2004 Summer Olympics

Games of the XXVIII Olympiad
2004 Summer Olympics logo.svg
Host city Athens, Greece
Motto Welcome Home
(Greek: Καλώς ήλθατε σπίτι, Kalós ílthate spíti)
Nations 201
Athletes 10,625 (6,296 men, 4,329 women)
Events 301 in 28 sports (40 disciplines)
Opening 13 August
Closing 29 August
Opened by
President Konstantinos Stephanopoulos[1]
Cauldron
Nikolaos Kaklamanakis[1]
Stadium Olympic Stadium
Summer
← Sydney 2000 Beijing 2008 →
Winter
← Salt Lake 2002 Turin 2006 →

The 2004 Summer Olympic Games (Greek: Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 2004, Therinoí Olympiakoí Agónes 2004),[2] officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and commonly known as Athens 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, Greece, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto Welcome Home.

The Games saw 10,625 athletes compete,[3][4] some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries.[3] There were 301 medal events in 28 different sports.[3] Athens 2004 marked the first time since the 1996 Summer Olympics that all countries with a National Olympic Committee were in attendance. 2004 also marked the return of the Olympic Games to the city where they began. Having previously hosted the Olympics in 1896, Athens became one of only four cities to have hosted the Summer Olympic Games on two separate occasions (together with Paris, London and Los Angeles).

A new medal obverse was introduced at these Games, replacing the design by Giuseppe Cassioli that had been used since the 1928 Games. This rectified the long lasting mistake of using a depiction of the Roman Colosseum rather than a Greek venue.[5] The new design features the Panathenaic Stadium.[6] The 2004 Summer Games were hailed as “unforgettable, dream games” by IOC President Jacques Rogge, and left Athens with a significantly improved infrastructure, including a new airport, ring road, and subway system.[7]
There have been arguments (mostly in popular media) regarding the cost of the 2004 Athens Summer Games and their possible contribution to the 2010 Greek government-debt crisis, however, there is little or no evidence for such a correlation.

The 2004 Olympics were generally deemed to be a success, with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China and Russia with the host Greece at 15th place. Several World and Olympic records were broken during these Games.

Contents

  • 1 Host city selection
  • 2 Development and preparation

    • 2.1 Costs
    • 2.2 Construction
  • 3 Torch relay
  • 4 Mascots
  • 5 Online coverage
  • 6 Technology
  • 7 The Games

    • 7.1 Opening ceremony
    • 7.2 Participating National Olympic Committees
    • 7.3 Sports
    • 7.4 Gallery
    • 7.5 Calendar
    • 7.6 Highlights
    • 7.7 Closing ceremony
  • 8 Medal count
  • 9 Venues

    • 9.1 OAKA
    • 9.2 HOC
    • 9.3 Faliro
    • 9.4 GOC
    • 9.5 MOC
    • 9.6 Football venues
    • 9.7 Other venues
  • 10 Sponsors
  • 11 Legacy

    • 11.1 Arguments about possible effects on Greece’s debt crisis
  • 12 Broadcast rights
  • 13 See also
  • 14 Notes
  • 15 References
  • 16 External links

Host city selection

Athens was chosen as the host city during the 106th IOC Session held in Lausanne on 5 September 1997. Athens had lost its bid to organize the 1996 Summer Olympics to Atlanta nearly seven years before on 18 September 1990, during the 96th IOC Session in Tokyo. 1996 coincided with the 100th Anniversary of the first modern Olympics, which were also held in Athens. Under the direction of Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki, Athens pursued another bid, this time for the right to host the Summer Olympics in 2004. The success of Athens in securing the 2004 Games was based largely on Athens’ appeal to Olympic history and the emphasis that it placed on the pivotal role that Greece and Athens could play in promoting Olympism and the Olympic Movement. Furthermore, unlike their bid for the 1996 Games, which was largely criticized for its overall disorganization and arrogance—wherein the bid lacked specifics and relied largely upon sentiment and the notion that it was Athens’ right to organize the Centennial Games[8]—the bid for the 2004 Games was lauded for its humility and earnestness, its focused message, and its detailed bid concept.[9] The 2004 bid addressed concerns and criticisms raised in its unsuccessful 1996 bid – primarily Athens’ infrastructural readiness, its air pollution, its budget, and politicization of Games preparations.[10] Athens’ successful organization of the 1997 World Championships in Athletics the month before the host city election was also crucial in allaying lingering fears and concerns among the sporting community and some IOC members about its ability to host international sporting events.[11] Another factor which also contributed to Athens’ selection was a growing sentiment among some IOC members to restore the values of the Olympics to the Games, a component which they felt was lost during the heavily criticized over-commercialization of Atlanta 1996 Games.[12] Subsequently, the selection of Athens was also motivated by a lingering sense of disappointment among IOC members regarding the numerous organizational and logistical setbacks experienced during the 1996 Games.[12]

After leading all voting rounds, Athens easily defeated Rome in the 5th and final vote. Cape Town, Stockholm, and Buenos Aires, the three other cities that made the IOC shortlist, were eliminated in prior rounds of voting. Six other cities submitted applications, but their bids were dropped by the IOC in 1996. These cities were Istanbul, Lille, Rio de Janeiro, San Juan, Seville, Saint Petersburg and Cali.[13]

2004 host city election – ballot results
City Country (NOC) Round 1 Run-off Round 3 Round 4 Round 5
Athens  Greece 32 38 52 66
Rome  Italy 23 28 35 41
Cape Town  South Africa 16 62 22 20
Stockholm  Sweden 20 19
Buenos Aires  Argentina 16 44

Development and preparation

Costs

The 2004 Summer Olympic Games cost the Government of Greece €8.954 billion to stage.[14] According to the cost-benefit evaluation of the impact of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games presented to the Greek Parliament in January 2013 by the Minister of Finance Mr. Giannis Stournaras, the overall net economic benefit for Greece was positive.[15]

The Athens 2004 Organizing Committee (ATHOC), responsible for the preparation and organisation of the Games, concluded its operations as a company in 2005 with a surplus of €130.6 million. ATHOC contributed €123.6 million of the surplus to the Greek State to cover other related expenditures of the Greek State in organizing the Games. As a result, ATHOC reported in its official published accounts a net profit of €7 million.[16][17] The State’s contribution to the total ATHOC budget was 8% of its expenditure against an originally anticipated 14%.

The overall revenue of ATHOC, including income from tickets, sponsors, broadcasting rights, merchandise sales etc., totalled €2,098.4 million. The largest percentage of that income (38%) came from broadcasting rights. The overall expenditure of ATHOC was €1,967.8 million.

Often analysts refer to the “Cost of the Olympic Games” by taking into account not only the Organizing Committee’s budget (i.e. the organizational cost) directly related to the Olympic Games, but also the cost incurred by the hosting country during preparation, i.e. the large projects required for the upgrade of the country’s infrastructure, including sports infrastructure, roads, airports, hospitals, power grid etc. This cost, however, is not directly attributable to the actual organisation of the Games. Such infrastructure projects are considered by all fiscal standards as fixed asset investments that stay with the hosting country for decades after the Games. Also, in many cases these infrastructure upgrades would have taken place regardless of hosting the Olympic Games, although the latter may have acted as a “catalyst”.

It was in this sense that the Greek Ministry of Finance reported in 2013 that the expenses of the Greek state for the Athens 2004 Olympic Games, including both infrastructure and organizational costs, reached the amount of €8.5 billion. The same report further explains that €2 billion of this amount was covered by the revenue of the ATHOC (from tickets, sponsors, broadcasting rights, merchandise sales etc.) and that another €2 billion was directly invested in upgrading hospitals and archaeological sites.
Therefore, the net infrastructure costs related to the preparation of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games was €4.5 billion, substantially lower than the reported estimates,[18] and mainly included long-standing fixed asset investments in numerous municipal and transport infrastructures.

On the revenue side, the same report estimates that incremental tax revenues of approximately €3.5 billion arose from the increased activities caused by the Athens 2004 Olympic Games during the period 2000 to 2004. These tax revenues were paid directly to the Greek state specifically in the form of incremental social security contributions, income taxes and VAT tax paid by all the companies, professionals, and service providers that were directly involved with the Olympic Games. Moreover, it is reported that the Athens 2004 Olympic Games have had a great economic growth impact on the tourism sector, one of the pillars of the Greek economy, as well as in many other sectors.

The final verdict on the cost of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games, in the words of the Greek Minister of Finance, is that “as a result from the cost-benefit analysis, we reach the conclusion that there has been a net economic benefit from the Olympic Games”

The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of Athens 2004 at US$2.9 billion in 2015-dollars.[19] This figure includes only sports-related costs, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, of which the largest components are technology, transportation, workforce, and administration costs, while other operational costs include security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included here, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. Athens 2004 cost of US$2.9 billion compares with costs of US$4.6 billion for Rio 2016, US$40-44 billion for Beijing 2008 and US$51 billion for Sochi 2014, the most expensive Olympics in history. Average sports-related cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is US$5.2 billion.

Cost per sporting event for Athens 2004 was US$9.8 million. This compares with US$14.9 million for Rio 2016, US$49.5 million for London 2012, and US$22.5 million for Beijing 2008. Average cost per event for the Summer Games since 1960 is US$19.9 million.

Cost per athlete for Athens 2004 was US$0.3 million. This compares with US$0.4 million for Rio 2016, US$1.4 million for London 2012, and US$0.6 million for Beijing 2008. Average cost per athlete for the Summer Games since 1960 is US$0.6 million.

Cost overrun for Athens 2004 was 49 percent, measured in real terms from the bid to host the Games. This compares with 51 percent for Rio 2016 and 76 percent for London 2012. Average cost overrun for the Summer Games since 1960 is 176 percent.

Construction

The OAKA Plaza and Arch adjacent to the Olympic Stadium

Faliro Sports Pavilion Arena

The Olympic Indoor Aquatic Center

By late March 2004, some Olympic projects were still behind schedule, and Greek authorities announced that a roof it had initially proposed as an optional, non-vital addition to the Aquatics Center would no longer be built. The main Olympic Stadium, the designated facility for the opening and closing ceremonies, was completed only two months before the Games opened. This stadium was completed with a retractable glass roof designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava. The same architect also designed the Velodrome and other facilities.

The Olympic Outdoor Aquatic Center

Infrastructure, such as the tram line linking venues in southern Athens with the city proper, and numerous venues were considerably behind schedule just two months before the start of the Games. The subsequent pace of preparation, however, made the rush to finish the Athens venues one of the tightest in Olympics history. The Greeks, unperturbed, maintained that they would make it all along. By July/August 2004, all venues were delivered: in August, the Olympic Stadium was officially completed and opened, joined or preceded by the official completion and openings of other venues within the Athens Olympic Sports Complex (OAKA), and the sports complexes in Faliro and Helliniko.

The Athens Olympic Velodrome during the 2004 Olympic Games

Late July and early August witnessed the Athens Tram become operational, and this system provided additional connections to those already existing between Athens city centre and its waterfront communities along the Saronic Gulf. These communities included the port city of Piraeus, Agios Kosmas (site of the sailing venue), Helliniko (the site of the old international airport which now contained the fencing venue, the canoe/kayak slalom course, the 15,000-seat Helliniko Olympic Basketball Arena, and the softball and baseball stadia), and the Faliro Coastal Zone Olympic Complex (site of the taekwondo, handball, indoor volleyball, and beach volleyball venues, as well as the newly reconstructed Karaiskaki Stadium for football). The upgrades to the Athens Ring Road were also delivered just in time, as were the expressway upgrades connecting central Athens proper with peripheral areas such as Markopoulo (site of the shooting and equestrian venues), the newly constructed Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport, Schinias (site of the rowing venue), Maroussi (site of the OAKA), Parnitha (site of the Olympic Village), Galatsi (site of the rhythmic gymnastics and table tennis venue), and Vouliagmeni (site of the triathlon venue). The upgrades to the Athens Metro were also completed, and the new lines became operational by mid-summer.

EMI released Unity, the official pop album of the Athens Olympics, in the leadup to the Olympics.[20] It features contributions from Sting, Lenny Kravitz, Moby, Destiny’s Child, and Avril Lavigne.[20] EMI has pledged to donate US$180,000 from the album to UNICEF’s HIV/AIDS program in Sub-Saharan Africa.[20]

At least 14 people died during the work on the facilities. Most of these people were not from Greece.[21]

Before the Games, Greek hotel staff staged a series of one-day strikes over wage disputes. They had been asking for a significant raise for the period covering the event being staged. Paramedics and ambulance drivers also protested. They claimed to have the right to the same Olympic bonuses promised to their security force counterparts.

Panorama of Athens Olympic Sports Complex.

Nikos Galis Olympic Indoor Hall.

Torch relay

The ceremony for the lighting of the flame was arranged as a pagan pageant, with dancing priestesses.

The Olympic Flame toured the world for the first time.

The lighting ceremony of the Olympic flame took place on 25 March 2004 in Ancient Olympia. For the first time ever, the flame travelled around the world in a relay to various Olympic cities (past and future) and other large cities, before returning to Greece.

Mascots

The mascots were based on this clay model at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens

Mascots have been a tradition at the Olympic Games since the 1968 Winter Olympics in Grenoble, France. The 2004 Olympics had two official mascots: Athena and Phevos (Greek pronunciation: Athina and Fivos). The sister and brother were named after Athena, the goddess of wisdom, strategy and war, and Phoebus, the god of light and music, respectively. They were inspired by the ancient daidala, which were toy dolls that also had religious connotations.

Online coverage

For the first time, major broadcasters were allowed to serve video coverage of the Olympics over the Internet, provided that they restricted this service geographically, to protect broadcasting contracts in other areas. For instance, the BBC made their complete live coverage available to UK high-speed Internet customers for free; customers in the U.S. were only able to receive delayed excerpts.[22] The International Olympic Committee forbade Olympic athletes, as well as coaches, support personnel and other officials, from setting up specialized weblogs and/or other websites for covering their personal perspective of the Games. They were not allowed to post audio, video, or photos that they had taken. An exception was made if an athlete already has a personal website that was not set up specifically for the Games.[23]NBC launched its own Olympic website, NBCOlympics.com. Focusing on the television coverage of the Games, it did provide video clips, medal standings, live results. Its main purpose, however, was to provide a schedule of what sports were on the many stations of NBC Universal. The Games were shown on television 24 hours a day, on one network or another.

Technology

View of the ATHOC Technology Operations Center during the Games.

Olympic Airlines Boeing 737-484 decorated with the colours of the 2004 Olympics

As with any enterprise, the Organizing Committee and everyone involved with it relied heavily on technology in order to deliver a successful event. ATHOC maintained two separate data networks, one for the preparation of the Games (known as the Administrative network) and one for the Games themselves (Games Network). The technical infrastructure involved more than 11,000 computers, over 600 servers, 2,000 printers, 23,000 fixed-line telephone devices, 9,000 mobile phones, 12,000 TETRA devices, 16,000 TV and video devices and 17 Video Walls interconnected by more than 6,000 kilometers of cabling (both optical fiber and twisted pair).

This infrastructure was created and maintained to serve directly more than 150,000 ATHOC Staff, Volunteers, Olympic family members (IOC, NOCs, Federations), Partners & Sponsors and Media. It also kept the information flowing for all spectators, TV viewers, Website visitors and news readers around the world, prior and during the Games. The Media Center was located inside the Zappeion which is a Greek national exhibition center.

Between June and August 2004, the technology staff worked in the Technology Operations Center (TOC) from where it could centrally monitor and manage all the devices and flow of information, as well as handle any problems that occurred during the Games. The TOC was organized in teams (e.g. Systems, Telecommunications, Information Security, Data Network, Staffing, etc.) under a TOC Director and corresponding team leaders (Shift Managers). The TOC operated on a 24×7 basis with personnel organized into 12-hour shifts.

The Games

Opening ceremony

The Olympic Flame at the opening ceremony

The widely praised Opening Ceremony Directed by avant garde choreographer Dimitris Papaioannou and produced by Jack Morton Worldwide led by Project Director David Zolkwer was held on 13 August 2004. It began with a twenty eight (the number of the Olympiads up to then) second countdown paced by the sounds of an amplified heartbeat.[24] As the countdown was completed, fireworks rumbled and illuminated the skies overhead. After a drum corps and bouzouki players joined in an opening march, the video screen showed images of flight, crossing southwest from Athens over the Greek countryside to ancient Olympia. Then, a single drummer in the ancient stadium joined in a drum duet with a single drummer in the main stadium in Athens, joining the original ancient Olympic Games with the modern ones in symbolism. At the end of the drum duet, a single flaming arrow was launched from the video screen (symbolically from ancient Olympia) and into the reflecting pool, which resulted in fire erupting in the middle of the stadium creating a burning image of the Olympic rings rising from the pool. The Opening Ceremony was a pageant of traditional Greek culture and history hearkening back to its mythological beginnings. The program began as a young Greek boy sailed into the stadium on a ‘paper-ship’ waving the host nation’s flag to aethereal music by Hadjidakis and then a centaur appeared, followed by a gigantic head of a cycladic figurine which eventually broke into many pieces symbolising the Greek islands. Underneath the cycladic head was a Hellenistic representation of the human body, reflecting the concept and belief in perfection reflected in Greek art. A man was seen balancing on a hovering cube symbolising man’s eternal ‘split’ between passion and reason followed by a couple of young lovers playfully chasing each other while the god Eros was hovering above them. There followed a very colourful float parade chronicling Greek history from the ancient Minoan civilization to modern times.
Although NBC in the United States presented the entire opening ceremony from start to finish, a topless Minoan priestess was shown only briefly, the breasts having been pixelated digitally in order to avoid controversy (as the “Nipplegate” incident was still fresh in viewer’s minds at the time) and potential fines by the Federal Communications Commission. Also, lower frontal nudity of men dressed as ancient Greek statues was shown in such a way that the area below the waist was cut off by the bottom of the screen. In most other countries presenting the broadcast, there was no censorship of the ceremony.

Following the artistic performances, a parade of nations entered the stadium with over 10,500 athletes walking under the banners of 201 nations. The nations were arranged according to Greek alphabet making Finland, Fiji, Chile, and Hong Kong the last four to enter the stadium before the Greek delegation. On this occasion, in observance of the tradition that the delegation of Greece opens the parade and the host nation closes it, the Greek flag bearer opened the parade and all the Greek delegation closed it. Based on audience reaction, the emotional high point of the parade was the entrance of the delegation from Afghanistan which had been absent from the Olympics and had female competitors for the first time. The Iraqi delegation also stirred emotions. Also recognized was the symbolic unified march of athletes from North Korea and South Korea under the Korean Unification Flag.[a] The country of Kiribati made its debut appearance at these Games and East Timor made a debut under its own flag. After the Parade of Nations, during which the Dutch DJ Tiësto provided the music, the Icelandic singer Björk performed the song Oceania, written specially for the event by her and the poet Sjón.

The Opening Ceremony culminated in the lighting of the Olympic Cauldron by 1996 Gold Medalist Windsurfer Nikolaos Kaklamanakis. Many key moments in the ceremony, including the lighting of the Olympic Cauldron, featured music composed and arranged by John Psathas[25] from New Zealand. The gigantic cauldron, which was styled after the Athens 2004 Olympic Torch, pivoted down to be lit by the 35-year-old, before slowly swinging up and lifting the flame high above the stadium. Following this, the stadium found itself at the centre of a rousing fireworks spectacular.

Participating National Olympic Committees

Participating nations

Team numbers

All National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated in the Athens Games, as was the case in 1996. Two new NOCs had been created since 1996 and made their debut at these Games (Kiribati and Timor-Leste). Therefore, with the return of Afghanistan (who had been banned from the 2000 Summer Olympics), the number of participating nations increased from 199 to 202. Also since 2000, Yugoslavia had changed its name to Serbia and Montenegro and its code from YUG to SCG.

In the table below, the number in parentheses indicates the number of participants contributed by each NOC.

Participating National Olympic Committees
  •  Afghanistan (5)
  •  Albania (7)
  •  Algeria (61)
  •  American Samoa (5)
  •  Andorra (8)
  •  Angola (31)
  •  Antigua and Barbuda (9)
  •  Argentina (156)
  •  Armenia (19)
  •  Aruba (4)
  •  Australia (482)
  •  Austria (101)
  •  Azerbaijan (36)
  •  Bahamas (41)
  •  Bahrain (6)
  •  Bangladesh (4)
  •  Barbados (10)
  •  Belarus (151)
  •  Belgium (62)
  •  Belize (2)
  •  Benin (4)
  •  Bermuda (10)
  •  Bhutan (2)
  •  Bolivia (7)
  •  Bosnia and Herzegovina (9)
  •  Botswana (11)
  •  Brazil (247)
  •  British Virgin Islands (1)
  •  Brunei (1)
  •  Bulgaria (165)
  •  Burkina Faso (5)
  •  Burundi (7)
  •  Cambodia (4)
  •  Cameroon (17)
  •  Canada (262)
  •  Cape Verde (3)
  •  Cayman Islands (5)
  •  Central African Republic (4)
  •  Chad (2)
  •  Chile (56)
  •  China (407)
  •  Chinese Taipei (87)
  •  Colombia (51)
  •  Comoros (3)
  •  Republic of the Congo (5)
  •  Cook Islands (3)
  •  Costa Rica (20)
  •  Croatia (83)
  •  Cuba (151)
  •  Cyprus (20)
  •  Czech Republic (142)
  •  Democratic Republic of the Congo (4)
  •  Denmark (92)
  •  Djibouti (1)
  •  Dominica (2)
  •  Dominican Republic (33)
  •  East Timor (2)
  •  Ecuador (17)
  •  Egypt (96)
  •  El Salvador (8)
  •  Equatorial Guinea (2)
  •  Eritrea (4)
  •  Estonia (44)
  •  Ethiopia (28)
  •  Federated States of Micronesia (5)
  •  Fiji (10)
  •  Finland (62)
  •  France (317)
  •  Gabon (6)
  •  Georgia (32)
  •  Germany (479)
  •  Ghana (29)
  •  Great Britain (259)
  •  Greece (441) (host)
  •  Grenada (5)
  •  Guam (4)
  •  Guatemala (18)
  •  Guinea (3)
  •  Guinea-Bissau (3)
  •  Guyana (4)
  •  Haiti (8)
  •  Honduras (5)
  •  Hong Kong (32)
  •  Hungary (219)
  •  Iceland (26)
  •  India (73)
  •  Indonesia (38)
  •  Iran (37)
  •  Iraq (25)
  •  Ireland (52)
  •  Israel (36)
  •  Italy (364)
  •  Ivory Coast (5)
  •  Jamaica (47)
  •  Japan (312)
  •  Jordan (8)
  •  Kazakhstan (114)
  •  Kenya (46)
  •  Kiribati (3)
  •  Kuwait (29)
  •  Kyrgyzstan (11)
  •  Laos (5)
  •  Latvia (35)
  •  Lebanon (8)
  •  Lesotho (3)
  •  Liberia (2)
  •  Libya (8)
  •  Liechtenstein (1)
  •  Lithuania (59)
  •  Luxembourg (10)
  •  Macedonia (22)
  •  Madagascar (8)
  •  Malawi (4)
  •  Malaysia (26)
  •  Maldives (4)
  •  Mali (23)
  •  Malta (7)
  •  Mauritania (2)
  •  Mauritius (9)
  •  Mexico (109)
  •  Moldova (33)
  •  Monaco (3)
  •  Mongolia (20)
  •  Morocco (55)
  •  Mozambique (4)
  •  Myanmar (2)
  •  Namibia (8)
  •  Nauru (3)
  •  Nepal (6)
  •  Netherlands (219)
  •  Netherlands Antilles (3)
  •  New Zealand (148)
  •  Nicaragua (5)
  •  Niger (4)
  •  Nigeria (70)
  •  North Korea (36)
  •  Norway (52)
  •  Oman (2)
  •  Pakistan (26)
  •  Palau (4)
  •  Palestine (3)
  •  Panama (4)
  •  Papua New Guinea (4)
  •  Paraguay (22)
  •  Peru (9)
  •  Philippines (16)
  •  Poland (208)
  •  Portugal (91)
  •  Puerto Rico (43)
  •  Qatar (22)
  •  Romania (108)
  •  Russia (456)
  •  Rwanda (5)
  •  Saint Kitts and Nevis (2)
  •  Saint Lucia (2)
  •  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (3)
  •  São Tomé and Príncipe (2)
  •  Samoa (3)
  •  San Marino (5)
  •  Saudi Arabia (16)
  •  Senegal (16)
  •  Serbia and Montenegro (87)
  •  Seychelles (9)
  •  Sierra Leone (2)
  •  Singapore (16)
  •  Slovakia (64)
  •  Slovenia (79)
  •  Solomon Islands (2)
  •  Somalia (2)
  •  South Africa (106)
  •  South Korea (264)
  •  Spain (316)
  •  Sri Lanka (8)
  •  Sudan (4)
  •  Suriname (4)
  •  Swaziland (3)
  •  Sweden (115)
  •  Switzerland (98)
  •  Syria (6)
  •  Tajikistan (9)
  •  Tanzania (8)
  •  Thailand (42)
  •  The Gambia (2)
  •  Togo (3)
  •  Tonga (5)
  •  Trinidad and Tobago (19)
  •  Tunisia (54)
  •  Turkey (53)
  •  Turkmenistan (9)
  •  Uganda (11)
  •  Ukraine (239)
  •  United Arab Emirates (4)
  •  United States (536)
  •  Uruguay (15)
  •  Uzbekistan (70)
  •  Vanuatu (2)
  •  Venezuela (48)
  •  Vietnam (11)
  •  Virgin Islands (6)
  •  Yemen (3)
  •  Zambia (6)
  •  Zimbabwe (13)

Sports

The sports featured at the 2004 Summer Olympics are listed below. Officially there were 301 events in 28 sports as swimming, diving, synchronised swimming and water polo are classified by the IOC as disciplines within the sport of aquatics, and wheelchair racing was a demonstration sport. For the first time, the wrestling category featured women’s wrestling and in the fencing competition women competed in the sabre. American Kristin Heaston, who led off the qualifying round of women’s shot put became the first woman to compete at the ancient site of Olympia.

