of Malaysia), and Uganda. Athletes from East Germany and West Germany competed together as the United Team of Germany, an arrangement that would last until 1968.

For the first time, the team of Republic of China effectively represented only Taiwan.

Five nations competed in the equestrian events in Stockholm, but did not attend the Games in Melbourne. Egypt did not compete in Melbourne due to the Suez Crisis, whilst the Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland all boycotted the Melbourne Olympics in protest at the Soviet invasion of Hungary.[10]

Participating National Olympic Committees
  •  Afghanistan (12)
  •  Argentina (28)
  •  Australia (294) (host)
  •  Austria (29)
  •  Bahamas (4)
  •  Belgium (51)
  •  Bermuda (3)
  •  Brazil (44)
  •  Bulgaria (43)
  •  Burma (11)
  •  Canada (92)
  •  Ceylon (3)
  •  Chile (33)
  •  Colombia (26)
  •  Cuba (16)
  •  Czechoslovakia (63)
  •  Denmark (31)
  •  Ethiopia (12)
  •  Fiji (5)
  •  Finland (71)
  •  France (137)
  •  United Team of Germany (158)
  •  Great Britain (189)
  •  Greece (13)
  •  Guyana (4)
  •  Hong Kong (2)
  •  Hungary (108)
  •  Iceland (2)
  •  India (59)
  •  Indonesia (22)
  •  Iran (17)
  •  Ireland (18)
  •  Israel (3)
  •  Italy (129)
  •  Jamaica (6)
  •  Japan (110)
  •  Kenya (25)
  •  Liberia (4)
  •  Luxembourg (11)
  •  Malaya (32)
  •  Mexico (24)
  •  New Zealand (53)
  •  Nigeria (10)
  •  North Borneo (2)
  •  Norway (22)
  •  Pakistan (55)
  •  Peru (8)
  •  Philippines (39)
  •  Poland (64)
  •  Portugal (11)
  •  Puerto Rico (10)
  •  Romania (44)
  •  Singapore (52)
  •  South Africa (50)
  •  South Korea (35)
  •  Soviet Union (272)
  •  Sweden (88)
  •  Republic of China (13)
  •  Thailand (38)
  •  Trinidad and Tobago (6)
  •  Turkey (19)
  •  Uganda (3)
  •  United States (297)
  •  Uruguay (21)
  •  Venezuela (19)
  •  Vietnam (6)
  •  Yugoslavia (35)
NOCs that participated in the equestrian events in Stockholm, but did not attend the Games in Melbourne:
  •  Cambodia (2)
  •  Egypt (3)
  •  Netherlands (1)
  •  Spain (6)
  •  Switzerland (9)

Medal count

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1956 Games.

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Soviet Union 37 29 32 98
2  United States 32 25 17 74
3  Australia* 13 8 14 35
4  Hungary 9 10 7 26
5  Italy 8 8 9 25
6  Sweden 8 5 6 19
7  United Team of Germany 6 13 7 26
8  Great Britain 6 7 11 24
9  Romania 5 3 5 13
10  Japan 4 10 5 19
Totals (10 nations) 128 118 113 359
Key

  *   Host nation (Australia)

See also

  • 1956 Winter Olympics
  • Olympic Games celebrated in Australia
    • 1956 Summer Olympics – Melbourne
    • 2000 Summer Olympics – Sydney
  • Summer Olympic Games
  • Olympic Games
  • International Olympic Committee
  • List of IOC country codes

References

  1. ^ ab “Factsheet – Opening Ceremony of the Games of the Olympiad” (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. September 13, 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “Ioc Vote History”. Aldaver.com. Retrieved 2012-08-24.
  3. ^ “Past Olympic host city election results”. GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
  4. ^ Wendy Lewis, Simon Balderstone and John Bowan (2006). Events That Shaped Australia. New Holland. pp. 212–217. ISBN 978-1-74110-492-9.
  5. ^ ab Duguid, Sarah (9 June 2012). “The Olympians: Olga Fikotová, Czechoslovakia”. Financial Times Magazine.
  6. ^ Pat McCormick. sports-reference.com
  7. ^ Text of John Ian Wing’s letter, page found 28 June 2011.
  8. ^ Turpin, Adrian (8 August 2004). “Olympics Special: The Lost Olympians (Page 1)”. Find Articles, originally The Independent on Sunday. Archived from the original on 13 April 2008. Retrieved 6 April 2008.
  9. ^ IOC site for the 1956 Olympic Games
  10. ^ “Melbourne – Stockholm 1956: (ALL FACTS)”. IOC. Retrieved 1 October 2018.

External links

  • “Melbourne – Stockholm 1956”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • “Results and Medalists — 1956 Summer Olympics”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
Preceded by
Helsinki
Summer Olympic Games
Melbourne/Stockholm

XVI Olympiad (1956)
Succeeded by
Rome


1924 Summer Olympics

Games of the VIII Olympiad
1924 Summer Olympics logo.png
Host city Paris, France
Nations 44
Athletes 3,089 (2,954 men, 135 women)
Events 126 in 17 sports (23 disciplines)
Opening 4 May
Closing 27 July
Opened by
President Gaston Doumergue
Stadium Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir
Summer
← Antwerp 1920 Amsterdam 1928 →
Winter
← Chamonix 1924 St Moritz 1928 →

The 1924 Summer Olympics (French: Les Jeux olympiques d’été de 1924), officially known as the Games of the VIII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1924 in Paris, France.

It was the second time Paris hosted the games, after 1900. The selection process for the 1924 Summer Olympics consisted of six bids, and Paris was selected ahead of Amsterdam, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Prague, and Rome. The selection was made at the 20th IOC Session in Lausanne in 1921.[1]

The cost of the Games of the VIII Olympiad was estimated to be 10,000,000₣. With total receipts at 5,496,610₣, the Olympics resulted in a hefty loss despite crowds that reached 60,000 people at a time.[2]

Contents

  • 1 Highlights
  • 2 Sports

    • 2.1 Demonstration sports
  • 3 Venues
  • 4 Participating nations

    • 4.1 Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees
  • 5 Medal count
  • 6 Legacy

    • 6.1 Last surviving competitor
  • 7 See also
  • 8 Notes
  • 9 External links

Highlights

Colombes Olympic Stadium

  • The opening ceremony and several sporting events took place in the Olympic Stadium of Colombes, which had a capacity of 45,000 in 1924.
  • This VIII Olympiad was the last one organised under the presidency of Pierre de Coubertin.
  • The “Flying Finns” dominated the long distance running, while the British and Americans dominated the shorter events. Paavo Nurmi won the 1500 m and 5,000 m (which were held with only an hour between them) and the cross country run. Ville Ritola won the 10,000 m and the 3,000 m steeplechase, while finishing second to Nurmi on the 5,000 m and cross country. Albin Stenroos won the marathon, while the Finnish team (with Nurmi and Ritola) was victorious in the 3,000 m and cross country team events.
  • British runners Harold Abrahams and Eric Liddell won the 100 m and 400 m events, respectively. Their stories are depicted in the 1981 movie Chariots of Fire. In addition, Douglas Lowe won the 800 m competition.
  • The marathon distance was fixed at 42.195 km (26.219 mi), from the distance run at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London.
  • The 1924 Olympics were the first to use the standard 50 m pool with marked lanes.
  • Swimmer Johnny Weissmuller won three gold medals in swimming and one bronze in water polo.
  • Harold Osborn won gold medals and set Olympic records in both the high jump and the decathlon at the 1924 Olympics. His 6′ 6″ high jump remained the Olympic record for 12 years, while his decathlon score of 7,710.775 points also set a world record and resulted in worldwide press coverage calling him the “world’s greatest athlete”.
  • Fencer Roger Ducret of France won five medals, of which three were gold.
  • In gymnastics, 24 men scored a perfect 10. Twenty-three of them scored it in the now-discontinued event of rope climbing. Albert Seguin scored a 10 here and also a perfect 10 on side vault.
  • Unexpectedly, the national team of Uruguay won the gold medal in football.
  • The Olympic motto Citius, Altius, Fortius (Faster, Higher, Stronger) was used for the first time at the Olympics. It had been used before by the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques, a French sporting federation whose founding members included Pierre de Coubertin.[3] De Coubertin took the motto from his friend Henri Didon, a Dominican priest who had coined during a speech before a Paris youth gathering of 1891.[4]
  • Ireland was given formal recognition as an independent nation in the Olympic Movement in Paris in 1924, and it was at these games that Ireland made its first appearance in an Olympic Games as an independent nation.
  • Originally called Semaine des Sports d’Hiver (“Week of Winter Sports”) and held in association with the 1924 Summer Olympics, the sports competitions held in Chamonix between 25 January and 5 February 1924 were later designated by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as the I Olympic Winter Games. (1924 Winter Olympics)
  • These were the first Games to feature an Olympic Village.
  • The Art competitions at the 1924 Summer Olympics were the first time that the Olympic Art competitions were contested seriously, with 193 entries in five categories. A total of 14 medals were awarded, though none were given in the music category.[5]

Sports

Overall map of the Olympic venues

126 events in 23 disciplines, comprising 17 sports, were part of the Olympic program in 1924. The number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

  • Aquatics
    • Diving (5)
    • Swimming (11)
    • Water polo (1)
  • Athletics (27)
  • Boxing (8)
  • Cycling

    • Road (2)
    • Track (4)
  • Equestrian

    • Dressage (1)
    • Eventing (2)
    • Show jumping (2)
  • Fencing (7)
  • Football (1)
  • Gymnastics

    • Artistic (9)
  • Modern pentathlon (1)
  • Polo (1)
  • Rowing (7)
  • Rugby
    • Rugby union (1)
  • Sailing (3)
  • Shooting (10)
  • Tennis (5)
  • Weightlifting (5)
  • Wrestling

    • Freestyle (7)
    • Greco-Roman (6)

Demonstration sports

  • Basque pelota
  • Canoeing
  • Jeu de paume
  • Savate
  • Volleyball
  • Baseball

Venues

Map of Olympic sites

Seventeen sports venues were used in the 1924 Summer Olympics. Stade de Colombes served as the final venue for the 1938 FIFA World Cup between Italy and Hungary.

Venue Sports Capacity Ref.
Bagatelle Polo 598 [6]
Bassin d’Argenteuil Rowing 2,216 [7]
Camp de Châlons Shooting (600 m free rifle individual and team) 395 [8]
Fontainebleau Modern pentathlon (riding) Not listed. [9]
Hippodrome d’Auteuil Equestrian 8,922 [10]
Issy-les-Moulineaux Shooting (trap shooting, including team event) 41 [11]
Le Havre Sailing 541 [12]
Le Stade Olympique de Reims Shooting (trap shooting, running target) 420 [13]
Le Stand de Tir de Versailles Modern pentathlon (shooting), Shooting (25 m rapid fire pistol, running deer) 82 [14]
Meulan-en-Yvelines Sailing 389 [15]
Piscine des Tourelles Diving, Modern pentathlon (swimming), Swimming, Water polo 8,023 [16]
Saint-Cloud Polo 7,836 [17]
Stade Bergeyre Football 10,455 [18]
Stade de Colombes Athletics, Cycling (road), Equestrian, Fencing, Football (final), Gymnastics, Modern pentathlon (fencing, running), Rugby union, Tennis 60,000 [19]
Stade de Paris Football 5,145 [20]
Stade Pershing Football 8,110 [21]
Vélodrome d’hiver Boxing, Fencing, Weightlifting, Wrestling 10,884 [22]
Vélodrome de Vincennes Cycling (track) 12,750 [23]

Participating nations

Participating Countries of the 1924 Olympiad

Number of athletes

A total of 44 nations were represented at the 1924 Games. Germany was still absent, having not been invited by the Organizing Committee.[24]China (although did not compete), Ecuador, Haiti, Ireland, Lithuania, and Uruguay attended the Olympic Games for the first time while the Philippines competed for first time in an Olympic Games as a nation though it first participated in 1900 Summer Olympic Games also in this city. Latvia and Poland attended the Summer Olympic Games for the first time (having both appeared earlier at the 1924 Winter Olympics in Chamonix).

