How to fix this capitalization issue of a macro in the title-command?

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3

I wrote the following code to typeset the title page of a paper:

documentclass{amsart}

usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
usepackage[USenglish]{babel}

begin{document}

title[Title Title Title]{Title Title Title}

begin{abstract}
    Abstract abstract abstract
end{abstract}

maketitle

end{document}

This outputs the following:

enter image description here

However, I wanted to make my title a macro, because I need it elsewhere too:

documentclass{amsart}

usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
usepackage[USenglish]{babel}

newcommandmytitle{Title title title}

begin{document}

title[mytitle]{mytitle}

begin{abstract}
    Abstract abstract abstract
end{abstract}

maketitle

end{document}

But this now outputs the following:

enter image description here

No way of fiddling got me the capitalization back. E.g. there is no difference in using def. What is happening here and how to fix it?

share|improve this question

  • expandaftertitleexpandafter{mytitle} should work.

    – Ulrike Fischer
    Jan 2 at 14:17

  • @UlrikeFischer I tried this, and unformtunately it does not work.

    – M. Winter
    Jan 2 at 14:23

3

I wrote the following code to typeset the title page of a paper:

documentclass{amsart}

usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
usepackage[USenglish]{babel}

begin{document}

title[Title Title Title]{Title Title Title}

begin{abstract}
    Abstract abstract abstract
end{abstract}

maketitle

end{document}

This outputs the following:

enter image description here

However, I wanted to make my title a macro, because I need it elsewhere too:

documentclass{amsart}

usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
usepackage[USenglish]{babel}

newcommandmytitle{Title title title}

begin{document}

title[mytitle]{mytitle}

begin{abstract}
    Abstract abstract abstract
end{abstract}

maketitle

end{document}

But this now outputs the following:

enter image description here

No way of fiddling got me the capitalization back. E.g. there is no difference in using def. What is happening here and how to fix it?

share|improve this question

  • expandaftertitleexpandafter{mytitle} should work.

    – Ulrike Fischer
    Jan 2 at 14:17

  • @UlrikeFischer I tried this, and unformtunately it does not work.

    – M. Winter
    Jan 2 at 14:23

3

3

3

I wrote the following code to typeset the title page of a paper:

documentclass{amsart}

usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
usepackage[USenglish]{babel}

begin{document}

title[Title Title Title]{Title Title Title}

begin{abstract}
    Abstract abstract abstract
end{abstract}

maketitle

end{document}

This outputs the following:

enter image description here

However, I wanted to make my title a macro, because I need it elsewhere too:

documentclass{amsart}

usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
usepackage[USenglish]{babel}

newcommandmytitle{Title title title}

begin{document}

title[mytitle]{mytitle}

begin{abstract}
    Abstract abstract abstract
end{abstract}

maketitle

end{document}

But this now outputs the following:

enter image description here

No way of fiddling got me the capitalization back. E.g. there is no difference in using def. What is happening here and how to fix it?

share|improve this question

I wrote the following code to typeset the title page of a paper:

documentclass{amsart}

usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
usepackage[USenglish]{babel}

begin{document}

title[Title Title Title]{Title Title Title}

begin{abstract}
    Abstract abstract abstract
end{abstract}

maketitle

end{document}

This outputs the following:

enter image description here

However, I wanted to make my title a macro, because I need it elsewhere too:

documentclass{amsart}

usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
usepackage[USenglish]{babel}

newcommandmytitle{Title title title}

begin{document}

title[mytitle]{mytitle}

begin{abstract}
    Abstract abstract abstract
end{abstract}

maketitle

end{document}

But this now outputs the following:

enter image description here

No way of fiddling got me the capitalization back. E.g. there is no difference in using def. What is happening here and how to fix it?

macros formatting titles capitalization

share|improve this question

share|improve this question

share|improve this question

share|improve this question

asked Jan 2 at 14:08

M. WinterM. Winter

290110

290110

  • expandaftertitleexpandafter{mytitle} should work.

    – Ulrike Fischer
    Jan 2 at 14:17

  • @UlrikeFischer I tried this, and unformtunately it does not work.

    – M. Winter
    Jan 2 at 14:23

  • expandaftertitleexpandafter{mytitle} should work.

    – Ulrike Fischer
    Jan 2 at 14:17

  • @UlrikeFischer I tried this, and unformtunately it does not work.

    – M. Winter
    Jan 2 at 14:23

expandaftertitleexpandafter{mytitle} should work.

– Ulrike Fischer
Jan 2 at 14:17

expandaftertitleexpandafter{mytitle} should work.

– Ulrike Fischer
Jan 2 at 14:17

@UlrikeFischer I tried this, and unformtunately it does not work.

– M. Winter
Jan 2 at 14:23

@UlrikeFischer I tried this, and unformtunately it does not work.

– M. Winter
Jan 2 at 14:23

2 Answers
2

active

oldest

votes

4

Unfortunately, amsart uses by default uppercase (a big nuisance). Happily, the fix is simple: load textcase.

documentclass{amsart}

usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
usepackage[USenglish]{babel}
usepackage{textcase}

newcommandmytitle{Title title title}

begin{document}

title[mytitle]{mytitle}

begin{abstract}
    Abstract abstract abstract
end{abstract}

maketitle

end{document}

enter image description here

Let’s see the definition of title

renewcommand*{title}[2]{gdefshorttitle{#1}gdef@title{#2}}
edeftitle{@nx@dblarg
  @xp@nxcsnamestringtitleendcsname}

This is a common trick in the class for telling LaTeX that if the optional argument is missing then the mandatory argument should be supplied instead.

The problem arises when maketitle is processed, which does @settitle:

def@settitle{begin{center}%
  baselineskip14p@relax
    bfseries
uppercasenonmath@title
  @title
  end{center}%
}

OK, we should look at uppercasenonmath:

newcommand{uppercasenonmath}[1]{toks@@emptytoks
  @xp@skipmath@xp@empty#1$$%
  edef#1{{@nxprotect@nx@upprepthetoks@}}%
}

This only expands @title once, so at the end the primitive uppercase is applied to mytitle (it would be a bit long to go into the details). However the class also has

AtBeginDocument{%
  @ifundefined{MakeTextUppercase}{}{letuppercasenonmathaltucnm}%
}

and we find

defaltucnm#1{%
  MakeTextUppercase{toks@{#1}}%
  edef#1{thetoks@}%
}

and this is much better, because MakeTextUppercase does full (protected) expansion of its argument, so your mytitle gets expanded before uppercasing is done.

share|improve this answer

  • Thank you, this solved the problem. Can you tell a little bit about why this problem happened in the first place and how textcase fixed it?

    – M. Winter
    Jan 2 at 14:24

  • @M.Winter Added some details

    – egreg
    Jan 2 at 14:40

3

Too long for a comment

expandafterexpandafterexpandaftertitleexpandafterexpandafterexpandafter[expandaftermytitleexpandafter]expandafter{mytitle}

But @egreg answer is worthwile reading too. 🙂

share|improve this answer

  • Wow, this is insanity. I mean I tried expandafter, but I was not aware that just using more might fix the problem 😀

    – M. Winter
    Jan 2 at 14:57

  • eh eh… you usually need them by groups of 2^n -1 here n=2 because we need to expand once two things.

    – jfbu
    Jan 2 at 14:58

  • newcommandPassFirstToSecond[2]{#2{#1}} ... expandafterPassFirstToSecondexpandafter{mytitle}{expandaftertitleexpandafter[mytitle]}

    – Ulrich Diez
    Jan 2 at 19:02

  • @UlrichDiez yes, and with unexpandedexpandafter{foo} methods it is even easier to control expansion in arbitrary locations in an edef, begingroupedefx{endgroupnoexpandtitle[unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}]{unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}}}x

    – jfbu
    Jan 2 at 22:14

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2 Answers
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4

Unfortunately, amsart uses by default uppercase (a big nuisance). Happily, the fix is simple: load textcase.

documentclass{amsart}

usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
usepackage[USenglish]{babel}
usepackage{textcase}

newcommandmytitle{Title title title}

begin{document}

title[mytitle]{mytitle}

begin{abstract}
    Abstract abstract abstract
end{abstract}

maketitle

end{document}

enter image description here

Let’s see the definition of title

renewcommand*{title}[2]{gdefshorttitle{#1}gdef@title{#2}}
edeftitle{@nx@dblarg
  @xp@nxcsnamestringtitleendcsname}

This is a common trick in the class for telling LaTeX that if the optional argument is missing then the mandatory argument should be supplied instead.

The problem arises when maketitle is processed, which does @settitle:

def@settitle{begin{center}%
  baselineskip14p@relax
    bfseries
uppercasenonmath@title
  @title
  end{center}%
}

OK, we should look at uppercasenonmath:

newcommand{uppercasenonmath}[1]{toks@@emptytoks
  @xp@skipmath@xp@empty#1$$%
  edef#1{{@nxprotect@nx@upprepthetoks@}}%
}

This only expands @title once, so at the end the primitive uppercase is applied to mytitle (it would be a bit long to go into the details). However the class also has

AtBeginDocument{%
  @ifundefined{MakeTextUppercase}{}{letuppercasenonmathaltucnm}%
}

and we find

defaltucnm#1{%
  MakeTextUppercase{toks@{#1}}%
  edef#1{thetoks@}%
}

and this is much better, because MakeTextUppercase does full (protected) expansion of its argument, so your mytitle gets expanded before uppercasing is done.

share|improve this answer

  • Thank you, this solved the problem. Can you tell a little bit about why this problem happened in the first place and how textcase fixed it?

    – M. Winter
    Jan 2 at 14:24

  • @M.Winter Added some details

    – egreg
    Jan 2 at 14:40

4

Unfortunately, amsart uses by default uppercase (a big nuisance). Happily, the fix is simple: load textcase.

documentclass{amsart}

usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
usepackage[USenglish]{babel}
usepackage{textcase}

newcommandmytitle{Title title title}

begin{document}

title[mytitle]{mytitle}

begin{abstract}
    Abstract abstract abstract
end{abstract}

maketitle

end{document}

enter image description here

Let’s see the definition of title

renewcommand*{title}[2]{gdefshorttitle{#1}gdef@title{#2}}
edeftitle{@nx@dblarg
  @xp@nxcsnamestringtitleendcsname}

This is a common trick in the class for telling LaTeX that if the optional argument is missing then the mandatory argument should be supplied instead.