The demonstration sport of wheelchair racing was a joint Olympic/Paralympic event, allowing a Paralympic event to occur within the Olympics, and for the future, opening up the wheelchair race to the able-bodied. The 2004 Summer Paralympics were also held in Athens, from 17 to 28 September.

2004 Summer Olympic Sports Programme

Gallery

Calendar

All times are in Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
 ●  Opening ceremony     Event competitions  ●  Event finals  ●  Closing ceremony
August 11th
Wed
12th
Thu
13th
Fri
14th
Sat
15th
Sun
16th
Mon
17th
Tue
18th
Wed
19th
Thu
20th
Fri
21st
Sat
22nd
Sun
23rd
Mon
24th
Tue
25th
Wed
26th
Thu
27th
Fri
28th
Sat
29th
Sun
Gold
medals
Archery
Athletics ● ● ● ●
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Badminton ● ● ● ●
Baseball
Basketball ● ●
Boxing ● ● ●
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Canoeing ● ● ● ● ● ●

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Cycling ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
Diving ● ● ● ●
Equestrian ● ● ● ●
Fencing ● ●
Field hockey
Football (soccer)
Gymnastics ● ●

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Handball ● ●
Judo ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
Modern pentathlon
Rowing ● ● ●
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Sailing ● ●
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Shooting ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
Softball
Swimming ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
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Synchronized swimming
Table tennis
Taekwondo ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
Tennis ● ●
Triathlon
Volleyball
Water polo
Weightlifting ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
Wrestling ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
Total gold medals
Cumulative total
Ceremonies
August 11th
W
12th
Th
13th
F
14th
Sa
15th
Su
16th
M
17th
Tu
18th
W
19th
Th
20th
F
21st
Sa
22nd
Su
23rd
M
24th
Tu
25th
W
26th
Th
27th
F
28th
Sa
29th
Su

31 sports

Highlights

  • The shot put event was held in ancient Olympia, site of the ancient Olympic Games (that is the very first time women athletes competed in Ancient Olympia), while the archery competition was held in the Panathenaic Stadium, in which the 1896 Games were held.[26]
  • Kiribati and Timor Leste participated in the Olympic Games for the first time.[26]
  • Women’s wrestling and women’s sabre made their Olympic debut at the 2004 Games.[26]
  • With 6 gold, 6 silver, and 4 bronze medals, Greece had its best medal tally in over 100 years (since hosting the 1896 Olympics), continuing the nation’s sporting success after winning Euro 2004 in July.
  • The marathon was held on the same route as the 1896 Games, beginning in the site of the Battle of Marathon to the Panathenaic Stadium in Athens.[26]
  • Australia became the first country in Olympic history to win more gold medals (17) immediately after hosting the Olympics in Sydney 2000 where they won 16 gold medals.
  • World record holder and strong favourite Paula Radcliffe crashes out of the women’s marathon in spectacular fashion, leaving Mizuki Noguchi to win the gold.
  • While leading in the men’s marathon with less than 10 kilometres to go, Brazilian runner Vanderlei Cordeiro de Lima is attacked by Irish priest Neil Horan and dragged into the crowd. De Lima recovered to take bronze, and was later awarded the Pierre de Coubertin medal for sportsmanship.[26]
  • British athlete Kelly Holmes wins gold in the 800 m and 1500 m.[26]
  • Liu Xiang wins gold in the 110 m hurdles, equalling Colin Jackson’s 1993 world record time of 12.91 seconds. This was China’s first ever gold in men’s track and field.
  • Kenyan runners swept the medals in the 3000 meters steeple chase.[26]
  • The Olympics saw Afghanistan’s first return to the Games since 1996 (it was banned due to the Taliban’s extremist attitudes towards women, but was reinstated in 2002).
  • Hicham El Guerrouj wins gold in the 1500 m and 5000 m. He is the first person to accomplish this feat at the Olympics since Paavo Nurmi in 1924.[26]
  • Greek athlete Fani Halkia comes out of retirement to win the 400 m hurdles.
  • The US women’s 4 × 200 m swimming team of Natalie Coughlin, Carly Piper, Dana Vollmer and Kaitlin Sandeno won gold, smashing the long-standing world record set by the German Democratic Republic in 1987.
  • The United States lost for the first time in Olympic men’s basketball since 1992. This defeat came at the hands of Puerto Rico 92–73.
  • Argentina won a thrilling victory over the United States in the semi-finals of men’s basketball. They went on to beat Italy 84–69 in the final.
  • Windsurfer Gal Fridman wins Israel’s first-ever gold medal.
  • Dominican athlete Félix Sánchez won the first ever gold medal for the Dominican Republic in the 400 m hurdles event.
  • German kayaker Birgit Fischer wins gold in the K-4 500 m and silver in the K-2 500 m. In so doing, she became the first woman in any sport to win gold medals at 6 different Olympics, the first woman to win gold 24 years apart and the first person in Olympic history to win two or more medals in five different Games.
  • Swimmer Michael Phelps wins 8 medals (including a record 6 gold and 2 bronze), becoming the first athlete to win 8 medals in non boycotted Olympics.[26]
  • United States’ gymnast Carly Patterson becomes the second American woman to win the all-around gold medal, and the first American women to win the all-around competition at a non-boycotted Olympic Games.
  • Chilean Tennis players Nicolás Massu and Fernando Gonzalez won the gold medal in the Doubles Competition, while Massu won the gold and Gonzalez the bronze on the Singles competition. These were Chile’s first-ever gold medals. With these victories, Massú became the thirteenth Tennis player (and the eighth male player) in history to have won the gold medal in both the Singles and Doubles Competition during the same Olympic Games. He also became the second Tennis player, and first male player, to have achieved this feat in modern Olympic Tennis (1988 onwards). The first player to do so was Venus Williams in 2000.[26]
  • Usain Bolt of Jamaica finishes fifth in his 200m dash heat in 21.05 seconds, and fails to qualify for the second round. In the years to come, Bolt would go on to become the world’s fastest man, with multiple world records in the 100m, 200m, 4 × 100 m, and a medal count of over 29 global medals, including 8 Olympic Golds and 11 World Championships Golds.

Closing ceremony

Balloons falling at the Athens 2004 Olympics Closing ceremony

The Games were concluded on 29 August 2004. The closing ceremony was held at the Athens Olympic Stadium, where the Games had been opened 16 days earlier. Around 70,000 people gathered in the stadium to watch the ceremony.

The initial part of the ceremony interspersed the performances of various Greek singers, and featured traditional Greek dance performances from various regions of Greece (Crete, Pontos, Thessaly, etc.). The event was meant to highlight the pride of the Greeks in their culture and country for the world to see.

A significant part of the closing ceremony was the exchange of the Olympic flag of the Athens Games between the mayor of Athens and the mayor of Beijing, host city of the next Olympics. After the flag exchange a presentation from the Beijing delegation presented a glimpse into Chinese culture for the world to see. Beijing University students (who were at first incorrectly cited as the Twelve Girls Band) sang Mo Li Hua (Jasmine Flower) accompanied by a ribbon dancer, then some male dancers did a routine with tai-chi and acrobatics, followed by dancers from the Peking Opera and finally, a little Chinese girl singing a reprise of Mo Li Hua and concluded the presentation by saying “Welcome to Beijing!”

The medal ceremony for the last event of the Olympics, the men’s marathon, was conducted, with Stefano Baldini from Italy as the winner. The bronze medal winner, Vanderlei Cordeiro de Lima of Brazil, was simultaneously announced as a recipient of the Pierre de Coubertin medal for his bravery in finishing the race despite being attacked by a rogue spectator while leading with 7 km to go.

A flag-bearer from each nation’s delegation then entered along the stage, followed by the competitors en masse on the floor.

Short speeches were presented by Gianna Angelopoulos-Daskalaki, President of the Organising Committee, and by President Dr. Jacques Rogge of the IOC, in which he described the Athens Olympics as “unforgettable, dream Games”.[7]

Dr. Rogge had previously declared he would be breaking with tradition in his closing speech as President of the IOC and that he would never use the words of his predecessor Juan Antonio Samaranch, who used to always say ‘these were the best ever games’.[7] Dr. Rogge had described Salt Lake City 2002 as “superb games” and in turn would continue after Athens 2004 and describe Turin 2006 as “truly magnificent games.”

The national anthems of Greece and China were played in a handover ceremony as both nations’ flags were raised. The Mayor of Athens, Dora Bakoyianni, passed the Olympic Flag to the Mayor of Beijing, Wang Qishan. After a short cultural performance by Chinese actors, dancers, and musicians directed by eminent Chinese director Zhang Yimou, Rogge declared the 2004 Olympic Games closed. The Olympic flag was next raised again on 10 February 2006 during the opening ceremony of next Winter Olympics in Torino.

A young Greek girl, 10-year-old Fotini Papaleonidopoulou, lit a symbolic lantern with the Olympic Flame and passed it on to other children before “extinguishing” the flame in the cauldron by blowing a puff of air. The ceremony ended with a variety of musical performances by Greek singers, including Dionysis Savvopoulos, George Dalaras, Haris Alexiou, Anna Vissi, Sakis Rouvas, Eleftheria Arvanitaki, Alkistis Protopsalti, Antonis Remos, Michalis Hatzigiannis, Marinella and Dimitra Galani, as thousands of athletes carried out symbolic displays on the stadium floor.

Medal count

Army Maj. Michael Anti (left) holds up his Silver medal in the Men’s 50m Three-Position Rifle, Zhanbo Jia from China (center) took the Gold and Christian Planer (right) from Austria took the Bronze

These are the top ten nations that won medals in the 2004 Games.

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States 36 39 26 101
2  China 32 17 14 63
3  Russia 28 26 36 90
4  Australia 17 16 16 49
5  Japan 16 9 12 37
6  Germany 14 16 20 50
7  France 11 9 13 33
8  Italy 10 11 11 32
9  South Korea 9 12 9 30
10  Great Britain 9 9 12 30
Totals (10 nations) 182 164 169 515

Venues

OAKA

Athens Olympic Tennis Centre

Athens Olympic Velodrome

  • Athens Olympic Aquatic Centre – diving, swimming, synchronized swimming, water polo
  • Athens Olympic Tennis Centre – tennis
  • Athens Olympic Velodrome – cycling (track)
  • Olympic Indoor Hall – basketball (final), gymnastics (artistic, trampolining)
  • Olympic Stadium – ceremonies (opening/ closing), athletics, football (final)

HOC

  • Fencing Hall – fencing
  • Helliniko Indoor Arena – basketball, handball (final)
  • Olympic Baseball Centre – baseball
  • Olympic Canoe/Kayak Slalom Centre – canoeing (slalom)
  • Olympic Hockey Centre – field hockey
  • Olympic Softball Stadium – softball

Faliro

Faliro Olympic Beach Volleyball Centre hosting beach volleyball

  • Faliro Olympic Beach Volleyball Centre – volleyball (beach)
  • Faliro Sports Pavilion Arena – handball, taekwondo
  • Peace and Friendship Stadium – volleyball (indoor)

GOC

  • Goudi Olympic Hall – badminton
  • Olympic Modern Pentathlon Centre – modern pentathlon

MOC

  • Markopoulo Olympic Equestrian Centre – equestrian
  • Markopoulo Olympic Shooting Centre – shooting

Football venues

  • Kaftanzoglio Stadium (Thessaloniki)
  • Karaiskakis Stadium (Athens)
  • Pampeloponnisiako Stadium (Patras)
  • Pankritio Stadium (Heraklion)
  • Panthessaliko Stadium (Volos)

Other venues

Galatsi Olympic Hall hosted gymnastics (rhythmic) and table tennis

  • Agios Kosmas Olympic Sailing Centre – sailing
  • Ano Liosia Olympic Hall – judo, wrestling
  • Galatsi Olympic Hall – gymnastics (rhythmic), table tennis
  • Kotzia Square – cycling (individual road race)
  • Marathon (city) – athletics (marathon start)
  • Nikaia Olympic Weightlifting Hall – weightlifting
  • Panathenaic Stadium – archery, athletics (marathons finish)
  • Peristeri Olympic Boxing Hall – boxing
  • Schinias Olympic Rowing and Canoeing Centre – canoeing (sprint), rowing
  • Stadium at Olympia – athletics (shot put)
  • Vouliagmeni Olympic Centre – cycling (individual time trial), triathlon

Sponsors

Sponsors of the 2004 Summer Olympics
Worldwide Olympic Partners

  • Atos Origin
  • The Coca-Cola Company
  • John Hancock
  • Kodak
  • Sports Illustrated
  • McDonald’s
  • Swatch
  • Panasonic
  • Samsung Electronics
  • Visa Inc.
  • Xerox
Grand Sponsors

  • Alpha Bank
  • Hellenic Telecommunications Organisation
  • Heineken
  • Hyundai
  • Fage
  • Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation
  • Hellenic Post
  • Olympic Airlines
  • Public Power Corporation
Official Supporters

  • Adidas
  • Shell
  • Jet Set Sports
  • Siemens
  • Ticketmaster
  • General Electric
  • Cleaning and Waste Services
Official Providers

  • Mizuno
  • Mondo
  • Deutsche Bahn (DB Schenker)
  • Technogym

Legacy

Latvian postage stamp to commemorate the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens

Ecuadorian postage stamp to commemorate the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens

To commemorate the 2004 Olympics, a series of Greek high value euro collectors’ coins were minted by the Mint of Greece, in both silver and gold. The pieces depict landmarks in Greece as well as ancient and modern sports on the obverse of the coin. On the reverse, a common motif with the logo of the Games, circled by an olive branch representing the spirit of the Games.

Preparations to stage the Olympics led to a number of positive developments for the city’s infrastructure. These improvements included the establishment of Eleftherios Venizelos International Airport, a modern new international airport serving as Greece’s main aviation gateway;[27] expansions to the Athens Metro[28] system; the “Tram”, a new metropolitan tram (light rail) system[29] system; the “Proastiakos”, a new suburban railway system linking the airport and suburban towns to the city of Athens; the “Attiki Odos”, a new toll motorway encircling the city,[30] and the conversion of streets into pedestrianized walkways in the historic center of Athens which link several of the city’s main tourist sites, including the Parthenon and the Panathenaic Stadium (the site of the first modern Olympic Games in 1896).[31][32] All of the above infrastructure is still in use to this day, and there have been continued expansions and proposals to expand Athens’ metro, tram, suburban rail and motorway network, the airport, as well as further plans to pedestrianize more thoroughfares in the historic center of Athens.

The Greek Government has created a corporation, Olympic Properties SA, which is overseeing the post-Olympics management, development and conversion of these facilities, some of which will be sold off (or have already been sold off) to the private sector,[33][34] while some other facilities are still in use, or have been converted for commercial use or modified for other sports.[35]

As of 2012 many conversion schemes have stalled owing to the Greek government-debt crisis. The annual cost to maintain the sites has been estimated at £500 million, a sum which has been politically controversial in Greece,[36] though many of these facilities are now under the control of domestic sporting clubs and organizations or the private sector.[citation needed]

The table below delineates the current status of the Athens Olympic facilities:

Facility Olympics use Current/Proposed use
Athens Olympic Stadium (OAKA) Opening & Closing Ceremonies, Track & Field, Football Home pitch for Panathinaikos FC,[37]AEK FC[38] (football; Greek Super League, UEFA Champions League), Greek national football team (some matches), International football competitions;[39] Track & Field events (e.g. IAAF Athens Grand Prix[40]), Concerts[41][42][43]
Athens Olympic Indoor Hall Basketball, Gymnastics Home court for Panathinaikos BC[44] and AEK BC[45] (Greek basketball league); Greek National Basketball Team, International basketball competitions,[46] Concerts[47][48]
Athens Olympic Aquatic Centre Swimming, Diving, Synchronized Swimming, Water Polo Domestic and international swimming meets,[49][50][51] Public pool,[52] domestic league and European water-polo games.
Athens Olympic Tennis Centre Tennis Domestic and international tennis matches, training courts open to the public and home of the Athens Tennis Academy, currently the best-kept facility in the complex[53][54]
Athens Olympic Velodrome Cycling Domestic and international cycling meets[55]
Peace and Friendship Stadium Volleyball Home court for Olympiacos BC (basketball),[56] Concerts, Conventions and trade shows[57]
Helliniko Olympic Indoor Arena Basketball, Handball Home court for Panionios BC (basketball),[58] Conventions and trade shows[52]
Hellinikon Canoe/Kayak Slalom Centre Canoe/Kayak Turned over to a private consortium (J&P AVAX, GEP, Corfu Waterparks and BIOTER), plans to convert it to a water park,[59][60] although currently it is abandoned.
Hellinikon Olympic Hockey Centre Field Hockey Mini-football, will be part of new Hellinikon metropolitan park complex[61]
Hellinikon Baseball Stadium Baseball Main ground (no. 1) converted to football pitch, home field of Ethnikos Piraeus F.C. (Football; Greek second division),[62] auxiliary ground (no. 2) abandoned.
Hellinikon Softball Stadium Softball Abandoned[61]
Agios Kosmas Olympic Sailing Centre Sailing Currently out of use, turned over to the private sector (Seirios AE), will become marina with 1,000+ yacht capacity[63] and will be part of Athens’ revitalized waterfront[64]
Ano Liosia Olympic Hall Judo, Wrestling TV filming facility,[52] Future home of the Hellenic Academy of Culture and Hellenic Digital Archive[65][66]
Olympic Beach Volleyball Centre Beach Volleyball Concert and theater venue, it hosted Helena Paparizou’s concert on 13 August 2005 to celebrate the first anniversary of the Olympic Games, currently sees minimal usage[67] plans to turn it into an ultra-modern outdoor theater[52]
Faliro Sports Pavilion Handball, Taekwondo Converted to the Athens International Convention Center, hosts concerts, conventions and trade shows[52][66][68][69][70]
Galatsi Olympic Hall Table Tennis, Rhythmic Gymnastics After 2004, was the home court of AEK BC (basketball) before the team moved to the Athens Olympic Indoor Hall. Turned over to the private sector (Acropol Haragionis AE and Sonae Sierra SGPS S.A), being converted to a shopping mall and retail/entertainment complex.[71]
Goudi Olympic Complex Badminton, Modern Pentathlon Now the site of the ultra-modern Badminton Theater, hosting major theatrical productions[72][73]
Markopoulo Olympic Equestrian Centre Equestrian Horse racing,[74] Domestic and International Equestrian meets,[75][76] Auto racing (rallye)[77]
Markopoulo Olympic Shooting Centre Shooting Converted to the official shooting range and training center of the Hellenic Police.[63][78]
Nikaia Olympic Weightlifting Hall Weightlifting Has hosted fencing competitions in the years following the Olympics,[52] but has recently been turned over to the University of Piraeus for use as an academic lecture and conference center.[66][79]
Parnitha Olympic Mountain Bike Venue Mountain Biking Part of the Parnitha National Park. In public use for biking and hiking.[80][81]
Peristeri Olympic Boxing Hall Boxing Partially converted to a football pitch, also in use for gymnastics competitions.[52]
Schinias Olympic Rowing and Canoeing Centre Rowing and Canoeing One of only three FISA-approved training centers in the world, the others being in Munich and Seville.[63] Hosts mainly domestic rowing and canoeing meetings.[82][83] Part of the Schinias National Park, completely reconstructed by the German company Hochtief.[52]
Vouliagmeni Olympic Centre Triathlon Temporary facility, not in existence presently.
Kaftanzoglio Stadium Football Home pitch for Iraklis FC (football; Greek Super League)[84] and temporary home pitch for Apollon Kalamarias FC (football; Greek second division).[85] Also in use for track and field meets.[86] Hosted the 2007 Greek football All-Star Game.
Karaiskaki Stadium Football Home pitch for Olympiacos FC (football; Greek Super League)[87] and for the Greek National Football team. Also used as a concert venue.
Pampeloponnisiako Stadium Football Home pitch for Panahaiki FC (football; Greek third division).[88] Also used for various track-and-field events, concerts, conventions, and friendly matches of the Greek National Football Team.[52]
Pankritio Stadium Football Home pitch for OFI FC[89][90] and Ergotelis FC (football; Greek Super League).[90][91] Hosted the 2005 Greek football All-Star game. Also home to various track-and-field meets.[52]
Panthessaliko Stadium Football Home pitch for Niki Volou FC (football; Greek third division).[52] Has also hosted concerts, conventions and track-and-field meets.[52]
Panathainaiko Stadium Marathon, Archery Site of the first modern Olympic Games in 1896. One of Athens’ major tourist attractions, also used for occasional sporting and concert events.[92][93][94][95]
The Ancient Stadium at Olympia Track and Field One of Greece’s historic sites and largest tourist attractions, open to the public to this day.[96]
International Broadcast Centre (IBC) International Broadcast Centre Half of it (the section fronting Kifissias Avenue) has been turned over to the private company Lambda Development SA and has been converted to a luxury shopping, retail, office and entertainment complex known as the “Golden Hall.”[97] The remaining section, facing the Olympic Stadium itself, will become home to the Hellenic Olympic Museum and the International Museum of Classical Athletics.[52]

[52][66][98]

Olympic Athletes’ Village Housing 2,292 apartments were sold to low-income individuals and today the village is home to over 8,000 residents.[52] Several communal installations however are abandoned and heavily vandalised.
Olympic Press Village Housing It has been turned over to the private sector and namely Lamda Developments S.A. (the same company which owns and runs the Mall of Athens and the Golden Hall), and has been converted to luxury flats.