Participating National Olympic Committees
  •  Argentina (77)
  •  Australia (36)
  •  Austria (49)
  •  Belgium (172)
  •  Brazil (12)
  •  Bulgaria (24)
  •  Canada (65)
  •  Chile (11)
  •  Cuba (9)
  •  Czechoslovakia (70)
  •  Denmark (89)
  •  Ecuador (3)
  •  Egypt (33)
  •  Estonia (44)
  •  Finland (90)
  •  France (401)
  •  Great Britain (239)
  •  Greece (26)
  •  Haiti (8)
  •  Hungary (89)
  •  India (7)
  •  Ireland (39)
  •  Italy (200)
  •  Japan (9)
  •  Latvia (41)
  •  Lithuania (13)
  •  Luxembourg (22)
  •  Mexico (13)
  •  Monaco (7)
  •  Netherlands (153)
  •  New Zealand (4)
  •  Norway (62)
  •  Philippines (1)
  •  Poland (65)
  •  Portugal (30)
  •  Romania (51)
  •  South Africa (30)
  •  Spain (129)
  •  Sweden (108)
  •  Switzerland (75)
  •  Turkey (31)
  •  United States (299)
  •  Uruguay (31)
  •  Yugoslavia (37)
  • Republic of China (1912–1949) China, also took part in the Opening Ceremony, but its four athletes (all tennis players) withdrew from competition.[25]

Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees

Medal count

These are the top ten nations that won
medals the 1924 Games.

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States 45 27 27 99
2  Finland 14 13 10 37
3  France* 13 15 10 38
4  Great Britain 9 13 12 34
5  Italy 8 3 5 16
6  Switzerland 7 8 10 25
7  Norway 5 2 3 10
8  Sweden 4 13 12 29
9  Netherlands 4 1 5 10
10  Belgium 3 7 3 13
Totals (10 nations) 112 102 97 311
  • Pierre de Coubertin—founder of the IOC & father of the modern Olympics movement—personally awarded 21 Gold medals to members of the 1922 British Mount Everest Expedition including 12 Britons, 7 Indians, 1 Australian and 1 Nepalese.[26][27]

Legacy

The 1924 Summer Olympics are the last edition of the Summer Olympics to be held in Paris. One hundred years later, the city will host the 2024 Summer Olympics, marking the third time the city hosts the games. One venue from the 1924 Games is slated to be used in 2024. The extensively renovated and downsized main stadium, known since 1928 as Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir, will host field hockey.

Last surviving competitor

The last surviving competitor of the 1924 Summer Olympics was Croatian swimmer Ivo Pavelić, who died on 22 February 2011 at the age of 103.

See also

  • 1924 Winter Olympics
  • Olympic Games celebrated in France
    • 1900 Summer Olympics – Paris
    • 1924 Summer Olympics – Paris
    • 1924 Winter Olympics – Chamonix
    • 1968 Winter Olympics – Grenoble
    • 1992 Winter Olympics – Albertville
    • 2024 Summer Olympics – Paris
  • Summer Olympic Games
  • Olympic Games
  • International Olympic Committee
  • List of IOC country codes
  • Chariots of Fire

Notes

  1. ^ “Past Olympic host city election results”. GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ Zarnowski, C. Frank (Summer 1992). “A Look at Olympic Costs” (PDF). Citius, Altius, Fortius. 1 (1): 16–32. Retrieved 10 August 2017.
  3. ^ The Official History of the Olympic Games and the IOC- Athens to Beijing, 1894–2008: David Miller (2008)
  4. ^ “Opening Ceremony” (pdf). International Olympics Committee. 2002. p. 3. Retrieved 23 August 2012.; “Sport athlétique”, 14 mars 1891: “[…] dans une éloquente allocution il a souhaité que ce drapeau les conduise ‘souvent à la victoire, à la lutte toujours’. Il a dit qu’il leur donnait pour devise ces trois mots qui sont le fondement et la raison d’être des sports athlétiques: citius, altius, fortius, ‘plus vite, plus haut, plus fort’.”, cited in Hoffmane, Simone La carrière du père Didon, Dominicain. 1840 – 1900, Doctoral thesis, Université de Paris IV – Sorbonne, 1985, p. 926; cf. Michaela Lochmann, Les fondements pédagogiques de la devise olympique „citius, altius, fortius”
  5. ^ M. Avé, Comité Olympique Français, pp. 601–612
  6. ^ 1924 Olympics official report. Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 528-9. (in French)
  7. ^ 1924 Olympics official report. Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 165-7. (in French)
  8. ^ 1924 Olympics official report. Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 565-6. (in French)
  9. ^ 1924 Olympics official report. Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 501-3. (in French)
  10. ^ 1924 Olympics official report. Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 222-3. (in French)
  11. ^ 1924 Olympics official report. Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 544-6, 549. (in French)
  12. ^ 1924 Olympics official report. Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 584, 587. (in French)
  13. ^ 1924 Olympics official report. Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 563-5, 568. (in French)
  14. ^ 1924 Olympics official report. Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 489, 548-9.
  15. ^ 1924 Olympics official report. Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 582-3, 587. (in French)
  16. ^ 1924 Olympic official report. Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 438-40, 443-4, 499 (in French).
  17. ^ 1924 Olympics official report. Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 528-9. (in French)
  18. ^ 1924 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 318, 320. (in French)
  19. ^ 1924 Olympics official report. Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 50-5, 96-7, 121, 152, 216, 222, 238, 248, 265, 318, 339, 375, 499, 503, 536. (in French)
  20. ^ 1924 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 318, 321. (in French)
  21. ^ 1924 Summer Olympics official report. Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 318, 322. (in French).
  22. ^ 1924 Olympics official report. Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 182-3, 203-4, 255, 266, 400, 425, 507. (in French)
  23. ^ 1924 Olympics official report. Archived 5 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. pp. 200-217. (in French)
  24. ^ Guttmann, Allen (1992). The Olympics: A History of the Modern Games. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press. p. 38. ISBN 0-252-01701-3.
  25. ^ (ed.) M. Avé, Comité Olympique Français. Les Jeux de la VIIIe Olympiade Paris 1924 – Rapport Officiel (PDF) (in French). Paris: Librairie de France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2012. 39 seulement s’alignérent, ne représentant plus que 24 nations, la Chine, le Portugal et la Yougoslavie ayant déclaré forfait.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  26. ^ Georgiou, Mark (26 March 2012). “Everest Olympic medal pledge set to be honoured”. BBC News. Retrieved 31 August 2012.
  27. ^ Douglas, Ed (19 May 2012). “My modest father never mentioned his Everest expedition Olympic gold“. London: guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 31 August 2012.

External links

  • “Paris 1924”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • “Results and Medalists — 1924 Summer Olympics”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • Comité Olympique Français. Avé, M., ed. Les Jeux de la VIIIe Olympiade Paris 1924 – Rapport Officiel [The Games of the VIIIth Olympiad Paris 1924 – Official Report] (PDF) (in French). Paris: Librairie de France. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  • “Paris 1924”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • “Results and Medalists — 1924 Summer Olympics”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • 1924 medal winners – from CBS
  • Picture of the Olympic Stadium of Colombes
  • Original footage of the opening ceremony of the 1924 Summer Olympics (by Polygoon) (in Dutch)
Preceded by
Antwerp
Summer Olympic Games
Paris

VIII Olympiad (1924)
Succeeded by
Amsterdam


1980 Summer Olympics

Games of the XXII Olympiad
Emblem of the 1980 Summer Olympics.svg
Host city Moscow, Soviet Union
Nations 80
Athletes 5,179 (4,064 men, 1,115 women)
Events 203 in 21 sports (27 disciplines)
Opening 19 July
Closing 3 August
Opened by Chairman Leonid Brezhnev[a]
Cauldron Sergei Belov
Stadium Grand Arena of the Central Lenin Stadium
Summer
← Montreal 1976 Los Angeles 1984 →
Winter
← Lake Placid 1980 Sarajevo 1984 →

The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad (Russian: И́гры XXII Олимпиа́ды, tr. Igry XXII Olimpiady), was an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia.[1][2]

The 1980 Games were the first Olympic Games to be staged in Eastern Europe, and remain the only Summer Olympics held there, as well as the first Olympic Games to be held in a Slavic language-speaking country. They were also the first Olympic Games to be held in a socialist country, and the only Summer Games to be held in such a country until 2008 in Beijing, China. These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC Presidency of Michael Morris, 3rd Baron Killanin.

Eighty nations were represented at the Moscow Games – the smallest number since 1956. Led by the United States at the insistence of U.S. President Jimmy Carter, 66 countries boycotted the games entirely because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Some athletes from some of the boycotting countries (they are not included in the list of 66 countries that boycotted the games entirely) participated in the games under the Olympic Flag.[3] This prompted the Soviet-led boycott of the 1984 Summer Olympics. Elite athletes from the U.S. and USSR would not directly compete again until the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul.

Contents

  • 1 Host city selection
  • 2 Participation overview and boycott
  • 3 Events, records and drug tests overview
  • 4 Media and broadcasting
  • 5 Spectators and commemoration
  • 6 Budget
  • 7 Cost
  • 8 Opening ceremony
  • 9 Highlights of the different events

    • 9.1 Archery
    • 9.2 Athletics
    • 9.3 Basketball
    • 9.4 Boxing
    • 9.5 Canoeing
    • 9.6 Cycling
    • 9.7 Diving
    • 9.8 Equestrian
    • 9.9 Fencing
    • 9.10 Football
    • 9.11 Gymnastics
    • 9.12 Handball
    • 9.13 Field hockey
    • 9.14 Judo
    • 9.15 Modern Pentathlon
    • 9.16 Rowing
    • 9.17 Sailing
    • 9.18 Shooting
    • 9.19 Swimming
    • 9.20 Volleyball
    • 9.21 Water polo
    • 9.22 Weightlifting
    • 9.23 Wrestling
  • 10 Closing ceremony
  • 11 Venues
  • 12 Medals awarded
  • 13 Calendar
  • 14 Medal count
  • 15 List of participating countries and regions
  • 16 See also
  • 17 References
  • 18 External links
  • 19 Further reading

    • 19.1 Boycott

Host city selection

The only two cities to bid for the 1980 Summer Olympics were Moscow and Los Angeles. The choice between them was made on 23 October 1974 in the 75th IOC Session in Vienna, Austria. Los Angeles would eventually host the 1984 Summer Olympics.[4]

1980 Summer Olympics bidding result
City Country Votes
Moscow  Soviet Union 39
Los Angeles  United States 20

Participation overview and boycott

Participating nations

Countries boycotting the 1980 Games are shaded blue

Olympic Village in February 2004

Eighty nations were represented at the Moscow Games – the smallest number since 1956. Six nations made their first Olympic appearance in 1980: Angola, Botswana, Jordan, Laos, Mozambique, and Seychelles. Cyprus made its debut at the Summer Olympics, but had appeared earlier at the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, New York. Sri Lanka, Benin and Zimbabwe competed for the first time under these names (they participated previously as Ceylon, Dahomey and Rhodesia, respectively).