The problem arises when maketitle is processed, which does @settitle:

def@settitle{begin{center}%
  baselineskip14p@relax
    bfseries
uppercasenonmath@title
  @title
  end{center}%
}

OK, we should look at uppercasenonmath:

newcommand{uppercasenonmath}[1]{toks@@emptytoks
  @xp@skipmath@xp@empty#1$$%
  edef#1{{@nxprotect@nx@upprepthetoks@}}%
}

This only expands @title once, so at the end the primitive uppercase is applied to mytitle (it would be a bit long to go into the details). However the class also has

AtBeginDocument{%
  @ifundefined{MakeTextUppercase}{}{letuppercasenonmathaltucnm}%
}

and we find

defaltucnm#1{%
  MakeTextUppercase{toks@{#1}}%
  edef#1{thetoks@}%
}

and this is much better, because MakeTextUppercase does full (protected) expansion of its argument, so your mytitle gets expanded before uppercasing is done.

share|improve this answer

  • Thank you, this solved the problem. Can you tell a little bit about why this problem happened in the first place and how textcase fixed it?

    – M. Winter
    Jan 2 at 14:24

  • @M.Winter Added some details

    – egreg
    Jan 2 at 14:40

4

4

4

Unfortunately, amsart uses by default uppercase (a big nuisance). Happily, the fix is simple: load textcase.

documentclass{amsart}

usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
usepackage[USenglish]{babel}
usepackage{textcase}

newcommandmytitle{Title title title}

begin{document}

title[mytitle]{mytitle}

begin{abstract}
    Abstract abstract abstract
end{abstract}

maketitle

end{document}

enter image description here

Let’s see the definition of title

renewcommand*{title}[2]{gdefshorttitle{#1}gdef@title{#2}}
edeftitle{@nx@dblarg
  @xp@nxcsnamestringtitleendcsname}

This is a common trick in the class for telling LaTeX that if the optional argument is missing then the mandatory argument should be supplied instead.

The problem arises when maketitle is processed, which does @settitle:

def@settitle{begin{center}%
  baselineskip14p@relax
    bfseries
uppercasenonmath@title
  @title
  end{center}%
}

OK, we should look at uppercasenonmath:

newcommand{uppercasenonmath}[1]{toks@@emptytoks
  @xp@skipmath@xp@empty#1$$%
  edef#1{{@nxprotect@nx@upprepthetoks@}}%
}

This only expands @title once, so at the end the primitive uppercase is applied to mytitle (it would be a bit long to go into the details). However the class also has

AtBeginDocument{%
  @ifundefined{MakeTextUppercase}{}{letuppercasenonmathaltucnm}%
}

and we find

defaltucnm#1{%
  MakeTextUppercase{toks@{#1}}%
  edef#1{thetoks@}%
}

and this is much better, because MakeTextUppercase does full (protected) expansion of its argument, so your mytitle gets expanded before uppercasing is done.

share|improve this answer

Unfortunately, amsart uses by default uppercase (a big nuisance). Happily, the fix is simple: load textcase.

documentclass{amsart}

usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
usepackage[USenglish]{babel}
usepackage{textcase}

newcommandmytitle{Title title title}

begin{document}

title[mytitle]{mytitle}

begin{abstract}
    Abstract abstract abstract
end{abstract}

maketitle

end{document}

enter image description here

Let’s see the definition of title

renewcommand*{title}[2]{gdefshorttitle{#1}gdef@title{#2}}
edeftitle{@nx@dblarg
  @xp@nxcsnamestringtitleendcsname}

This is a common trick in the class for telling LaTeX that if the optional argument is missing then the mandatory argument should be supplied instead.

The problem arises when maketitle is processed, which does @settitle:

def@settitle{begin{center}%
  baselineskip14p@relax
    bfseries
uppercasenonmath@title
  @title
  end{center}%
}

OK, we should look at uppercasenonmath:

newcommand{uppercasenonmath}[1]{toks@@emptytoks
  @xp@skipmath@xp@empty#1$$%
  edef#1{{@nxprotect@nx@upprepthetoks@}}%
}

This only expands @title once, so at the end the primitive uppercase is applied to mytitle (it would be a bit long to go into the details). However the class also has

AtBeginDocument{%
  @ifundefined{MakeTextUppercase}{}{letuppercasenonmathaltucnm}%
}

and we find

defaltucnm#1{%
  MakeTextUppercase{toks@{#1}}%
  edef#1{thetoks@}%
}

and this is much better, because MakeTextUppercase does full (protected) expansion of its argument, so your mytitle gets expanded before uppercasing is done.

share|improve this answer

share|improve this answer

share|improve this answer

edited Jan 2 at 14:40

answered Jan 2 at 14:21

egregegreg

712k8618933179

712k8618933179

  • Thank you, this solved the problem. Can you tell a little bit about why this problem happened in the first place and how textcase fixed it?

    – M. Winter
    Jan 2 at 14:24

  • @M.Winter Added some details

    – egreg
    Jan 2 at 14:40

  • Thank you, this solved the problem. Can you tell a little bit about why this problem happened in the first place and how textcase fixed it?

    – M. Winter
    Jan 2 at 14:24

  • @M.Winter Added some details

    – egreg
    Jan 2 at 14:40

Thank you, this solved the problem. Can you tell a little bit about why this problem happened in the first place and how textcase fixed it?

– M. Winter
Jan 2 at 14:24

Thank you, this solved the problem. Can you tell a little bit about why this problem happened in the first place and how textcase fixed it?

– M. Winter
Jan 2 at 14:24

@M.Winter Added some details

– egreg
Jan 2 at 14:40

@M.Winter Added some details

– egreg
Jan 2 at 14:40

3

Too long for a comment

expandafterexpandafterexpandaftertitleexpandafterexpandafterexpandafter[expandaftermytitleexpandafter]expandafter{mytitle}

But @egreg answer is worthwile reading too. 🙂

share|improve this answer

  • Wow, this is insanity. I mean I tried expandafter, but I was not aware that just using more might fix the problem 😀

    – M. Winter
    Jan 2 at 14:57

  • eh eh… you usually need them by groups of 2^n -1 here n=2 because we need to expand once two things.

    – jfbu
    Jan 2 at 14:58

  • newcommandPassFirstToSecond[2]{#2{#1}} ... expandafterPassFirstToSecondexpandafter{mytitle}{expandaftertitleexpandafter[mytitle]}

    – Ulrich Diez
    Jan 2 at 19:02

  • @UlrichDiez yes, and with unexpandedexpandafter{foo} methods it is even easier to control expansion in arbitrary locations in an edef, begingroupedefx{endgroupnoexpandtitle[unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}]{unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}}}x

    – jfbu
    Jan 2 at 22:14

3

Too long for a comment

expandafterexpandafterexpandaftertitleexpandafterexpandafterexpandafter[expandaftermytitleexpandafter]expandafter{mytitle}

But @egreg answer is worthwile reading too. 🙂

share|improve this answer

  • Wow, this is insanity. I mean I tried expandafter, but I was not aware that just using more might fix the problem 😀

    – M. Winter
    Jan 2 at 14:57

  • eh eh… you usually need them by groups of 2^n -1 here n=2 because we need to expand once two things.

    – jfbu
    Jan 2 at 14:58

  • newcommandPassFirstToSecond[2]{#2{#1}} ... expandafterPassFirstToSecondexpandafter{mytitle}{expandaftertitleexpandafter[mytitle]}

    – Ulrich Diez
    Jan 2 at 19:02

  • @UlrichDiez yes, and with unexpandedexpandafter{foo} methods it is even easier to control expansion in arbitrary locations in an edef, begingroupedefx{endgroupnoexpandtitle[unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}]{unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}}}x

    – jfbu
    Jan 2 at 22:14

3

3

3

Too long for a comment

expandafterexpandafterexpandaftertitleexpandafterexpandafterexpandafter[expandaftermytitleexpandafter]expandafter{mytitle}

But @egreg answer is worthwile reading too. 🙂

share|improve this answer

Too long for a comment

expandafterexpandafterexpandaftertitleexpandafterexpandafterexpandafter[expandaftermytitleexpandafter]expandafter{mytitle}

But @egreg answer is worthwile reading too. 🙂

share|improve this answer

share|improve this answer

share|improve this answer

answered Jan 2 at 14:55

jfbujfbu

46.5k66148

46.5k66148

  • Wow, this is insanity. I mean I tried expandafter, but I was not aware that just using more might fix the problem 😀

    – M. Winter
    Jan 2 at 14:57

  • eh eh… you usually need them by groups of 2^n -1 here n=2 because we need to expand once two things.

    – jfbu
    Jan 2 at 14:58

  • newcommandPassFirstToSecond[2]{#2{#1}} ... expandafterPassFirstToSecondexpandafter{mytitle}{expandaftertitleexpandafter[mytitle]}

    – Ulrich Diez
    Jan 2 at 19:02

  • @UlrichDiez yes, and with unexpandedexpandafter{foo} methods it is even easier to control expansion in arbitrary locations in an edef, begingroupedefx{endgroupnoexpandtitle[unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}]{unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}}}x

    – jfbu
    Jan 2 at 22:14

  • Wow, this is insanity. I mean I tried expandafter, but I was not aware that just using more might fix the problem 😀

    – M. Winter
    Jan 2 at 14:57

  • eh eh… you usually need them by groups of 2^n -1 here n=2 because we need to expand once two things.

    – jfbu
    Jan 2 at 14:58

  • newcommandPassFirstToSecond[2]{#2{#1}} ... expandafterPassFirstToSecondexpandafter{mytitle}{expandaftertitleexpandafter[mytitle]}

    – Ulrich Diez
    Jan 2 at 19:02

  • @UlrichDiez yes, and with unexpandedexpandafter{foo} methods it is even easier to control expansion in arbitrary locations in an edef, begingroupedefx{endgroupnoexpandtitle[unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}]{unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}}}x

    – jfbu
    Jan 2 at 22:14

Wow, this is insanity. I mean I tried expandafter, but I was not aware that just using more might fix the problem 😀

– M. Winter
Jan 2 at 14:57

Wow, this is insanity. I mean I tried expandafter, but I was not aware that just using more might fix the problem 😀

– M. Winter
Jan 2 at 14:57

eh eh… you usually need them by groups of 2^n -1 here n=2 because we need to expand once two things.