Arguments about possible effects on Greece’s debt crisis

There have been arguments (mostly in popular media) that the cost of the 2004 Athens Summer Games was a contributor to the 2010 Greek government-debt crisis, with a lot of focus on the use of the facilities after the Games.[99] This argument, however, contradicts the fact that Greece’s Debt to GDP ratio was essentially not affected until the 2008 crisis,[100] while the cost of the Games, spread over years of preparation, was insignificant compared to Greece’s public debt and GDP.[101][102] Furthermore, the aforementioned arguments do not even take into account the profits (direct and indirect) generated by the Games, which may well have surpassed the above costs. Finally, popular arguments about “rotting” of many of the facilities, appear to ignore the actual utilization of most of these structures.[102]

Broadcast rights

  •  Argentina: TyC Max, TyC Sports, TyC Sports 2, Cable Sport, Cable Sport 2, América Sports, Canal 7 Argentina, El Trece, Telefe, América TV, Canal 9
  •  Australia: Seven Network, SBS, Nine Network, Network Ten
  •  Belgium: VRT, RTBF
  •  Brazil: Rede Globo, Rede Manchete, Rede Bandeirantes, Rede Record, SBT, SporTV, ESPN Brasil, BandSports
  •  Brunei: RTB, Astro
  •  Bulgaria: BNT 1
  •  Canada: CBC Radio-Canada
  •  Chile: TVN, Red Televisión, MEGA, CHV
  •  China: CCTV
  •  Colombia: RCN Televisión, Caracol Televisión, Channel 11
  •  Croatia: HRT
  •  France: TF1, France Télévisions
  •  Germany: ARD, RTL, ZDF
  •  Greece: ERT, ANT1
  •  Hong Kong: ATV, TVB
  •  Hungary: Magyar Televízió
  •  India: Doordarshan
  •  Indonesia: TVRI
  •  Iran: IRIB
  •  Ireland: RTÉ
  •  Italy: RAI
  •  Japan: NHK, Fuji Television
  •  Macau: TDM
  •  Malaysia: RTM, Astro
  •  Netherlands: NPO, RTL5
  •  New Zealand: TVNZ
  •  Paraguay: Tigo Max, Unicanal, Tigo Sports, Tigo Sports 2, Movistar Deportes, Movistar Deportes 2, Personal Sports, Paraguay TV, Telefuturo, SNT, Red Guaraní, Canal 13
  •  Peru: ATV
  •  Philippines: NBN 4, ABC-5, Net 25, SkyCable
  •  Poland: TVP
  •  Portugal: RTP
  •  Russia: Channel 1, VGTRK Olympiade, NTV Plus
  •  Serbia and Montenegro: RTS, RTCG, RTK
  •  Singapore: MediaCorp: Channel 5, Channel 8, Suria, Central, TVMobile, Channel NewsAsia
  •  South Korea: KBS, MBC, SBS
  •  Spain: TVE, Antena 3, TV3, Telecinco
  •  Sweden: SVT, TV4
  •   Switzerland: SRG SSR idee suisse
  •  Taiwan: TTV, CTV, CTS
  •  Thailand: National Sports
  •  Turkey: TRT
  •  United Kingdom: BBC, ITV
  •  United States: NBC
  •  Uruguay: Tenfield, Nuevo Siglo Cable TV, Montecable, TCC Cable Television, Monte Carlo TV, Channel 10, Teledoce
  •  Venezuela: Venevision

See also

  • List of 2004 Summer Olympics medal winners
  • Olympic records at the 2004 Summer Olympics
  • Use of performance-enhancing drugs in the Olympic Games — 2004 Athens
  • World records at the 2004 Summer Olympics

Notes

  1. ^ The national teams of North Korea and South Korea competed separately in the Olympic events, even though they marched together as a unified Korean team in the opening ceremony.

References

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External links

  • Athens 2004 (IOC)
  • Athens 2004 Medals (IOC)
  • Official website
  • Pictures from the opening ceremony
  • Project to fly the 2004 Olympic Flame around the world on a B747 aircraft
  • Pictures backstage from the opening ceremony
  • 2004 Athens Olympics at Curlie
  • BBC coverage
Preceded by
Sydney
Summer Olympic Games
Athens

XXVIII Olympiad (2004)
Succeeded by
Beijing


2000 Summer Olympics

Games of the XXVII Olympiad
2000 Summer Olympics logo.svg
Host city Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Motto Share the Spirit
Nations 199
Athletes 10,651 (6,582 men, 4,069 women)[1]
Events 300 in 28 sports (40 disciplines)
Opening 15 September
Closing 1 October
Opened by
Governor-General Sir William Deane[2]
Cauldron
Cathy Freeman[2]
Stadium Stadium Australia
Summer
← Atlanta 1996 Athens 2004 →
Winter
← Nagano 1998 Salt Lake 2002 →

The 2000 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event which was held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It was the second time that the Summer Olympics were held in Australia, and also the Southern Hemisphere, the first being in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1956.

Sydney was selected as the host city for the 2000 Games in 1993. Teams from 199 countries participated. The Games’ cost was estimated to be A$6.6 billion. The Games received universal acclaim, with the organisation, volunteers, sportsmanship and Australian public being lauded in the international media. Bill Bryson from The Times called the Sydney Games “one of the most successful events on the world stage”, saying that they “couldn’t be better”.[3]

James Mossop of the Electronic Telegraph called the Games “such a success that any city considering bidding for future Olympics must be wondering how it can reach the standards set by Sydney”,[4] while Jack Todd in the Montreal Gazette suggested that the “IOC should quit while it’s ahead. Admit there can never be a better Olympic Games, and be done with it,” as “Sydney was both exceptional and the best”.[3]

In preparing for the 2012 Olympic Games in London, Lord Coe declared the Sydney Games the “benchmark for the spirit of the Games, unquestionably” and admitting that the London organising committee “attempted in a number of ways to emulate what the Sydney Organising Committee did.”[5] These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch. These were also the second Olympic Games to be held in spring and is to date the most recent games not to be held in its more traditional July or August summer slot.

The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by Russia and China with host Australia at fourth place overall. Several World and Olympic records were broken during the games. With little or no controversies, the games were deemed generally successful with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world.

Contents

  • 1 Host city selection
  • 2 Costs
  • 3 Chronological summary of the 2000 Summer Olympics

    • 3.1 Preliminary matches – from 13 September
    • 3.2 Day 1–15 September

      • 3.2.1 Cultural display highlights
      • 3.2.2 Formal presentation
    • 3.3 Day 2–16 September
    • 3.4 Day 3–17 September
    • 3.5 Day 4–18 September
    • 3.6 Day 7–21 September
    • 3.7 Day 9–23 September
    • 3.8 Day 10–24 September
    • 3.9 Day 11–25 September
    • 3.10 Day 14–28 September
    • 3.11 Day 16–30 September
    • 3.12 Day 17–1 October
  • 4 Sports
  • 5 Calendar
  • 6 Medal count
  • 7 Participating National Olympic Committees
  • 8 Venues

    • 8.1 Sydney Olympic Park
    • 8.2 Sydney
    • 8.3 Outside Sydney
  • 9 Organisation

    • 9.1 Organisations responsible for the Olympics
    • 9.2 Organisation of the Paralympics
    • 9.3 Other Olympic events
    • 9.4 Phases of the Olympic project
    • 9.5 SOCOG organisational design
    • 9.6 Volunteer programme
  • 10 Marketing

    • 10.1 The official logo
    • 10.2 The Mascots
    • 10.3 Sponsors
  • 11 Medals and bouquets
  • 12 Awards and commendations
  • 13 Broadcast rights
  • 14 In popular culture
  • 15 See also
  • 16 Notes
  • 17 References
  • 18 External links

Host city selection

Sydney won the right to host the Games on 24 September 1993, after being selected over Beijing, Berlin, Istanbul and Manchester in four rounds of voting, at the 101st IOC Session in Monte Carlo, Monaco. The Australian city of Melbourne had lost out to Atlanta for the 1996 Summer Olympics four years earlier.[6] Beijing lost its bid to host the games to Sydney in 1993, but was later awarded the 2008 Summer Olympics in July 2001 after Sydney hosted the previous year, and it would eventually be awarded the 2022 Winter Olympics twenty-two years later in 2015. Although it is impossible to know why members of the International Olympic Committee voted for Sydney over Beijing in 1993, it appears that an important role was played by Human Rights Watch’s campaign to “stop Beijing” because of China’s human rights record. Many in China were angry at what they saw as U.S.-led interference in the vote, and the outcome contributed to rising anti-Western sentiment in China and tensions in Sino-American relations.[7]

2000 Summer Olympics bidding results[8]
City NOC Name Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Round 4
Sydney  Australia 30 30 37 45
Beijing  China 32 37 40 43
Manchester  Great Britain 11 13 11
Berlin  Germany 9 9
Istanbul  Turkey 7

Costs

The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics at USD 5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 90% in real terms.[9] This includes sports-related costs only, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g., the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost for Sydney 2000 compares with a cost of USD 4.6 billion for Rio 2016, USD 40–44 billion for Beijing 2008 and USD 51 billion for Sochi 2014, the most expensive Olympics in history. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD 5.2 billion, average cost overrun is 176%.

In 2000, the Auditor-General of New South Wales reported that the Sydney Games cost A$6.6 billion, with a net cost to the public between A$1.7 and A$2.4 billion.[10][11] Many venues were constructed in the Sydney Olympic Park, which failed in the years immediately following the Olympics to meet the expected bookings to meet upkeep expenses.[12] In the years leading up to the games, funds were shifted from education and health programs to cover Olympic expenses.[13]

It has been estimated that the economic impact of the 2000 Olympics was that A$2.1 billion has been shaved from public consumption. Economic growth was not stimulated to a net benefit and in the years after 2000, foreign tourism to NSW grew by less than tourism to Australia as a whole. A “multiplier” effect on broader economic development is not realised, as a simple “multiplier” analysis fails to capture is that resources have to be redirected from elsewhere: the building of a stadium is at the expense of other public works such as extensions to hospitals. Building sporting venues does not add to the aggregate stock of productive capital in the years following the Games: “Equestrian centres, softball compounds and man-made rapids are not particularly useful beyond their immediate function.”[14]
In the years after the games, infrastructure issues have been of growing concern to citizens, especially those in the western suburbs of Sydney. Proposed rail links to Sydney’s west have been estimated to cost in the same order of magnitude as the public expenditure on the games.[citation needed]

Chronological summary of the 2000 Summer Olympics

Preliminary matches – from 13 September

Although the Olympic Games Opening Ceremony was not scheduled until 15 September, the football competitions began with preliminary matches on 13 September. Among the pre-ceremony fixtures, host nation Australia lost 1–0 to Italy at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, which was the main stadium for the 1956 Melbourne Olympics.

Day 1–15 September

Cultural display highlights

The 2000 Summer Olympics Opening Ceremony at Stadium Australia, on 15 September 2000.

The opening ceremony began with a tribute to the Australian pastoral heritage of the Australian stockmen and the importance of the stock horse in Australia’s heritage. It was produced and filmed by Sydney Olympic Broadcasting Organisation and the home nation broadcaster, Channel 7.[15] This was introduced by a lone rider, Steve Jefferys, and his rearing Australian Stock Horse Ammo. At the cracking of Jefferys’ stockwhip, a further 120 riders entered the Stadium, their stock horses performing intricate steps, including forming the five Olympic Rings, to a special Olympics version of the theme which Bruce Rowland had previously composed for the 1982 film The Man from Snowy River.

The Australian National Anthem was sung, the first verse by Human Nature and the second by Julie Anthony.

The ceremony continued, showing many aspects of the land and its people:- the affinity of the mainly coastal-dwelling Australians with the sea that surrounds the “Island Continent”. The indigenous occupation of the land, the coming of the First Fleet, the continued immigration from many nations and the rural industry on which the economy of the nation was built, including a display representing the harshness of rural life based on the paintings of Sir Sidney Nolan. Two memorable scenes were the representation of the “Heart” of the country by 200 Aboriginal women from Central Australia who danced up “the mighty spirit of God to protect the Games” and the overwhelmingly noisy representation of the construction industry by hundreds of tap-dancing teenagers.

Because Bibi Salisachs (the wife of Juan Antonio Samaranch, the IOC President) was seriously ill and not able to accompany her husband to the Olympics, former Australian Olympic Champion swimmer and member of the Parliament of New South Wales, Dawn Fraser, accompanied Samaranch during the Australian cultural display, explaining to him some of the cultural references that are unfamiliar to non-Australians.

Formal presentation

A record 199 nations entered the stadium, with a record 80 of them winning at least one medal. The only missing IOC member was Afghanistan (banned due to the extremist rule of the Taliban’s oppression of women and its prohibition of sports[16]). The ceremony featured a unified entrance by the athletes of North and South Korea,[a] using a specially designed unification flag: a white background flag with a blue map of the Korean Peninsula. Four athletes from East Timor also marched in the parade of nations as Individual Olympic Athletes and marched directly before the Host country. Although the country-to-be had no National Olympic Committee then, they were allowed to compete under the Olympic Flag with country code IOA. The Governor-General, Sir William Deane, opened the games.

The Olympic Flag was carried around the arena by eight former Australian Olympic champions: Bill Roycroft, Murray Rose, Liane Tooth, Gillian Rolton, Marjorie Jackson, Lorraine Crapp, Michael Wenden and Nick Green. During the raising of the Olympics Flag, the Olympic Hymn was sung by the Millennium Choir of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia in Greek. Following this, Tina Arena sang a purpose-written pop song, The Flame.[17]

The opening ceremony concluded with the lighting of the Olympic Flame. Former Australian Olympic champion Herb Elliott brought the Olympic Flame into the stadium. Then, celebrating 100 years of women’s participation in the Olympic Games, former Australian women Olympic medalists: Betty Cuthbert and Raelene Boyle, Dawn Fraser, Shirley Strickland (later Shirley Strickland de la Hunty), Shane Gould and Debbie Flintoff-King brought the torch through the stadium, handing it over to Cathy Freeman, who lit the flame in the cauldron within a circle of fire. The planned spectacular climax to the ceremony was delayed by the technical glitch of a computer switch which malfunctioned, causing the sequence to shut down by giving a false reading. This meant that the Olympic flame was suspended in mid-air for about four minutes, rather than immediately rising up a water-covered ramp to the top of the stadium. When the cause of the problem was discovered, the program was overridden and the cauldron continued its course, and the ceremony concluded with a spectacular fireworks display.[18]

Day 2–16 September

Gold medallist Nancy Johnson (centre) of the U.S., raises her hands with silver medallist Cho-Hyun Kang (left), of South Korea, and bronze winner Gao Jing (right), of China, during the first medal ceremony of the 2000 Olympic Games.

The first medals of the Games were awarded in the women’s 10 metre air rifle competition, which was won by Nancy Johnson of the United States.

The Triathlon made its Olympic debut with the women’s race. Set in the surroundings of the Sydney Opera House, Brigitte McMahon representing Switzerland swam, cycled and ran to the first gold medal in the sport, beating the favoured home athletes such as Michelie Jones who won silver. McMahon only passed Jones in sight of the finish line.

The first star of the Games was Ian Thorpe. The 17-year-old Australian first set a new world record in the 400 m freestyle final before competing in an exciting 4 × 100 m freestyle final. Swimming the last leg, Thorpe passed the leading Americans and arrived in a new world record time, two tenths of a second ahead of the Americans. In the same event for women, the Americans also broke the world record, finishing ahead of the Netherlands and Sweden.

Samaranch had to leave for home, as his wife was severely ill. Upon arrival, his wife had already died. Samaranch returned to Sydney four days later. The Olympic flag was flown at half-staff during the period as a sign of respect to Samaranch’s wife.

Day 3–17 September

Canadian Simon Whitfield sprinted away in the last 100 metres of the men’s triathlon, becoming the inaugural winner in the event.

On the cycling track, Robert Bartko beat fellow German Jens Lehmann in the individual pursuit, setting a new Olympic Record. Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel set a world record in the semi-finals the same event for women.

In the swimming pool, American Tom Dolan beat the world record in the 400 m medley, successfully defending the title he won in Atlanta four years prior. Dutchwoman Inge de Bruijn also clocked a new world record, beating her own time in the 100 m butterfly final to win by more than a second.

Day 4–18 September

The main event for the Australians on the fourth day of the Games was the 200 m freestyle. Dutchman Pieter van den Hoogenband had broken the world record in the semi-finals, taking it from the new Australian hero Ian Thorpe, who came close to the world record in his semi-final heat. As the final race finished, Van den Hoogenband’s time was exactly the same as in the semi-finals, finishing ahead of Thorpe by half a second.

China won the gold medal in the men’s team all-around gymnastics competition, after being the runner-up in the previous two Olympics. The other medals were taken by Ukraine and Russia, respectively.

Zijlaard-van Moorsel lived up to the expectations set by her world record in cycling in the semis by winning the gold medal.

Day 7–21 September

Controversy erupted at the Women’s Gymnastics All-Around final, when gymnast after gymnast fell on the vault. Some gymnasts were physically injured, and all were shaken, but nothing was done to try to discover the reason most gymnasts were having severe problems. Finally, in the middle of the third round (out of four), it was determined that the vault horse had been set 5 cm too low – enough of a difference to throw off the impeccable timing of many of these world-class athletes. While athletes were allowed to vault again, the remedy did not fully repair injuries and shaken confidence. The medals were eventually all won by Romanian gymnasts, with Andreea Raducan becoming the first athlete from her country to win the title since Nadia Comaneci in 1976. Teammates Simona Amanar and Maria Olaru took silver and bronze, respectively. This result also marked the first sweep of the event since the Soviet Union’s in 1960.

Day 9–23 September

By rowing in the winning coxless four, Steve Redgrave of Great Britain became a member of a select group who had won gold medals at five consecutive Olympics.

The swimming 4 x 100-metre medley relay of B.J. Bedford, Megan Quann (Jendrick), Jenny Thompson and Dara Torres became the first women’s relay under 4-minutes, swimming 3:58 and setting a world record, claiming the gold medal for the United States.

Day 10–24 September

Rulon Gardner, never a NCAA champion or a world medalist, beat Alexander Karelin of Russia to win gold in the super heavyweight class, Greco-Roman wrestling. Karelin had won gold in Seoul, Barcelona and Atlanta. Before this fight he had never lost in international competition, had been unbeaten in all competitions in 13 years, and had not surrendered a point in a decade.

Day 11–25 September

Cathy Freeman after the 400 metre final

Australian Cathy Freeman won the 400 metre final in front of a jubilant Sydney crowd at the Olympic Stadium, ahead of Lorraine Graham of Jamaica and Katharine Merry of Great Britain. Freeman’s win made her the first competitor in Olympic Games history to light the Olympic Flame and then go on to win a Gold Medal. The attendance at the stadium was 112,524 – the largest attendance for any sport in Olympic Games history.

In a men’s basketball pool match between the USA and France, the USA’s Vince Carter made one of the most famous dunks in basketball history. After getting the ball off a steal, the 6’6″/1.98 m Carter drove to the basket, with 7’2″/2.18 m centre Frédéric Weis in his way. Carter jumped, spread his legs in midair, scraped Weis’ head on the way up, and dunked. The French media dubbed the feat le dunk de la mort (“the dunk of death”).

Day 14–28 September

The Canadian flag at athletes’ village is lowered to half-staff as Canadian athletes pay tribute to former prime minister Pierre Trudeau after hearing of his death in Montreal (Because of the time difference, it was 29 September in Sydney when Trudeau died). The Canadian flag flew at half-staff for the remainder of the Olympics, on orders from both IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch and Canadian Foreign Affairs Minister Lloyd Axworthy, as the state funeral did not take place until 3 October.

Day 16–30 September

Cameroon won a historic gold medal over Spain in the Men’s Olympic Football Final at the Olympic Stadium. The game went to a penalty shootout, which was won by Cameroon 5–3.[19]

Day 17–1 October

Olympic colours on the Sydney Harbour Bridge.

The last event of the games was the Men’s Marathon, contested on a course that started in North Sydney. The event was won by Ethiopian Genzhnge Abera, with Eric Wananina second and Tesefe Tola, also of Ethiopia third. It was the first time since the 1968 Olympics that an Ethiopian had won the gold medal in this event.

The Closing Ceremony commenced with Christine Anu singing her version of the Warumpi Band’s song, My Island Home. She performed with several Aboriginal dancers atop the Geodome Stage in the middle of the stadium, around which several hundred umbrella and lampbox kids created an image of Aboriginal dreamtime.

The Geodome Stage was used throughout the ceremony, which is a flat stage which is mechanically raised into the shape of a Geode.

IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch declared at the Closing Ceremony,[20]

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“I am proud and happy to proclaim that you have presented to the world the best Olympic Games ever.”

Subsequent Summer Olympics held in Athens, Beijing and London have been described by Samaranch’s successor, Jacques Rogge, as “unforgettable, dream Games”, “truly exceptional” and “happy and glorious games” respectively – the practice of declaring games the “best ever” having been retired after the 2000 games.

The Olympic Hymn was sung by soprano Yvonne Kenny. The ceremony also featured performing artists such as Jimmy Barnes, INXS, Midnight Oil, Kylie Minogue, Slim Dusty, Christine Anu, Nikki Webster, John Paul Young, Men at Work, Melbourne-based singer Vanessa Amorosi, Tommy Emmanuel, and pop duo Savage Garden.

The Games were then handed over to their modern birthplace, Athens, which succeeded Sydney as summer Olympic host city. Two Greek flags were raised; one to honour the birthplace of the Olympics, and the other to honour Athens. The ceremony concluded with a huge fireworks display on Sydney Harbour. The fireworks display itself concluded with a very low flyover of Stadium Australia by an RAAF F-111C which performed a dump-and-burn manoeuvre synchronised with the extinction of the Olympic Flame. This created the appearance of the flame being carried away into the sky, flying in a northeasterly direction out across Sydney Harbour and ultimately towards Athens in a symbolic handover.