Although approximately half of the 24 countries that boycotted the 1976 Summer Olympics (in protest against the IOC not expelling New Zealand who sanctioned a rugby tour of apartheid South Africa) participated in the Moscow Games, the 1980 Summer Olympics were disrupted by another, even larger, boycott led by the United States in protest at the 1979 Soviet–Afghan War. The Soviet invasion spurred Jimmy Carter to issue an ultimatum on 20 January 1980, that the US would boycott the Moscow Olympics if Soviet troops did not withdraw from Afghanistan within one month.[5] 65 countries and regions invited did not take part in the 1980 Olympics. Many of these followed the United States’ boycott initiative, while others[who?] cited economic reasons for not coming.[5][6]Iran, under Ayatollah Khomeini hostile to both superpowers, boycotted when the Islamic Conference condemned the invasion.[7]

Many of the boycotting nations participated instead in the Liberty Bell Classic, also known as the “Olympic Boycott Games”, in Philadelphia. However, the nations that did compete had won 71 percent of all medals, and similarly 71 percent of the gold medals, at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. This was in part because of state-run doping programs that had been developed in the Eastern Bloc countries.[8] As a form of protest against the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan, fifteen countries marched in the Opening Ceremony with the Olympic Flag instead of their national flags, and the Olympic Flag and Olympic Hymn were used at medal ceremonies when athletes from these countries won medals. Competitors from three countries – New Zealand,[9]Portugal, and Spain – competed under the flags of their respective National Olympic Committees. Some of these teams that marched under flags other than their national flags were depleted by boycotts by individual athletes, while some athletes did not participate in the march.[citation needed]

The impact of the boycott was mixed. Some events, such as swimming, track and field, boxing, basketball, diving, field hockey and equestrian sports, were hard hit. Athletes from 25 countries won Olympic gold (the same total as in the 1984 Games and one fewer than in the 1976 Games) and competitors from 36 countries became Olympic medalists.[10] Italy won four times more gold medals than they won in Montreal and France multiplied its gold medal tally by three. Romania won more gold medals than it had at any previous Olympics. In terms of total medals, the Moscow Olympics was Ireland’s most successful games since Melbourne 1956 (winning 2 medals). The same was true for Great Britain. “Third World” athletes qualified for more events and took more medals than they did at any previous Olympics. Despite these breakthroughs, the Soviet Union and East Germany won the vast majority of both gold and total medals.

Events, records and drug tests overview

There were 203 events – more than at any previous Olympics.

36 World records, 39 European records and 74 Olympic records were set at the games. In total, this was more records than were set at Montreal. New Olympic records were set 241 times over the course of the competitions and world records were beaten 97 times.

A 1989 report by a committee of the Australian Senate claimed that “there is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games, certainly not a gold medal winner…who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. The Moscow Games might well have been called the Chemists’ Games”.[11]

A member of the IOC Medical Commission, Manfred Donike, privately ran additional tests with a new technique for identifying abnormal levels of testosterone by measuring its ratio to epitestosterone in urine. Twenty percent of the specimens he tested, including those from sixteen gold medalists would have resulted in disciplinary proceedings had the tests been official. The results of Donike’s unofficial tests later convinced the IOC to add his new technique to their testing protocols.[12] The first documented case of “blood doping” occurred at the 1980 Summer Olympics as a runner was transfused with two pints of blood before winning medals in the 5000 m and 10,000 m.[13]

Media and broadcasting

Major broadcasters of the Games were USSR State TV and Radio (1,370 accreditation cards), Eurovision (31 countries, 818 cards) and Intervision (11 countries, 342 cards).[14]TV Asahi with 68 cards provided coverage for Japan, while OTI representing Latin America received 59 cards and the Seven Network provided coverage for Australia (48 cards).[14]NBC, which had intended to be another major broadcaster, canceled its coverage in response to the U.S. boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics, and became a minor broadcaster with 56 accreditation cards,[14] although the network did air highlights and recaps of the games on a regular basis. (ABC aired scenes of the opening ceremony during its Nightline program, and promised highlights each night, but the next night, the show announced that they could not air any highlights as NBC still had exclusive broadcast rights in the USA). The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation almost canceled their plans for coverage after Canada took part in the boycott and was represented by nine cards.[14] The television center used 20 television channels, compared to 16 for the Montreal Games, 12 for the Munich Games, and seven for the Mexico City Games.

During the opening ceremony, Salyut 6 crew Leonid Popov and Valery Ryumin sent their greetings to the Olympians and wished them happy starts in the live communication between the station and the Central Lenin Stadium. They appeared on the stadium’s scoreboard and their voices were translated via loud speakers.[15]

Spectators and commemoration

150-rubles platinum coin (reverse)

The Games attracted five million spectators, an increase of 1.5 million from the Montreal Games. There were 1,245 referees from 78 countries.[citation needed] A series of commemorative coins was released in the USSR in 1977–1980 to commemorate the event. It consisted of five platinum coins, six gold coins, 28 silver coins and six copper-nickel coins.[citation needed]

Budget

According to the Official Report, submitted to the IOC by the NOC of the USSR, total expenditures for the preparations for and staging of the Games were US$1,350,000,000,[16] total revenues being US$231,000,000.[16]

Cost

The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Moscow 1980 Summer Olympics at USD 6.3 billion in 2015 dollars.[17] This includes sports-related costs only, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g., the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost for Moscow 1980 compares with costs of USD 4.6 billion for Rio 2016, USD 40-44 billion for Beijing 2008 and USD 51 billion for Sochi 2014, the most expensive Olympics in history. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD 5.2 billion.

Opening ceremony

Highlights of the different events

1977 USSR commemorative stamp issued for the archery event

Archery

  • Tomi Poikolainen of Finland, who had not finished any of the previous three days’ shooting higher than fourth, came from fourth on the last day to win the men’s archery competition, scoring 2455 points. He won gold just three points ahead of a Soviet.
  • The women’s archery gold was won by Ketevan Losaberidze (USSR) who was also the world, European and Soviet champion.
  • The women’s archery silver was won by Natalia Butuzova (USSR). In 1979, she had set nine national records and three world records.
  • The U.S. archery team was one of the strongest ever fielded but due to the boycott the team never had a chance to prove itself. This team held every record and featured 1976 Olympic Champion Darrell O. Pace, who was averaging 100 points more than the winning score in Moscow at the time.

Athletics

Marathon in front of Saint Basil’s Cathedral

  • Ethiopian Miruts Yifter won the 5,000 metres and 10,000 metres athletics double, emulating Lasse Virén’s 1972 and 1976 performances.
  • “I have a 90% chance of winning the 1,500 metres” wrote Steve Ovett in an article he did for one of Britain’s Sunday papers just before the start of the Olympics. After he won the 800 metres Olympic gold, beating world-record holder Sebastian Coe, Ovett stated that he would not only win the 1,500 metres race, but would beat the world record by as much as four seconds. Ovett had won 45 straight 1,500 metres races since May 1977. In contrast Coe had competed in only eight 1,500 metres races between 1976 and 1980. Coe won the race, holding off Ovett in the final lap. Ovett finished third.
  • Aided by the absence of American opposition, Allan Wells beat Cuban Silvio Leonard to become the first Briton since 1924 to win the Olympic 100 metres race. It was the closest 100 m race at the Olympics in 28 years, ending with a photo finish in which both runners timed at 10.25 seconds.[citation needed]
  • Gerd Wessig – who had made the East German team only 2 weeks before the Games – easily won the gold medal with a 2.36 metres (7 ft 9 in) high jump. This was 9 cm higher than he had ever jumped before.
  • The 1980 Olympic women’s long jump competition produced a surprise when the third string Soviet jumper, Tatiana Kolpakova, bested her compatriots and other competitors by setting a new Olympic record of 7.06 metres (23 ft 2 in).
  • Poland’s Władysław Kozakiewicz won the pole vault with a jump of 5.78 metres (19 ft 0 in) – only the second pole vaulting world record to be established during an Olympics. The previous time had been at the Antwerp Olympics 1920.
  • In the pole vault competition, despite pleas for silence in three languages, jeers, chants and whistles among the different factions in the crowd supporting French, Soviet and Polish pole vaulters could be heard. Immediately after Kozakiewicz secured his gold medal, he responded to the jeering Soviet crowds with an obscene bent elbow gesture. This gesture is now referred to in Polish as “Kozakiewicz’s gesture”.
  • In the pole vault an athlete topped the Olympic record by 15 centimetres (6 in), yet finished fourth. Similarly, athletes who broke the Olympic record in men’s high jump by 5 centimetres (2 in), the women’s long jump by 13 centimetres (5 in), and the women’s javelin by 60 centimetres (2 ft), wound up no better than fourth. A total of twelve track and field athletes performed so well that their scores would have won any previous Olympics, yet failed to win a medal at Moscow.
  • In the long jump competition, three women beat 23 feet (7.0 m) for the first time ever in one competition.
  • Waldemar Cierpinski of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) won his second consecutive marathon gold.
  • Bärbel Wöckel, also of the GDR, winner of the 200 metres in Montreal, became the first woman to retain the title.
  • Tatiana Kazankina (USSR) retained the 1,500m title that she had won in Montreal.
  • In the women’s pentathlon the Soviet Nadezhda Tkachenko scored 5,083 points to become the first athlete to exceed 5,000 points in the event during Olympic competition.
  • Although she won the silver medal in the pentathlon, Olga Rukavishnikova (USSR) held the world record for 0.4 seconds as she finished first in the last event of 800m. That gave her the shortest reign of any world record holder ever.
  • Soviet walker Anatoly Solomin was leading the 20 km walk with one lap to go when he was disqualified. The race was won by a hitherto little known Italian, Maurizio Damilano, in an Olympic record time.
  • For the first time in the history of the Olympics all eight male participants in the long jump final beat the mark of 8 metres (26 ft 3 in).
  • Spain and Bulgaria earned their first ever medals in men’s track.
  • Lutz Dombrowski (GDR) won the long jump gold. His was the longest jump recorded at sea level and he became only the second human to jump further than 28 feet (8.5 m).
  • In the triple jump final Viktor Saneyev who won gold at Mexico, Munich and Montreal won silver behind his compatriot Jaak Uudmäe.
  • Yuriy Sedykh (USSR) won gold in the hammer throw event. 4 of his 6 throws broke the world record of 80m. No hammer thrower in the world had ever achieved this before. As in Montreal the USSR won gold, silver and bronze in this event.
  • Evelin Jahl (GDR) the 1976 Olympic champion won discus gold again. She won with a new Olympic record – 69.96 metres (229 ft 6 in). She had been undefeated since Montreal.
  • Cuba’s María Caridad Colón won the women’s javelin setting a new Olympic record and beating the favoured Soviet throwers.
  • Sara Simeoni of Italy won the women’s high jump, setting a new Olympic record. She had won a silver in the 1976 Games and would go on to win a silver in the 1984 Games.
  • In track-and-field six world records, eighteen Olympic records and nine best results of the year were registered.
  • In women’s track and field events alone either a world or Olympic record was broken in almost every event.
  • Daley Thompson of Great Britain won the gold in the Decathlon. He won gold again at the Los Angeles Olympics.
  • Soviet Dainis Kula won gold in the men’s javelin. He also had the best sum total of throws, showing his consistency. He finished ahead of his teammate Alexander Makarov.
  • IAAF President Adrian Paulen of the Netherlands said “Whereas at the 1976 Games in Montreal the Jury of Appeal had to deal with sixteen protests, the fact remains that in Moscow there were only two. This was the smallest number of protests at any Olympic Games since Tokyo 1964”.

Basketball

  • Basketball was one of the hardest hit sports due to the boycott. Though replacements were found, five men’s teams including the defending Olympic Champion United States withdrew from the competition in addition to the US Women’s team.
  • In the Women’s competition, the host Soviet Union won the competition beating Bulgaria for gold, Yugoslavia won bronze.
  • The Men’s competition featured only the second instance of the US Men’s Basketball team not winning gold with the first one being in Munich. Yugoslavia took home the gold beating Italy in the final. The hosts, Soviet Union, winners in 1972, won the bronze.