– jfbu
Jan 2 at 14:58

eh eh… you usually need them by groups of 2^n -1 here n=2 because we need to expand once two things.

– jfbu
Jan 2 at 14:58

newcommandPassFirstToSecond[2]{#2{#1}} ... expandafterPassFirstToSecondexpandafter{mytitle}{expandaftertitleexpandafter[mytitle]}

– Ulrich Diez
Jan 2 at 19:02

newcommandPassFirstToSecond[2]{#2{#1}} ... expandafterPassFirstToSecondexpandafter{mytitle}{expandaftertitleexpandafter[mytitle]}

– Ulrich Diez
Jan 2 at 19:02

@UlrichDiez yes, and with unexpandedexpandafter{foo} methods it is even easier to control expansion in arbitrary locations in an edef, begingroupedefx{endgroupnoexpandtitle[unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}]{unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}}}x

– jfbu
Jan 2 at 22:14

@UlrichDiez yes, and with unexpandedexpandafter{foo} methods it is even easier to control expansion in arbitrary locations in an edef, begingroupedefx{endgroupnoexpandtitle[unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}]{unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}}}x

– jfbu
Jan 2 at 22:14

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President

The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics. In politics, president is a title given to leaders of republican states.

The functions exercised by a president vary according to the form of government. In parliamentary republics, they are limited to those of the head of state, and are thus largely ceremonial. In presidential and semi-presidential republics, the role of the president is more prominent, encompassing also (in most cases) the functions of the head of government. In authoritarian regimes, a dictator or leader of a one-party state may also be called a president.

Contents

  • 1 Description

    • 1.1 Presidential systems
    • 1.2 Semi-presidential systems
    • 1.3 Parliamentary systems
    • 1.4 Collective presidency
    • 1.5 Dictatorships
    • 1.6 Presidential symbols
    • 1.7 Presidential chronologies
  • 2 Titles for non-heads of state

    • 2.1 As head of government
    • 2.2 Other executive positions

      • 2.2.1 Sub-national

        • 2.2.1.1 Poland
        • 2.2.1.2 Russia
        • 2.2.1.3 United Kingdom

          • 2.2.1.3.1 Dependencies
        • 2.2.1.4 Spain
      • 2.2.2 Deputies
    • 2.3 Legislatures
    • 2.4 Judiciary

      • 2.4.1 France
      • 2.4.2 Spain
      • 2.4.3 United Kingdom
  • 3 See also
  • 4 References

Description

The title president is derived from the Latin prae- “before” + sedere “to sit.” As such, it originally designated the officer who presides over or “sits before” a gathering and ensures that debate is conducted according to the rules of order (see also chairman and speaker), but today it most commonly refers to an executive official in any social organization. Early examples are from the universities of Oxford and Cambridge (from 1464) and the founding President of the Royal Society William Brouncker in 1660. This usage survives today in the title of such offices as “President of the Board of Trade” and “Lord President of the Council” in the United Kingdom, as well as “President of the Senate” in the United States (one of the roles constitutionally assigned to the vice president). The officiating priest at certain Anglican religious services, too, is sometimes called the “president” in this sense. However, the most common modern usage is as the title of a head of state in a republic.

In pre-revolutionary France, the president of a Parlement evolved into a powerful magistrate, a member of the so-called noblesse de robe (“nobility of the gown”), with considerable judicial as well as administrative authority. The name referred to his primary role of presiding over trials and other hearings. In the 17th and 18th centuries, seats in the Parlements, including presidencies, became effectively hereditary, since the holder of the office could ensure that it would pass to an heir by paying the crown a special tax known as the paulette. The post of “first president” (premier président), however, could only be held by the King’s nominees. The Parlements were abolished by the French Revolution. In modern France the chief judge of a court is known as its president (président de la cour).

The first usage of the word president to denote the highest official in a government was during the Commonwealth of England. After the abolition of the monarchy the English Council of State, whose members were elected by the House of Commons, became the executive government of the Commonwealth. The Council of State was the successor of the Privy Council, which had previously been headed by the Lord President; its successor the Council of State was also headed by a Lord President, the first of which was John Bradshaw. However, the Lord President alone was not head of state, because that office was vested in the council as a whole.

The modern usage of the term president to designate a single person who is the head of state of a republic can be traced directly to the United States Constitution of 1787, which created the office of President of the United States. Previous American governments had included “presidents” (such as the president of the Continental Congress or the president of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress), but these were presiding officers in the older sense, with no executive authority. It has been suggested that the executive use of the term was borrowed from early American colleges and universities, which were usually headed by a president. British universities were headed by an official called the “Chancellor” (typically a ceremonial position) while the chief administrator held the title of “Vice-Chancellor”. But America’s first institutions of higher learning (such as Harvard University and Yale University) didn’t resemble a full-sized university so much as one of its constituent colleges. A number of colleges at Cambridge University featured an official called the “president”. The head, for instance, of Magdalene College, Cambridge was called the master and his second the president. The first president of Harvard, Henry Dunster, had been educated at Magdalene. Some have speculated that he borrowed the term out of a sense of humility, considering himself only a temporary place-holder. The presiding official of Yale College, originally a “rector” (after the usage of continental European universities), became “president” in 1745.

A common style of address for presidents, “Mr/Mrs. President,” is borrowed from British Parliamentary tradition, in which the presiding Speaker of the House of Commons is referred to as “Mr/Mrs. Speaker.” Coincidentally, this usage resembles the older French custom of referring to the president of a parlement as “Monsieur/Madame le Président“, a form of address that in modern France applies to both the President of the Republic and to chief judges. Similarly, the Speaker of the House of Commons of Canada is addressed by francophone parliamentarians as “Monsieur/Madame le/la Président(e)“. In Pierre Choderlos de Laclos’s novel Les Liaisons Dangereuses of 1782, the character identified as Madame la Présidente de Tourvel (“Madam President of Tourvel”) is the wife of a magistrate in a parlement. The fictional name Tourvel refers not to the parlement in which the magistrate sits, but rather, in imitation of an aristocratic title, to his private estate.

Once the United States adopted the title of “president” for its republican head of state, many other nations followed suit. Haiti became the first presidential republic in Latin America when Henri Christophe assumed the title in 1807. Almost all of the American nations that became independent from Spain in the early 1810s and 1820s chose a US-style president as their chief executive. The first European president was the president of the Italian Republic of 1802, a client state of revolutionary France, in the person of Napoleon Bonaparte. The first African president was the President of Liberia (1848), while the first Asian president was the President of the Republic of China (1912).[citation needed]

In the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, the powers of presidencies have varied from country to country. The spectrum of power has included presidents-for-life and hereditary presidencies to ceremonial heads of state.

Presidents in the countries with a democratic or representative form of government are usually elected for a specified period of time and in some cases may be re-elected by the same process by which they are appointed, i.e. in many nations, periodic popular elections. The powers vested in such presidents vary considerably. Some presidencies, such as that of Ireland, are largely ceremonial, whereas other systems vest the president with substantive powers such as the appointment and dismissal of prime ministers or cabinets, the power to declare war, and powers of veto on legislation. In many nations the president is also the commander-in-chief of the nation’s armed forces, though once again this can range from a ceremonial role to one with considerable authority.

Presidential systems

Presidents Obama and Rousseff of the United States and Brazil.

In almost all states with a presidential system of government, the president exercises the functions of head of state and head of government, i.e. the president directs the executive branch of government. When a President not only is head of state, but also head of government, is this, in Europe known to be a President of Counsel from the French Présidente du Conseil, used 1871-1940 and 1944-1958, as the Third and Fourth French Republics. In the United States the President has always been both Head of State and Head of Government and has always had the title of President.

Presidents in this system are either directly elected by popular vote or indirectly elected by an electoral college or some other democratically elected body.

In the United States, the President is indirectly elected by the Electoral College made up of electors chosen by voters in the presidential election. In most states of the United States, each elector is committed to voting for a specified candidate determined by the popular vote in each state, so that the people, in voting for each elector, are in effect voting for the candidate. However, for various reasons the numbers of electors in favour of each candidate are unlikely to be proportional to the popular vote. Thus, in five close United States elections (1824, 1876, 1888, 2000, and 2016), the candidate with the most popular votes still lost the election.

Presidents Johnson-Sirleaf and Bush of Liberia and the United States.

In Mexico, the president is directly elected for a six-year term by popular vote. The candidate who wins the most votes is elected president even without an absolute majority. The president may never get another term. The 2006 Mexican elections had a fierce competition, the electoral results showed a minimal difference between the two most voted candidates and such difference was just about the 0.58% of the total vote. The Federal Electoral Tribunal declared an elected president after a controversial post-electoral process.

In Brazil, the president is directly elected for a four-year term by popular vote. A candidate has to have more than 50% of the valid votes. If no candidates achieve a majority of the votes, there is a runoff election between the two candidates with most votes. Again, a candidate needs a majority of the vote to be elected. In Brazil, a president cannot be elected to more than two consecutive terms, but there is no limit on the number of terms a president can serve.

Many South American, Central American, African and some Asian nations follow the presidential model.

Semi-presidential systems

Taiwanese President Tsai Ing-Wen.

A second system is the semi-presidential system, also known as the French model. In this system, as in the parliamentary system, there are both a president and a prime minister; but unlike the parliamentary system, the president may have significant day-to-day power. For example, in France, when their party controls the majority of seats in the National Assembly, the president can operate closely with the parliament and prime minister, and work towards a common agenda. When the National Assembly is controlled by their opponents, however, the president can find themselves marginalized with the opposition party prime minister exercising most of the power. Though the prime minister remains an appointee of the president, the president must obey the rules of parliament, and select a leader from the house’s majority holding party. Thus, sometimes the president and prime minister can be allies, sometimes rivals; the latter situation is known in France as cohabitation. Variants of the French semi-presidential system, developed at the beginning of the Fifth Republic by Charles de Gaulle, are used in France, Portugal, Romania, Taiwan,[1]Sri Lanka and several post-colonial countries which have emulated the French model. In Finland, although the 2000 constitution moved towards a ceremonial presidency, the system is still formally semi-presidential, with the President of Finland retaining e.g. foreign policy and appointment powers.