In honour of her gold medal win during the games, Cathy Freeman represented Oceania in carrying the Olympic flag, joining Archbishop Desmond Tutu (Africa), John Glenn (The Americas), Kazuyoshi Funaki (Asia), Lech Wałęsa (Europe), Jean-Michel Cousteau (Environment), Jean-Claude Killy (Sport), and Steven Spielberg (Culture) when it was raised again, at the XIX Olympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City; the opening ceremony there took place on 8 February 2002.

Sports

The 2000 Summer Olympic programme featured 300 events in the following 28 sports:

Although demonstration sports were abolished following the 1992 Summer Olympics the Sydney Olympics featured wheelchair racing as exhibition events on the athletics schedule.[21]

Special quarantine conditions were introduced to allow entry of horses into Australia to participate in equestrian events,[22] avoiding the need for such events to take place elsewhere as had happened at the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne.

Calendar

All dates are in AEDST (UTC+11); the other two cities, Adelaide uses ACST (UTC+9:30) and Brisbane uses AEST (UTC+10)
 ●  Opening ceremony     Event competitions  ●  Event finals  ●  Closing ceremony
Date September October
13th
Wed
14th
Thu
15th
Fri
16th
Sat
17th
Sun
18th
Mon
19th
Tue
20th
Wed
21st
Thu
22nd
Fri
23rd
Sat
24th
Sun
25th
Mon
26th
Tue
27th
Wed
28th
Thu
29th
Fri
30th
Sat
1st
Sun
Archery
Athletics ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ●
● ● ●
● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
Badminton ● ● ● ●
Baseball
Basketball
Boxing ● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
Canoeing ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ●
Cycling ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
Diving ● ● ● ● ●
Equestrian
Fencing ● ● ● ●
Field hockey
Football
Gymnastics ● ●
● ● ●
● ●
● ● ●
Handball
Judo ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
Modern pentathlon
Rowing ● ● ●
● ● ● ●
● ● ●
● ● ● ●
Sailing ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
Shooting ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
Softball
Swimming ● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
Synchronized swimming
Table tennis
Taekwondo ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
Tennis ● ● ● ●
Triathlon
Volleyball
Water polo
Weightlifting ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●
Wrestling ● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
● ●
Total gold medals 13 14 15 15 18 18 18 26 25 18 11 17 17 11 40 24
Ceremonies
Date 13th
Wed
14th
Thu
15th
Fri
16th
Sat
17th
Sun
18th
Mon
19th
Tue
20th
Wed
21st
Thu
22nd
Fri
23rd
Sat
24th
Sun
25th
Mon
26th
Tue
27th
Wed
28th
Thu
29th
Fri
30th
Sat
1st
Sun
September October

Medal count

These are the top ten nations that won medals in the 2000 Games.
The ranking in this table is based on information provided by the International Olympic Committee.[23] Some other sources[24] may be inconsistent due to not taking into account all later doping cases.

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States 37 24 32 93
2  Russia 32 28 29 89
3  China 28 16 15 59
4  Australia* 16 25 17 58
5  Germany 13 17 26 56
6  France 13 14 11 38
7  Italy 13 8 13 34
8  Netherlands 12 9 4 25
9  Cuba 11 11 7 29
10  Great Britain 11 10 7 28
Totals (10 nations) 186 162 161 509

  *   Host nation (Australia)

Participating National Olympic Committees

Participating countries

Number of athletes

199 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated in the Sydney Games, two more than in the 1996 Summer Olympics. In addition, there were four Timorese Individual Olympic Athletes at the 2000 Summer Olympics. Eritrea, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau made their Olympic debut this year.

Afghanistan was the only 1996 participant that did not participate in 2000, having been banned due to the extremist rule of the Taliban’s oppression of women and its prohibition of sports.

Participating National Olympic Committees
  •  Albania (5)
  •  Algeria (47)
  •  American Samoa (5)
  •  Andorra (5)
  •  Angola (30)
  •  Antigua and Barbuda (3)
  •  Argentina (143)
  •  Armenia (25)
  •  Aruba (5)
  •  Australia (632) (host)
  •  Austria (92)
  •  Azerbaijan (29)
  •  Bahamas (25)
  •  Bahrain (4)
  •  Bangladesh (4)
  •  Barbados (18)
  •  Belarus (139)
  •  Belgium (68)
  •  Belize (2)
  •  Benin (4)
  •  Bermuda (6)
  •  Bhutan (2)
  •  Bolivia (5)
  •  Bosnia and Herzegovina (9)
  •  Botswana (7)
  •  Brazil (205)
  •  British Virgin Islands (1)
  •  Brunei (1)
  •  Bulgaria (91)
  •  Burkina Faso (2)
  •  Burundi (6)
  •  Cambodia (4)
  •  Cameroon (34)
  •  Canada (294)
  •  Cape Verde (2)
  •  Cayman Islands (3)
  •  Central African Republic (3)
  •  Chad (2)
  •  Chile (50)
  •  China (271)
  •  Chinese Taipei (74)
  •  Colombia (44)
  •  Comoros (2)
  •  Republic of the Congo (4)
  •  Cook Islands (3)
  •  Costa Rica (7)
  •  Croatia (88)
  •  Cuba (229)
  •  Cyprus (22)
  •  Czech Republic (119)
  •  Democratic Republic of the Congo (3)
  •  Denmark (97)
  •  Djibouti (2)
  •  Dominica (4)
  •  Dominican Republic (13)
  •  Ecuador (10)
  •  Egypt (89)
  •  El Salvador (8)
  •  Equatorial Guinea (4)
  •  Eritrea (3)
  •  Estonia (33)
  •  Ethiopia (26)
  •  Federated States of Micronesia (5)
  •  Fiji (7)
  •  Finland (70)
  •  France (336)
  •  Gabon (5)
  •  Georgia (36)
  •  Germany (422)
  •  Ghana (22)
  •  Great Britain (332)
  •  Greece (140)
  •  Grenada (3)
  •  Guam (7)
  •  Guatemala (15)
  •  Guinea (6)
  •  Guinea-Bissau (3)
  •  Guyana (4)
  •  Haiti (5)
  •  Honduras (20)
  •  Hong Kong (31)
  •  Hungary (178)
  •  Iceland (18)
  •  Individual Olympic Athletes (4)
  •  India (65)
  •  Indonesia (47)
  •  Iran (35)
  •  Iraq (4)
  •  Ireland (64)
  •  Israel (39)
  •  Italy (361)
  •  Ivory Coast (14)
  •  Jamaica (48)
  •  Japan (266)
  •  Jordan (8)
  •  Kazakhstan (130)
  •  Kenya (56)
  •  Kuwait (29)
  •  Kyrgyzstan (18)
  •  Laos (3)
  •  Latvia (45)
  •  Lebanon (6)
  •  Lesotho (6)
  •  Liberia (8)
  •  Libya (3)
  •  Liechtenstein (2)
  •  Lithuania (61)
  •  Luxembourg (7)
  •  Macedonia (8)
  •  Madagascar (11)
  •  Malawi (2)
  •  Malaysia (40)
  •  Maldives (4)
  •  Mali (5)
  •  Malta (7)
  •  Mauritania (2)
  •  Mauritius (20)
  •  Mexico (78)
  •  Moldova (34)
  •  Monaco (4)
  •  Mongolia (20)
  •  Morocco (55)
  •  Mozambique (5)
  •  Myanmar (7)
  •  Namibia (12)
  •  Nauru (2)
  •  Nepal (5)
  •  Netherlands (243)
  •  Netherlands Antilles (7)
  •  New Zealand (151)
  •  Nicaragua (6)
  •  Niger (4)
  •  Nigeria (83)
  •  North Korea (31)
  •  Norway (95)
  •  Oman (6)
  •  Pakistan (26)
  •  Palau (5)
  •  Palestine (2)
  •  Panama (6)
  •  Papua New Guinea (5)
  •  Paraguay (5)
  •  Peru (21)
  •  Philippines (21)
  •  Poland (187)
  •  Portugal (62)
  •  Puerto Rico (29)
  •  Qatar (17)
  •  Romania (145)
  •  Russia (435)
  •  Rwanda (5)
  •  Saint Kitts and Nevis (2)
  •  Saint Lucia (5)
  •  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (4)
  •  Samoa (5)
  •  San Marino (4)
  •  São Tomé and Príncipe (2)
  •  Saudi Arabia (77)
  •  Senegal (26)
  •  Seychelles (9)
  •  Sierra Leone (3)
  •  Singapore (14)
  •  Slovakia (114)
  •  Slovenia (74)
  •  Solomon Islands (2)
  •  Somalia (2)
  •  South Africa (127)
  •  South Korea (281)
  •  Spain (326)
  •  Sri Lanka (18)
  •  Sudan (3)
  •  Suriname (4)
  •  Swaziland (6)
  •  Sweden (149)
  •  Switzerland (105)
  •  Syria (8)
  •  Tajikistan (4)
  •  Tanzania (4)
  •  Thailand (52)
  •  The Gambia (2)
  •  Togo (3)
  •  Tonga (3)
  •  Trinidad and Tobago (19)
  •  Tunisia (47)
  •  Turkey (57)
  •  Turkmenistan (8)
  •  Uganda (13)
  •  Ukraine (230)
  •  United Arab Emirates (4)
  •  United States (586)
  •  Uruguay (14)
  •  Uzbekistan (70)
  •  Vanuatu (3)
  •  Venezuela (50)
  •  Vietnam (7)
  •  Virgin Islands (9)
  •  Yemen (2)
  •  Yugoslavia (111)
  •  Zambia (8)
  •  Zimbabwe (16)

Venues

Sydney Olympic Park

Olympic Stadium

Sydney Olympic Park Aquatic Centre

State Hockey Centre

  • Olympic Stadium: Ceremonies (opening/closing), Athletics, Football (final)
  • Sydney International Aquatic Centre: Diving, Modern Pentathlon (swimming) Swimming, Synchronised Swimming, Water Polo (medal events)
  • State Sports Centre: Table Tennis, Taekwondo
  • NSW Tennis Centre: Tennis
  • State Hockey Centre: Field Hockey
  • The Dome and Exhibition Complex: Badminton, Basketball, Gymnastics (rhythmic), Handball (final), Modern Pentathlon (fencing, shooting), Volleyball (indoor)
  • Sydney SuperDome: Gymnastics (artistic, trampoline), Basketball (final)
  • Sydney Baseball Stadium: Baseball, Modern Pentathlon (riding, running)
  • Sydney International Archery Park: Archery

Sydney

Dunc Gray Velodrome

  • Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre: Boxing, Fencing, Judo, Weightlifting, Wrestling
  • Sydney Entertainment Centre: Volleyball (indoor final)
  • Dunc Gray Velodrome: Cycling (track)
  • Sydney International Shooting Centre: Shooting
  • Sydney International Equestrian Centre: Equestrian
  • Sydney International Regatta Centre: Rowing, Canoeing (sprint)
  • Blacktown Olympic Centre: Baseball, Softball
  • Western Sydney Parklands: Cycling (mountain biking)
  • Ryde Aquatic Leisure Centre: Water Polo
  • Penrith Whitewater Stadium: Canoeing (slalom)
  • Bondi Beach: Volleyball (beach)
  • Sydney Football Stadium: Football
  • Olympic Sailing Shore Base: Sailing
  • Centennial Parklands: Cycling (road)
  • Marathon course: Athletics (marathon)
  • North Sydney: Athletics (marathon start)
  • Sydney Opera House: Triathlon

Outside Sydney

  • Canberra Stadium, Canberra: Football
  • Hindmarsh Stadium, Adelaide: Football
  • Melbourne Cricket Ground: Football
  • The Gabba (Brisbane Cricket Ground), Brisbane: Football

Organisation

SOCOG organisational structure circa 1998 – five groups and 33 divisions reporting to the CEO are organised primarily along functional lines with only a limited number of divisions (e.g. Interstate Football and Villages) anticipating a venue focussed design.

SOCOG organisational structure circa 1999 – functional divisions and precinct/venue streams are organised in a matrix structure linked to the Main Operations Centre (MOC). Some functions such as Project Management (in the Games Coordination group) continue to exist largely outside this matrix structure.

Organisations responsible for the Olympics

A number of quasi-government bodies were responsible for the construction, organisation and execution of the Sydney Games. These included:

  • the Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games (SOCOG), primarily responsible for the staging of the Games
  • Olympic Coordination Authority (OCA), primarily responsible for construction and oversight
  • Olympic Roads & Transport Authority (ORTA)
  • Olympic Security Command Centre (OSCC)
  • Olympic Intelligence Centre (OIC)
  • JTF Gold the Australian Defence Force Joint Taskforce Gold
  • Sydney Olympic Broadcasting Organisation (nominally part of SOCOG)
  • IBM, provider of technology and the Technical Command Centre
  • Telstra, provider of telecommunications
  • Great Big Events, event management and marketing

These organisations worked closely together and with other bodies such as:

  • the International Olympic Committee (IOC)
  • the Australian Olympic Committee (AOC)
  • the other 197 National Olympic Committees (NOCs)
  • the 33 International Sports Federations (IFs)
  • all three levels of Australian government (federal, state and local)
  • dozens of official sponsor and hundreds of official supplier companies

These bodies are often collectively referred to as the “Olympic Family”.

Organisation of the Paralympics

Organisation of the 2000 Summer Paralympics was the responsibility of SPOC the Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee. However much of the planning and operation of the Paralympic Games was outsourced to SOCOG such that most operational programmes planned both the Olympic and Paralympic Games.

Other Olympic events

Organisation of the Games included not only the actual sporting events but also the management (and sometimes construction) of the sporting venues and surrounding precincts, the organisation of the Sydney Olympic Arts Festival and Olympic torch relay. The relay began in Greece and travelled to Australia via numerous Oceania island nations.

Phases of the Olympic project

The staging of the Olympics were treated as a project on a vast scale, with the project broken into several broad phases:

  • 1993 to 1996 – positioning
  • 1997 – going operational
  • 1998 – procurement/venuisation
  • 1999 – testing/refinement
  • 2000 – implementation
  • 2001 – post implementation and wind-down

SOCOG organisational design

The internal organisation of SOCOG evolved over the phases of the project and changed, sometimes radically, several times.

In late 1998 the design was principally functional. The top two tiers below the CEO Sandy Hollway consisted of five groups (managed by Group General Managers and the Deputy CEO) and twenty divisions (managed by divisional General Managers), which in turn were further broken up into programmes and sub-programmes or projects.

In 1999 functional areas (FAs) broke up into geographic precinct and venue teams (managed by Precinct Managers and Venue Managers) with functional area staff reporting to both the FA manager and the venue manager. Ie, SOCOG moved to a matrix structure. The Interstate Football division extant in 1998 was the first of these geographically based venue teams.

Volunteer programme

The origins of the volunteer programme for Sydney 2000 dates back to the bid, as early as 1992.

On 17 December 1992, a group of Sydney citizens, interested in the prospect of hosting the 2000 Olympic and Paralympic Games, gathered for a meeting at Sports House, at Wentworth Park in Sydney.

In the period leading up to 1999, after Sydney had won the bid, the small group of volunteers grew from approximately 42 to around 500. These volunteers became known as Pioneer Volunteers. The Pioneer Volunteer programme was managed internally by SOCOG’s Volunteer Services Department in consultation with prominent peak groups like The Centre for Volunteering (Volunteering and TAFE. Some of the Pioneer Volunteers still meet every four months, an unseen legacy of the games which brought together a community spirit not seen before.

During the Olympic games tens of thousands of volunteers, the official figure was placed at 46,967,[25] helped everywhere at the Olympic venues and elsewhere in the city. They were honoured with a parade like the athletes had a few days before.[26]

Marketing


The bid logo, designed by architect and designer Michael Bryce,[27] featured a colourful, stylised image of the Sydney Opera House.

The official logo – also referred to as the “Millennium Man”[28] – took the image of the bid logo and combined it with a stylised image of a runner to form a torchbearer in motion; formed by two small yellow boomerangs for arms and a larger red boomerang for legs. The Olympic torch is represented through a blue smoke trail, which draws the iconic peaks of the Sydney Opera House.

The design process of the official logo, as well as all other aspects of the Olympic Games’ visual design identity, was awarded to Melbourne design studio FHA Image Design.[29] The Sydney Olympics brand identity project officially commenced in 1993.

The Mascots

The official mascots chosen for the 2000 Summer Olympics were Syd the platypus, Millie the echidna, and Olly the kookaburra[30] and were designed by Matthew Hattan and Jozef Szekeres and named by Philip Sheldon of agency Weekes Morris Osborn in response to the original SOCOG recommendation of Murray, Margery and Dawn after famous Australian athletes.

There was also an unofficial mascot, Fatso the Fat-Arsed Wombat, which was popularised by comedy team Roy Slaven and HG Nelson on the TV series The Dream with Roy and HG. Roy and HG also frequently disparaged the official mascots on their television program.[31][32][33]

Sponsors

Medals and bouquets

The bronze medals for the 2000 Olympics were created from melted down Australian 1 cent and 2 cent coins[34][35] – which had been removed from circulation from 1992 onward.

The bouquets handed to medal recipients incorporated foliage from the Grevillea baileyana, also known as the white oak.[36]

Awards and commendations

The International Olympic Committee awarded Sydney and its inhabitants with the “Pierre de Coubertin Trophy” in recognition of the collaboration and happiness shown by the people of Sydney during the event to all the athletes and visitors around the world.[37]

The New South Wales Police Force was granted use of the Olympic Rings in the New South Wales Police Force Olympic Commendation and the New South Wales Police Force Olympic Citation for having staged the “safest” games ever.

Broadcast rights

  •  Argentina: Azul TV, TyC Sports, TyC Max, TyC Max 2, Multideporte 74, TeleRed Sports 1, TeleRed Sports 2, TeleRed Sports 3, Multicanal, BAC (Buenos Aires and Metropolitan zone only), Supercanal (Interior zone only)
  •  Australia: Seven Network, Nine Network, C7
  •  Austria: ORF
  •  Belgium: VRT, RTBF
  •  Brazil: Rede Globo, Rede Bandeirantes, SporTV, ESPN Brasil
  •  Brunei: RTB, Astro
  •  Canada: CBC Radio-Canada
  •  Chile: Televisión Nacional de Chile (TVN), Mega, Canal 13
  •  China: CCTV
  •  Colombia: RCN Televisión, Channel 11
  •  Croatia: HRT
  •  Czech Republic: ČT
  •  Ecuador: SíTV
  • Europe: Eurosport
  •  France: TF1, FTV
  •  FR Yugoslavia: RTS, RTCG
  •  Germany: ARD, RTL, ZDF
  •  Greece: ERT
  •  Hong Kong: ATV, TVB
  •  Hungary: Magyar Televízió
  •  India: Doordarshan
  •  Indonesia: RCTI, SCTV, TPI, ANTeve, Indosiar, MetroTV (transmission test)
  •  Ireland: RTÉ
  •  Italy: RAI
  •  Japan: NHK, Fuji Television
  • Latin America: TNT, ESPN, Fox Sports and PSN
  •  Lithuania: LRT
  •  Macau: TDM
  •  Macedonia: MKRTV
  •  Malaysia: RTM, STMB, Mega TV, Philips ASTRO
  •  Mexico: Televisa
  •  Netherlands: NPO, RTL5
  •  New Zealand: TVNZ
  •  Norway: NRK
  •  Paraguay: El 13, Tigo Sports, Tigo Max, Tigo Max 2, Multideportes 67, CVC Sports 1, CVC Sports 2, CVC Sports 3, Multicanal, CMM (Asunción and Metropolitan zone only), Supercanal (Interior zone only)
  •  Peru: Panamericana Televisión, CMD, CMD 2
  •  Philippines: PTV 4, SkyCable
  •  Poland: TVP
  •  Romania: TVR
  •  Russia: Public Russian Television, VGTRK Olympiade
  •  Singapore: TCS SportsCity
  •  South Korea: KBS, MBC, SBS
  •  Spain: TVE
  •  Sri Lanka: Rupavahini (SLRC)
  •  Sweden: SVT
  •   Switzerland: SRG SSR idee suisse
  •  Taiwan: TTV, CTV, CTS
  •  Thailand: National Sports
  •  Turkey: TRT
  •  United Kingdom: BBC, ITV
  •  United States: NBC
  •  Uruguay: Canal 10, VTV Sports, Multicanal, Cablevisión, TCC Cable Television and Equital Cable Television system
  •  Venezuela: Venevision

In popular culture

In F.J. Campbell’s 2018 novel No Number Nine, the last part of the book is set at the Sydney 2000 Olympics.[38]

In Tom Clancy’s thriller Rainbow Six, the 2000 Olympic Games are the setting of a plot by eco-terrorists, who plan to use the games in order to spread a terrible new plague throughout the world.[39]

In Morris Gleitzman’s children’s book Toad Rage, a cane toad travels to Sydney in a bid to become the Olympic mascot.[40]

See also

  • 2000 Summer Paralympics
  • Olympic Games celebrated in Australia
    • 1956 Summer Olympics – Melbourne
    • 2000 Summer Olympics – Sydney
  • Summer Olympic Games
  • Olympic Games
  • International Olympic Committee
  • List of IOC country codes
  • The Games of the XXVII Olympiad 2000: Music from the Opening Ceremony
  • Aussie Aussie Aussie, Oi Oi Oi
  • John Coates
  • Use of performance-enhancing drugs in the Olympic Games — Sydney 2000

Notes

  1. ^ The national teams of North Korea and South Korea competed separately in the Olympic events, even though they marched together as a unified Korean team in the opening ceremony.