Boxing

  • Teófilo Stevenson of Cuba became the first boxer to win three consecutive Olympic titles in heavyweight, and indeed the only boxer to win the same event in three Games. (László Papp from Hungary was the first boxer to win three titles). In boxing Cuba won six gold, two silvers and two bronzes, a haul only equaled once before in the entire history of the Olympics (by the USA at St. Louis in 1904 when there were hardly any other boxers from other nations present). The USSR won one gold medal, the same as Italy, Yugoslavia, East Germany and Bulgaria.
  • The Val Barker Trophy is presented by the International Amateur Boxing Association (IABA) to the competitor adjudged to be the best stylist at the Games. The winner was Patrizio Oliva of Italy who won gold at light-welterweight. In his final Oliva defeated Serik Konakbaev (USSR). In 1979 Konakbaev had beaten Oliva in the final of the European Championships.
  • Donald F. Hull, U.S. president of the Amateur International Boxing Federation (IABA) said “I consider the organization of the present boxing tournament to be the best among the last three Olympics”.

Canoeing

All events in canoeing and rowing took place at the Moscow Canoeing and Rowing Basin in Krylatskoye

  • The prophets of the canoeing world had predicted that the USSR would triumph in at least nine of the eleven classes for which there were gold medals to be won at the 1980 Olympic regatta. At Montreal the USSR had won six of eleven titles and at Munich six out of seven.
  • Uladzimir Parfianovich of the USSR won three gold medals in canoeing.
  • Sergei Postrekhin (USSR) was favored to win the single canoe 1,000 metres gold but is beaten by Lubomir Lubenov of Bulgaria.
  • In canoeing Australia won its first medal since 1956.
  • Ivan Patzaichin (Romania) won gold medals over a 16-year period,1968–1984.
  • Apart from the boycotted Los Angeles Olympics Birgit Fischer of East Germany won medals in each Olympics from 1980 to 2004. In the 500 metres kayak singles for women she won gold in Moscow, silver in Seoul, gold in Barcelona.

Cycling

Olympic Velodrome in Krylatskoye

  • Lothar Thoms of East Germany won the 1,000-metre individual pursuit cycling gold, breaking the world record by nearly four seconds.
  • The surprise winner of the bronze in that race was Jamaica’s David Weller who also broke the sixteen-year-old world record.
  • In the 4,000-metre team pursuit qualifying heats new world indoor records were set eight times.
  • In the 4,000-metre individual pursuit the Olympic flag was flown for all three medal winning positions – Switzerland gold, France silver, Denmark bronze. Robert Dill-Bundi became the first Olympic champion in the history of Swiss cycling.
  • The 189-kilometer individual road race gold was won by Sergei Sukhoruchenkov (USSR). British team manager Peter Crinnon called it “The greatest exhibition of power riding ever”. Sukhoruchenkov is voted best racer in the world by the International Amateur Cycling Federation.
  • In this race only a photo-finish can tell the next two finishers apart, giving the silver medal to the Polish cyclist and the bronze to a Soviet cyclist.
  • The cycling team road race is won by the Soviet team as they had done in Munich and Montreal.
  • In cycling world records were toppled 21 times.

Diving

  • As Aleksandr Portnov waited to do a 2 and ½ reverse somersault in the springboard final, cheers broke out in three adjoining swimming pool during the closing stages of Salnikov’s world record breaking 1,500m swim. The diver delayed his start until the noise had subsided but, as he took his first steps along the board, even greater cheers broke out as Salnikov touched in under 15 minutes. Under the rules Portnov, having started, could not stop before take-off. He crashed badly. On protest to the Swedish referee G.Olander he was allowed to repeat the dive and went ahead again of Mexico’s Carlos Girón. Later protests by Mexico against the re-dive and by East Germany that their Falk Hoffmann wanted to re-dive after allegedly being disturbed by photographic flashlights were both turned down by the International Amateur Swimming Federation (FINA). FINA President Javier Ostas of Mexico stated that the decision taken by the Swedish referee was the “correct one. FINA assessed all the Olympic diving events and considers the judging to have been objective”. Portnov remained the winner with Giron taking silver and Cagnotto of Italy bronze.
  • Martina Jaschke (East Germany) was fourth after the preliminary high dives, behind two Soviets and a Mexican, but came back to win gold on the second day of competition.
  • Irina Kalinina (USSR) won gold in the springboard final. As a result of her ten dives in the preliminaries she amassed a unique number of points: 478.86. In the previous four years no diver had scored so many.
  • In this final the Mexican judge A. Marsikal allowed Karin Guthke (East Germany) to re-take a dive. Guthke then won bronze ahead of the Soviet Zhanna Tsirulnikova.

Equestrian

  • In the individual show jumping event Poland’s Jan Kowalczyk and the USSR’s Nikolai Korolkov each had 8 faults, but Kowalczyk won gold as his horse completed the course the quicker. So Poland won the last of the 203 gold medals contested.
  • Austrian horsewoman Elisabeth Theurer, despite the decision of the federation of equestrian sports of her country not to participate in the Olympics, was flown to Moscow by former racing driver Niki Lauda. Theurer won the gold medal in the dressage competition.
  • The oldest medalist at the Moscow Olympics was Petre Rosca (Romania) in the dressage at 57 years 283 days.

Fencing

  • Soviet foil fencers, who had taken possession of all the World and Olympic titles, were not among the six challengers in the finals. The Soviet five-time world champion Alexander Romankov won a bronze.
  • France took four gold medals in fencing, an Olympic record in the post World War II era.
  • In the team sabre fencing final, for the fifth Olympics in a row, Italy and the USSR met. The USSR won as they did in Tokyo, Mexico and Montreal.
  • In the men’s foil final the USSR and France record eight wins each but the Frenchmen made more hits and this won them the gold.

Football

Pins released by the USSR for the football event of the Olympics (with a British 50 pence coin for size comparison)

  • The USSR were favorites to win gold in football but won bronze instead. Czechoslovakia won the gold medal beating German Democratic Republic (East Germany) 1:0 in the final. After many years in the doldrums, Olympic football had a revival in 1980 when the matches attracted nearly 2 million spectators.
  • Football was held in Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev Ukraine, Minsk Belarus, at the time Ukraine and Belarus were Soviet republics.

Gymnastics

  • Soviet gymnast Alexander Dityatin won a medal in each of the eight gymnastics events, including three titles. He was the first athlete to win eight medals at an Olympics. He scored several 10s, the first perfect scores in men’s gymnastics since the 1924 Paris Olympics.
  • Nikolai Andrianov who had won gold on floor at both Munich and Montreal was pipped this time by Roland Bruckner of East Germany. Andrianov retained the vault title he had won in Montreal.
  • Zoltán Magyar (Hungary) retained the Olympic title on pommel horse that he had won in Montreal. He was also 3 times World champion and 3 times European champion on this piece of apparatus.
  • In women’s gymnastics the USSR won one medal in the All-Around competition. In each Olympics before this they had won minimally two and in Rome 1960 had won all three. In the Friendship Games at Olomouc and at Seoul 1988 they would again win two. In the Team Competition they won the gold medal for the eighth time, continuing the “gold” series started in 1952.
  • In the women’s gymnastics event finals, a Romanian gymnast medals on each piece of apparatus for the first time:
    • Balance Beam – Nadia Comăneci (gold)
    • Floor – Nadia Comăneci (gold)
    • Uneven Bar – Emilia Eberle (silver) & Melita Ruhn (bronze)
    • Vault – Melita Ruhn (bronze)
  • In women’s gymnastics there was a judging scandal when the Romanian head judge refused to post the score of her fellow Romanian Nadia Comăneci. This score gave Comăneci a silver medal behind Yelena Davydova of the USSR, but the Romanian judge, Mili Simionescu, tried to persuade the other judges to increase Comaneci’s score so that she would win gold. After the Olympics, Simionescu was severely criticized by the International Gymnastics Federation. Before the Los Angeles Olympics, the United States gymnastics federation proposed a change in the rules so that a head judge cannot interfere and meddle in the scoring of competitors.

Handball

Soviet Union handball men’s team celebrating their victory over Yugoslavia. RIAN photo.

  • In the men’s event East Germany beat the USSR 23–22 in the handball final to take their first medal of any sort.
  • In the women’s tournament USSR won all its matches and retain the Olympic handball title. Yugoslavia and East Germany gain silver and bronze medal respectively.

Field hockey

  • Women’s field hockey was an Olympic sport for the first time. Six countries competed: Austria, India, Poland, Czechoslovakia, USSR, and Zimbabwe. The gold medal was won by the team of Zimbabwe ahead of the firm favorites of the USSR who won bronze. Zimbabwe did not learn it would get a place in the tournament until 35 days before the Games began and chose its team only the weekend before the opening ceremony. None of their players had prior playing experience on an artificial surface. They had not trained at all together before the tournament and warmed up by playing some friendly matches with different Soviet club teams.
  • India won a record eighth title in men’s field hockey.

Judo

  • In Japan’s absence, the USSR was expected to improve its showing in judo but wound up with five medals, the same as Montreal, despite the fact that there were two more weight categories. Fifteen countries shared the medals in judo, more than the record twelve countries in Munich and Montreal.

Modern Pentathlon

  • In the men’s Pentathlon Anatoly Starostin (USSR) became the youngest ever Olympic champion in this sport.
  • 26 competitors scored over 5,000 points. In Munich 12 topped this mark and in Montreal 21.
  • It was the first time ever at either a world championship or an Olympics that as many as eight teams topped the 15,000-point level.
  • In the modern pentathlon George Horvath (Sweden) recorded a perfect score in the pistol shoot. It had been achieved only once before, at the 1936 Olympics.

Rowing

  • East Germany dominated rowing, winning eleven of the fourteen titles. The East German men won seven out of eight events, foiled from achieving a clean sweep by Pertti Karppinen of Finland (who defended his Olympic title from Montreal). East German women won four of their six events. The Soviets had been expected to win most of these titles considering their success at Munich and Montreal.
  • The East German women’s eights team win gold despite only having been selected three months before the Olympics began.
  • In the rowing eights with coxswain the British team win silver just 0.74 seconds behind East Germany. The Britons had never rowed together before the Olympic trials and had only ten weeks to prepare for Moscow. The stroke, Richard Stanhope, had never stroked on an eight-man shell before and in the final their steering broke.

Sailing

  • Sailing event was held in Tallinn, Estonia which was at the time one of the Soviet republics.
  • Soviet sailor Valentyn Mankin won a gold medal in “Star” class. He won Olympic champion titles in “Finn” and “Tempest” classes before, and as of 2007[update] remains the only sailor in Olympic history to win gold medals in three different classes.
  • Finland (gold) won its first gold Olympic yachting medal and Ireland (silver) won its first ever Olympic yachting medal.
  • The USSR had its worst Olympic regatta since Mexico City 1968.
  • In 1980, the medals were awarded to yachtsmen from twelve countries, the widest medal distribution in the sport at an Olympics.

Shooting

  • The three-day skeet shooting marathon was won by Hans Kjeld Rasmussen of Denmark, the second Olympic gold for Danish shooters since the 1900 Paris Games.
  • In the smallbore rifle, prone event, Hungarian Károly Varga captured the gold and equalled the world record despite having broken his shooting hand just prior to the competition.