Indian President Pratibha Patil and South Korean President Lee Myung-bak.

Parliamentary systems

The parliamentary republic, is a parliamentary system in which the presidency is largely ceremonial with either de facto or no significant executive authority (such as the President of Austria) or de jure no significant executive power (such as the President of Ireland), and the executive powers rests with the Prime Minister who automatically assumes the post as head of a majority party or coalition, but takes oath of office administered by the president. However, the president is head of the civil service, commander in chief of the armed forces and in some cases can dissolve parliament. Countries using this system include Austria, Armenia, Albania, Bangladesh, Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy,[2]Malta, Pakistan, Singapore.

A variation of the parliamentary republic is a system with an executive president in which the president is the head of state and the government but unlike a presidential system, is elected by and accountable to a parliament, and referred to as president. Countries using this system include Botswana, South Africa and Suriname.

Collective presidency

The seven-member Swiss Federal Council serves as collective head of government and state of Switzerland.

Only a tiny minority of modern republics do not have a single head of state. Some examples of this are:

  • Switzerland, where the headship of state is collectively vested in the seven-member Swiss Federal Council, although there is also a President of the Confederation, who is a member of the Federal Council elected by the Federal Assembly (the Swiss parliament) for a year (constitutional convention mandates that the post rotates every New Year’s Day).
  • The Captains Regent of San Marino elected by the Grand and General Council.
  • In the former Soviet Union, while the real power was exercised by the general secretary of the Communist Party, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet executed powers of collective head of state, and its chairman was often called “president” in the West.
  • Yugoslavia after the death of Josip Broz Tito until its breakup.
  • Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • National Council of Government (Uruguay)
  • Junta of National Reconstruction in Nicaragua

Dictatorships

In dictatorships, the title of president is frequently taken by self-appointed or military-backed leaders. Such is the case in many states: Idi Amin in Uganda, Mobutu Sese Seko in Zaire, Ferdinand Marcos in Philippines and Saddam Hussein in Iraq are some examples. Other presidents in authoritarian states have wielded only symbolic or no power such as Craveiro Lopes in Portugal and Joaquín Balaguer under the “Trujillo Era” of the Dominican Republic.

President for Life is a title assumed by some dictators to try to ensure that their authority or legitimacy is never questioned. Ironically, most leaders who proclaim themselves President for Life do not in fact successfully serve a life term. On the other hand, presidents like Alexandre Pétion, Rafael Carrera, Josip Broz Tito and François Duvalier died in office. Kim Il-sung was named Eternal President of the Republic after his death.

In ancient Rome, Lucius Cornelius Sulla appointed himself in 82 BC to an entirely new office, dictator rei publicae constituendae causa (“dictator for the making of laws and for the settling of the constitution”), which was functionally identical to the dictatorate rei gerundae causa (“for the matter to be done,” e.g., a military command against a specific enemy) except that it lacked any set time limit, although Sulla held this office for over two years before he voluntarily abdicated and retired from public life.

The second well-known incident of a leader extending his term indefinitely was Roman dictator Julius Caesar, who made himself “Perpetual Dictator” (commonly mistranslated as ‘Dictator-for-life’) in 45 BC. His actions would later be mimicked by the French leader Napoleon Bonaparte who was appointed “First Consul for life” in 1802 and five years later, the French senate proclaimed him emperor (a monarchical title).

Several presidents have ruled until their death, but they have not proclaimed themselves as President for Life. For instance, Nicolae Ceauşescu of Romania, who ruled until his execution (see Romanian Revolution).

Presidential symbols

As the country’s head of state, in most countries the president is entitled to certain perquisites, and may have a prestigious residence, often a lavish mansion or palace, sometimes more than one (e.g. summer and winter residences, or a country retreat) Customary symbols of office may include an official uniform, decorations, a presidential seal, coat of arms, flag and other visible accessories, as well as military honours such as gun salutes, ruffles and flourishes, and a presidential guard. A common presidential symbol is the presidential sash worn most often by presidents in Latin America and Africa as a symbol of the continuity of the office.[3]

Presidential chronologies

United Nations member countries in columns, other entities at the beginning:

  • European Commission
  • List of presidents of European Union institutions
  • List of Presidents of the Soviet Union (Leaders)

Titles for non-heads of state

As head of government

Some countries with parliamentary systems use a term meaning/translating as “president” (in some languages indistinguishable from chairman) for the head of parliamentary government, often as President of the Government, President of the Council of Ministers or President of the Executive Council.

However, such an official is explicitly not the president of the country. Rather, he/she is called a president in an older sense of the word, to denote the fact that he/she heads the cabinet. A separate head of state generally exists in their country that instead serves as the president or monarch of the country.

Thus, such officials are really premiers, and to avoid confusion are often described simply as ‘prime minister’ when being mentioned internationally.

There are several examples for this kind of presidency:

  • The Prime Minister of Spain is officially referred to as the President of the Government of Spain, and informally known as the “president”. Spain is also a kingdom with a reigning king.
  • The official title of the Italian Prime Minister is President of the Council of Ministers (Italian Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri)
  • Under the French Third and the Fourth Republics, the “President of the Council” (of ministers – or prime minister) was the head of government, with the President of the Republic a largely symbolic figurehead.
  • The Prime minister of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1937 was titled President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State. At the same time, the Irish Free State was a constitutional monarchy with a reigning monarch, the King of Ireland, as well as a resident Governor-General carrying out many head of state functions.
  • Under the constitutional monarchies of Brazil and Portugal, the President of the Council of Ministers (Portuguese Presidente do Conselho de Ministros) was the head of government, with the Monarch being the head of State. Under the Portuguese First and Second Republics, the head of government was the President of the Ministry (Portuguese Presidente do Ministério) and then the President of the Council of Ministers, with the President of the Republic as the head of State.
  • The official title of the Croatian prime minister is President of the Government of the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Predsjednik Vlade Republike Hrvatske).
  • The official title of the Polish prime minister is President of the Council of Ministers (Polish Prezes Rady Ministrów).
  • In British constitutional practice, the chairman of an Executive Council, acting in such a capacity, is known as a President of the Executive Council. Usually this person is the Governor and it always stays like that.
  • Between 1918 and 1934, Estonia had no separate head of state. Both Prime Ministers (1918-1920) and State Elders (1920-1934) often translated as “Presidents”) were elected by the parliament.

Other executive positions

Sub-national

President can also be the title of the chief executive at a lower administrative level, such as the parish presidents of the parishes of the U.S. state of Louisiana, the presiding member of city council for villages in the U.S. state of Illinois, or the municipal presidents of Mexico’s municipalities. Perhaps the best known sub-national presidents are the borough presidents of the Five Boroughs of New York City.

Poland

In Poland the President of the City (Polish: Prezydent miasta) is the executive authority of the municipality elected in direct elections, the equivalent of the mayor. The Office of the President (Mayor) is also found in Germany and Switzerland.

Russia

Governors of ethnic republics in the Russian Federation used to have the title of President, occasionally alongside other, secondary titles such as Chairman of the Government (also used by Prime Minister of Russia). This likely reflects the origin of Russian republics as homelands for various ethnic groups: while all federal subjects of Russia are currently de jure equal, their predecessors, the ASSRs, used to enjoy more privileges than the ordinary krais and oblasts of the RSFSR (such as greater representation in the Soviet of Nationalities). Thus, the ASSRs and their eventual successors would have more in common with nation-states than with ordinary administrative divisions, at least in spirit, and would choose titles accordingly.

Over the course of the 2010s the presidents of Russian republics would progressively change their title to that of Head (Russian: глава), a proposition suggested by the President of Chechnya Ramzan Kadyrov and later made law by the Parliament of Russia and President Dmitriy Medvedev in 2010. Despite this, however, Presidents of Tatarstan would reject this change and, as of 2017, retain their title in defiance of Russian law. The new title did not result in any changes in the powers wielded by the governors.

United Kingdom

The Lord President of the Council is one of the Great Officers of State in England who presides over meetings of British Privy Council; the Cabinet headed by the Prime Minister is technically a committee of the Council, and all decisions of the Cabinet are formally approved through Orders in Council. Although the Lord President is a member of the Cabinet, the position is largely a ceremonial one and is traditionally given to either the Leader of the House of Commons or the Leader of the House of Lords.

Historically the President of the Board of Trade was a cabinet member.

Dependencies

In Alderney, the elected head of government is called the President of the States of Alderney.

In the Isle of Man, there is a President of Tynwald.

Spain

In Spain, the executive leaders of the autonomous communities (regions) are called presidents. In each community, they can be called Presidente de la Comunidad or Presidente del Consejo among others. They are elected by their respective regional assemblies and have similar powers to a state president or governor.

Deputies

Below a president, there can be a number of or “vice presidents” (or occasionally “deputy presidents”) and sometimes several “assistant presidents” or “assistant vice presidents”, depending on the organisation and its size. These posts do not hold the same power but more of a subordinate position to the president. However, power can be transferred in special circumstances to the deputy or vice president. Normally vice presidents hold some power and special responsibilities below that of the president. The difference between vice/deputy presidents and assistant/associate vice presidents is the former are legally allowed to run an organisation, exercising the same powers (as well as being second in command) whereas the latter are not.

Legislatures

In some countries the speaker of their unicameral legislatures, or of one or both houses of bicameral legislatures, the speakers have the title of president of “the body”, as in the case of Spain, where the Speaker of the Congress is the President of the Congress of Deputies and the Speaker of the Senate is the President of the Senate.

Judiciary

France

In French legal terminology, the president of a court consisting of multiple judges is the foremost judge; he chairs the meeting of the court and directs the debates (and this thus addressed as “Mrs President”, “Madame la Présidente”, Mr President”, or Monsieur le Président. In general, a court comprises several chambers, each with its own president; thus the most senior of these is called the “first president” (as in: “the First President of the Court of Cassation is the most senior judge in France”). Similarly in English legal practice the most senior judge in each division uses this title (e.g. President of the Family Division, President of the Court of Appeal).

Spain

In the Spanish Judiciary, the leader of a court of multiples judges is called President of the Court. The same happens with the different bodies of the Spanish judicial system, where we can find a President of the Supreme Court, a President of the National Court and Presidents in the Regional High Courts of Justice and in the Provincial Courts. The body that rules over the Judiciary in Spain is the General Council of the Judiciary, and its president is the President of the Supreme Court, which is normally called President of the Supreme Court and of the GCJ.