References

  1. ^ “The Olympic Summer Games Factsheet” (PDF). International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 5 August 2012..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ ab “Factsheet – Opening Ceremony of the Games of the Olympiad” (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 9 October 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  3. ^ ab How the media viewed the Sydney Olympics. Cool Running. Retrieved on 19 April 2015.
  4. ^ Mossop, James (1 October 2000). “Sydney has set the highest standards for future hosts”. The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  5. ^ “Sydney 2000 the Olympic Games benchmark, Sebastian Coe says”. The Australian. 25 July 2012.
  6. ^ IOC Vote History
  7. ^ Keys, Barbara (2018). “Harnessing Human Rights to the Olympic Games: Human Rights Watch and the 1993 ‘Stop Beijing’ Campaign”. Journal of Contemporary History. 53 (2): 415–438. doi:10.1177/0022009416667791.
  8. ^ GamesBids.com Past Olympic Host Cities List
  9. ^ Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 9, 13. SSRN 2804554.
  10. ^ “Sydney 2000 – Auditor Slams Costs”. liebreich.com. 23 April 2003. Archived from the original on 7 February 2005.
  11. ^ “Cost of the Olympic and Paralympic Games” (PDF). pp. 10–11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 June 2005. Olympic Co-ordination Authority … OCA’s current report on the actual result … Total net impact in A$$ million: … 1,326.1
  12. ^ Poynter, Gavin; MacRury, Iain (6 October 2009). Olympic Cities: 2012 and the Remaking of London. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 137–. ISBN 9780754671008. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  13. ^ Findling, John E.; Pelle, Kimberly D. (2004). Encyclopedia of the Modern Olympic Movement. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 252–. ISBN 9780313322785. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  14. ^ Saulwick, Jacob (12 April 2008). “No medals for economic benefits of the Games”. Business Day. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 16 April 2008. The article is based largely on a recent study by James Giesecke and John Madden from the Centre of Policy Studies at Monash University.
  15. ^ Commentary on the official DVD of the opening ceremony of the 2000 Summer Olympics
  16. ^ [1] Afghanistan-Analysts. Retrieved on 19 April 2015.
  17. ^ 11 Olympic Theme Songs, Dissected. Time (26 July 2012). Retrieved 3 May 2014.
  18. ^ Information given by Ric Birch, Director of Ceremonies, during an interview at the end of the official DVD of the 2000 Summer Olympics Opening Ceremony
  19. ^ “Patrick Mboma”. Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
  20. ^ Longman, Jere (2 October 2000). “Sydney 2000: Closing Ceremony; A fond farewell from Australia”. New York Times. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
  21. ^ “Reflections on the Olympic Wheelchair Racing Exhibition Races”. Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  22. ^ “Strict quarantine conditions for overseas horses competing in the Sydney 2000 Games”. Department of Agriculture. 26 November 1999. Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  23. ^ “Sydney 2000”. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  24. ^ “2000 Summer Games”. Database Olympics. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  25. ^ “Sydney 2000 International Olympic Committee”. Archived from the original on 22 July 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
  26. ^ Official Report of the XXVII Olympiad, Volume One: Preparing for the Games (PDF). Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games. 2001. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-9579616-0-9.
  27. ^ “Architect Michael Bryce”. ABC Queensland. 19 October 2005. Archived from the original on 1 November 2007.
  28. ^ White, Leanne (9 June 2011). “The Sydney 2000 Olympic Games Bid: Marketing Indigenous Australia for the Millennium Games”. The International Journal of the History of Sport. 28 (10): 1455. doi:10.1080/09523367.2011.578341. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
  29. ^ Desktop (27 September 2012). “Top Ten Australian Logos – 8th | Desktop”. Desktop | The Culture of Design. Desktop Magazine. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
  30. ^ “Syd, Olly and Millie – mascots of the 2000 Olympic Summer Games”. Beijing2008. 5 August 2004. Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2006.
  31. ^ “The Rise of Fatso – The Fat Arsed Sydney Olympics Wombat”. Strategic Resources International. February 2001. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
  32. ^ Marr, Jim (8 December 2000). “Satire: Roy Slaven on the Rampage”. Workers Online (81). Retrieved 30 June 2006.
  33. ^ “Amply-rumped wombat was real darling of the Games”. Sports Illustrated. 1 October 2000. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 10 October 2008.
  34. ^ “Other Olympic and Paralympic Products” — on page 17 (just before page 18) of the Gold Corporation — 2001 Annual Report — Publication by the Parliament of Western Australia
  35. ^ Australians add local color to medals for Olympic Games — Publication date: 28 August 2000
  36. ^ Olde, Peter (2000). “The Olympic Bouquets” (PDF). Grevillea Study Group Newsletter (57): 8. ISSN 0725-8755. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
  37. ^ “Olympic History”. Archived from the original on 22 July 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
  38. ^ www.fjcampbell.net
  39. ^ John Dugdale (3 October 2013). “Tom Clancy: The top five novels”. The Guardian. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  40. ^ “Second Grade Rules, Amber Brown By Paula Danziger”. Chicago Tribune. 8 August 2004. Retrieved 27 March 2018.

External links

  • “Sydney 2000”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • “Results and Medalists — 2000 Summer Olympics”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • 2000 Summer Olympics Official site
  • Official Report Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3
  • “2000 Summer Olympics Official Site”. Archived from the original on 9 November 2000. Retrieved 13 September 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  • 2000 Summer Olympics – collection of archived websites
  • Sydney Olympic Games Information
  • Sydney Olympic Park
  • Sydney Olympic Games, 2000 – Australian Government
  • Sydney 2000 Games Collection at the Powerhouse Museum – information and audio files
  • “Satellite view of 2000 Sydney Olympics sites”. Archived from the original on 18 April 2004.
  • Spirit of Sydney Volunteers Website – Website maintained by and for Sydney 2000 Volunteer Alumni
  • Official 10th Anniversary Volunteers Website – Official 10th Anniversary Volunteers Website
Preceded by
Atlanta
Summer Olympic Games
Sydney

XXVII Olympiad (2000)
Succeeded by
Athens


2008 Summer Olympics

Games of the XXIX Olympiad
The official logo for the 2008 Summer Olympics, featuring a depiction of the Chinese pictogram "Jing", representing a dancing human figure. Below are the words "Beijing 2008" in stylised print, and the Olympic rings.
Host city Beijing, China
Motto One World, One Dream
(Chinese: 同一个世界 同一个梦想)
Nations 204
Athletes 10,942 (4,637 women & 6,305 men)
Events 302 in 28 sports (41 disciplines)
Opening 8 August
Closing 24 August
Opened by
President Hu Jintao[1][a]
Cauldron
Li Ning[1]
Stadium Beijing National Stadium
Summer
← Athens 2004 London 2012 →
Winter
← Turin 2006 Vancouver 2010 →

The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad (Chinese: 第二十九届夏季奥林匹克运动会; pinyin: Dì Èrshíjiǔ Jiè Xiàjì Àolínpǐkè Yùndònghuì) and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 8 to 24 August 2008 in Beijing, China.[b]

A total of 10,942 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) competed in 28 sports and 302 events (one event more than those scheduled for the 2004 Games).[2] This was the first time that China had hosted the Summer Olympics, but the third time that the Games had been held in East Asia, following the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo, Japan, and the 1988 Olympics in Seoul, South Korea. These were the third Olympic Games staged in a socialist country, after the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Soviet Union, and the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia.

Beijing was awarded the 2008 Games over four competitors on 13 July 2001, having won a majority of votes from members of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) after two rounds of voting.[3] The Government of the People’s Republic of China promoted the Games and invested heavily in new facilities and transportation systems. A total of 37 venues were used to host the events, including twelve constructed specifically for use at the Games. The equestrian events were held in Hong Kong, making this the third Olympics for which the events were held under the jurisdiction of two different NOCs.[c] The sailing events were contested in Qingdao, while the football events took place in several different cities.

The official logo for the 2008 Games, titled “Dancing Beijing”, featured a stylized calligraphic character jīng (, means capital) in reference to the host city. The Beijing Olympics were the most watched sporting event in history, attracting 4.7 billion people worldwide (two-third of world population), and gaining entries in the Guinness World Records as the “Largest TV audience for an event”, “Most participants at a Summer Olympic Games”, “Longest distance for an Olympic torch relay” and “Most watched US television program of all time”.[4][5][6][7][8][9] The event sets numerous world and Olympics records in the history of Sports, and is also the most expensive Summer Olympics of all time and second most expensive overall, after the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi.[10][11] The opening ceremony was lauded by spectators and numerous international presses as spectacular and spellbinding, and by many accounts “the greatest ever in the history of Olympics”.[12][13][14]

An unprecedented 87 countries won at least one medal during the Games. China won the most gold medals, with 48, and became only the seventh different team to top an overall Olympic medal tally, winning a total of 100 medals overall. The United States placed second in the gold medal tally but won the highest number of medals overall, with a total of 112. The third place in the gold medal tally was achieved by Russia.

Beijing has been selected to host the 2022 Winter Olympics; it will become the first city to ever host both a Summer and Winter Games.

Contents

  • 1 Organization

    • 1.1 Bid
    • 1.2 Costs
    • 1.3 Venues
    • 1.4 Transport
    • 1.5 Marketing
    • 1.6 Media coverage
    • 1.7 Theme song
  • 2 Torch relay
  • 3 Calendar
  • 4 Olympic and world records
  • 5 Games

    • 5.1 Opening ceremony
    • 5.2 Sports
    • 5.3 Closing ceremony
    • 5.4 Medal table
  • 6 Participating National Olympic Committees

    • 6.1 National participation changes
    • 6.2 Participation of athletes with disabilities
  • 7 Concerns and controversies
  • 8 Legacy
  • 9 See also
  • 10 Notes
  • 11 References
  • 12 External links

Organization

Bid

Beijing was elected as the host city for the 2008 Summer Olympics on 13 July 2001, during the 112th IOC Session in Moscow, defeating bids from Toronto, Paris, Istanbul, and Osaka. Prior to the session, five other cities (Bangkok, Cairo, Havana, Kuala Lumpur, and Seville) had submitted bids to the IOC, but failed to make the short list chosen by the IOC Executive Committee in 2000. After the first round of voting, Beijing held a significant lead over the other four candidates. Osaka received only six votes and was eliminated. In the second round, Beijing was supported by a majority of voters, eliminating the need for subsequent rounds.[15] Toronto’s bid was their 5th failure since 1960 (failed bid for 1960, 1964, 1976 and 1996 games losing to Rome, Tokyo, Montreal and Atlanta).[16]

Members of the IOC did not disclose their votes, but news reports speculated that broad international support led to China’s selection, especially from developing nations who had received assistance from China in the construction of stadiums. The size of China, its increased enforcement of doping controls, and sympathy concerning its loss of the 2000 Summer Olympics to Sydney were all factors in the decision.[17] Eight years earlier, Beijing had led every round of voting for the 2000 Summer Olympics before losing to Sydney by two votes in the final round.[18]

Human rights concerns expressed by Amnesty International and politicians in both Europe and the United States were considered by the delegates, according to IOC Executive Director François Carrard. Carrard and others suggested that the selection might lead to improvements in human rights in China. In addition, a number of IOC delegates who had formerly been athletes expressed concern about heat and air quality during the Games, considering the high levels of air pollution in Beijing. China outlined plans to address these environmental concerns in its bid application.[17]

2008 Summer Olympics bidding results
City Nation Round 1 Round 2
Beijing  China 44 56
Toronto  Canada 20 22
Paris  France 15 18
Istanbul  Turkey 17 9
Osaka  Japan 6

Costs

The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics at US$6.8 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 2% in real terms.[19] This includes sports-related costs only, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The Beijing Olympics’ cost of US$6.8 billion compares with costs of US$4.6 billion for Rio 2016 and US$15 billion for London 2012. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is US$5.2 billion.

On 6 March 2009, the Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games reported that total spending on the games was “generally as much as that of the Athens 2004 Olympic Games”, which was equivalent to about US$15 billion. They went on to claim that surplus revenues from the Games would exceed the original target of $16 million.[20] Other reports, however, estimated the total costs from $40 billion to $44 billion, which would make the Games “far and away the most expensive ever”.[21][22][23]

Its budget has since been exceeded by the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, which suffered from major cost overruns, causing the budget to exceed US$51 billion.[24][25]

Canadian Solar Constructed the 2000m Landscape Avenue Project for the Beijing Olympic Games Stadium in 2008.[26]

Venues

By May 2007 the construction of all 31 Beijing-based Olympic Games venues had begun.[27] The Chinese government renovated and constructed six venues outside Beijing as well as 59 training centres. The largest structures built were the Beijing National Stadium, Beijing National Indoor Stadium, Beijing National Aquatics Center, Olympic Green Convention Center, Olympic Green, and Beijing Wukesong Culture & Sports Center. Almost 85% of the construction budget for the six main venues was funded by $2.1 billion (RMB¥17.4 billion) in corporate bids and tenders. Investments were expected from corporations seeking ownership rights after the Olympics.[28] Some events were held outside Beijing, namely football in Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Tianjin; sailing in Qingdao; and, because of the “uncertainties of equine diseases and major difficulties in establishing a disease-free zone”, the equestrian events were held in Hong Kong.[29]

The Beijing National Stadium, dubbed “The Bird’s Nest”

The Beijing National Aquatics Center, dubbed “The Water Cube”

The centrepiece of the 2008 Summer Olympics was the Beijing National Stadium, nicknamed “The Bird’s Nest” because of its nest-like skeletal structure. The stadium hosted both the opening and closing ceremonies as well as the athletics competition.[30] Construction of the venue began on 24 December 2003. The Guangdong Olympic Stadium was originally planned, constructed, and completed in 2001 to help host the Games, but a decision was made to construct a new stadium in Beijing.[31] In 2001, the city held a bidding process to select the best arena design. Several criteria were required of each design, including flexibility for post-Olympics use, a retractable roof, and low maintenance costs.[32] The entry list was narrowed to thirteen final designs.[33] The bird’s nest model submitted by architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron in collaboration with Li Xinggang of China Architecture Design and Research Group (CADG) was selected as the top design by both a professional panel and by a broader audience during a public exhibition. The selection of the design became official in April 2003.[32] Construction of the stadium was a joint venture among the original designers, project architect Stefan Marbach, artist Ai Weiwei, and a group of CADG architects led by Li Xinggang. Its $423 million cost was funded by the state-owned corporate conglomerate CITIC and the Beijing State-Owned Assets Management Company.[32][34]

The 2008 Beijing Olympics caused traditional Hutong neighborhoods to be cleared for the construction of modern Olympic stadiums. In an effort to ensure success for the games, the government invested billions in building new infrastructure, although clearance to tiny, outdated neighborhoods in Beijing called hutongs resulted (Petrun). Jim Yardley, a New York Times reporter interviews Pan Jinyu, a 64-year-old local resident: “They [the government] don’t want foreigners to see this scarred old face”. Feng Shuqin and her husband, Zheng Zhanlin have lived in their house for 50 years and the family has owned the property before the Communists took control in 1949. The government, trying to clear the area, has offered them to move with a compensatory sum of US$175,000, but the family insists the land is worth US$1.4 million (Yardley). Michael Meyer, an American who lives in the hutongs reported that a total of 500,000 residents were relocated from their homes before the Olympics began (Meyer).

Transport

A map of the Olympic venues in Beijing. Several expressways encircle the center of the city, providing for quick transportation around the city and between venues.

To prepare for Olympic visitors, Beijing’s transportation infrastructure was expanded. Beijing’s airport underwent a major renovation with the addition of the new Terminal 3, designed by architect Norman Foster.[35] Within the city itself, Beijing’s subway was doubled in capacity and length, with the addition of 7 lines and 80 stations to the previously existing 4 lines and 64 stations. Included in this expansion was a new link connecting to the city’s airport. A fleet of thousands of buses, minibuses, and official cars transported spectators, athletes, and officials between venues.[36][37]

In an effort to improve air quality, the city placed restrictions on construction sites and gas stations, and limited the use of commercial and passenger vehicles in Beijing.[38] From 20 July through 20 September, passenger vehicle restrictions were placed on alternative days depending on the terminal digit of the car’s license plate. It was anticipated that this measure would take 45% of Beijing’s 3.3 million cars off the streets. The boosted public transport network was expected to absorb the demand created by these restrictions and the influx of visitors, which was estimated at more than 4 million additional passengers per day.[39]

Marketing

Inside Beijing National Stadium during the Games. Olympic cauldron in background.

The 2008 Summer Olympics emblem was known as Dancing Beijing. The emblem combined a traditional Chinese red seal and a representation of the calligraphic character jīng (京, “national capital”, also the second character of Beijing’s Chinese name) with athletic features. The open arms of the calligraphic word symbolized the invitation from China to the world to share in its culture. IOC president Jacques Rogge was very happy with the emblem, saying, “Your new emblem immediately conveys the awesome beauty and power of China which are embodied in your heritage and your people.”[40]

The official motto for the 2008 Olympics was “One World, One Dream” (同一个世界 同一个梦想).[41] It called upon the whole world to join in the Olympic spirit and build a better future for humanity, and was chosen from over 210,000 entries submitted from around the world.[42] Following the announcement of the motto, the phrase was used by international advocates of Tibetan secession. Banners reading “One World, One Dream, Free Tibet” were unfurled from various structures around the globe in the lead up to the Beijing Olympics, such as from the San Francisco Golden Gate Bridge and the Sydney Opera House in Australia.[43]

The mascots of Beijing 2008 were the five Fuwa, each representing both a colour of the Olympic rings and a symbol of Chinese culture. In 2006, the Beijing Organizing Committee released pictograms of 35 Olympic disciplines (for some multi-discipline sports, such as cycling, a single pictogram was released).[44][45] This set of sport icons was named the beauty of seal characters, because of each pictogram’s likeness to Chinese seal script.[45]

Media coverage

The 2008 Games were the first to be produced and broadcast entirely in high definition by the host broadcaster.[46] In comparison, American broadcaster NBC broadcast only half of the 2006 Turin Winter Games in HD.[47][48] In their bid for the Olympic Games in 2001, Beijing stated to the Olympic Evaluation Commission that there would be “no restrictions on media reporting and movement of journalists up to and including the Olympic Games.”[49] However, some media outlets claimed that organizers ultimately failed to live up to this commitment.[d]

According to Nielsen Media Research, 4.7 billion viewers worldwide tuned into some of the television coverage, one-fifth larger than the 3.9 billion who watched the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens. American broadcaster NBC produced only 2 hours of online streaming video for the 2006 Winter Games but produced approximately 2,200 hours of coverage for the 2008 Summer Games. CNN reported that, for the first time, “live online video rights in some markets for the Olympics have been separately negotiated, not part of the overall ‘broadcast rights.'” The new media of the digital economy was said to be growing “nine times faster than the rest of the advertising market.”[51]

The international European Broadcasting Union (EBU) provided live coverage and highlights of all arenas only for certain territories on their website, Eurovisionsports.tv.[52] Many national broadcasters likewise restricted the viewing of online events to their domestic audiences.[53] The General National Copyright Administration of China announced that “individual (sic) and websites will face fines as high as 100,000 yuan for uploading recordings of Olympic Games video to the internet”,[54] part of an extensive campaign to protect the pertinent intellectual property rights.[55][56] The Olympic Committee also set up a separate YouTube channel at Beijing 2008.[57]

Theme song

The theme song of the 2008 Olympic Games was “You and Me,” which was composed by Chen Qigang, the musical director of the opening ceremony. It was performed during the opening ceremony by Chinese singer Liu Huan and British singer Sarah Brightman.[58][59]

Torch relay

2008 Olympic Torch in Vilnius, Lithuania

The design of the 2008 Olympic Torch was based on traditional scrolls and used a traditional Chinese design known as the “Propitious Clouds” (祥云). The torch was designed to remain lit in 65 km/h (40 mph) winds, and in rain of up to 50 mm (2 in) per hour.[60]

The relay, with the theme “Journey of Harmony”, was met with protests and demonstrations by pro-Tibet supporters throughout its journey. It lasted 130 days and carried the torch 137,000 km (85,000 mi)—the longest distance of any Olympic torch relay since the tradition began at the 1936 Berlin Games.[61][62] The torch relay was described as a “public relations disaster” for China by USA Today,[63] with protests against China’s human rights record, particularly focused on Tibet. The IOC subsequently barred future Olympics organizers from staging international torch relays.[64]

The relay began 24 March 2008, in Olympia, Greece. From there, it traveled across Greece to Panathinaiko Stadium in Athens, and then to Beijing, arriving on 31 March. From Beijing, the torch followed a route passing through every continent except Antarctica. The torch visited cities on the Silk Road, symbolizing ancient links between China and the rest of the world. A total of 21,880 torchbearers were selected from around the world by various organizations and entities.[65]

The international portion of the relay was problematic. The month-long world tour encountered wide-scale anti-Chinese protests. After trouble in London involving attempts by protesters to put out the flame, the torch was extinguished in Paris the following day.[66] The American leg in San Francisco on 9 April was altered without prior warning to avoid such disturbances, although there were still demonstrations along the original route.[67] The relay was further delayed and simplified after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake hit western China.[68]

Route of the 2008 Olympic Torch Relay

The flame was carried to the top of Mount Everest[65] on a 108 km (67 mi) long “highway” scaling the Tibetan side of the mountain, built especially for the relay. The $19.7 million blacktop project spanned from Tingri County of Xigazê Prefecture to the Everest Base Camp.[69] In March 2008, China banned mountaineers from climbing its side of Mount Everest, and later persuaded the Nepalese government to close their side as well, officially citing environmental concerns.[70] It also reflected concerns by the Chinese government that Tibet activists may try to disrupt its plans to carry the Olympic torch up the world’s tallest peak.[71]

The originally proposed route would have taken the torch through Taipei after leaving Vietnam and before heading for Hong Kong. However, the government of Taiwan (then led by the independence-leaning Democratic Progressive Party) objected to this proposal, claiming that this route would make the portion of the relay in Taiwan appear to be part of the torch’s domestic journey through China, rather than a leg on the international route.[72] This dispute, as well as Chinese demands that the flag and the national anthem of the Republic of China be banned along the route led the government of Taiwan to reject the proposal that it be part of the relay route, and the two sides of the Taiwan Strait subsequently blamed each other for injecting politics into the event.[73]

Calendar

All times are in China Standard Time (UTC+8)

In the following calendar for the 2008 Olympic Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day. The yellow boxes represent days during which medal-awarding finals for a sport were held. Each bullet in these boxes is an event final, the number of bullets per box representing the number of finals that were contested on that day. On the left the calendar lists each sport with events held during the Games, and at the right how many gold medals were won in that sport. There is a key at the top of the calendar to aid the reader.[74]

 OC  Opening ceremony     Event competitions  1  Event finals  EG   Exhibition gala  CC  Closing ceremony
August 6th
Wed
7th
Thu
8th
Fri
9th
Sat
10th
Sun
11th
Mon
12th
Tue
13th
Wed
14th
Thu
15th
Fri
16th
Sat
17th
Sun
18th
Mon
19th
Tue
20th
Wed
21st
Thu
22nd
Fri
23rd
Sat
24th
Sun
Events
Olympic Rings Icon.svg Ceremonies OC CC N/A
Archery 1 1 1 1 4
Athletics pictogram.svg Athletics 2 4 6 6 5 3 6 7 7 1 47
Badminton pictogram.svg Badminton 1 2 2 5
Baseball pictogram.svg Baseball 1 1
Basketball pictogram.svg Basketball 1 1 2
Boxing pictogram.svg Boxing 4 6 11
Canoeing (flatwater) pictogram.svg Canoeing 2 2 6 6 16
Cycling (road) pictogram.svg Cycling 1 1 2 1 3 1 2 3 2 2 18
Diving pictogram.svg Diving 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
Equestrian pictogram.svg Equestrian 2 1 1 1 1 6
Fencing pictogram.svg Fencing 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 10
Field hockey pictogram.svg Field hockey 1 1 2
Football pictogram.svg Football 1 1 2
Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg Gymnastics 1 1 1 1 4 4 4 EG 1 1 18
Handball pictogram.svg Handball 1 1 2
Judo pictogram.svg Judo 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 14
Modern pentathlon pictogram.svg Modern pentathlon 1 1 2
Rowing pictogram.svg Rowing 7 7 14
Sailing pictogram.svg Sailing 3 2 2 2 2 11
Shooting pictogram.svg Shooting 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 15
Softball pictogram.svg Softball 1 1
Swimming pictogram.svg Swimming 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 34
Synchronized swimming pictogram.svg Synchronized swimming 1 1 2
Table tennis pictogram.svg Table tennis 1 1 1 1 4
Taekwondo pictogram.svg Taekwondo 2 2 2 2 8
Tennis pictogram.svg Tennis 1 3 4
Triathlon pictogram.svg Triathlon 1 1 2
Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg Volleyball 1 1 1 1 4
Water polo pictogram.svg Water polo 1 1 2
Weightlifting pictogram.svg Weightlifting 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 15
Wrestling pictogram.svg Wrestling 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 18
Total events 7 14 13 19 17 15 18 27 37 18 20 11 21 21 32 12 302
Cumulative total 7 21 34 53 70 85 103 130 167 185 205 216 237 258 290 302
August 6th
Wed
7th
Thu
8th
Fri
9th
Sat
10th
Sun
11th
Mon
12th
Tue
13th
Wed
14th
Thu
15th
Fri
16th
Sat
17th
Sun
18th
Mon
19th
Tue
20th
Wed
21st
Thu
22nd
Fri
23rd
Sat
24th
Sun

Olympic and world records

125 Olympic records including 37 world records were set in various events at the Games. In swimming, sixty-five Olympic swimming records including 25 world records were broken due to the use of the LZR Racer, a specialized swimming suit developed by NASA and the Australian Institute of Sport.[75] Only two swimming Olympic records remained intact after the Games.