Swimming

Rica Reinisch with her gold medal in 200 m

  • Vladimir Salnikov (USSR) won three gold medals in swimming. He became the first man in history to break the 15-minute barrier in the 1500 metre freestyle, swimming’s equivalent of breaking the four-minute mile. He missed the 1984 Games because of the boycott but won gold again in this event at Seoul 1988.
  • Salnikov also won gold in the 4 × 200 m relay and the 400m freestyle. In the 400m freestyle he set a new Olympic record which was just eleven-hundredths of a second outside his own world record.
  • In the Montreal final of the 400m freestyle the seventh and eighth place finalists finished in over four minutes. In Moscow sixteen swimmers finished in under four minutes and eight of them did not make the final.
  • Duncan Goodhew of Great Britain won the 100 metres breaststroke, beating Miskarov, a strongly favoured Soviet, into second place by half a second.
  • Sweden’s Bengt Baron, participating in his first major international competition, won gold in the 100 meter backstroke ahead of two Soviets.
  • In the men’s 4 × 100 metres medley relay each of the eight teams taking part in the final broke its country’s national record.
  • The first Australian gold since 1972 came in the 4 × 100 men’s medley relay.[18] The Australians had been expecting to win silver behind the hot favourites from the USSR but with Neil Brooks swimming the final leg, the Australians swam the second-fastest time in history.
  • East German women dominated the swimming events, winning nine of eleven individual titles, both the relays and setting 6 world records. They also won all three medals in six different races. In total they won 26 of the available 35 medals. As it was revealed later, their results were aided by the state-sponsored doping system.
  • Barbara Krause (East Germany) became the first woman to go under 55 seconds for the 100 m freestyle.
  • Backstroker Rica Reinisch (East Germany) was 20th in the world rankings for 100m in 1979 and not in the top 100 for the 200 m. At the Olympics she broke the world records in both distances winning golds.
  • In the 100m butterfly Caren Metschuk (East Germany) beats her more experienced teammate Andrea Pollack to win gold.
  • Petra Schneider (East Germany) shaved three seconds off the world record in the 400m medley.
  • As in Montreal the Soviet women made a clean sweep of the medals in the 200m breaststroke. The title in this event was won by Lina Kačiušytė.
  • Yulia Bogdanova (USSR), the 1978 world champion in the 100m breaststroke, did not qualify for the Olympic final in that event; the title in this event was won by Ute Geweniger.
  • The Soviet women swimmers in the 4 × 100 metres freestyle relay were disqualified.
  • Michelle Ford (Australia) won the 800m freestyle more than four seconds ahead of her East German rivals.
  • In swimming 230 national, 22 Olympic and ten World records were set.
  • Poland won its first ever swimming medal.
  • The youngest male gold medallist of these Olympics was Hungarian backstroke swimmer Sándor Wladár, 17 years and 1 week old.

Volleyball

  • The prominent nation in both volleyball competitions was the USSR; only once had their teams failed to reach the final. The Soviet men and women had lost only six games between them in the five Olympics since volleyball was incorporated into the list of Olympic sports at Tokyo 1964.

Water polo

  • Hungary won a bronze medal in water polo. This continued their run of always winning a medal in this event since 1928.

Weightlifting

  • The standard of weightlifting was the highest in the history of the Olympics. There were eighteen senior world records, two junior world records, more than 100 Olympic records and 108 national records set.
  • The oldest of weightlifting’s Olympic records – the snatch in the lightweight class set in 1964 – was bettered thirteen times.
  • 56 kg: Daniel Núñez (Cuba) won gold ahead of the favourite Yurik Sarkisian (USSR).
  • 60 kg: Viktor Mazin (USSR), holder of all the world records in this class, was the expected winner with a new Olympic record total. But if only Marek Sewelyn (Poland) had succeeded with his last jerk, he would have scored a surprise win. After fixing the 162.5 kg bar overhead, he let it fall while making a faulty recovery.
  • 90 kg: After the 1976 Olympic champion and undisputed favourite, David Rigert (USSR) failed to register a snatch, Peter Baczako (Hungary) became the surprise winner.
  • Yurik Vardanyan (USSR) became the first middleweight to total more than 400 kg.
  • In the super heavyweight class Vasily Alexeyev (USSR) Olympic champion at Munich and Montreal, eight-time world champion and who in his career set 80 world records, failed to make a single lift.
  • The new category in weightlifting – up to 100 kg – was won by Ota Zaremba of Czechoslovakia.

Wrestling

  • In Greco-Roman wrestling Ferenc Kocsis of Hungary was declared the winner of the 163 pound class when the Olympic and Soviet defending champion Anatoly Bykov was disqualified for passivity.
  • 1980 witnessed the first ever “Graeco” to win a Greco-Roman title at an Olympics; Greece’s Stilianos Migiakis took the gold in the featherweight division.
  • In the 106 pound freestyle wrestling final Italy’s Claudio Pollio put Soviet grappler and twice world champion Sergei Kornilaev to the mat to take an unexpected gold on point standings.
  • None of the experts rated the Bulgarian welterweight freestyle wrestler Valentin Raitchev. He had no experience of international competition but won gold.
  • The Soviet national head coach said that Nikolai Balboshin – the reigning Olympic champion from Montreal – was unbeatable in his heavyweight division. However Balboshin failed to win a medal.

Closing ceremony

Misha, the mascot, formed in a mosaic at the moment when a tear run downs his face during the iconic scene part of the closing ceremony.

One of the most memorable moments of the closing ceremony: Misha carried by balloons into the sky, featured on a 2000 postage stamp issued by Russia

Because of the U.S. boycott, changes were made to the traditional elements of the closing ceremony that represent the handover to the host city of the next Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Among them, the flag of the city of Los Angeles instead of the United States flag was raised, and the Olympic Anthem instead of the national anthem of the United States was played. There was also no “Antwerp Ceremony”, where the ceremonial Olympic flag was transferred from the Mayor of Moscow to the Mayor of Los Angeles; instead the flag was kept by the Moscow city authorities until 1984. Furthermore, there was no next host city presentation.

Both the opening and closing ceremonies were shown in Yuri Ozerov’s 1981 film Oh, Sport – You Are the World! (Russian: О спорт, ты – мир!).

Venues

  • Central Lenin Stadium area
    • Grand Arena² – opening/closing ceremonies, athletics, football (final), equestrian (jumping individual)
    • Minor Arena² – volleyball
    • Swimming Pool² – water polo
    • Sports Palace² – gymnastics, judo
    • Druzhba Multipurpose Arena¹ – volleyball
    • Streets of Moscow – Athletics (20 & 50 km walk, marathon)
  • Olympiysky Sports Complex
    • Indoor Stadium¹ – basketball (final), boxing
    • Swimming Pool¹ – swimming, diving, modern pentathlon (swimming), water polo (final)
  • CSKA (Central Sports Club of the Army) Sports Complex
    • CSKA Athletics Fieldhouse, Central Sports Club of the Army¹ – wrestling
    • CSKA Football Fieldhouse, Central Sports Club of the Army¹ – fencing, modern pentathlon (fencing)
    • CSKA Palace of Sports¹ – basketball
  • Venues in metropolitan Moscow
    • Dynamo Central Stadium, Grand Arena² – football preliminaries
    • Dynamo Central Stadium, Minor Arena² – field hockey
    • Young Pioneers Stadium² – field hockey (final)
    • Dynamo Palace of Sports¹, Khimki-Khovrino – handball
    • Trade Unions’ Equestrian Complex¹ – equestrian, modern pentathlon (riding, running)
    • Izmailovo Sports Palace¹ – weightlifting
    • Sokolniki Sports Palace² – handball (final)
    • Dynamo Shooting Range², Mytishchi – shooting, modern pentathlon (shooting)
  • Krylatskoye Sports Complex
    • Krylatskoye Sports Complex Canoeing and Rowing Basin², Krylatskoye – canoeing, rowing
    • Krylatskoye Sports Complex Velodrome¹, Krylatskoye – cycling (track)
    • Krylatskoye Sports Complex Cycling Circuit – cycling (individual road race)
    • Krylatskoye Sports Complex Archery Field¹, Krylatskoye – archery
  • Venues outside Moscow
    • Moscow-Minsk Highway – cycling (road team time trial)
    • Kirov Stadium², Leningrad, Russian SFSR – football preliminaries
    • Dinamo Stadium², Minsk, Byelorussian SSR – football preliminaries
    • Republican Stadium², Kiev, Ukrainian SSR – football preliminaries
    • Olympic Regatta in Tallinn¹, Tallinn, Estonian SSR – sailing

¹ New facilities constructed in preparation for the Olympic Games.
² Existing facilities modified or refurbished in preparation for the Olympic Games.

Medals awarded

The 1980 Summer Olympic programme featured 203 events in the following 21 sports:

Calendar

All times are in Moscow Time (UTC+3)
 ●  Opening ceremony     Event competitions  ●  Event finals  ●  Closing ceremony
Date July August
19th
Sat
20th
Sun
21st
Mon
22nd
Tue
23rd
Wed
24th
Thu
25th
Fri
26th
Sat
27th
Sun
28th
Mon
29th
Tue
30th
Wed
31st
Thu
1st
Fri
2nd
Sat
3rd
Sun
Archery ● ●
Athletics
● ●

● ●
● ●
● ● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ● ●
● ●
● ● ●

● ●
● ●
● ● ● ●
● ● ● ●
Basketball ● ●
Boxing ● ● ●
● ● ● ●
● ● ● ●
Canoeing ● ● ●
● ● ●
● ●
● ● ●
Cycling ● ●
Diving
Equestrian ● ●
Fencing
Field hockey
Football (soccer)
Gymnastics ● ● ● ●
● ● ● ●
● ● ● ●
Handball ● ●
Judo
Modern pentathlon ● ●
Rowing ● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ● ●
● ● ● ●
Sailing ● ● ●
● ● ●
Shooting
Swimming ● ● ● ●
● ●

● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ● ●
Volleyball
Water polo
Weightlifting
Wrestling
● ●

● ●
● ●
● ●

● ●

● ●
● ●
● ●
Total gold medals 5 7 10 12 19 15 22 22 10 16 14 11 19 20 1
Ceremonies
Date 19th
Sat
20th
Sun
21st
Mon
22nd
Tue
23rd
Wed
24th
Thu
25th
Fri
26th
Sat
27th
Sun
28th
Mon
29th
Tue
30th
Wed
31st
Thu
1st
Fri
2nd
Sat
3rd
Sun
July August

Medal count

This is a list of all nations that won medals at the 1980 Games.

A “bronze” medal – actually tombac – from the 1980 Summer Olympics

  *   Host nation (Soviet Union)

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Soviet Union (URS)* 80 69 46 195
2  East Germany (GDR) 47 37 42 126
3  Bulgaria (BUL) 8 16 17 41
4  Cuba (CUB) 8 7 5 20
5  Italy (ITA) 8 3 4 15
6  Hungary (HUN) 7 10 15 32
7  Romania (ROU) 6 6 13 25
8  France (FRA) 6 5 3 14
9  Great Britain (GBR) 5 7 9 21
10  Poland (POL) 3 14 15 32
11  Sweden (SWE) 3 3 6 12
12  Finland (FIN) 3 1 4 8
13  Czechoslovakia (TCH) 2 3 9 14
14  Yugoslavia (YUG) 2 3 4 9
15  Australia (AUS) 2 2 5 9
16  Denmark (DEN) 2 1 2 5
17  Brazil (BRA) 2 0 2 4
 Ethiopia (ETH) 2 0 2 4
19  Switzerland (SUI) 2 0 0 2
20  Spain (ESP) 1 3 2 6
21  Austria (AUT) 1 2 1 4
22  Greece (GRE) 1 0 2 3
23  Belgium (BEL) 1 0 0 1
 India (IND) 1 0 0 1
 Zimbabwe (ZIM) 1 0 0 1
26  North Korea (PRK) 0 3 2 5
27  Mongolia (MGL) 0 2 2 4
28  Tanzania (TAN) 0 2 0 2
29  Mexico (MEX) 0 1 3 4
30  Netherlands (NED) 0 1 2 3
31  Ireland (IRL) 0 1 1 2
32  Uganda (UGA) 0 1 0 1
 Venezuela (VEN) 0 1 0 1
34  Jamaica (JAM) 0 0 3 3
35  Guyana (GUY) 0 0 1 1
 Lebanon (LIB) 0 0 1 1
Totals (36 nations) 204 204 223 631

List of participating countries and regions

In the following list, the number in parentheses indicates the number of athletes from each nation that competed in Moscow. Nations in italics competed under the Olympic flag (or, in the cases of New Zealand, Portugal and Spain, under the flags of their respective National Olympic Committees):