The Constitutional Court is not part of the Judiciary, but the leader of it is called President of the Constitutional Court.

United Kingdom

In the recently established Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, the most senior judge is called the President of the Supreme Court. The Lady/Lord President of the Court of Session is head of the judiciary in Scotland, and presiding judge (and Senator) of the College of Justice and Court of Session, as well as being Lady/Lord Justice General of Scotland and head of the High Court of Justiciary, the offices having been combined in 1784.

See also

  • Mr. President (title)
  • Presidents Day
  • Presidential system
  • Requirements for becoming a president
  • Vice president
  • Eternal President of the Republic

Head of state:

  • Head of state
  • Governor-General
  • Monarch
  • Supreme Leader
  • List of state leaders

Other head of government:

  • Prime minister
  • Minister-President (a head of government, not of state)

References

  1. ^ Shen, Yu-chung (2017). “Institutional resilience of Taiwan’s semi-presidential system: the integration of the president and premier under party politics”. Asian Journal of Political Science. 26:1: 53–64. doi:10.1080/02185377.2017.1366347..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ But presidential moral suasion is increasingly confirming that the “neutral powers”, in this country, often find in the head of state the best defender from executive interference: Buonomo, Giampiero (2014). “Autorità indipendenti e sistema costituzionale”. L’ago e il filo.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  3. ^ McCullough, J. J. “Presidential Sashes”. Retrieved 19 February 2017.


Air attaché

Air attachés assigned to the Japanese Embassy in Washington, D.C..

An air attaché is an Air Force officer who is part of a diplomatic mission; this post is normally filled by a high-ranking officer.

An air attaché typically represents the chief of his home air force in the foreign country where he serves. The day-to-day responsibilities include maintaining contacts between the host nation and the attaché’s air force. This includes arranging official visits, exchange postings and exercises.[1]
Other duties of an air attaché also include traveling around the host country to determine the extent of the air force infrastructure of the host country and then filing intelligence reports with their superiors in the home air force. Many of the travels are disguised as other types of trips, such as vacations or family trips, otherwise the air attaché could be expelled for spying if caught doing so.

On a smaller diplomatic mission which does not have its own air attaché, the role of the air attaché is carried out by the defence attaché who also deals with army and navy matters. Sizable diplomatic missions may be served by both an air attaché and an assistant air attaché.

See also

  • Attaché
  • Military attaché

References

  1. ^ “Air Attaché”. France in the United Kingdom – La France au Royaume-Uni..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}

Rebbe

Rebbe Naftali Tzvi Labin of Zidichov

Rebbe (Hebrew: .mw-parser-output .script-hebrew,.mw-parser-output .script-Hebr{font-size:1.15em;font-family:”Ezra SIL”,”Ezra SIL SR”,”Keter Aram Tsova”,”Taamey Ashkenaz”,”Taamey David CLM”,”Taamey Frank CLM”,”Frank Ruehl CLM”,”Keter YG”,”Shofar”,”David CLM”,”Hadasim CLM”,”Simple CLM”,”Nachlieli”,”SBL BibLit”,”SBL Hebrew”,Cardo,Alef,”Noto Serif Hebrew”,”Noto Sans Hebrew”,”David Libre”,David,”Times New Roman”,Gisha,Arial,FreeSerif,FreeSans}רבי‬: /ˈrɛbɛ/ or /ˈrɛbi/[1]) is a Yiddish word derived from the Hebrew word rabbi, which means ‘master’, ‘teacher’, or ‘mentor’. Like the title rabbi, it refers to teachers of Torah or leaders of Judaism.

In common parlance of modern times, the phrase the Rebbe is often used specifically by Hasidim to refer to the leader of their Hasidic movement.[2][3]

Contents

  • 1 Terminology and origin
  • 2 Usage
  • 3 Hasidism
  • 4 The hasidic rebbe

    • 4.1 Relationship of hasidim to their rebbe

      • 4.1.1 Rebbe as tzadik
      • 4.1.2 Tzadik HaDor
      • 4.1.3 Rebbe as conduit
      • 4.1.4 Hasidic followers of a rebbe
    • 4.2 Functions of a hasidic rebbe

      • 4.2.1 Kvitlach
      • 4.2.2 Tish and farbrengen
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

Terminology and origin

The Yiddish term rebbe comes from the Hebrew word rabbi, meaning “My Master”, which is the way a student would address a master of Torah. It was an honorific originally given to those who had Smicha in the Pharisaic and Talmudic era. Since vowels were not written at the time, it is impossible to know historically whether it was pronounced rah-bee (/ˈrɑːbi/) or r-bee (/ˈrɛbi/). The English word rabbi (/ˈræb/) comes directly from this form. In Yiddish, the word became reb-eh (/ˈrɛbɛ/)—now commonly spelled rebbe (/ˈrɛbə/—or just reb (/ˈrɛb/). The word master רבrav [ˈʁäv] literally means “great one”.

The Sages of the Mishnah known as the Tannaim, from the 1st and 2nd centuries of the common era, were known by the title Rabbi (/ˈræbi/) (for example, Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Shimon bar Yochoy). Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, the leader of Jewry in Mishnaic Times, was simply called Rabbi (/ˈræbi/), as being the rabbi par excellence of his generation.

The Sages of the Talmud known as the Amoraim, from the 3rd, 4th and early 5th centuries, those born in the Land of Israel, are called Rabbi (/ˈræbi/); those born in the diaspora are known by the title Rav (/ˈrɑːv/).

Usage

Today, rebbe is used in the following ways:

  1. Rabbi, a teacher of Torah – Yeshiva students or cheder (elementary school) students, when talking to their Teacher, would address him with the honorific Rebbe, as the Yiddish-German equivalent to the Hebrew word Rabbi (
    רַבִּיrabi [ˈʁäbi]).
  2. Personal mentor and teacher—A person’s main Rosh Yeshiva, Yeshiva teacher, or mentor, who teaches him or her Talmud and Torah and gives religious guidance, is referred to as rebbe (/ˈrɛbə/[1]), also as an equivalent to the term “rabbi”.
  3. Spiritual leader—The spiritual head of a Hasidic movement is called a rebbe (/ˈrɛbə/[1]). His followers would address him as “The Rebbe” or refer to him when speaking to others as “the Rebbe” or “my Rebbe“. He is referred to by others as the Rebbe of a particular Hasidut. In Hebrew, a hasidic rebbe is often referred to as an AdMoR, which is an abbreviation for Adoneinu, Moreinu, veRabbenu (“Our Master, our Teacher, and our Rabbi”). In writing, this title is placed before the name of the Hasidut, as in “Admor of Belz”; while the title Rebbe comes after the name of the Hasidut when used as an adjective, as in “Lubavitcher Rebbe”, “Amshinever Rebbe”, and every rebbe of every Hasidic Dynasty. In the Litvishe world, when not referring to a hasidic rebbe (/ˈrɛbə/[1]), the word can be pronounced “rebbee” (/ˈrɛbi/). Sephardic Jews can pronounce it as “Ribbi” (/ˈrbi/). The Lubavitcher hasidim have a tradition that the Hebrew letters that make up the word rebbe (/ˈrɛbi/) are also an acronym for “Rosh Bnei Yisroel”, meaning “a spiritual head of the Children of Israel”.

An ordinary communal rabbi, or rebbe in Yiddish, is sometimes distinct from a rav (/ˈræv/, also pronounced rov /ˈrɒv/ by Jews of Eastern European or Russian origin), who is a more authoritative halakhic decider. A significant function of a rav is to answer questions of halakha (corpus of Jewish law), but he is not as authoritative as a posek. The short form reb is an honorific for Orthodox Jewish men, who are most likely to have profound knowledge of the Talmud and Torah, as opposed to Reconstructionist, Reform or Conservative Judaism. Originally, this title was added to the names of Jews at the time of the schism with the Karaite sect, as a sign of loyalty to the original rabbinic tradition, known today as Orthodox Judaism.[4]

Hasidism

As a rule, among hasidim, rebbe (/ˈrɛbə/) is referred to in Hebrew as admor (pl. admorim), an abbreviation for Hebrew adoneinu moreinu v’rabeinu, meaning ‘our master, our teacher, and our rabbi’, which is now the modern Hebrew word in Israel for rebbe.

Hasidim use the term rebbe (/ˈrɛbə/) also in a more elevated manner, to denote someone that they perceive not only as the religious leader or nasi[3] of their congregation, but as their spiritual adviser and mentor. The Rebbe or my Rebbe in this sense is a rav or rabbi whose views and advice are accepted not only on issues of religious law and practice, but in all arenas of life, including political and social issues. Sometimes a hasid has a rebbe as his spiritual guide and an additional rav for rulings on issues of halakha.

Hasidim use the concept of a (non-hasidic) rebbe in the simple sense of rabbi, as the Yiddish-German equivalent to the Hebrew word רַבִּיrabi [ˈʁäbi]. For example: “I will ask my rebbe (/ˈrɛbə/), Rabbi (/ˈræb/) Ploni (so-and-so), for advice about this personal matter.”

The hasidic rebbe

A hasidic rebbe (/ˈrɛbɛ/) is generally taken to mean a great leader of a Hasidic dynasty, also referred to as “Grand Rabbi” in English or an ADMOR, a Hebrew acronym for Adoneinu-Moreinu-veRabbeinu (“our lord/master, teacher, and rabbi”). Outside of Hasidic circles the term “Grand Rabbi” has been used to refer to a rabbi with a higher spiritual status. The practice became widespread in America in the early 1900s when Hasidic rebbes began to emigrate to the United States and was derived from the German Grossrabbiner.

Rabbi Yisroel Baal Shem Tov, the founder of Hasidism, is regarded by Hasidim as the first Hasidic rebbe.[2] During his lifetime he was referred to mainly as “The holy” rather than as “Rebbe”, and his disciples were “magidim” or “preachers”, such as the Magid of Chernobyl or the Magid of Mezritsh.

The first “rebbe” to be known as such was the Baal Shem Tov’s grandson, Rabbi Boruch of Mezhibozh, who was referred to as “The Rebbe” during his lifetime. After him, those who rose to positions of leadership and their successors began to be called rebbe. The title gradually came to suggest a higher spiritual status.