Games

Opening ceremony

Opening Ceremony.

The opening ceremony officially began at 8:00 pm China Standard Time (UTC+8) on 8 August 2008 in the Beijing National Stadium.[76] The number 8 is associated with prosperity and confidence in Chinese culture, and here it was a triple eight for the date and one extra for time (close to 08:08:08 pm).[77] The ceremony was co-directed by Chinese filmmaker Zhang Yimou and Chinese choreographer Zhang Jigang[78] and featured a cast of over 15,000 performers.[79] The ceremony lasted over four hours and was reported to have cost over US$100 million to produce.[80]

A rich assembly of ancient Chinese art and culture dominated the ceremony. It opened with the beating of Fou drums for the countdown. Subsequently, a giant scroll was unveiled and became the show’s centerpiece. The official song of the 2008 Olympics, titled “You and Me”, was performed by Britain’s Sarah Brightman and China’s Liu Huan, on a large spinning rendition of the globe.[81] The last recipient in the Olympic Torch relay, former Chinese gymnast Li Ning ignited the cauldron, after being suspended into the air by wires and completing a lap of the National Stadium at roof height.[82]

The opening ceremony was lauded by spectators and various international presses as “spectacular” and “spellbinding”.[83] Hein Verbruggen, chairman of the IOC Coordination Commission for the XXIX Olympiad, called the ceremony “a grand, unprecedented success.”[84]

Sports

The program for the Beijing Games was quite similar to that of the 2004 Summer Olympics held in Athens. There were 28 sports and 302 events at the 2008 Games. Nine new events were held, including two from the new cycling discipline of BMX. Women competed in the 3000 metre steeplechase for the first time. Open water swimming events for men and women, over the distance of 10 kilometres (6.2 mi), were added to the swimming discipline. Team events (men and women) in table tennis replaced the doubles events.[85] In fencing, women’s team foil and women’s team sabre replaced men’s team foil and women’s team épée.[e] Two sports were open only to men, baseball and boxing, while one sport and one discipline were open only to women, softball and synchronized swimming. Equestrian and mixed badminton are the only sports in which men and women compete together, although three events in the Sailing allowed the opportunity for both males and female participants. However, only male participants took part in all three events.[87][88]

The following were the 302 events in 28 sports that were contested at the Games. The number of events contested in each sport is indicated in parentheses (in sports with more than one discipline, as identified by the IOC,[89] these are also specified).

  • Aquatics

    • Diving (8)
    • Swimming (34)
    • Synchronized swimming (2)
    • Water polo (2)
  • Archery (4)
  • Athletics (47)
  • Badminton (5)
  • Baseball (1)
  • Basketball (2)
  • Boxing (11)
  • Canoeing

    • Slalom (4)
    • Sprint (12)
  • Cycling

    • BMX (2)
    • Road (4)
    • Track (10)
    • Mountain bike (2)
  • Equestrian

    • Dressage (2)
    • Eventing (2)
    • Jumping (2)
  • Fencing (10)
  • Field hockey (2)
  • Football (2)
  • Gymnastics

    • Artistic (14)
    • Rhythmic (2)
    • Trampoline (2)
  • Handball (2)
  • Judo (14)
  • Modern pentathlon (2)
  • Rowing (14)
  • Sailing (11)
  • Shooting (15)
  • Softball (1)
  • Table tennis (4)
  • Taekwondo (8)
  • Tennis (4)
  • Triathlon (2)
  • Volleyball

    • Beach volleyball (2)
    • Volleyball (2)
  • Weightlifting (15)
  • Wrestling

    • Freestyle (11)
    • Greco-Roman (7)

In addition to the official Olympic sports, the Beijing Organising Committee was given special dispensation by the IOC to run a wushu competition in parallel to the Games. The Wushu Tournament Beijing 2008 saw 128 athletes from 43 countries participate, with medals awarded in 15 separate events; however, these were not to be added to the official medal tally since Wushu was not on the programme of the 2008 Olympic Games.[90]

Closing ceremony

The 2008 Summer Olympics Closing Ceremony concluded the Beijing Games on 24 August 2008. It began at 8:00 pm China Standard Time (UTC+8), and took place at the Beijing National Stadium.

The Ceremony included handover of the Games from Beijing to London. Guo Jinlong, the Mayor of Beijing handed over the Olympic flag to the Mayor of London Boris Johnson, followed by a performance organized by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (LOCOG). This presentation included performances by guitarist Jimmy Page, and recording artist Leona Lewis. Footballer David Beckham was also featured during London’s presentation.[91]

Medal table

The reverse side of the medals of the 2008 Summer Olympics: silver (left), gold (center), bronze (right). Each medal has a ring of jade.

Of the 204 nations that participated in the 2008 Games, 87 earned medals and 54 of those won at least one gold medal, both of these figures setting new records for Olympic Games.[92][93] There were 117 participating countries that did not win any medals. Athletes from China won the highest number of gold medals of any nation at these Games, with 48, thus making China the seventh nation to rank top in the medal table in the history of the modern Olympics, along with the United States (fifteen times), France (in 1900), Great Britain (in 1908), Germany (in 1936), the Soviet Union (six times), and the Unified Team (in 1992).[92]

The United States team won the most medals overall, with 112. Afghanistan,[94]Mauritius,[95]Sudan,[96]Tajikistan[97] and Togo[98] won their first ever Olympic medals. Mongolia (which previously held the record for most medals without a gold)[99] and Panama[100] won their first gold medals. Four members of the water polo team from Serbia won the first medal for their country under its new name, having previously won medals representing Yugoslavia and Serbia and Montenegro.[101]

American swimmer Michael Phelps won a total of eight gold medals, more than any other athlete in a single Olympic games, setting numerous world and Olympic records in the process.[92] Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt also set records in several different events, completing the 100 m final with a time of 9.69 seconds, beating his own previous world record.[102] Russian-born American gymnast Nastia Liukin won the all-around gold medal in artistic gymnastics, becoming the third American female to do so, following in the footsteps of Mary Lou Retton in 1984 and Carly Patterson in 2004.[103]

These are the top ten nations that won medals in the 2008 Games.

     Host nation

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  China* 48 22 30 100
2  United States 36 39 37 112
3  Russia 24 13 23 60
4  Great Britain 19 13 19 51
5  Germany 16 11 14 41
6  Australia 14 15 17 46
7  South Korea 13 11 8 32
8  Japan 9 7 9 25
9  Italy 8 9 10 27
10  France 7 16 20 43
Totals (10 nations) 194 156 187 537

Participating National Olympic Committees

Participating nations
Blue = Participating for the first time. Green = Have previously participated. Yellow square is host city (Beijing)

Team sizes

All but one of the 205 recognized National Olympic Committees (NOCs) that existed as of 2008[update] participated in the 2008 Summer Olympics, the exception being Brunei.[104] Three countries participated in the Olympic Games for their first time: the Marshall Islands, Montenegro and Tuvalu.[105]

While not a full member recognized by the IOC and thus not allowed to compete formally in the Olympics, the Macau Sports and Olympic Committee sent a delegation to participate in the Wushu Tournament Beijing 2008, being the only unrecognized National Olympic Committee to have taken part in the 2008 Summer Olympics. It also coordinated efforts with the Chinese Olympic Committee to organize the torch relay through Macau.

The Marshall Islands and Tuvalu gained National Olympic Committee status in 2006 and 2007 respectively, and 2008 was the first games in which they were eligible to participate.[106][107] The states of Serbia and Montenegro, which participated at the 2004 Games jointly as Serbia and Montenegro, competed separately for the first time. The Montenegrin Olympic Committee was accepted as a new National Olympic Committee in 2007.[107] Neighboring Kosovo, however, did not participate. After the declaration of independence in Kosovo, the IOC specified requirements that Kosovo needs to meet before being recognized by the IOC; most notably, it has to be recognized as independent by the United Nations.[108]China and the United States had the largest teams, with 639 athletes for China and 596 for the United States.[109][110] Russia entered the third largest team, with 467 athletes.

More than 100 sovereigns, heads of state and heads of government as well as 170 Ministers of Sport attended the Beijing Olympic Games.[111]

Participating National Olympic Committees
  •  Afghanistan (4)
  •  Albania (11)
  •  Algeria (62)
  •  American Samoa (4)
  •  Andorra (5)
  •  Angola (32)
  •  Antigua and Barbuda (5)
  •  Argentina (137)
  •  Armenia (25)
  •  Aruba (2)
  •  Australia (433)
  •  Austria (70)
  •  Azerbaijan (44)
  •  Bahamas (25)
  •  Bahrain (15)
  •  Bangladesh (5)
  •  Barbados (6)
  •  Belarus (181)
  •  Belgium (96)
  •  Belize (3)
  •  Benin (5)
  •  Bermuda (6)
  •  Bhutan (2)
  •  Bolivia (7)
  •  Bosnia and Herzegovina (5)
  •  Botswana (12)
  •  Brazil (277)
  •  British Virgin Islands (2)
  •  Bulgaria (72)
  •  Burkina Faso (6)
  •  Burundi (3)
  •  Cambodia (4)
  •  Cameroon (33)
  •  Canada (332)
  •  Cape Verde (2)
  •  Cayman Islands (4)
  •  Central African Republic (3)
  •  Chad (2)
  •  Chile (27)
  •  China (639) (host)
  •  Colombia (64)
  •  Comoros (3)
  •  Republic of the Congo (5)
  •  Democratic Republic of the Congo (5)
  •  Cook Islands (4)
  •  Costa Rica (8)
  •  Croatia (105)
  •  Cuba (149)
  •  Cyprus (17)
  •  Czech Republic (134)
  •  Denmark (84)
  •  Djibouti (2)
  •  Dominica (2)
  •  Dominican Republic (25)
  •  Ecuador (25)
  •  Egypt (103)
  •  El Salvador (11)
  •  Equatorial Guinea (3)
  •  Eritrea (9)
  •  Estonia (47)
  •  Ethiopia (22)
  •  Fiji (6)
  •  Finland (58)
  •  France (323)
  •  Gabon (4)
  •  The Gambia (3)
  •  Georgia (35)
  •  Germany (463)
  •  Ghana (9)
  •  Great Britain (311)
  •  Greece (156)
  •  Grenada (9)
  •  Guam (5)
  •  Guatemala (12)
  •  Guinea (5)
  •  Guinea-Bissau (3)
  •  Guyana (5)
  •  Haiti (7)
  •  Honduras (25)
  •  Hong Kong (34)
  •  Hungary (171)
  •  Iceland (28)
  •  India (57)
  •  Indonesia (24)
  •  Iran (55)
  •  Iraq (4)
  •  Ireland (54)
  •  Israel (43)
  •  Italy (344)
  •  Ivory Coast (20)
  •  Jamaica (50)
  •  Japan (351)
  •  Jordan (7)
  •  Kazakhstan (132)
  •  Kenya (56)
  •  Kiribati (2)
  •  North Korea (63)
  •  South Korea (267)
  •  Kuwait (6)
  •  Kyrgyzstan (21)
  •  Laos (4)
  •  Latvia (50)
  •  Lebanon (5)
  •  Lesotho (5)
  •  Liberia (3)
  •  Libya (7)
  •  Liechtenstein (2)
  •  Lithuania (71)
  •  Luxembourg (12)
  •  Macedonia (7)
  •  Madagascar (4)
  •  Malawi (4)
  •  Malaysia (33)
  •  Maldives (3)
  •  Mali (17)
  •  Malta (6)
  •  Marshall Islands (5)
  •  Mauritania (2)
  •  Mauritius (12)
  •  Mexico (85)
  •  Federated States of Micronesia (5)
  •  Moldova (31)
  •  Monaco (5)
  •  Mongolia (29)
  •  Montenegro (31)
  •  Morocco (57)
  •  Mozambique (5)
  •  Myanmar (6)
  •  Namibia (9)
  •  Nauru (1)
  •  Nepal (8)
  •  Netherlands (245)
  •  Netherlands Antilles (3)
  •  New Zealand (182)
  •  Nicaragua (6)
  •  Niger (5)
  •  Nigeria (33)
  •  Norway (85)
  •  Oman (5)
  •  Pakistan (21)
  •  Palau (5)
  •  Palestine (4)
  •  Panama (3)
  •  Papua New Guinea (7)
  •  Paraguay (5)
  •  Peru (12)
  •  Philippines (15)
  •  Poland (268)
  •  Portugal (77)
  •  Puerto Rico (22)
  •  Qatar (22)
  •  Romania (102)
  •  Russia (467)
  •  Rwanda (4)
  •  Saint Kitts and Nevis (4)
  •  Saint Lucia (6)
  •  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2)
  •  Samoa (6)
  •  San Marino (4)
  •  São Tomé and Príncipe (3)
  •  Saudi Arabia (16)
  •  Senegal (12)
  •  Serbia (92)
  •  Seychelles (8)
  •  Sierra Leone (3)
  •  Singapore (25)
  •  Slovakia (57)
  •  Slovenia (62)
  •  Solomon Islands (3)
  •  Somalia (2)
  •  South Africa (136)
  •  Spain (286)
  •  Sri Lanka (8)
  •  Sudan (9)
  •  Suriname (4)
  •  Swaziland (4)
  •  Sweden (134)
  •  Switzerland (84)
  •  Syria (8)
  •  Chinese Taipei (80)
  •  Tajikistan (13)
  •  Tanzania (10)
  •  Thailand (51)
  •  East Timor (2)
  •  Togo (4)
  •  Tonga (3)
  •  Trinidad and Tobago (30)
  •  Tunisia (32)
  •  Turkey (68)
  •  Turkmenistan (10)
  •  Tuvalu (3)
  •  Uganda (15)
  •  Ukraine (254)
  •  United Arab Emirates (8)
  •  United States (596)
  •  Uruguay (12)
  •  Uzbekistan (58)
  •  Vanuatu (3)
  •  Venezuela (109)
  •  Vietnam (21)
  •  Virgin Islands (5)
  •  Yemen (5)
  •  Zambia (8)
  •  Zimbabwe (13)

National participation changes

Flag of the Chinese Taipei Olympic Committee.

Athletes from the Republic of China (Taiwan) competed at the 2008 Games as Chinese Taipei (TPE) under the Chinese Taipei Olympic flag and used the National Banner Song as their official anthem. The participation of Taiwan was briefly in doubt because of disagreements over the name of their team in the Chinese language and concerns about Taiwan marching in the Opening Ceremony next to the special administrative region of Hong Kong. A compromise on the naming was reached, and Taiwan was referred to during the games as “Chinese Taipei,” rather than “Taipei, China,” as the mainland China government had proposed. In addition, the Central African Republic was placed between Chinese Taipei and the Special Administrative Regions during the march of nations.[112]

Starting in 2005, North Korea and South Korea held meetings to discuss the possibility of sending a united team to the 2008 Olympics.[113][114] The proposal failed, because of disagreements about how athletes would be chosen; North Korea was demanding a certain percentage representation for its athletes. A subsequent attempt to broker an agreement for the two nations to walk together during the March of Nations failed as well, despite their having done so during the 2000 and 2004 Games.[115]

On 24 July 2008, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) banned Iraq from competing in the 2008 Olympic Summer Games because of “political interference by the government in sports.”[116][117] The IOC reversed its decision five days later and allowed the nation to compete after a pledge by Iraq to ensure “the independence of its national Olympics panel” by instituting fair elections before the end of November. In the meantime, Iraq’s Olympic Organisation was run by “an interim committee proposed by its national sports federations and approved by the IOC.”[118]

Brunei Darussalam was due to take part in the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. However, they were disqualified on 8 August, having failed to register either of their two athletes.[119] The IOC spokeswoman Emmanuelle Moreau said in a statement that “it is a great shame and very sad for the athletes who lose out because of the decision by their team not to register them. The IOC tried up until the last minute, midday Friday August 8, 2008, the day of the official opening, to have them register, but to no avail.”[120] Brunei’s Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports issued a press release stating that their decision not to participate was due to an injury to one of their athletes.[121]

Georgia announced on 9 August 2008, that it was considering withdrawing from the Beijing Olympic Games because of the 2008 South Ossetia war, but it went on to compete while the conflict was still ongoing.[122]

Participation of athletes with disabilities

South African swimmer Natalie du Toit, whose left leg was amputated following a motor scooter accident, qualified to compete at the Beijing Olympics. The five time gold medalist at the Athens Paralympics in 2004 made history by becoming the first amputee to qualify for the Olympic Games since Olivér Halassy in 1936. She was able to compete in the Olympics rather than the Paralympics because she does not use a prosthetic leg while swimming.[123] Polish athlete Natalia Partyka, who was born without a right forearm, competed in Table Tennis in both the 2008 Olympic Games and 2008 Paralympic Games.[124]

Concerns and controversies

A crowd of protestors along a street displays a banner reading "Human Rights Abuse Cannot Co-exist with Beijing Olympics". Near the centre of the image, a photographer holds a camera level with the banner while looking through the viewfinder.

The banner reads: “Human Rights Abuse Cannot Co-exist with Beijing Olympics”, picture taken during the opening of the Human Rights Torch Relay event

A variety of concerns over the Games, or China’s hosting of the Games, had been expressed by various entities, including claims that China violated its pledge to allow open media access,[125] various supposed human rights violations,[126][127] its alleged continuous support of repressive regimes (such as Zimbabwe, Myanmar, Sudan and North Korea), air pollution in both the city of Beijing and in neighbouring areas,[128] proposed boycotts,[129][130] warnings of the possibility that the Beijing Olympics could be targeted by terrorist groups,[131] disruption from pro-Tibetan protesters,[132] and religious persecutions.[133]

There were also claims that several members of China’s women’s gymnastics team, including double gold medal winner He Kexin, were too young to compete under the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique’s rules for Olympic eligibility, but all were exonerated after an official IOC investigation.[134][135][136]

Collectively, the Beijing Olympics are associated with a variety of problematic topics: the ecological impact, residential displacement due to construction, treatment of migrant workers, the government’s political stance on Tibet, etc.[137] In the lead-up to the Olympics, the government allegedly issued guidelines to the local media for their reporting during the Games: most political issues not directly related to the games were to be downplayed; topics such as pro-Tibetan independence and East Turkestan movements were not to be reported on, as were food safety issues such as “cancer-causing mineral water”.[138] As the 2008 Chinese milk scandal broke in September 2008, there was widespread speculation that China’s desire for a perfect Games may have been a factor contributing towards the delayed recall of contaminated infant formula.[139][140]

The games were hit by a number of doping scandals before and after the games had commenced. Seven Russian track and field stars were suspended just before the start of the games for allegedly tampering with their urine samples, only five of the seven were due to take part in the games. Eleven Greek weightlifters also failed tests in the run up to the games and the entire Bulgarian weightlifting team had to withdraw after eleven of their weightlifters also failed tests. A small number of athletes from other nations also failed pre-games tests.[141][142][143] Urine samples taken from the games were re-analysed in 2016–17 using more advanced technologies that were not available at the time of competition. 61 athletes failed these re-tests, with 50 medals being stripped.[citation needed]

Legacy

Beijing 2008 cauldron in 2013.

The 2008 Olympic Games have been generally accepted by the world’s media as a logistical success.[144][145] Many of the worst fears about the games failed to materialize: no terrorists struck Beijing; no athlete protested at the podium (though Swedish wrestler Ara Abrahamian tossed his bronze medal in disgust over judging), and the air quality – due largely to favorable weather patterns – was not as bad as many had feared beforehand despite being the worst in Olympics history.[146][147] Hopes that hosting the Games would lead to improvements in human rights protections and rule of law in China, however, went unfulfilled.[148]

Many in China viewed the Olympics as “an affirmation of a single nationalistic dream” and saw protests during the international torch relay as an insult to China.[149] The Games also bolstered domestic support for the Chinese government, and for the policies of the Communist Party, giving rise to concerns that the Olympics would give the state more leverage to suppress political dissent, at least temporarily.[150] Efforts to quell any unrest before and during the Games also contributed to a rapid expansion in the size and political clout of China’s internal security forces, and this growth continued through the following years.[151] Reports also indicated that the Olympics boosted the political careers of pro-Beijing politicians in Hong Kong, as many Chinese gold medal winners campaigned on behalf of the pro-Beijing DAB during the 2008 election,[152] although any trend towards greater identification by Hong Kongers with Mainland China appears to have been short-lived.[153]

The long-term economic impact of the games on China and Beijing in particular is not yet clear. Some sectors of the economy may have benefited from the influx of tourists, and other sectors such as manufacturing lost revenue because of plant closings related to the government’s efforts to improve air quality. Four years after the Games, many of the specially constructed facilities were underused or even deserted.[154] It is generally expected by economists that there will be no lasting effects on Beijing’s economy from the games.[155]

Seven years after the 2008 Games, Beijing was awarded the 2022 Winter Olympics. It will thus be the first city to host both the Summer and Winter Games.

See also

  • 2008 Summer Paralympics
  • Olympic Games celebrated in China
    • 2008 Summer Olympics – Beijing
    • 2022 Winter Olympics – Beijing
  • Summer Olympic Games
  • Olympic Games
  • International Olympic Committee
  • List of IOC country codes
  • Doping the Olympic Games — 2008 Beijing
  • 2022 Winter Olympics

Notes

  1. ^ IOC records state Hu Jintao opened the Beijing Games as “President”, de jure head of state. Though Hu Jintao was also de facto ruler as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, that title is not reflected in IOC records.
  2. ^ Although the games officially started on 8 August 2008, the first football matches were held on 6 August.
  3. ^ The other two instances were: the 1956 Olympics, where the equestrian events were held in Stockholm, Sweden, due to strict Australian quarantine rules, and the other Olympic events were held in Melbourne, Australia; and the 1920 Olympics, which were hosted by Antwerp, Belgium, but the final two races of the 12 ft (3.7 m) dinghy event in sailing took place in the Netherlands.
  4. ^ The New York Times, for instance, said that “those promises have been contradicted by strict visa rules, lengthy application processes and worries about censorship.”[50]
  5. ^ The fencing programme included six individual events and four team events; the FIE’s rules call for the set of team events to be different from those held in the previous Games and for at least one team event in each weapon to be contested. The fourth event is determined by a vote. In 2004, the three men’s team events (foil, sabre, épée) and the women’s épée were held, so in 2008 the women’s foil and sabre events were automatically selected, as well as the men’s épée. The fourth event, men’s sabre, was chosen over men’s foil by a 45:20 vote.[86]

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External links

  • “Beijing 2008”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • “Results and Medalists — 2008 Summer Olympics”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • “2008 Summer Olympics Official Site”. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 20 June 2013.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  • Beijing Olympic Sites Four Years Later – What Remains at Modern Day Ruins
  • Mallon, Bill (18 Jan 2019). “ALL OLYMPIC DOPING POSITIVES – THE COUNT BY GAMES”. OlympStats.
Preceded by
Athens
Summer Olympic Games
Beijing

XXIX Olympiad (2008)
Succeeded by
London


1968 Summer Olympics

Games of the XIX Olympiad
1968 Mexico emblem.svg

Logo for the 1968 Summer Olympics, designed by Lance Wyman
Host city Mexico City, Mexico
Nations 112
Athletes 5,516 (4,735 men, 781 women)
Events 172 in 18 sports (24 disciplines)
Opening 12 October
Closing 27 October
Opened by
President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz[1]
Cauldron
Enriqueta Basilio[1]
Stadium Estadio Olímpico Universitario
Summer
← Tokyo 1964 Munich 1972 →
Winter
← Grenoble 1968 Sapporo 1972 →

The 1968 Summer Olympics (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1968), officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, Mexico, from October 12 to 27, 1968.