Number of athletes sent per nation

Participating National Olympic Committees
  •  Afghanistan (11)
  •  Algeria (59)
  •  Andorra (2)
  •  Angola (13)
  •  Australia (126)
  •  Austria (89)
  •  Belgium (61)
  •  Benin (17)
  •  Botswana (7)
  •  Brazil (109)
  •  Bulgaria (295)
  •  Burma (2)
  •  Cameroon (26)
  •  Colombia (23)
  •  Republic of the Congo (23)
  •  Costa Rica (30)
  •  Cuba (216)
  •  Cyprus (14)
  •  Czechoslovakia (216)
  •  Denmark (63)
  •  Dominican Republic (6)
  •  Ecuador (11)
  •  Ethiopia (41)
  •  Finland (124)
  •  France (125)
  •  East Germany (362)
  •  Great Britain (231)
  •  Greece (42)
  •  Guatemala (10)
  •  Guinea (9)
  •  Guyana (8)
  •  Hungary (279)
  •  Iceland (9)
  •  India (74)
  •  Iraq (44)
  •  Ireland (48)
  •  Italy (163)
  •  Jamaica (18)
  •  Jordan (4)
  •  North Korea (50)
  •  Kuwait (58)
  •  Laos (20)
  •  Liberia (7)Note[›]
  •  Lebanon (17)
  •  Lesotho (5)
  •  Libya (32)
  •  Luxembourg (3)
  •  Madagascar (11)
  •  Mali (7)
  •  Malta (8)
  •  Mexico (45)
  •  Mongolia (43)
  •  Mozambique (14)
  •  Nepal (11)
  •  Netherlands (86)
  •  New Zealand (4)
  •  Nicaragua (5)
  •  Nigeria (44)
  •  Peru (30)
  •  Poland (320)
  •  Portugal (11)
  •  Puerto Rico (3)
  •  Romania (243)
  •  San Marino (17)
  •  Senegal (32)
  •  Seychelles (11)
  •  Sierra Leone (14)
  •  Spain (159)
  •  Sri Lanka (4)
  •  Sweden (148)
  •  Switzerland (84)
  •  Syria (69)
  •  Tanzania (41)
  •  Trinidad and Tobago (9)
  •  Uganda (13)
  •  Soviet Union (506) (host)
  •  Venezuela (38)
  •  Vietnam (30)
  •  Yugoslavia (162)
  •  Zambia (40)
  •  Zimbabwe (46)

^ Note:  Liberia with seven athletes, withdrew after marching in the Opening Ceremony and took part in the boycott.

See also

  • 1980 Summer Paralympics
  • 1980 Winter Paralympics
  • 1980 Winter Olympics
  • Olympic Games celebrated in Russia
    • 1980 Summer Olympics – Moscow
    • 2014 Winter Olympics – Sochi
  • Olympic Games with significant boycotts
    • 1976 Summer Olympics – Montreal – African boycott
    • 1980 Summer Olympics – Moscow – United States-led boycott
    • 1984 Summer Olympics – Los Angeles – Soviet-led boycott
  • Summer Olympic Games
  • Olympic Games
  • International Olympic Committee
  • List of IOC country codes
  • Use of performance-enhancing drugs in the Olympic Games – 1980 Moscow

References

  1. ^ 1980 Moskva Summer Games. sports-reference.com
  2. ^ “Moscow 1980”. Olympic.org. Archived from the original on 4 October 2009. Retrieved 8 August 2010..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ Cousineau, Phil (2003). The Olympic Odyssey: Rekindling the True Spirit of the Great Games. Quest Books. p. 162. ISBN 0835608336.
  4. ^ “IOC Vote History”. Aldaver.com. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
  5. ^ ab “The Olympic Boycott, 1980”. state.gov. U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 4 February 2010. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
  6. ^ “Partial Boycott – New IOC President”. Keesing’s Record of World Events. 26: 30599. December 1980.
  7. ^ Freedman, Robert O.; Moscow and the Middle East: Soviet Policy since the Invasion of Afghanistan, p. 78
    ISBN 0-521-35976-7
  8. ^ “The Soviet Doping Plan: Document Reveals Illicit Approach to ’84 Olympics”. New York Times. August 13, 2016. Retrieved November 13, 2017.
  9. ^ “New Zealand Olympic Committee”. Olympic.org.nz. Archived from the original on 2 May 2007. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
  10. ^ Kubatko, Justin. “1980 Moskava Summer Games”. Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Archived from the original on 28 August 2010. Retrieved 20 August 2010.
  11. ^ “Doping violations at the Olympics”. economist.com. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  12. ^ Wilson, Wayne (Ph.D.); Derse, Ed (2001). Doping in Élite Sport: The Politics of Drugs in the Olympic Movement. Human Kinetics. pp. 77–. ISBN 978-0-7360-0329-2. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  13. ^ Sytkowski, Arthur J. (May 2006). Erythropoietin: Blood, Brain and Beyond. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 187–. ISBN 978-3-527-60543-9. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  14. ^ abcd 1980 Summer Olympics Official Report from the Organizing Committee Archived 22 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine., vol. 2, p. 379
  15. ^ (in Russian) История >> Москва-1980. olymp2004.rambler.ru
  16. ^ ab “Official Report of the XXII Olympiad Moscow 1980” (PDF). International Olympic Committee. 1981. Retrieved 2014-02-13.
    [permanent dead link]
  17. ^ Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 9–13. SSRN 2804554.
  18. ^ “Norman May on australianscreen online”. Retrieved 3 March 2011.
  1. ^ IOC records state Brezhnev opened the Moscow Games as “President”, a title used at that time by the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, or de jure head of state. (The office of President of the Soviet Union was not created until 1990, a year before the nation broke up.) Though Brezhnev was also de facto ruler as General Secretary of the Communist Party, that title is not reflected in IOC records.

External links

  • “Moscow 1980”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • “Results and Medalists — 1980 Summer Olympics”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • Official Report from the Organizing Committee (3 volumes)
  • (in Russian) Theme songs of the 1980 Summer Olympics – lyrics and links to MP3 files
  • Moscow Life: A retrospective of the 1980 Moscow Olympics

Further reading

  • John Goodbody, The Illustrated History of Gymnastics, 1982,
    ISBN 0-09-143350-9.
  • Bill Henry, An Approved History of the Olympic Games,
    ISBN 0-88284-243-9.
  • The Olympic Games, 1984, Lord Killanin and John Rodda,
    ISBN 0-00-218062-6.
  • Stan Greenberg, Whitakers Olympic Almanack, 2004
    ISBN 0-7136-6724-9.
  • Olympics 1984, produced by Philips International B.V.
  • Chronicle of the Olympics,
    ISBN 0-7894-2312-X.
  • Peter Arnold, The Olympic Games,
    ISBN 0-603-03068-8
  • Official British Olympic Association Report of the 1980 Games, published 1981, ISSN 0143-4799

Boycott

  • Corthorn, Paul (2013). “The Cold War and British debates over the boycott of the 1980 Moscow Olympics”. Cold War History. 13 (1): 43–66. doi:10.1080/14682745.2012.727799.
  • Evelyn Mertin, The Soviet Union and the Olympic Games of 1980 and 1984: Explaining Boycotts to their Own People. In: S. Wagg/D. Andrews (Eds.) East plays West. Sport and the Cold War, 2007, Oxon: Routledge, pp. 235–252,
    ISBN 978-0-415-35927-6.
Preceded by
Montreal
Summer Olympic Games
Host City

XXII Olympiad (1980)
Succeeded by
Los Angeles


1992 Summer Olympics

Games of the XXV Olympiad
1992 Summer Olympics logo.svg
Host city Barcelona, Spain
Motto Friends For Life
(Catalan: Amics Per Sempre)
(Spanish: Amigos Para Siempre)
Nations 169
Athletes 9,356 (6,652 men, 2,704 women)
Events 257 in 25 sports (34 disciplines)
Opening 25 July
Closing 9 August
Opened by King Juan Carlos I
Cauldron Antonio Rebollo
Stadium Estadi Olímpic Lluís Companys
Summer
← Seoul 1988 Atlanta 1996 →
Winter
← Albertville 1992 Lillehammer 1994 →

The 1992 Summer Olympic Games (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992; Catalan: Jocs Olímpics d’estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain from July 25 to August 9, 1992.

Beginning in 1994, the International Olympic Committee decided to hold the games in alternating even-numbered years; as a result, the 1992 Summer Olympics were the last competition to be staged in the same year as the Winter Olympics.[1] The games were the first to be unaffected by boycotts since 1972 [2] and the first summer games since the end of the Cold War.

Contents

  • 1 Host city selection
  • 2 Highlights

    • 2.1 Records
  • 3 Venues
  • 4 Medals awarded

    • 4.1 Demonstration sports
  • 5 Calendar
  • 6 Participating National Olympic Committees
  • 7 Medal count
  • 8 Broadcast rights
  • 9 Terrorism
  • 10 Effect on the city

    • 10.1 Cost and cost overrun
  • 11 Songs and themes
  • 12 Mascot
  • 13 Corporate image and identity
  • 14 See also
  • 15 References
  • 16 External links

Host city selection

Barcelona is the second-largest city in Spain, and the hometown of then-IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch. The city was also a host for the 1982 FIFA World Cup. On October 17, 1986, Barcelona was selected to host the 1992 Summer Games over Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Belgrade, Yugoslavia; Birmingham, UK; Brisbane, Australia; and Paris, France, during the 91st IOC Session in Lausanne, Switzerland.[3] With 85 out of 89 members of the IOC voting by secret ballot, Barcelona won a majority of 47 votes. Samaranch abstained from voting. In the same IOC meeting, Albertville, France, won the right to host the 1992 Winter Games.[4]

Barcelona had previously bid for the 1936 Summer Olympics, but they ultimately lost to Berlin.

1992 Summer Olympics bidding results[5]
City NOC Name Round 1 Round 2 Round 3
Barcelona  Spain 29 37 47
Paris  France 19 20 23
Brisbane  Australia 11 9 10
Belgrade  Yugoslavia 13 11 5
Birmingham  Great Britain 8 8
Amsterdam  Netherlands 5

Highlights

The 1992 Summer Olympics allowed NBA players to participate in the basketball competition for the first time; here David Robinson shoots a free throw for the gold-medal winning United States “Dream Team”.