Each Hasidic group refers to its leader as “the rebbe”.

Hannah Rachel Verbermacher, also known as the Maiden of Ludmir or the “Ludmirer Moyd”, was the only female rebbe in the history of the Hasidic movement; she lived in the 19th century in Ukraine and Israel.[5][6]

Relationship of hasidim to their rebbe

Rebbe as tzadik

According to Maimonides,[7] a tzadik is “one whose merit surpasses [his/her] iniquity”, and every person can reach the level of a Tzadik. According to the Tanya, a tzadik has no evil inclination, and only a select few predestined to attain this level can attain it. According to Kabbalah (and particularly the hasidic understanding of Kabbalah), the world is sustained on the “shoulders” of Tzadikim Nistarim, divinely predestined exceptionally righteous people in a generation. Nobody has knowledge about who was such a tzaddik, even one of these exceptionally righteous people would not know that they really are such a tzadik. These people are understood to have perfected their personal service of God to such an extent that they become literally and physically aware of God. These righteous people’s perception (of both spiritual and physical, not to mention temporal matters) transcends the apparent boundaries of existence.

However, a hasidic rebbe is generally said to be a righteous person, called a “tzaddik”.[2] Furthermore, a rebbe is said to be able to affect divine providence, and a rebbe is said to be able to “see the future”, or at least have strong insight into the life and trials of another.

As a result, hasidim in some hasidic circles seek their rebbe’s advice for a variety of concerns: spiritual, physical, and even business concerns. Furthermore, many people seek the blessing (bracha) of a rebbe (and a hasid will specifically seek the blessing of his own rebbe) for anything from minor (and all the more so major) physical troubles, to grand spiritual concerns. Many famous and common stories of a rebbe’s intervention involve women who successfully seek a rebbe’s blessing for fertility so that they can conceive after having been barren for many years.

Kabbalah describes an extension of Moses in each generation, alternately identified with the Tzadik of the generation, and the potential Jewish Messiah of the generation. In Hasidism, each person’s soul essence relates to the level of Moses.

Tzadik HaDor

In some movements the hasidim believe that their rebbe is the “tzadik hador” (tzaddik of the generation) and would regard any thought that detracts from his perfection and holiness as heresy. Other sects lessen this idealization to some degree or another. Since many rebbes are sons-in-law or students of other rebbes, it makes sense that they would view themselves as subordinate to those other rebbes. Nonetheless, their hasidim remain loyal to them because of their special loyalty, a family connection, or a belief that a specific tzaddik or Nasi HaDor (although others might have greater spiritual stature) connects best with one’s soul. For example, the Kosover Rebbe makes yearly pilgrimages to the Tosher Rebbe. Nonetheless, his followers remain very loyal to him.

Rebbe as conduit

Unlike rabbis or non-hasidic rebbes in other Jewish movements, hasidic Judaism considers a ‘hasidic rebbe’ to be a conduit between Jews and God.[2] On the basis of traditional Kabbalistic concepts and terminology, Hasidic philosophy bridged deveikut, a Jewish concept referring to closeness to God, to the hasidic rebbe, embodying and channeling the Divine flow of blessing to the world, because Creation is dependent on the continuous flow of Divine lifeforce, without which it would revert to nothingness.[8]

Hasidic followers of a rebbe

Given a rebbe’s physical awareness of God, and the rebbe’s transcendent perception of Godliness, many hasidim take special care to observe the specific and sometimes minute practices of their rebbe. Even things that seem mundane may nonetheless be seen by hasidim as incredibly significant. For example, Lubavitcher hasidim frequently shape their fedoras to match the way that the Lubavitcher Rebbe shaped his hat-which was more flat than many others. Many Skverer hasidim (of the Skverer Rebbe in New Square) wear their peyos identical to those of the Skverer Rebbe. While hasidim do not always follow the specific practices of their rebbe, the rebbe is able to create practices that may be specific and unique to his hasidim. For example, Rabbi Aaron Roth (Reb Areleh, as he was called) the first rebbe of Shomer Emunim, told his hasidim to pause frequently while eating their meals in order to keep them from overindulging. A hasid will usually love his rebbe like a close family member, if not more so. The degree and nature of this belief varies, however, depending on the movement.

Functions of a hasidic rebbe

There are some functions which are exclusively the domain of hasidic rebbes:

  • Reading kvitlach
  • Running a tish or leading a farbrengen

Others are not exclusive to Hasidic rebbes, but are often an important part of their role:

  • Participating in family celebrations of the hasidim, such as weddings and brisim (circumcision ceremony)
  • Performing mitzvos, etc. in the presence of their hasidim, such as kindling the Chanuka lights and drawing water with which to bake matzos
  • Leading the prayers on Shabbos, Holy Days, and other special occasions
  • Delivering learned or inspirational discourses (in Chabad Hasidut, this is one of the main roles of a rebbe)
  • Build educational, social and religious institutions [9]

Kvitlach

A rebbe has times when Hasidim (and other petitioners) may come for a private audience. A kvitel (Yiddish for “note”, plural kvitlach) is a note with the name of the petitioner and a short request for which the rebbe is asked to pray. The formula in which a person’s name is written is one’s own Hebrew name, the son/daughter of one’s mother’s Hebrew name, such as Shimon ben Rivkah (Simeon the son of Rebecca). Hasidim believe that rebbes read supernaturally “between the lines” of a kvitel, and in every Hasidic movement there are numerous anecdotes relating how the rebbe saw things that were not written in the kvitel. In most Hasidic groups, the kvitel is written by the rebbe’s gabbai (secretary), however sometimes the petitioner writes it on his own. Usually, but with some exceptions, a pidyon (redemption) of cash is customarily handed to the rebbe under the kvitel, but this is not obligatory. This is considered to be the conduit through which the blessing is given, and a redemption for the soul of the petitioner. (“A gift makes its receiver glad” is given as an explanation: a blessing only comes from a joyous heart.) It is also customary to tip the gabbai, although this too is not obligatory.

Tish and farbrengen

The Bostoner Rebbe feert tish, lit. “runs [a] table” in his synagogue in Beitar Illit

A rebbe conducts a tish (Yiddish: פֿירט טיש‎: feert tish, literally, “to run [a] table”) or a farbrengen—a communal festive meal with highly mystical overtones—on Shabbat and other occasions. At a tish, the rebbe distributes shirayim (lit. remnants) to the Hasidim seated at or gathered round the table. When a gathering similar to a tish is led by a rabbi who is not a rebbe, it can be referred to as a botte (esp. amongst groups from Romania) or sheves achim.

See also

  • Hasidic philosophy
  • Hasidic Judaism
  • List of Hasidic dynasties

References

  1. ^ abcd Oxford Dictionary of English, Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary
  2. ^ abcd Heilman, Samuel. “The Rebbe and the Resurgence of Orthodox Judaism.” Religion and Spirituality (Audio). UCTV, 20 Oct 2011. web. 31 Jul 2013.
  3. ^ ab Schneerson, Rabbi Menachem Mendel. “The Head”. Kabbalah and the Mystical. Chabad-Lubavitch Media Center. Archived from the original on 19 June 2013. Retrieved 25 August 2013..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  4. ^ Rabbi Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, Halikhot Shlomo 1:370–373;
    Salo Wittmayer Baron, A Social and Religious History of the Jews, vol. 5 p. 283
  5. ^ “YIVO – Maiden of Ludmir”. www.yivoencyclopedia.org. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  6. ^ Deutsch, Nathaniel (6 October 2003). “The Maiden of Ludmir: A Jewish Holy Woman and Her World”. University of California Press. Retrieved 1 May 2018 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ Tractate Yevamot of the Babylonian Talmud 49b–50a: “One whose merit surpasses his iniquity is a tzadik“. Mishneh Torah, Sefer Madda, Laws of Repentance 3:1
  8. ^ God and the Zaddik as the two focal points of Hasidic worship Ada Rapoport-Albert, in Essential Papers on Hasidism edited by Gershon Hundert, NYU Press 1991
  9. ^ “Vienna Celebrates ‘the Most Influential Rabbi of Modern History“. Alexandria, VA. Connection Newspapers. May 7, 2014. Chabad Tysons Jewish Center will present Paradigm Shift: Transformational Life Teachings of the Lubavitcher Rebbe, a new six-session course by the Rohr Jewish Learning Institute. The course will be offered as part of a series of local activities in Northern Virginia marking 20 years since the passing of “the Rebbe”, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson of righteous memory. The Rebbe was a visionary religious leader who inspired countless individuals during his lifetime and established a global network of educational, social, and religious institutions to revive the post-holocaust Jewish landscape.

External links

  • Over 1,000 videos of rebbes
  • The Role of a Rebbe and the Rebbe-Chossid Relationship
  • Torah sources about the concept of a rebbe

Paramount chief

A paramount chief is the English-language designation for the highest-level political leader in a regional or local polity or country administered politically with a chief-based system. This term is used occasionally in anthropological and archaeological theory to refer to the rulers of multiple chiefdoms or the rulers of exceptionally powerful chiefdoms that have subordinated others. Paramount chiefs were identified by English-speakers as existing in Native American confederacies and regional chiefdoms, such as the Powhatan Confederacy and Piscataway Native Americans encountered by English colonists in the Chesapeake Bay area of North America.

More recently, Paramount Chief is a formal title created by British administrators during the 19th and 20th-century Colonial era and used in India, Africa and Asian colonies. They used it as a substitute for the word king to maintain that only the British monarch held that title.[1] Since the title “chief” was already used in terms of district and town administrators, the addition of “paramount” was made so as to distinguish between the ruling monarch and the local aristocracy.[1]

Contents

  • 1 Africa

    • 1.1 Eastern African paramount chieftainships and titles
    • 1.2 West African paramount chieftains and their countries
    • 1.3 Southern African paramount chieftainships and titles
  • 2 In Asia

    • 2.1 East Asia paramount chieftainships and titles
  • 3 In Oceania
  • 4 See also
  • 5 Sources and references
  • 6 References

Africa

Eastern African paramount chieftainships and titles

  • Kenya: Title since 1904 of the former laibon of all the Maasai in Kenya (not in Tanzania)
  • Sudan: In South Sudan, the title of the chief responsible for a payam (district) elected by the chiefs of each buma (village). The Paramount Chief works with the government-appointed Payam Director, both of whom report to a county Commissioner.