These were the first Olympic Games to be staged in Latin America and the first to be staged in a Spanish-speaking country. They were the first Games to use an all-weather (smooth) track for track and field events instead of the traditional cinder track.

The 1968 Games were the third to be held in the last quarter of the year, after the 1956 Games in Melbourne and the 1964 Games in Tokyo. The Mexican Student Movement of 1968 happened concurrently and the Olympic Games were correlated to the government’s repression.

Contents

  • 1 Host city selection
  • 2 Olympic torch relay
  • 3 Highlights
  • 4 Controversies

    • 4.1 South Africa
    • 4.2 Tlatelolco massacre
    • 4.3 Black Power salute
    • 4.4 Věra Čáslavská
  • 5 Venues
  • 6 Sports

    • 6.1 Demonstration sports
  • 7 Participating National Olympic Committees
  • 8 Calendar
  • 9 Boycotting countries
  • 10 Medal count
  • 11 See also
  • 12 References
  • 13 External links

Host city selection

Opening ceremony of the 1968 Summer Olympic Games at the Estadio Olímpico Universitario in Mexico City

On October 18, 1963, at the 60th IOC Session in Baden-Baden, West Germany, Mexico City finished ahead of bids from Detroit, Buenos Aires and Lyon to host the Games.[2]

1968 Summer Olympics bidding result[3]
City Country Round 1
Mexico City  Mexico 30
Detroit  United States 14
Lyon  France 12
Buenos Aires  Argentina 2

Olympic torch relay

The 1968 torch relay recreated the route taken by Christopher Columbus to the New World, journeying from Greece through Italy and Spain to San Salvador Island, Bahamas, and then on to Mexico.[citation needed] American sculptor James Metcalf, an expatriate in Mexico, won the commission to forge the Olympic torch for the 1968 Summer Games.[4]

Highlights

Adolfo López Mateos, President of Mexico from 1958 to 1964 and first chairman of the Organization Committee of the 1968 Summer Olympics

  • In the medal award ceremony for the men’s 200 meter race, black American athletes Tommie Smith (gold) and John Carlos (bronze) took a stand for civil rights by raising their black-gloved fists and wearing black socks in lieu of shoes. The Australian Peter Norman, who had run second, wore an American “civil rights” badge as support to them on the podium. In response, the IOC banned Smith and Carlos from the Olympic Games for life, and Norman’s omission from Australia’s Olympic team in 1972 was allegedly as punishment.[5][6]
  • American (and future professional world’s champion) George Foreman won the gold medal for boxing (Heavyweight Division) by defeating Soviet Ionas Chepulis via a second-round TKO. After the victory, Foreman waved a small American flag as he bowed to the crowd.[7]
  • The high elevation of Mexico City, at 2,240 m (7,350 ft) above sea level, influenced many of the events, particularly in track and field. No other Summer Olympic Games before or since have been held at high elevation. Although a performance reducer for endurance athletes, the thin air contributed to many record-setting jumps, leaps, vaults, and throws, as well as all of the men’s track events of 400 meters and less.[8] As a reminder of this fact, one of the promotional articles of these Olympics was a small metallic box labeled “Aire de México” (Air of Mexico), that was “Especial para batir récords” (Special for breaking records).[citation needed]
  • In addition to high elevation, this was the first Olympics to use a synthetic all-weather surface for track and field events; the “Tartan” surface was originally developed by 3M for horse racing, but did not catch on. The tracks at previous Olympics were conventional cinder.[9]
  • For the first time, East and West Germany competed as separate teams, after being forced by the IOC to compete as a combined German team in 1956, 1960, and 1964. Beethoven’s Ode to Joy was played when East and West Germany arrived in the stadium.[citation needed]
  • Al Oerter of the U.S. won his fourth consecutive gold medal in the discus to become only the second athlete to achieve this feat in an individual event, and the first in track & field (athletics).[10]
  • Bob Beamon of the U.S. leapt 8.90 m (29.2 ft) in the long jump, an incredible 55 cm (22 in) improvement over the previous world record. It remained the Olympic record and stood as the world record for 23 years, until broken by American Mike Powell in 1991. American athletes Jim Hines, Tommie Smith and Lee Evans also set long-standing world records in the 100 m, 200 m and 400 m, respectively.[citation needed]
  • In the triple jump, the previous world record was improved five times by three different athletes. Winner Viktor Saneev also won in 1972 and 1976, and won silver in 1980.
  • Dick Fosbury of the U.S. won the gold medal in the high jump using his unconventional Fosbury flop technique, which quickly became the dominant technique in the event.[11]
  • Věra Čáslavská of Czechoslovakia won four gold medals in gymnastics and protested the Soviet invasion of her country.
  • Debbie Meyer of the U.S. became the first swimmer to win three individual gold medals, in the 200, 400 and 800 m freestyle events. The 800 m was a new long-distance event for women. Meyer was only 16 years old, a student at Rio Americano High School in Sacramento, California. Meyer was the first of several American teenagers to win the 800 m.[citation needed]
  • American swimmer Charlie Hickcox won three gold medals (200m IM, 400m IM, 4 × 100 m medley relay) and one silver medal (100m backstroke).[12][citation needed]
  • The introduction of doping tests resulted in the first disqualification because of doping: Swedish pentathlete Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall was disqualified for alcohol use (he drank several beers just prior to competing).[citation needed]
  • John Stephen Akhwari of Tanzania became internationally famous after finishing the marathon, in the last place, despite a dislocated knee.[13]
  • This was the first of three Olympic participation by Jacques Rogge. He competed in yachting and would later become the president of the IOC.[14]
  • Norma Enriqueta Basilio de Sotelo of Mexico became the first woman to light the Olympic cauldron with the Olympic flame.[citation needed]
  • It was the first games at which there was a significant African presence in men’s distance running. Africans won at least one medal in all running events from 800 meters to the marathon, and in so doing they set a trend for future games. Most of these runners came from high-altitude areas of countries like Kenya and Ethiopia, and they were well-prepared for the 2240 m elevation of Mexico City.[citation needed]
  • Kipchoge Keino of Kenya, competing in spite of unexpected bouts of severe abdominal pain later diagnosed as a gall bladder infection, finished the 10,000 meters in spite of collapsing from pain with two laps to go, won silver in the 5000, and won gold in the 1500 meters.[15][16]
  • It was the first Olympic games in which the closing ceremony was transmitted in color to the world, as well as the events themselves.[17]

Controversies

South Africa

South Africa was provisionally invited to the Games, on the understanding that all segregation and discrimination in sport would be eliminated by the 1972 Games. However, African countries and African American athletes promised to boycott the Games if South Africa was present, and Eastern Bloc countries threatened to do likewise. In April 1968 the IOC conceded that “it would be most unwise for South Africa to participate”.[18]

Tlatelolco massacre

Responding to growing social unrest and protests, the government of Mexico had increased economic and political suppression, against labor unions in particular, in the decade building up to the Olympics. A series of protest marches in the city in August gathered significant attendance, with an estimated 500,000 taking part on August 27. President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz ordered the occupation[by whom?] of the National Autonomous University of Mexico in September, but protests continued. Using the prominence brought by the Olympics, students gathered in Plaza de las Tres Culturas in Tlatelolco to call for greater civil and democratic rights and showed disdain for the Olympics with slogans such as ¡No queremos olimpiadas, queremos revolución! (“We don’t want Olympics, we want revolution!”).[19][20]

Ten days before the start of the Olympics, the government ordered the gathering in Plaza de las Tres Culturas to be broken up. Some 5000 soldiers and 200 tankettes surrounded the plaza. Hundreds of protesters and civilians were killed and over 1000 were arrested. At the time, the event was portrayed in the national media as the military suppression of a violent student uprising, but later analysis indicates that the gathering was peaceful prior to the army’s advance.[21][22][23]

Black Power salute

Gold medalist Tommie Smith (center) and bronze medalist John Carlos (right) showing the raised fist on the podium after the 200 m race

On October 16, 1968, African American sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos, the gold and bronze medalists in the men’s 200-meter race, took their places on the podium for the medal ceremony wearing black socks without shoes and civil rights badges, lowered their heads and each defiantly raised a black-gloved fist as the Star Spangled Banner was played, in solidarity with the Black Freedom Movement in the United States. Both were members of the Olympic Project for Human Rights. International Olympic Committee (IOC) president Avery Brundage deemed it to be a domestic political statement unfit for the apolitical, international forum the Olympic Games were intended to be. In response to their actions, he ordered Smith and Carlos suspended from the US team and banned from the Olympic Village. When the US Olympic Committee refused, Brundage threatened to ban the entire US track team. This threat led to the expulsion of the two athletes from the Games.[24]

Peter Norman, the Australian sprinter who came second in the 200 m race, also wore an Olympic Project for Human Rights badge during the medal ceremony. Norman was the one who suggested that Carlos and Smith wear one glove each. His actions resulted in him being ostracized by Australian media[25] and a reprimand by his country’s Olympic authorities. He was not sent to the 1972 games, despite several times making the qualifying time,[26] though opinion differ over whether that was due to the 1968 protest.[27] When Australia hosted the 2000 Summer Olympics, he had no part in the opening ceremony, though the significance of that is also debated.[27] In 2006, after Norman died of a heart attack, Smith and Carlos were pallbearers at Norman’s funeral.[28]

Věra Čáslavská

In another notable incident in the gymnastics competition, while standing on the medal podium after the balance beam event final, in which Natalia Kuchinskaya of the Soviet Union had controversially taken the gold, Czechoslovakian gymnast Věra Čáslavská quietly turned her head down and away during the playing of the Soviet national anthem. The action was Čáslavská’s silent protest against the recent Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. Her protest was repeated when she accepted her medal for her floor exercise routine when the judges changed the preliminary scores of the Soviet Larisa Petrik to allow her to tie with Čáslavská for the gold. While Čáslavská’s countrymen supported her actions and her outspoken opposition to Communism (she had publicly signed and supported Ludvik Vaculik’s “Two Thousand Words” manifesto), the new regime responded by banning her from both sporting events and international travel for many years and made her an outcast from society until the fall of communism.

Venues

  • Agustín Melgar Olympic Velodrome – Cycling (track)
  • Arena México – Boxing
  • Avándaro Golf Club – Equestrian (eventing)
  • Campo Marte – Equestrian (dressage, jumping individual)
  • Campo Militar 1 – Modern pentathlon (riding, running)
  • Club de Yates de Acapulco – Sailing
  • Estadio Azteca – Football (final)
  • Estadio Cuauhtémoc – Football preliminaries
  • Estadio Nou Camp – Football preliminaries
  • Estadio Olímpico Universitario – Athletics (also 20 km and 50 km walk), Ceremonies (opening/ closing), Equestrian (jumping team)
  • Fernando Montes de Oca Fencing Hall – Fencing, Modern pentathlon (fencing)
  • Francisco Márquez Olympic Pool – Diving, Modern pentathlon (swimming), Swimming, Water polo
  • Arena Insurgentes – Wrestling
  • Insurgentes Theatre – Weightlifting
  • Jalisco Stadium – Football preliminaries
  • Juan de la Barrera Olympic Gymnasium – Volleyball
  • Juan Escutia Sports Palace – Basketball, Volleyball
  • Municipal Stadium – Field hockey
  • National Auditorium – Gymnastics
  • Arena Revolución – Volleyball
  • Satellite Circuit – Cycling (individual road race, road team time trial)
  • University City Swimming Pool – Water polo
  • Vicente Suárez Shooting Range – Modern pentathlon (shooting), Shooting
  • Virgilio Uribe Rowing and Canoeing Course – Canoeing, Rowing
  • Zócalo – Athletics (marathon start)

Sports

The 1968 Summer Olympic program featured 172 events in the following 18 sports:

  • Aquatics
    • Diving (4)
    • Swimming (29)
    • Water polo (1)
  • Athletics (36)
  • Basketball (1)
  • Boxing (11)
  • Canoeing (7)
  • Cycling

    • Road (2)
    • Track (5)
  • Equestrian

    • Dressage (2)
    • Eventing (2)
    • Jumping (2)
  • Fencing (8)
  • Football (1)
  • Gymnastics (14)
  • Field hockey (1)
  • Modern pentathlon (2)
  • Rowing (7)
  • Sailing (5)
  • Shooting (7)
  • Volleyball (2)
  • Weightlifting (7)
  • Wrestling

    • Freestyle (8)
    • Greco-Roman (8)

Demonstration sports

  • Basque pelota
  • Tennis

The organizers declined to hold a judo tournament at the Olympics, even though it had been a full-medal sport four years earlier. This was the last time judo was not included in the Olympic games.

Participating National Olympic Committees

East Germany and West Germany competed as separate entities for the first time in at a Summer Olympiad, and would remain so through 1988. Barbados competed for the first time as an independent country.
Also competing for the first time in a Summer Olympiad were British Honduras (now Belize), Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (as Congo-Kinshasa), El Salvador, Guinea, Honduras, Kuwait, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Sierra Leone, and the United States Virgin Islands.
Singapore returned to the Games as an independent country after competing as part of the Malaysian team in 1964. Suriname and Libya actually competed for the first time (in 1960 and 1964, respectively, they took part in the Opening Ceremony, but their athletes withdrew from the competition.)

Participating countries

Calendar

All dates are in Central Time Zone (UTC-6)
OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Gold medal events CC Closing ceremony
October 12th
Sat
13th
Sun
14th
Mon
15th
Tue
16th
Wed
17th
Thu
18th
Fri
19th
Sat
20th
Sun
21st
Mon
22nd
Tue
23rd
Wed
24th
Thu
25th
Fri
26th
Sat
27th
Sun
Events
Olympic Rings Icon.svg Ceremonies OC CC N/A
Athletics 1 4 4 7 6 5 2 7 36
Basketball 1 1
Boxing 11 11
Canoeing 7 7
Cycling 1 1 1 1 2 1 7
Diving 1 1 1 1 4
Equestrian 2 1 1 1 1 6
Fencing 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
Field hockey 1 1
Football 1 1
Gymnastics 2 2 4 6 14
Modern pentathlon 2 2
Rowing 7 7
Sailing 5 5
Shooting 2 1 1 1 2 7
Swimming 2 4 3 3 3 4 4 3 3 28
Volleyball 2 2
Water polo 1 1
Weightlifting 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7
Wrestling 8 8 16
Daily medal events 2 5 6 9 13 10 17 20 14 5 12 8 16 34 1 172
Cumulative total 2 7 13 22 35 45 62 82 96 101 113 121 137 171 172
October 12th
Sat
13th
Sun
14th
Mon
15th
Tue
16th
Wed
17th
Thu
18th
Fri
19th
Sat
20th
Sun
21st
Mon
22nd
Tue
23rd
Wed
24th
Thu
25th
Fri
26th
Sat
27th
Sun
Total events

Boycotting countries

North Korea withdrew from the 1968 Games because of two incidents that strained its relations with the IOC. First, the IOC had barred North Korean track and field athletes from the 1968 Games because they had participated in the rival Games of the New Emerging Forces (GANEFO) in 1966. Secondly, the IOC had ordered the nation to compete under the name “North Korea” in the 1968 Games, whereas the country itself would have preferred its official name: “Democratic People’s Republic of Korea”.[29]

Medal count

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1968 Games. Host Mexico won 3 of each color of medal.

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States 45 28 34 107
2  Soviet Union 29 32 30 91
3  Japan 11 7 7 25
4  Hungary 10 10 12 32
5  East Germany 9 9 7 25
6  France 7 3 5 15
7  Czechoslovakia 7 2 4 13
8  West Germany 5 11 10 26
9  Australia 5 7 5 17
10  Great Britain 5 5 3 13
Totals (10 nations) 133 114 117 364

See also

  • 1968 Summer Paralympics
  • 1968 Winter Olympics
  • Summer Olympic Games
  • Olympic Games
  • International Olympic Committee
  • List of IOC country codes
  • 1968 Olympics Black Power salute

References

  1. ^ ab “Factsheet – Opening Ceremony of the Games of the Olympiad” (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 9 October 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ IOC Vote History
  3. ^ “Past Olympic host city election results”. GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
  4. ^ Dannatt, Adrian (2012-02-17). “James Metcalf: US sculptor who led a community of artists and artisans in Mexico”. The Independent. Retrieved 2012-02-25.
  5. ^ “2 Black Power Advocates Ousted From Olympics”. archive.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
  6. ^ CNN, By James Montague,. “The third man: The forgotten Black Power hero – CNN”. CNN. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
  7. ^ George Foreman (2011-11-12), George Foreman vs Ionas Chepulis (1968 Gold medal boxing match), retrieved 2018-06-04
  8. ^ Matthews, Peter (2012-03-22). Historical Dictionary of Track and Field. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810879850.
  9. ^ Matthews, Peter (2012-03-22). Historical Dictionary of Track and Field. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810879850.
  10. ^ Litsky, Frank (2 October 2007). “Al Oerter, Olympic Discus Champion, Is Dead at 71”. Retrieved 25 January 2017 – via Proquest Newspapers.
  11. ^ The Sports of the Times: A Day-by-Day Selection of the Most Important, Thrilling and Inspired Events of the Past 150 Years, edited by William Taaffe, David Fischer, New York, N.Y, U.S.: New York Times and St. Martin’s Press, 2003, “October 20, 1968: Fearless Fosbury Flops to Glory,” Joseph Durso, page 333.
  12. ^ “Mexico 1968 Swimming – Results & Videos”. International Olympic Committee. 2016-09-08. Retrieved 2017-02-13.
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ “Count Jacques ROGGE – Comité Olympique et Interfédéral Belge, IOC Member since 1991”. International Olympic Committee. 2017-01-17. Retrieved 2017-01-19.
  15. ^ The Complete Book of the Olympics, 2012 edition, David Wallechinsky, Jaime Loucky, London, England, UK: Aurum Press Ltd, 2012, “Track & Field (Men): 1500 Meters,” page 108.
  16. ^ Keino Reflects on Legendary Race: Now 63 and an IOC member, ever-humble Kenyan takes a lap around Mexico City track where he ran memorable 1,500, Los Angeles Times, Alan Abrahamson, Nov. 28, 2002.
  17. ^ Guinness World Records – First summer Olympic Games to be televised in colour
  18. ^ Espy, Richard (1981). The Politics of the Olympic Games: With an Epilogue, 1976-1980. University of California Press. pp. 125–8. ISBN 9780520043954. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  19. ^ México 1968: Las Olimpiadas 10 días después de la matanza Archived 2013-07-04 at the Wayback Machine.. ADN Politico (2012-08-08). Retrieved on 2013-07-03.
  20. ^ 1968: Student riots threaten Mexico Olympics. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2013-07-03.
  21. ^ Werner, Michael S., ed. Encyclopedia of Mexico: History, Society & Culture. Vol. 2 Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 1997.
  22. ^ Mexican students protest for greater democracy, 1968. Global Non-Violent Action Database. Retrieved on 2013-07-03.
  23. ^ The Dead of Tlatelolco. The National Security Archive. Retrieved on 2013-07-03.
  24. ^ On This Day: Tommie Smith and John Carlos Give Black Power Salute on Olympic Podium. Findingdulcinea.com. Retrieved on 13 June 2015.
  25. ^ Wise, Mike (5 October 2006). “Clenched fists, helping hand”. The Washington Post. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
  26. ^ Frost, Caroline (17 October 2008). “The other man on the podium”. BBC. Archived from the original on October 20, 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
  27. ^ ab Messenger, Robert (24 August 2012). “Leigh sprints into wrong lane over Norman”. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  28. ^ Flanagan, Martin (6 October 2006). “Olympic protest heroes praise Norman’s courage”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
  29. ^ Grasso, John; Mallon, Bill; Heijmans, Jeroen (2015). “Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of (North Korea) (PRK)”. Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement (5th ed.). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 316. ISBN 978-1-4422-4860-1.

External links

  • “Mexico 1968”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • “Results and Medalists — 1968 Summer Olympics”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • The Politics of Hypocrisy – Mexico ’68
  • Luis Castañeda, “Beyond Tlatelolco: Design, Media and Politics at Mexico ‘68” article in Grey Room 40 (Summer 2010)
  • Result of the 1968 Summer Olympics host city candidacies
  • An article on the American Sprinters Controversy
  • The program of the 1968 Mexico City Olympics
  • Research Guide to Latin American and Caribbean Sport at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Preceded by
Tokyo
Summer Olympic Games
Mexico City

XIX Olympiad (1968)
Succeeded by
Munich


1960 Summer Olympics

Games of the XVII Olympiad
1960 Summer Olympics logo.png
Host city Rome, Italy
Nations 83
Athletes 5,338 (4,727 men, 611 women)
Events 150 in 17 sports (23 disciplines)
Opening 25 August
Closing 11 September
Opened by
President Giovanni Gronchi[1]
Cauldron
Giancarlo Peris[1]
Stadium Stadio Olimpico
Summer
← Melbourne 1956 Tokyo 1964 →
Winter
← Squaw Valley 1960 Innsbruck 1964 →

The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad (Italian: Giochi della XVII Olimpiade), was an international multi-sport event that was held from August 25 to September 11, 1960, in Rome, Italy. The city of Rome had previously been awarded the administration of the 1908 Summer Olympics, but following the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 1906, Rome had no choice but to decline and pass the honour to London.

Contents

  • 1 Host city selection
  • 2 Highlights

    • 2.1 Lowlights
    • 2.2 Historical landmarks
    • 2.3 Non-medal winners
  • 3 Broadcasting
  • 4 Venues
  • 5 Games

    • 5.1 Participating National Olympic Committees
    • 5.2 Sports
    • 5.3 Calendar
    • 5.4 Medal count
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links

Host city selection

On June 15, 1955, at the 50th IOC Session in Paris, France, Rome won the rights to host the 1960 Games, having beaten Brussels, Mexico City, Tokyo, Detroit, Budapest (the first city of the Eastern Bloc to make an Olympic bid) and finally Lausanne. Tokyo and Mexico City would subsequently host the proceeding 1964 and 1968 Summer Olympics respectively.[2]

Toronto was initially interested in the bidding, but appears to have dropped out during the final phase of the bid process.[3] This was the first of five unsuccessful attempts by Toronto to secure the Summer Olympics from then until the 2008 games.