  • At the Opening Ceremony Greek mezzo-soprano Agnes Baltsa sang “Romiossini” as the Olympic flag was paraded around the stadium. Alfredo Kraus later sang the Olympic Hymn in both Catalan and Spanish as the flag was hoisted.
  • The Olympic flame cauldron was lit by a flaming arrow, shot by Paralympic archer Antonio Rebollo. The arrow had been lit by the flame of the Olympic Torch. Rebollo overshot the cauldron[6] as this was the original design of the lighting scheme.[7][8]
  • South Africa was allowed to compete in the Olympic Games for the first time since the 1960 Summer Olympics, after a long suspension for its apartheid policy. After a close race in the Women’s 10,000 metres event, white South African runner Elana Meyer and black Ethiopian runner Derartu Tulu (winner) ran a victory lap together, hand-in-hand.[9]
  • Following its reunification in 1990, Germany sent a single, unified Olympic team for the first time since the 1964 Summer Olympics.
  • As the Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991, the Baltic nations of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania sent their own teams for the first time since 1936. Other former Soviet republics competed as the Unified Team. This team consisted of present-day Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.
  • The separation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia led to the Olympic debuts of Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Due to United Nations sanctions, athletes from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia were not allowed to participate with their own team. However, some individual athletes competed under the Olympic flag as Independent Olympic Participants.
  • In basketball, the admittance of NBA players led to the formation of the “Dream Team” of the United States, featuring Michael Jordan, Magic Johnson, Larry Bird and other NBA stars. The Dream Team, which easily won the gold medal, would be inducted as a unit into the Basketball Hall of Fame in 2010.[10]
  • Fermín Cacho won the 1,500 metres in his home country, earning Spain’s first-ever Olympic gold medal in a running event.[11]
  • Chinese diver Fu Mingxia, age 13, became one of the youngest Olympic gold medalists of all time.
  • In men’s artistic gymnastics, Vitaly Scherbo from Belarus, (representing the Unified Team), won six gold medals, including four in a single day. Scherbo tied Eric Heiden’s record for individual gold medals at a single Olympics, winning five medals in an individual event. (Michael Phelps would later equal this record in 2008).
  • In women’s artistic gymnastics, Tatiana Gutsu took gold in the All-Around competition edging the United States’ Shannon Miller.
  • Russian swimmers dominated the freestyle events, with Alexander Popov and Yevgeny Sadovyi each winning two events. Sadovyi also won in the relays.
  • Evelyn Ashford won her fourth Olympic gold medal in the 4×100-metre relay, making her one of only four female athletes to have achieved this in history.
  • The young Krisztina Egerszegi of Hungary won three individual swimming gold medals.
  • In women’s 200 metre breaststroke, Kyoko Iwasaki of Japan won a gold medal at age of 14 years and six days, making her the youngest-ever gold medalist in swimming competitions at the Olympics.
  • Algerian athlete Hassiba Boulmerka, who was frequently criticized by Muslim groups in Algeria who thought she showed too much of her body when racing, received death threats[12] and was forced to move to Europe to train, won the 1,500 metres, also holding the African women’s record in this distance.
  • After being demonstrated in six previous Summer Olympic Games, baseball officially became an Olympic sport. Badminton and women’s judo also became part of the Olympic program, while slalom canoeing returned to the Games after a 20-year absence.
  • Roller hockey, Basque pelota, and taekwondo were all demonstrated at the 1992 Summer Olympics.
  • Several of the U.S. men’s volleyball gold medal team from the 1988 Olympics returned to vie for another medal. In the preliminary round, they lost a controversial match to Japan, sparking them to shave their heads in protest. This notably included player Steve Timmons, sacrificing his trademark red flattop for the protest. That didn’t prevent the U.S. team from progressing to the playoffs and winning bronze.
  • Mike Stulce of the United States won the men’s shot put, beating the heavily favored Werner Günthör of Switzerland.
  • On the 20th anniversary of the Munich massacre and the 500th anniversary of the Alhambra Decree, Yael Arad became the first Israeli to win an Olympic medal, winning a silver medal in judo. The next day, Oren Smadja became Israel’s first male medalist, winning a bronze in the same sport.
  • Derek Redmond of Great Britain tore a hamstring during a 400-meter semi-final heat. As he struggled to finish the race, his father entered the track without credentials and helped him complete the race, to a standing ovation from the crowd.
  • Gail Devers won the 100-meter dash in one of the closest races in history. Five women finished within 0.06 seconds of each other. In the 100 meter hurdles, Devers was a clear favorite to win, though finished in fifth place when she hit the final hurdle and stumbled over the finish line. Voula Patoulidou from Greece won the event.
  • Jennifer Capriati won the singles tennis competition at the age of 16. She had previously earned a spot in the semifinals of two grand slams at the age of 14.
  • Two gold medals were awarded in solo synchronized swimming after a judge inadvertently entered the score of “8.7” instead of the intended “9.7” in the computerized scoring system for one of Sylvie Fréchette’s figures. This error ultimately placed Fréchette second, leaving Kristen Babb-Sprague for the gold medal. Though immediate protests to FINA were unsuccessful, FINA awarded Fréchette a gold medal in December 1993, replacing her silver medal and leaving the two swimmers both with gold.[13]
  • Indonesia won its first-ever gold medal, after winning a silver medal at 1988 Olympics. Susi Susanti won the gold in badminton women’s singles after defeating Bang Soo-hyun in the final round. Alan Budikusuma won the badminton men’s singles competition, earning a second gold medal for Indonesia. Several years later, Susanti and Budikusuma married and she received the nickname golden bride or Olympic bride.

Records

Venues

Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc

Palau Sant Jordi and Montjuïc Communications Tower

  • Montjuïc Area:

    • Cross-country course – modern pentathlon (running)
    • Estadi Olímpic de Montjuïc – opening/closing ceremonies, athletics
    • Palau Sant Jordi – gymnastics (artistics), volleyball (final), and handball (final)
    • Piscines Bernat Picornell – modern pentathlon (swimming), swimming, synchronized swimming, and water polo (final)
    • Piscina Municipal de Montjuïc – diving and water polo
    • Institut National d’Educació Física de Catalunya – wrestling
    • Mataró – athletics (marathon start)
    • Palau dels Esports de Barcelona – gymnastics (rhythmic) and volleyball
    • Palau de la Metal·lúrgia – fencing, modern pentathlon (fencing)
    • Pavelló de l’Espanya Industrial – weightlifting
    • Walking course – athletics (walks)
  • Diagonal Area:

    • Camp Nou – football (final)
    • Palau Blaugrana – judo, roller hockey (demonstration final), and taekwondo (demonstration)
    • Estadi de Sarrià – football
    • Real Club de Polo de Barcelona – equestrian (dressage, jumping, eventing final), modern pentathlon (riding)
  • Vall d’Hebron Area:

    • Archery Field – archery
    • Pavelló de la Vall d’Hebron – Basque pelota (demonstration) and volleyball
    • Tennis de la Vall d’Hebron – tennis
    • Velodrome – cycling (track)
  • Parc de Mar Area
    • Estació del Nord Sports Hall – table tennis
    • Olympic Harbour – sailing
    • Pavelló de la Mar Bella – badminton
  • Subsites
    • A-17 highway – cycling (road team time trial)
    • Banyoles Lake – rowing
    • Camp Municipal de Beisbol de Viladecans – baseball
    • Canal Olímpic de Catalunya – canoeing (sprint)
    • Circuit de Catalunya – cycling (road team time trial start/ finish)
    • Club Hípic El Montayá – equestrian (dressage, eventing endurance)
    • Estadi de la Nova Creu Alta – football
    • Estadi Olímpic de Terrassa – field hockey
    • Estadio Luís Casanova – football
    • La Romareda – football
    • L’Hospitalet de Llobregat Baseball Stadium – baseball (final)
    • Mollet del Vallès Shooting Range – modern pentathlon (shooting), shooting
    • Palau D’Esports de Granollers – handball
    • Parc Olímpic del Segre – canoeing (slalom)
    • Pavelló Club Joventut Badalona – boxing
    • Pavelló de l’Ateneu de Sant Sadurní – roller hockey (demonstration)
    • Pavelló del Club Patí Vic – roller hockey (demonstration)
    • Pavelló d’Esports de Reus – roller hockey (demonstration)
    • Pavelló Olímpic de Badalona – basketball
    • Sant Sadurní Cycling Circuit – cycling (individual road race)
  • Some events, including diving, took place in view of construction of the Sagrada Família

Medals awarded

The 1992 Summer Olympic programme featured 257 events in the following 25 sports:

Demonstration sports

  • Basque pelota (10)
  • Roller hockey pictogram.svg Roller hockey (quad) (1)
  • Taekwondo (16)

Calendar

All times are in Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
 ●  Opening ceremony     Event competitions  ●  Event finals  ●  Closing ceremony
Date July August
24th
Fri
25th
Sat
26th
Sun
27th
Mon
28th
Tue
29th
Wed
30th
Thu
31st
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
3rd
Mon
4th
Tue
5th
Wed
6th
Thu
7th
Fri
8th
Sat
9th
Sun
Archery ● ●
Athletics ● ● ● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
Badminton ● ●
● ●
Baseball
Basketball
Boxing ● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
Canoeing ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
Cycling ● ● ● ●
● ● ●
Diving
Equestrian ● ●
Fencing
Field hockey
Football
Gymnastics ● ●
● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
Handball ● ●
Judo ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
Modern pentathlon ● ●
Rowing ● ●
● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
Sailing ● ● ● ● ●
● ● ● ●
Shooting ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
Swimming ● ●
● ●
● ●
● ● ●
● ●
● ● ●
● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
Synchronized swimming
Table tennis
Tennis ● ● ● ●
Volleyball
Water polo
Weightlifting ● ●
Wrestling
● ●

● ●
● ●
● ●

● ●

● ●
● ●
● ●
Total gold medals 9 12 14 17 19 19 22 30 18 11 12 12 22 30 10
Ceremonies
Date 24th
Fri
25th
Sat
26th
Sun
27th
Mon
28th
Tue
29th
Wed
30th
Thu
31st
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
3rd
Mon
4th
Tue
5th
Wed
6th
Thu
7th
Fri
8th
Sat
9th
Sun
July August

Participating National Olympic Committees

Participants

Participating countries by number of competitors

A total of 169 nations sent athletes to compete in the 1992 Summer Games.

With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, twelve of the fifteen new states formed a Unified Team, while the Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania each had their own teams for the first time since 1936. For the first time, Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina competed as independent nations after their separation from Socialist Yugoslavia, and Namibia and the unified team of Yemen (previously North and South Yemen) also made their Olympic debuts.

The 1992 Summer Olympics notably marked Germany competing as a unified team for the first time since 1964, while South Africa returned to the Games for the first time in 32 years.

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was banned due to UN sanctions, but individual Yugoslav athletes were allowed to take part as Independent Olympic Participants. Four National Olympic Committees did not send any athletes to compete: Afghanistan, Brunei, Liberia and Somalia.

Participating National Olympic Committees
  •  Albania (8)
  •  Algeria (38)
  •  American Samoa (3)
  •  Andorra (8)
  •  Angola (39)
  •  Antigua and Barbuda (13)
  •  Argentina (107)
  •  Aruba (5)
  •  Australia (295)
  •  Austria (107)
  •  Bahamas (15)
  •  Bahrain (13)
  •  Bangladesh (6)
  •  Barbados (17)
  •  Belgium (68)
  •  Belize (10)
  •  Benin (6)
  •  Bermuda (20)
  •  Bhutan (6)
  •  Bolivia (14)
  •  Bosnia and Herzegovina (10)
  •  Botswana (6)
  •  Brazil (195)
  •  British Virgin Islands (4)
  •  Bulgaria (139)
  •  Burkina Faso (4)
  •  Cameroon (11)
  •  Canada (304)
  •  Cayman Islands (10)
  •  Central African Republic (16)
  •  Chad (7)
  •  Chile (14)
  •  China (246)
  •  Colombia (51)
  •  Republic of the Congo (7)
  •  Cook Islands (2)
  •  Costa Rica (16)
  •  Croatia (41)
  •  Cuba (187)
  •  Cyprus (17)
  •  Czechoslovakia (209)
  •  Denmark (117)
  •  Djibouti (8)
  •  Dominican Republic (32)
  •  Ecuador (13)
  •  Egypt (83)
  •  El Salvador (4)
  •  Equatorial Guinea (7)
  •  Estonia (37)
  •  Ethiopia (23)
  •  Fiji (19)
  •  Finland (89)
  •  France (376)
  •  Gabon (8)
  •  The Gambia (5)
  •  Germany (486)
  •  Ghana (37)
  •  Great Britain (376)
  •  Greece (72)
  •  Grenada (4)
  •  Guam (22)
  •  Guatemala (14)
  •  Guinea (8)
  •  Guyana (6)
  •  Haiti (7)
  •  Honduras (10)
  •  Hong Kong (38)
  •  Hungary (222)
  •  Iceland (29)
  •  India (53)
  •  Independent Olympic Participants (58)
  •  Indonesia (47)
  •  Iran (40)
  •  Iraq (9)
  •  Ireland (58)
  •  Israel (31)
  •  Italy (323)
  •  Ivory Coast (13)
  •  Jamaica (36)
  •  Japan (272)
  •  Jordan (7)
  •  Kenya (51)
  •  North Korea (64)
  •  South Korea (244)
  •  Kuwait (36)
  •  Laos (6)
  •  Latvia (34)
  •  Lebanon (13)
  •  Lesotho (6)
  •  Libya (6)
  •  Liechtenstein (7)
  •  Lithuania (47)
  •  Luxembourg (6)
  •  Madagascar (14)
  •  Malawi (4)
  •  Malaysia (28)
  •  Maldives (7)
  •  Mali (5)
  •  Malta (7)
  •  Mauritania (6)
  •  Mauritius (13)
  •  Mexico (134)
  •  Monaco (2)
  •  Mongolia (33)
  •  Morocco (53)
  •  Mozambique (6)
  •  Myanmar (4)
  •  Namibia (6)
  •  Nepal (5)
  •  Netherlands (215)
  •  Netherlands Antilles (4)
  •  New Zealand (137)
  •  Nicaragua (8)
  •  Niger (3)
  •  Nigeria (57)
  •  Norway (85)
  •  Oman (5)
  •  Pakistan (27)
  •  Panama (5)
  •  Papua New Guinea (13)
  •  Paraguay (30)
  •  Peru (16)
  •  Philippines (34)
  •  Poland (205)
  •  Portugal (100)
  •  Puerto Rico (75)
  •  Qatar (31)
  •  Romania (176)
  •  Rwanda (10)
  •  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (6)
  •  San Marino (17)
  •  Saudi Arabia (9)
  •  Senegal (21)
  •  Seychelles (11)
  •  Sierra Leone (11)
  •  Singapore (14)
  •  Slovenia (35)
  •  Solomon Islands (1)
  •  South Africa (94)
  •  Spain (489) (host)
  •  Sri Lanka (11)
  •  Sudan (6)
  •  Suriname (6)
  •  Swaziland (6)
  •  Sweden (192)
  •  Switzerland (114)
  •  Syria (10)
  •  Chinese Taipei (37)
  •  Tanzania (9)
  •  Thailand (47)
  •  Togo (6)
  •  Tonga (5)
  •  Trinidad and Tobago (7)
  •  Tunisia (14)
  •  Turkey (47)
  •  Uganda (8)
  •  Unified Team (475)
  •  United Arab Emirates (14)
  •  United States (578)
  •  Uruguay (23)
  •  Vanuatu (6)
  •  Venezuela (37)
  •  Vietnam (7)
  •  Virgin Islands (24)
  •  Samoa (5)
  •  Yemen (13)
  •  Zaire (17)
  •  Zambia (9)
  •  Zimbabwe (19)
  •  Brunei participated in the Opening Ceremony, but its delegation consisted of only one official. This also occurred in the 1988 Games[14][15]
  • Afghanistan Afghanistan didn’t send their athletes to compete, but the country took part in the Parade of Nations.[16]
  •  Liberia[17] and  Somalia[18] also participated in the Opening Ceremony, but its accredited athletes (five and two, respectively) did not enter to compete.[14]

Medal count

The following table reflects the top ten nations in terms of total medals won at the 1992 Games (the host nation is highlighted).

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Unified Team 45 38 29 112
2  United States 37 34 37 108
3  Germany 33 21 28 82
4  China 16 22 16 54
5  Cuba 14 6 11 31
6  Spain* 13 7 2 22
7  South Korea 12 5 12 29
8  Hungary 11 12 7 30
9  France 8 5 16 29
10  Australia 7 9 11 27
Totals (10 nations) 196 159 169 524

Broadcast rights

The 1992 Summer Olympics were covered by the following television and radio broadcasters:[19]

Terrorism

The Basque nationalist group ETA attempted to disrupt the Games with terror attacks. It was already feared beforehand that the ETA would use the Olympics to gain wide publicity to a worldwide audience for their cause.[20] In the time ahead of the Games,[21] the ETA committed attacks in Barcelona and the Catalonia region as a whole, including the deadly 1991 Vic bombing.[22][23] On 10 July 1992, the ETA offered a 2-month truce covering the Games in exchange of negotiations, which the Spanish government rejected.[24] The Games went by successfully without an attack.[25]

Effect on the city

Frank Gehry’s Fish sculpture in front of the Hotel Arts (left) and the Torre Mapfre (right) in the Olympic Village neighbourhood

The celebration of the 1992 Olympic Games had an enormous impact on the urban culture and external projection of Barcelona. The Games provided billions of dollars for infrastructure investments, which are considered to have improved the quality of life and attraction of the city for investment and tourism.[26] Barcelona became one of the most visited cities in Europe after Paris, London, and Rome.[27][28]

Barcelona’s nomination for the 1992 Summer Games sparked the application of a previously elaborated ambitious urban plan.[29] Barcelona opened to the sea with the construction of the Olympic Village and Olympic Port in Poblenou. New centres were created, and modern sports facilities were built in the Olympic zones of Montjuïc, Diagonal, and Vall d’Hebron. Hotels were also either built or refurbished. The construction of ring roads around the city helped reduce the density of the traffic, and El Prat airport was modernized and expanded as two new terminals were opened.[30]

Cost and cost overrun

The Oxford Olympics Study[31] estimates the direct costs of the Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympics to be US$9.7 billion (expressed in 2015 U.S. dollars) with a cost overrun of 266%. This includes only sports-related costs, that is: (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, direct transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services; and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, and similar structures required to host the Games. Costs excluded from the study are indirect capital and infrastructure costs, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games.[31][32]

The costs for Barcelona 1992 may be compared with those of London 2012, which cost US$15 billion with a cost overrun of 76%, and those of Rio 2016 which cost US$4.6 billion with a cost overrun of 51%. The average cost for the Summer Olympics since 1960 is US$5.2 billion, with an average cost overrun of 176%.[31][32]

Songs and themes

There were two main musical themes for the 1992 Games. The first one was “Barcelona”, a classical crossover song composed five years earlier by Freddie Mercury and Mike Moran; Mercury was an admirer of lyric soprano Montserrat Caballé, both recorded the official theme as a duet. Due to Mercury’s death eight months earlier, the duo was unable to perform the song together during the opening ceremony. A recording of the song instead played over a travelogue of the city at the start of the opening ceremony, seconds before the official countdown.[33][34]
“Amigos Para Siempre” (Friends for Life) was the other musical theme. It was written by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Don Black, and sung by Sarah Brightman and José Carreras during the closing ceremonies.

Ryuichi Sakamoto composed and conducted the opening ceremony musical score.[35] The Opening Olympic fanfare was composed by Angelo Badalamenti and with orchestrations by Joseph Turrin.

Mascot

The official mascot was Cobi, a Catalan sheepdog in cubist style designed by Javier Mariscal.[36]

Corporate image and identity

A renewal in Barcelona’s image and corporate identity could be seen in the publication of posters, commemorative coins, stamps minted by the FNMT in Madrid, and the Barcelona 1992 Olympic Official Commemorative Medals, designed and struck in Barcelona.

See also

  • 1992 Summer Paralympics
  • 1992 Winter Olympics
  • 1992 Winter Paralympics
  • List of IOC country codes
  • Olympics Triplecast
  • Use of performance-enhancing drugs at the 1992 Olympic Games
  • Barcelona Gold – compilation album released for the 1992 Games

References

  1. ^ “Albertville 1992”. www.olympic.org. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2010..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympics | Olympic Videos, Photos, News”. Olympic.org. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  3. ^ “IOC Vote History”. Aldaver.com. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  4. ^ BARCELONA GETS 1992 SUMMER OLYMPICS, New York Times (archives), Judith Miller, Oct. 18, 1986.
  5. ^ https://www.webcitation.org/5xFvf0ufx?url=http://www.gamesbids.com/eng/past.html
  6. ^ “Edición del lunes, 27 julio 1992, página 36 – Hemeroteca”. LaVanguardia.com (in Spanish). La Vanguardia Digital.
  7. ^ “Ceremonial hall of shame”. BBC News. 2000-09-15. Retrieved 2010-03-27.
  8. ^ Official Report of the 1992 Summer Olympics, Vol. 4 (LA84Foundation.org). Note p. 70 (confirming arrow lit the gas above the cauldron).
  9. ^ “Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympics | Olympic Videos, Photos, News”. Olympic.org. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
  10. ^ “Hall of Famers: 1992 United States Olympic Team”. Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 18 August 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  11. ^ Fermin Cacho Ruiz, Olympic.org. Retrieved 25 August 2013
  12. ^ Hassiba Boulmerka: Defying death threats to win gold, BBC, 2012-02-11. Retrieved 2012-02-11.
  13. ^ “On the Bright Side”. Sports Illustrated. 1996-07-30. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
  14. ^ ab 1992 Olympics Official Report. Part IV (PDF). Retrieved October 24, 2012. List of participants by NOC’s and sport.
  15. ^ Barcelona 1992 Opening Ceremony Parade of Nations 2/8 on YouTube
  16. ^ Barcelona 1992 Opening Ceremony Parade of Nations 1/8 on YouTube
  17. ^ Barcelona 1992 Opening Ceremony Parade of Nations 4/8 on YouTube
  18. ^ Barcelona 1992 Opening Ceremony Parade of Nations 6/8 on YouTube
  19. ^ Miquel de Moragas, Nancy Kay Rivenburgh, ed. (1995). Television in the Olympics : international research project (illustrated ed.). James F. Larson. pp. 257–260. ISBN 978-0861965380. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  20. ^ Securing and Sustaining the Olympic City, Pete Fussey, Ashgate Publishing, 2011, p48
  21. ^ https://www.ctvnews.ca/ctv-news-channel/terrorism-violence-and-the-olympics-major-incidents-throughout-the-years-1.1648070/comments-7.476505
  22. ^ https://www.csmonitor.com/1992/0401/01061.html
  23. ^ https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/opinions/1991/08/11/the-threat-to-the-games-in-spain/37be840c-3424-4451-b037-151a53bf2491/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.35fd4d04e7ab
  24. ^ https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/eta-rebuffed-1532917.html
  25. ^ Thompson, Wayne C (2017-08-31). Western Europe 2017-2018. ISBN 9781475835090.
  26. ^ Brunet i Cid, Ferran. “The economic impact of the Barcelona Olympic Games 1986-2004” (PDF). Autonomous University of Barcelona. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2009-07-22. Retrieved 2009-06-22.
  27. ^ Payne, Bob. “The Olympics Effect”. msnbc.com. Retrieved 2009-06-22.
  28. ^ Bremner, Caroline. “Top 150 City Destinations (2006)”. Euromonitor. Archived from the original on 2009-09-04. Retrieved 2009-08-27.
  29. ^ Brunet i Cid, Ferran. “An economic analysis of the Barcelona’92 Olympic Games:resources, financing and impact” (PDF). Autonomous University of Barcelona. Retrieved 2009-06-22.
  30. ^ Beard, Matthew (2011-03-22). “Lessons of Barcelona: 1992 Games provided model for London… and few warnings”. London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 2011-04-05. Retrieved 2011-03-31.
  31. ^ abc Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 18–20. SSRN 2804554.
  32. ^ ab Joe Myers (29 July 2016). “The cost of hosting every Olympics since 1964” (Based on working paper from The University of Oxford and Said Business School). World Economic Forum.
  33. ^ “Barcelona 92: 11 momentos inolvidables de aquellos Juegos Olímpicos (VÍDEOS, FOTOS)” (in Spanish). The Huffington Post. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
  34. ^ “Barcelona 92: inicio de la ceremonia”. YouTube. Retrieved 2011-03-23.
  35. ^ Illness, Critical (2010-09-03). “Doreen D’Agostino Media ” Ryuichi Sakamoto and Decca”. Doreendagostinomedia.com. Retrieved 2011-03-23.
  36. ^ “Barcelona 1992 – Summer Games Mascots”. Olympic.org. IOC. Retrieved 15 October 2015.

External links

  • “Barcelona 1992”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • “Results and Medalists — 1992 Summer Olympics”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • Barcelona Olympic Foundation
  • Olympic Review 1992 – Official results
  • Barcelona Olympic Stadium
  • Postage stamps of the Republic of Moldova, celebrating the Barcelona Summer Olympics in 1992
  • Postage stamps of the Republic of Moldova, celebrating medal winners at the Barcelona Summer Olympics in 1992
Preceded by
Seoul
Summer Olympic Games
Barcelona

XXV Olympiad (1992)
Succeeded by
Atlanta