1960 Summer Olympics bidding results[4]
City Country Round 1 Round 2 Round 3
Rome  Italy 15 26 35
Lausanne   Switzerland 14 21 24
Detroit  United States 6 11
Budapest  Hungarian People’s Republic 8 1
Brussels  Belgium 6
Mexico City  Mexico 6
Tokyo  Japan 4

Highlights

The Olympic torch

  • Swedish sprint canoeist Gert Fredriksson won his sixth Olympic title.
  • Fencer Aladár Gerevich of Hungary won his sixth consecutive gold medal in the team sabre event.
  • The Japanese men’s gymnastics team won the first of five successive golds (see 1976 Summer Olympics).
  • The United States men’s national basketball team—led by future Basketball Hall of Famers Walt Bellamy, Jerry Lucas, Oscar Robertson and Jerry West—captured its fifth straight Olympic gold medal.
  • Danish sailor Paul Elvstrøm won his fourth straight gold medal in the Finn class. Others to emulate his performance in an individual event are Al Oerter, Carl Lewis, Michael Phelps, Kaori Icho and, if the Intercalated (Interspaced) Games of 1906 are included, Ray Ewry.
  • German Armin Hary won the 100 metres in an Olympic record time of 10.2 seconds.
  • Wilma Rudolph (US), a former polio patient, won three gold medals in sprint events on the track. She was acclaimed as “the fastest woman in the world”.
  • Jeff Farrell, US, won two gold medals in swimming. He underwent an emergency appendectomy six days before the Olympic Trials.[5]

Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia wins the marathon barefooted

  • Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia won the marathon barefooted to become the first black African Olympic champion.
  • Cassius Clay, US, later known as Muhammad Ali, won boxing’s light-heavyweight gold medal. Ramon “Buddy” Carr was one of the coaches that led this team to winning gold.[6]
  • Herb Elliott, AUS, won the men’s 1500 meters in one of the most dominating performances in Olympic history.
  • Rafer Johnson, US, defeated his rival and friend C.K. Yang in one of the greatest Decathlon events in Olympic history.[7]
  • Lance Larson, US, was controversially denied a 100 metres freestyle swimming gold, despite showing the best time.
  • The future Constantine II, last King of Greece (abdicated and ended hybrid monarchy, 1973) won his country a gold in sailing: dragon class.
  • The Pakistani Men’s Field Hockey team broke a run of Indian team victories since 1928, defeating India in the final and winning Pakistan’s first Olympic gold medal.
  • Wrestlers Shelby Wilson, and Doug Blubaugh, US, who wrestled together growing up, won gold medals in their respective weight classes.

Lowlights

  • Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen collapsed during his race under the influence of Roniacol and later died in the hospital. It was the second time an athlete died in competition at the Olympics, after the death of Portuguese marathon runner Francisco Lázaro at the 1912 Summer Olympics.[8]

Historical landmarks

  • South Africa appeared in the Olympic arena for the last time under its apartheid regime. It would not be allowed to return until 1992, by when apartheid in sport was being abolished.
  • Singapore competed for the first time under its own flag, which was to become its national flag after independence, as the British had granted it self-government a year earlier. Tan Howe Liang won silver in the Weightlifting lightweight category, which was the first time (and the only time until 2008) that an athlete from Singapore won an Olympic medal.

Non-medal winners

  • Finnish Vilho Ylönen, a field shooter, shot a bullseye to a wrong target, and in so doing he dropped from second place to fourth.
  • Peter Camejo, a 2004 American vice-presidential candidate for the Green Party, competed in yachting for Venezuela.
  • The future Queen Sofía of Spain (consort to the Constitutional monarch) represented her native Greece in sailing events.

Broadcasting

  • CBS paid $394,000 ($3340000 in today’s dollars) for the exclusive right to broadcast the Games in the United States. This was the first Summer Olympic games to be telecast in North America. In addition to CBS in the United States, the Olympics were telecast for the first time in Canada (on CBC Television) and in Mexico (through the networks of Telesistema Mexicano). Since television broadcast satellites were still two years into the future, CBS, CBC, and TSM shot and edited videotapes in Rome, fed the tapes to Paris where they were re-recorded onto other tapes which were then loaded onto jet planes to North America. Planes carrying the tapes landed at Idlewild Airport in New York City, where mobile units fed the tapes to CBS, to Toronto for the CBC, and to Mexico City for TSM. Despite this arrangement, many daytime events were broadcast in North America, especially on CBS and CBC, the same day they took place.[9]

Venues

Opening Ceremony in 1960 Summer Olympics in Stadio Olimpico in Rome, Italy

  • Olympic Stadium² (Stadio Olimpico) – opening/closing ceremonies, athletics, equestrian events
  • Flaminio Stadium¹ (Stadio Flaminio) – football finals
  • Swimming Stadium¹ – swimming, diving, water polo, modern pentathlon (swimming)
  • Sports Palace¹ (Palazzo dello sport) – basketball, boxing
  • Olympic Velodrome¹ – cycling (track), field hockey
  • Small Sports Palace¹ (Palazzetto dello Sport) – basketball, weightlifting
  • Marble Stadium² (Stadio dei Marmi) – field hockey preliminaries
  • Baths of Caracalla – gymnastics
  • Basilica of Maxentius – wrestling
  • Palazzo dei Congressi – fencing
  • Umberto I Shooting Range¹ – modern pentathlon (shooting), shooting (pistol/ rifle)
  • Roses Swimming Pool¹ (Piscina delle Rose) – water polo
  • Lake Albano, Castelgandolfo – rowing, canoeing
  • Piazza di Siena, Villa Borghese gardens – equestrian (dressage, eventing – jumping, jumping – individual)
  • Pratoni del Vivaro, Rocca di Papa – equestrian (eventing)
  • Gulf of Naples, Naples – yachting
  • Communal Stadium, Florence – football/soccer preliminaries
  • Communal Stadium, Grosseto – football/soccer preliminaries
  • Communal Stadium, L’Aquila – football/soccer preliminaries
  • Ardenza Stadium, Livorno – football/soccer preliminaries
  • Adriatico Stadium, Pescara – football/soccer preliminaries
  • Saint Paul’s Stadium, Naples – football/soccer preliminaries
  • Campo Tre Fontane – field hockey preliminaries
  • Acqua Santa Golf Club Course – modern pentathlon (running)
  • Arch of Constantine – athletics (marathon finish)
  • Cesano Infantry School Range – shooting (300 m free rifle)
  • Lazio Pigeon Shooting Stand – shooting (trap shotgun)
  • Passo Corese – modern pentathlon (riding)
  • Grande Raccordo Anulare – athletics (marathon)
  • Via Appian Antica – athletics (marathon)
  • Via Cassia – cycling (individual road race)
  • Via Flaminia – cycling (individual road race)
  • Via Cristoforo Colombo – athletics (marathon), cycling (road team time trial)
  • Via di Grottarossa – cycling (individual road race)

¹ New facilities constructed in preparation for the Olympic Games. ² Existing facilities modified or refurbished in preparation for the Olympic Games.

Games

Participating National Olympic Committees

Participants

Number of athletes per country

A total of 83 nations participated at the Rome Games. Athletes from Morocco, San Marino, Sudan, and Tunisia competed at the Olympic Games for the first time.
Athletes from Barbados, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago would represent the new (British) West Indies Federation, competing as “Antilles”, but this nation would only exist for this single Olympiad. Athletes from Northern Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia competed under the Rhodesia name while representing the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. Athletes from East Germany and West Germany would compete as the United Team of Germany from 1956 to 1964. The number in parentheses indicates the number of participants that each country contributed.

Participating National Olympic Committees
  •  Afghanistan (13)
  •  British West Indies (13)
  •  Argentina (101)
  •  Australia (209)
  •  Austria (118)
  •  Bahamas (17)
  •  Belgium (108)
  •  Bermuda (9)
  •  Brazil (72)
  •  Guyana (5)
  •  Bulgaria (116)
  •  Burma (10)
  •  Canada (86)
  •  Ceylon (5)
  •  Chile (9)
  •  Colombia (17)
  •  Cuba (12)
  •  Czechoslovakia (116)
  •  Denmark (100)
  •  Ethiopia (12)
  •  Fiji (2)
  •  Finland (117)
  •  Republic of China (27)
  •  France (238)
  •  United Team of Germany (293)
  •  Ghana (13)
  •  Great Britain (253)
  •  Greece (48)
  •  Haiti (1)
  •  Hong Kong (4)
  •  Hungary (184)
  •  Iceland (9)
  •  India (45)
  •  Indonesia (22)
  •  Iran (23)
  •  Iraq (21)
  •  Ireland (49)
  •  Israel (23)
  •  Italy (280) (host)
  •  Japan (162)
  •  Kenya (27)
  •  South Korea (35)
  •  Lebanon (19)
  •  Liberia (4)
  •  Liechtenstein (5)
  •  Luxembourg (52)
  •  Malaya (9)
  •  Malta (10)
  •  Mexico (69)
  •  Monaco (11)
  •  Morocco (47)
  •  Netherlands (110)
  •  Netherlands Antilles (5)
  •  New Zealand (37)
  •  Nigeria (12)
  •  Norway (40)
  •  Pakistan (44)
  •  Panama (6)
  •  Peru (31)
  •  Philippines (40)
  •  Poland (185)
  •  Portugal (65)
  •  Puerto Rico (27)
  •  Rhodesia (14)
  •  Romania (98)
  •  San Marino (9)
  •  Singapore (5)
  •  South Africa (55)
  •  Soviet Union (283)
  •  Spain (144)
  •  Sudan (10)
  •  Sweden (134)
  •  Switzerland (149)
  •  Thailand (20)
  •  Tunisia (42)
  •  Turkey (49)
  •  Uganda (10)
  •  Egypt (74)
  •  United States (292)
  •  Uruguay (34)
  •  Venezuela (36)
  •  Vietnam (3)
  •  Yugoslavia (116)
  •  Suriname also made its first Olympic appearance, but its lone athlete (Wim Esajas) withdrew from competition due to a scheduling error.[10]

Sports

The 1960 Summer Olympics featured 17 different sports encompassing 23 disciplines, and medals were awarded in 150 events. In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

  • Aquatics
    • Diving (4)
    • Swimming (15)
    • Water polo (1)
  • Athletics (34)
  • Basketball (1)
  • Boxing (10)
  • Canoeing (7)
  • Cycling

    • Road (2)
    • Track (4)
  • Equestrian

    • Dressage (1)
    • Eventing (2)
    • Jumping (2)
  • Fencing (8)
  • Field hockey (1)
  • Football (1)
  • Gymnastics (14)
  • Modern pentathlon (2)
  • Rowing (7)
  • Sailing (5)
  • Shooting (6)
  • Weightlifting (7)
  • Wrestling

    • Freestyle (8)
    • Greco-Roman (8)

Calendar

All dates are in Central European Time (UTC+1)
OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Gold medal events CC Closing ceremony
August / September 25
Thu
26
Fri
27
Sat
28
Sun
29
Mon
30
Tue
31
Wed
1
Thu
2
Fri
3
Sat
4
Sun
5
Mon
6
Tue
7
Wed
8
Thu
9
Fri
10
Sat
11
Sun
Events
Ceremonies OC CC N/A
Athletics 2 4 7 3 3 4 4 6 1 34
Basketball 1 1
Boxing 10 10
Canoeing 7 7
Cycling 2 1 2 1 6
Diving 1 1 1 1 4
Equestrian 1 1 2 1 5
Fencing 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
Field hockey 1 1
Football 1 1
Gymnastics 2 5 7 14
Modern pentathlon 2 2
Rowing 7 7
Sailing 5 5
Shooting 1 1 1 2 1 6
Swimming 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 15
Water polo 1 1
Weightlifting 2 2 2 1 7
Wrestling 8 8 16
Daily medal events 2 4 0 11 5 14 8 11 15 0 14 15 12 12 11 15 1 150
Cumulative total 2 6 6 17 22 36 44 55 70 70 84 99 111 123 134 149 150
August / September 25
Thu
26
Fri
27
Sat
28
Sun
29
Mon
30
Tue
31
Wed
1
Thu
2
Fri
3
Sat
4
Sun
5
Mon
6
Tue
7
Wed
8
Thu
9
Fri
10
Sat
11
Sun
Total events

Medal count

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1960 Games:[11]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Soviet Union 43 29 31 103
2  United States 34 21 16 71
3  Italy* 13 10 13 36
4  United Team of Germany 12 19 11 42
5  Australia 8 8 6 22
6  Turkey 7 2 0 9
7  Hungary 6 8 7 21
8  Japan 4 7 7 18
9  Poland 4 6 11 21
10  Czechoslovakia 3 2 3 8
Totals (10 nations) 134 112 105 351

See also

  • 1960 Summer Paralympics
  • 1960 Winter Olympics
  • Olympic Games celebrated in Italy
    • 1956 Winter Olympics – Cortina D’Ampezzo
    • 1960 Summer Olympics – Rome
    • 2006 Winter Olympics – Turin
  • Summer Olympic Games
  • Olympic Games
  • International Olympic Committee
  • List of IOC country codes

References

  1. ^ ab “Factsheet – Opening Ceremony of the Games of the Olympiad” (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 9 October 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “IOC VOTE HISTORY”.
  3. ^ “Toronto has made 5 attempts to host the Olympics. Could the sixth be the winner?”. thestar.com. 24 July 2015.
  4. ^ “Past Olympic host city election results”. GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
  5. ^ Coplan, Joseph (July 19, 2000). “Profiling Jeff Farrell, 1968 ISHOF Honor Swimmer”. USMS. Retrieved March 23, 2011.
  6. ^ Zaborney, Mark (March 11, 2016). “Ramon ‘Buddy’ Carr (1926-2016): TPD officer coached gold-medalist boxer”. Toledo Blade.
  7. ^ Henderson, Jon (June 26, 2012). “Great Olympic Moments: UCLA friends Rafer Johnson and Yang Chuan-kwang make decathlon history in 1960”. The Telegraph. Retrieved June 21, 2018.
  8. ^ Maraniss, David (2008). Rome 1960: The Olympics That Changed the World (1st ed.). New York City, NY: Simon & Schuster. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-4165-3407-5.
  9. ^ “OLYMPICS AND TELEVISION – The Museum of Broadcast Communications”. Museum.tv. Retrieved March 23, 2011.
  10. ^ Official Olympic Reports. Archived from the original on 2006-06-22.
  11. ^ Byron, Lee; Cox, Amanda; Ericson, Matthew (August 4, 2008). “A Map of Olympic Medals”. The New York Times. Retrieved February 26, 2012.

External links

  • “Rome 1960”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • “Results and Medalists — 1960 Summer Olympics”. Olympic.org. International Olympic Committee.
  • Rome 1960: The Olympics That Changed the World, David Maraniss, New York, NY, U.S.: Simon & Schuster, 2008.
  • The program of the 1960 Rome Olympics
  • LIFE 12 Sep 1960
Preceded by
Melbourne/Stockholm
Summer Olympic Games
Rome

XVII Olympiad (1960)
Succeeded by
Tokyo


1920 Summer Olympics

Games of the VII Olympiad
1920 olympics poster.jpg

Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics
Host city Antwerp, Belgium
Nations 29
Athletes 2,626 (2,561 men, 65 women)
Events 156 in 22 sports (29 disciplines)
Opening 14 August
Closing 12 September
Opened by
King Albert I[1]
Stadium Olympisch Stadion
Summer
← Stockholm 1912
Berlin 1916
Paris 1924 →
Winter
Chamonix 1924 →

The 1920 Summer Olympics (French: Les Jeux olympiques d’été de 1920; Dutch: Olympische Zomerspelen van de VIIe Olympiade; German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1920), officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium.

In March 1912, during the 13th session of the IOC, Belgium’s bid to host the 1920 Summer Olympics was made by Baron Édouard de Laveleye, president of the Belgian Olympic Committee and of the Royal Belgian Football Association. No fixed host city was proposed at the time.

The 1916 Summer Olympics, to be held in Berlin, capital of the German Empire, were cancelled due to World War I. The aftermath of the war and the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 affected the Olympic Games not only due to new states being created, but also by sanctions against the nations that lost the war and were blamed for starting it. Hungary, Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire were banned from competing in the Games. Germany did not return to Olympic competition until 1928 and instead hosted a series of games called Deutsche Kampfspiele, starting with the Winter edition of 1922 (which predated the first Winter Olympics).

The sailing events were held in Ostend, Belgium, and two in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Contents

  • 1 Host city selection
  • 2 Organization
  • 3 Highlights
  • 4 Sports/Events

    • 4.1 Demonstration sport
  • 5 Venues
  • 6 Participating nations

    • 6.1 Number of athletes by National Olympic Committees
  • 7 Medal count
  • 8 See also
  • 9 Notes
  • 10 External links

Host city selection

In March 1912, during the 13th session of the IOC, the bid on the behalf of Belgium to host the 1920 Summer Olympics. It was made by Baron Édouard de Laveleye, president of the Belgian Olympic Committee and of the Royal Belgian Football Association. No fixed host city was proposed at the time.[2]

The organising committee was created on 9 August 1913. It had four presidents:

  • Édouard de Laveleye, president of the Belgian Olympic Committee
  • Henri de Baillet-Latour, member of the IOC
  • Robert Osterrieth, president of the Royal Yacht Club of Belgium
  • Charles Cnoops, vice-president of the Belgian Fencing Association

Among the 22 vice-presidents of the committee were people with a military or industrial background, and further people from sports organizations like Paul Havenith, president of the football and athletics club K. Beerschot V.A.C. and Nicolaas Jan Cupérus, president of the Belgian Gymnastics Federation.[3]

The first action of the committee was to send an official letter to the IOC in Paris, confirming Antwerp as the city for the Belgian Olympic bid. On 13 September 1913, Pierre de Coubertin, president of the IOC, visited the grounds of the future Olympic Stadion in Beerschot.

In 1914, a 109-page brochure was created to promote the idea of Antwerp as a host city for the Olympics: Aurons-nous la VIIème Olympiade à Anvers? (Will we have the 7th Olympiad at Antwerp?). It was sent to all IOC members and was used during the 6th Olympic Congress in Paris in 1914, where the candidacies of Amsterdam, Antwerp, Budapest, and Rome were discussed. Despite a slight preference at the time for Budapest, no final choice was made, and the outbreak of World War I soon afterwards prevented any further progress.[4]

In 1915, Lyon made a bid for the 1920 games, but after some discussion, they agreed to support Antwerp and postpone their bid until 1924 if Antwerp was liberated in time to organize the games. The support for Belgium by cousin country France, then the leading country of the IOC, also meant that Amsterdam, and Budapest, in an enemy state, made no chance for the 1920 games against Antwerp. New candidacies from American cities did not have that disadvantage and bids were received from Cleveland, Philadelphia, and Atlanta (which would eventually host the 1996 Summer Olympics), and Cuba also planned a bid for Havana. But shortly after the armistice in November 1918, the IOC decided to give Antwerp the first choice, if they still wanted to host the 1920 Games. In March 1919, the Belgian Olympic Committee decided to go ahead with the organization, and on 5 April 1919, in a meeting in Lausanne, Antwerp was officially declared the host city for the games of the VIIth Olympiad.[5]

Organization

An executive committee was established on 17 April 1919, with Henri de Baillet-Latour as chairman and Alfred Verdyck, the secretary of the Belgian Union of Football Clubs, as general secretary. Seven commissions were created, to deal with finances, accommodation, press relations, propaganda, schedules, transport, and festivities. Finances and scheduling proved to be the two hardest parts to tackle: the program of events only was published in February 1920, six months before the official start of the Games.

Between 23 and 30 April 1920, an ice hockey tournament marked the early start of the Games. Held in the “Palais de Glace” or Ice Palace in Antwerp, it was the first time that ice hockey was an Olympic sport.[6]

The first stone of the new Olympic Stadium at Beerschot was laid on 4 July 1919 by Jan De Vos, mayor of Antwerp, and inaugurated less than a year later on 23 May 1920 with a gymnastics demonstration.[7]

The nautical stadium or Stade Nautique d’Antwerp was built at the end of the Jan Van Rijswijcklaan, using the city ramparts there as a spectator’s stand. Other events, like shooting, boxing, and equestrian sports, were held at pre-existing locations in and around Antwerp and as far away as Ostend.[8]

Highlights

  • These Olympics were the first in which the Olympic Oath was voiced, the first in which doves were released to symbolize peace, and the first in which the Olympic Flag was flown.
  • The USA won 41 gold, 27 silver, and 27 bronze medals, the most won by any of the 29 nations attending. Sweden, Great Britain, Finland, and Belgium rounded out the five most successful medal-winning nations.
  • The Games also featured a week of winter sports, with figure skating appearing for the first time since the 1908 Olympics, and ice hockey making its Olympic debut.
  • Nedo Nadi won 5 gold medals in the fencing events.
  • At the age of 72, Sweden’s 100 metre running deer double-shot event champion Oscar Swahn, who had participated in the 1908 and 1912 Games, came in second in the team event to become the oldest Olympic medal winner ever.
  • 23-year-old Paavo Nurmi won the 10,000 m and 8000 m cross country races, took another gold in team cross country, and a silver in the 5000 m run. His contributions for Finland broke the U.S. dominance record in track and field with 9 medals.
  • Duke Kahanamoku retained the 100 m swimming title he won before the war.
  • In a rather strange moment in Olympic history, the 12-foot dinghy event in sailing took place in two different countries. The final two races in the event were independently held in the Netherlands, on its own accord, supposedly because the only two competitors in the event were Dutch.[9]
  • Sport shooter Guilherme Paraense won Brazil’s very first gold medal at the Olympic Games.
  • The United States sent a women’s swim team for the first time, having refused during the 1912 Games on the grounds that it was “obscene”. The six-woman team produced two gold medals.

Sports/Events

France national football team.

156 events[10] in 29 disciplines, comprising 22 sports, were part of the Olympic program in 1920. The Sailing program was open for a total of 16 sailing classes, but actually only 14 sailing events were contested. The number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

  • Aquatics
    • Diving (5)
    • Swimming (10)
    • Water polo (1)
  • Archery (10)
  • Athletics (29)
  • Boxing (8)
  • Cycling

    • Road (2)
    • Track (4)
  • Equestrian

    • Dressage (2)
    • Eventing (1)
    • Show jumping (2)
    • Vaulting (2)
  • Fencing (6)
  • Figure skating (3)
  • Football (1) (Soccer)
  • Gymnastics

    • Artistic (4)
  • Field hockey (1)
  • Ice hockey (1)
  • Modern pentathlon (1)
  • Polo (1)
  • Rowing (5)
  • Rugby
    • Rugby union (1)
  • Sailing (14)
  • Shooting (21)
  • Tennis (5)
  • Tug of war (1)
  • Weightlifting (5)
  • Wrestling

    • Freestyle (5)
    • Greco-Roman (5)

Demonstration sport

  • Korfball

Venues

Seventeen sports venues were used in the 1920 Summer Olympics. This marked the first time that the football tournament was spread throughout the country, which has mostly been the case since.[11]

<
Venue Sports Capacity Ref.
Antwerp Cycling (road) Not listed. [12][13]
Antwerp Zoo Boxing, Wrestling Not listed. [14][15]
Beerschot Tennis Club Tennis Not listed. [16]
Beverloo Camp Shooting (pistol/rifle) Not listed.