West African paramount chieftains and their countries

  • Cameroon: Charles Atangana
  • Nigeria: Ladapo Ademola
  • Sierra Leone: Bai Bureh

Southern African paramount chieftainships and titles

  • Kgôsi

    • of each of the eight major tribes of the Tswana, all in Botswana (former Bechuanaland)
  • In present Lesotho since it emerged as a polity in 1822, a British Protectorate as Basutoland since 12 March 1868 (11 August 1871 – 18 March 1884 Annexed to Cape Colony as Basutoland territory, then as a separate colony, as one of the High Commission Territories). The title changed to king at 4 October 1966 independence date from Britain.
  • In Namibia
    • over the Awa-Khoi or “Red Nation” (more prominent then six other ‘nations’) of the Nama (Khoi) people, a Chiefdom established before 1700.
    • title Okahandja Herero among that people, also Chief Ministers of Hereoroland (two incumbents 20 July 1970 – 5 December 1980), the ‘homeland’ of the Ovaherero
  • In Swaziland the term paramount chief was imposed by the British over Swazi royal objections in 1903, was never recognized by the Swazi royalty, and was changed to “king” in English upon independence in 1968. The SiSwati name for the office is Ngwenyama, a ceremonial term for “lion”.
  • In South Africa
    • Khosikulu of the vhaVenda; after the people’s split, (only?) of the haMphaphuli
    • title Inkosi Enkhulu of the Xhosa people’s following polities: amaGcaleka, amaMbalu, amaRharhabe, amaNdlambe, imiDushane, imiQhayi, amaGasela, amaGwali, amaHleke, imiDange, amaNtinde, amaGqunukhwebe
    • title Inkosi Enkhulu of the amaBhaca (until 1830 called abakwaZelemu)
    • title Inkosi Enkhulu of the amaKhonjwayo (currently ruled by Dumisani Gwadiso)
    • title Inkosi Enkhulu of the amaMpondo, currently ruled by Ndamase NDAMASE (West) and Jongilanga Sigcau (East) .
    • title Inkosi Enkhulu of the amaMpondomise
    • title Inkosi Enkhulu of the abaThembu, currently ruled by Buyelekhaya Zwelinbanzi Dalindyebo.
    • title Inkosi Enkhulu of the Nhlangwini, currently ruled by Melizwe Dlamini

The Great Mongol Khan: Genghis Khan

Manchu Tribal Chief Nurhaci

In Asia

East Asia paramount chieftainships and titles

  • Khan

Khan, alternately spelled lowercase as khan[2] and sometimes spelled as Han, Xan, Ke-Han, Turkic: khān,[2][3]Mongolian: qāān,[3]Chinese: 可汗 or 汗, kehan or han) is an originally Central Asian title for a sovereign or military ruler, first used by medieval Turko-Mongol nomadic tribes living to the north of China. ‘Khan’ is first seen as a title in the Xianbei confederation[4] for their chief between 283–289[5] and was used as a state title by the Rouran confederation.[6]
It was subsequently adopted by the Göktürks before Turkic peoples and the Mongols brought it to the rest of Asia. In the middle of the sixth century it was known as “Kagan – King of the Turks” to the Persians.[4]

It now has many equivalent meanings such as commander, leader, or ruler. The most famous khan was the Great Khan of Mongols: Genghis Khan. Another famous Manchu khan was Nurhachi.

In Oceania

Fijian chief and warlord Seru Epenisa Cakobau (1815–1883).

Samoan paramount chief Mata’afa Iosefo (1832–1912)

  • Aotearoa (New Zealand), Ariki Nui of Ngati Tuwharetoa, a Māori tribe in the central North Island – a hereditary chieftainship which still has great influence. In the 1850s the Māori King Movement resulted in the election of a Waikato chief as Māori King.
  • American Samoa
  • Cook Islands, the paramount chief of the Cook Islands was an ariki of the Makea Nui dynasty, a chiefdom of the Te Au O Tonga tribe in Rarotonga, the Kingdom of Rarotonga was established in 1858 and ended in 1888.
  • Fiji:

    • during the October–December 1987 secession agitation on one island, known as the Republic of Rotuma, led by Henry Gibson (remained in New Zealand), his style was Gagaj Sau Lagfatmaro, rendered as Paramount chief or King of the Molmahao Clan. NB: This title was not recognised by the Rotuma Island Council as the titles Gagaja and Sau have never been used together. The closest thing to a paramount chief is the position of Fakpure, currently belonging to the district chief (gagaj ‘es itu’u) of Noa’tau.
    • the British Sovereign was recognized as “Paramount Chief”, even after the country became a republic on 7 October 1987; however, this was not an office of state
  • French Polynesia: ari`i *
  • Rapa Nui (Easter Island) * (presently in Chile) paramount chief or king, the ariki henua or ariki mau*
  • Samoa, paramount titles in the fa’amatai chiefly system include; Malietoa, Mata’afa, Tupua Tamasese and Tuimaleali’ifano.

See also

  • Chef supérieur
  • Great King
  • Hegemony
  • High king
  • Monarchy
  • Monarchy of Fiji – the Great Council of Chiefs until de-established in March 2012, recognised Elizabeth II as Tui Viti or Paramount Chief
  • Paramount ruler
  • Sachem

Sources and references

  • WorldStatesmen see each present country

References

  1. ^ ab Government Documents. Great Britain. Foreign Office. Correspondence with Foreign Courts Regarding Execution of Treaties Contracted. London, 1821. 110pp
  2. ^ ab “khan”. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2008-04-25..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  3. ^ ab “khan”. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Bartleby.com. Archived from the original on 2007-08-19. Retrieved 2008-04-25.
  4. ^ ab Henning, W. B., ‘A Farewell to the Khagan of the Aq-Aqataran’,”Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African studies – University of London”, Vol 14, No 3, p501–522. ,
  5. ^ Zhou 1985, p. 3–6
  6. ^ René Grousset (1988). The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. Rutgers University Press. p. 585. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.


Trying to replicate this title page: page grid and image

The name of the pictureThe name of the pictureThe name of the pictureClash Royale CLAN TAG#URR8PPP

2

I am trying to achieve the following result:

  1. Get a grid over the title page
  2. Have a figure that looks like a stock price process

Does anyone know how I can achieve this?

GOAL

share|improve this question

  • For the layout, you should take alook at the titling mackage, which has some tools to custimise maketitle.
    – Bernard
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:31

  • @Bernard Thanks for replying.
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:40

2

I am trying to achieve the following result:

  1. Get a grid over the title page
  2. Have a figure that looks like a stock price process

Does anyone know how I can achieve this?

GOAL

share|improve this question

  • For the layout, you should take alook at the titling mackage, which has some tools to custimise maketitle.
    – Bernard
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:31

  • @Bernard Thanks for replying.
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:40

2

2

2

I am trying to achieve the following result:

  1. Get a grid over the title page
  2. Have a figure that looks like a stock price process

Does anyone know how I can achieve this?

GOAL

share|improve this question

I am trying to achieve the following result:

  1. Get a grid over the title page
  2. Have a figure that looks like a stock price process

Does anyone know how I can achieve this?

GOAL

titles layout

share|improve this question

share|improve this question

share|improve this question

share|improve this question

edited Dec 25 ’18 at 1:53

AboAmmar

33.3k22882

33.3k22882

asked Dec 24 ’18 at 20:20

Sean

506

506

  • For the layout, you should take alook at the titling mackage, which has some tools to custimise maketitle.
    – Bernard
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:31

  • @Bernard Thanks for replying.
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:40

  • For the layout, you should take alook at the titling mackage, which has some tools to custimise maketitle.
    – Bernard
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:31

  • @Bernard Thanks for replying.
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:40

For the layout, you should take alook at the titling mackage, which has some tools to custimise maketitle.
– Bernard
Dec 24 ’18 at 20:31

For the layout, you should take alook at the titling mackage, which has some tools to custimise maketitle.
– Bernard
Dec 24 ’18 at 20:31

@Bernard Thanks for replying.
– Sean
Dec 24 ’18 at 20:40

@Bernard Thanks for replying.
– Sean
Dec 24 ’18 at 20:40

2 Answers
2

active

oldest

votes

3

A tikz version of the mountain range:

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usepackage{tikz}

definecolor{vua}{RGB}{106,153,218}

begin{document}


begin{tikzpicture}[yscale=-1,remember picture,overlay,scale=4.1,yshift=-1.7cm,xshift=-1.7cm]
shadedraw[vua,top color=vua!30!white, bottom color=white,ultra thick]  (0.4235,7.2111) -- (0.4817,7.2296) -- (0.5329,7.2404) -- (0.5531,7.1788) -- (0.5959,7.1293) -- (0.6374,7.1233) -- (0.6555,7.1050) -- (0.6952,7.1397) -- (0.7293,7.1693) -- (0.7459,7.0832) -- (0.7954,7.0434) -- (0.8272,7.1134) -- (0.8642,7.1423) -- (0.9119,7.2006) -- (0.9764,7.1723) -- (0.9984,7.1256) -- (1.0216,7.1517) -- (1.0439,7.1797) -- (1.0912,7.1256) -- (1.1394,7.0867) -- (1.2079,7.0282) -- (1.2411,6.9956) -- (1.2826,6.9526) -- (1.3213,6.9121) -- (1.3700,6.9439) -- (1.4111,6.9602) -- (1.4498,6.7843) -- (1.4737,6.7972) -- (1.4882,6.8109) -- (1.5118,6.7241) -- (1.5474,6.6155) -- (1.5861,6.5290) -- (1.6488,6.4263) -- (1.6735,6.4628) -- (1.7218,6.5092) -- (1.7587,6.5116) -- (1.7768,6.4481) -- (1.8204,6.3702) -- (1.8582,6.3455) -- (1.9301,6.3196) -- (1.9637,6.2909) -- (2.0110,6.1985) -- (2.0849,6.0881) -- (2.1081,6.0465) -- (2.1249,6.0683) -- (2.1405,6.0900) -- (2.1643,6.0092) -- (2.2058,5.9980) -- (2.2462,6.0963) -- (2.2776,6.0122) -- (2.2969,5.9441) -- (2.3590,6.0104) -- (2.3963,6.0443) -- (2.4195,6.0483) -- (2.4771,6.3049) -- (2.5167,6.4263) -- (2.6031,6.4744) -- (2.6262,6.5306) -- (2.6448,6.5757) -- (2.6638,6.5399) -- (2.6949,6.4636) -- (2.7642,6.2239) -- (2.8125,6.1192) -- (2.8482,6.0591) -- (2.8912,6.0216) -- (2.9065,6.0402) -- (2.9313,5.9722) -- (2.9859,5.8908) -- (3.0013,5.9079) -- (3.0841,5.9219) -- (3.1528,5.7742) -- (3.1860,5.6956) -- (3.2203,5.6106) -- (3.2778,5.6701) -- (3.2911,5.6696) -- (3.3108,5.5924) -- (3.3267,5.5248) -- (3.3718,5.5913) -- (3.4261,5.6778) -- (3.4580,5.6168) -- (3.4969,5.5489) -- (3.5292,5.5009) -- (3.5421,5.4505) -- (3.5751,5.4092) -- (3.6164,5.4295) -- (3.6316,5.4530) -- (3.6515,5.3443) -- (3.6685,5.2281) -- (3.6975,5.2587) -- (3.7162,5.3024) -- (3.7330,5.2910) -- (3.7838,5.2619) -- (3.8352,5.3058) -- (3.9191,5.2277) -- (3.9397,5.1066) -- (3.9584,5.1212) -- (3.9795,5.1332) -- (3.9934,5.0876) -- (4.0281,4.9995) -- (4.0684,4.8470) -- (4.0871,4.7342) -- (4.1169,4.7508) -- (4.1329,4.7790) -- (4.1718,4.7173) -- (4.2116,4.6517) -- (4.2330,4.7404) -- (4.2530,4.8354) -- (4.2703,4.8276) -- (4.3042,4.8354) -- (4.3264,4.8524) -- (4.3602,4.6968) -- (4.3789,4.7038) -- (4.3977,4.7140) -- (4.4165,4.6833) -- (4.4527,4.6510) -- (4.5342,4.5085) -- (4.6302,4.2735) -- (4.6911,4.3614) -- (4.7087,4.4070) -- (4.7279,4.3524) -- (4.7632,4.2626) -- (4.7990,4.1987) -- (4.8353,4.1614) -- (4.8759,4.1041) -- (4.9534,4.0030) -- (4.9897,3.9676) -- (5.0243,3.9258) -- (5.0762,3.9839) -- (5.1137,4.0976) -- (5.1605,4.3093) -- (5.1891,4.5210) -- (5.2722,4.9245) -- (5.3006,5.0129) -- (5.3382,5.0565) -- (5.3738,5.0281) -- (5.3944,5.0378) -- (5.4314,4.9877) -- (5.4670,4.9343) -- (5.5165,4.9530) -- (5.5366,5.0470) -- (5.5579,5.1297) -- (5.5756,5.1219) -- (5.5905,5.1168) -- (5.6119,5.2214) -- (5.6501,5.3429) -- (5.6966,5.4970) -- (5.7298,5.5267) -- (current page.south east) -- (current page.south west) -- cycle;
end{tikzpicture}
end{document}

enter image description here

share|improve this answer

  • This is coming close! Is there a way to somehow hide all the code that is necessary, because the code looks huge in the file. Furthermore, is adjusting the positioning possible?
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:48

  • The position adjustment is resolved. But the code is still taking a huge amount of space
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:56

  • 1

    @Sean Well, your stock price curve contains a lot of data, if you want it shorter, you could approximate it with a rectangle 🙂
    – samcarter
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:58

  • ahh, never mind then, because the result looks stunning! Last question, any idea how I can create a grid over the page? Thanks for answering on the Christmas eve 😉
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:00

  • 2

    @Sean: You can put all the code in a second file, say titlepage.tex and then simply input{titlepage} in your main document.
    – Patrick Happel
    Dec 25 ’18 at 0:47

5

Very similar to @samcarter’s nice answer and also a grid. (I am not very enthusiastic about punching in texts from a screen shot, so I let it be, but it will be straightforward to add the nodes or to use whatever template you have for that.) A local coordinate system a la this answer is installed.

documentclass{report}
usepackage{tikz}
usetikzlibrary{calc}
begin{document}
thispagestyle{empty} % probably not necessary when using a template with titlepage
begin{tikzpicture}[overlay,remember picture]
draw[dotted] let p1=($(current page.north east)-(current page.south west)$),
n1={(x1+2pt)/7},n2={(y1+2pt)/8}
in pgfextra{xdefmyw{x1}}
foreach X in {1,...,6}
{([xshift=-1pt+X*n1,yshift=-1pt]current page.south west) --
([xshift=-1pt+X*n1,yshift=1pt]current page.north west)}
foreach X in {1,...,7}
{([xshift=-1pt,yshift=-1pt+X*n2]current page.south west) --
([xshift=1pt,yshift=-1pt+X*n2]current page.south east)};
draw[blue,shift={(current page.south west)},top color=blue!30,bottom color=white] 
  plot[variable=x,domain=0:myw,samples=61,smooth] 
({x*1pt},{0.7*x*1pt+(2*myw/(myw+x))*sin((x*1pt/myw)*630)*60pt-
pow(x/myw,4)*140pt+20pt*rand}) % https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/28463/121799
 -- ++(2mm,0) --
([xshift=2mm,yshift=-2mm]current page.south east)
-- ([xshift=-2mm,yshift=-2mm]current page.south west);
begin{scope}[x={($(current page.south east)-(current page.south west)$)},
y={($(current page.north west)-(current page.south west)$)},
shift={(current page.south west)}] % inspired by https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/9562/121799
draw  (0.2,0.8) -- (0.8,0.8)  (0.2,0.6) -- (0.8,0.6);
fill[white] (0.25,0.62) rectangle (0.75,0.78);
end{scope}
end{tikzpicture}
end{document}

enter image description here

share|improve this answer

  • Thank you for your reply. Is it possible to have the figure look a little more like the stock price process as in the example?
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:05

  • nice answer! Are these the honey liquor stock prices?
    – samcarter
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:05

  • @samcarter No, obviously these are the “Blauberge”, see here. 😉
    – marmot
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:07

  • 1

    @Sean You should switch your field, I’d say. 😉
    – marmot
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:29

  • 2

    @Sean Amsterdam seems also not the best place to study mountains 🙂
    – samcarter
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:33

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3

A tikz version of the mountain range:

documentclass{article}
usepackage{tikz}

definecolor{vua}{RGB}{106,153,218}

begin{document}


begin{tikzpicture}[yscale=-1,remember picture,overlay,scale=4.1,yshift=-1.7cm,xshift=-1.7cm]
shadedraw[vua,top color=vua!30!white, bottom color=white,ultra thick]  (0.4235,7.2111) -- (0.4817,7.2296) -- (0.5329,7.2404) -- (0.5531,7.1788) -- (0.5959,7.1293) -- (0.6374,7.1233) -- (0.6555,7.1050) -- (0.6952,7.1397) -- (0.7293,7.1693) -- (0.7459,7.0832) -- (0.7954,7.0434) -- (0.8272,7.1134) -- (0.8642,7.1423) -- (0.9119,7.2006) -- (0.9764,7.1723) -- (0.9984,7.1256) -- (1.0216,7.1517) -- (1.0439,7.1797) -- (1.0912,7.1256) -- (1.1394,7.0867) -- (1.2079,7.0282) -- (1.2411,6.9956) -- (1.2826,6.9526) -- (1.3213,6.9121) -- (1.3700,6.9439) -- (1.4111,6.9602) -- (1.4498,6.7843) -- (1.4737,6.7972) -- (1.4882,6.8109) -- (1.5118,6.7241) -- (1.5474,6.6155) -- (1.5861,6.5290) -- (1.6488,6.4263) -- (1.6735,6.4628) -- (1.7218,6.5092) -- (1.7587,6.5116) -- (1.7768,6.4481) -- (1.8204,6.3702) -- (1.8582,6.3455) -- (1.9301,6.3196) -- (1.9637,6.2909) -- (2.0110,6.1985) -- (2.0849,6.0881) -- (2.1081,6.0465) -- (2.1249,6.0683) -- (2.1405,6.0900) -- (2.1643,6.0092) -- (2.2058,5.9980) -- (2.2462,6.0963) -- (2.2776,6.0122) -- (2.2969,5.9441) -- (2.3590,6.0104) -- (2.3963,6.0443) -- (2.4195,6.0483) -- (2.4771,6.3049) -- (2.5167,6.4263) -- (2.6031,6.4744) -- (2.6262,6.5306) -- (2.6448,6.5757) -- (2.6638,6.5399) -- (2.6949,6.4636) -- (2.7642,6.2239) -- (2.8125,6.1192) -- (2.8482,6.0591) -- (2.8912,6.0216) -- (2.9065,6.0402) -- (2.9313,5.9722) -- (2.9859,5.8908) -- (3.0013,5.9079) -- (3.0841,5.9219) -- (3.1528,5.7742) -- (3.1860,5.6956) -- (3.2203,5.6106) -- (3.2778,5.6701) -- (3.2911,5.6696) -- (3.3108,5.5924) -- (3.3267,5.5248) -- (3.3718,5.5913) -- (3.4261,5.6778) -- (3.4580,5.6168) -- (3.4969,5.5489) -- (3.5292,5.5009) -- (3.5421,5.4505) -- (3.5751,5.4092) -- (3.6164,5.4295) -- (3.6316,5.4530) -- (3.6515,5.3443) -- (3.6685,5.2281) -- (3.6975,5.2587) -- (3.7162,5.3024) -- (3.7330,5.2910) -- (3.7838,5.2619) -- (3.8352,5.3058) -- (3.9191,5.2277) -- (3.9397,5.1066) -- (3.9584,5.1212) -- (3.9795,5.1332) -- (3.9934,5.0876) -- (4.0281,4.9995) -- (4.0684,4.8470) -- (4.0871,4.7342) -- (4.1169,4.7508) -- (4.1329,4.7790) -- (4.1718,4.7173) -- (4.2116,4.6517) -- (4.2330,4.7404) -- (4.2530,4.8354) -- (4.2703,4.8276) -- (4.3042,4.8354) -- (4.3264,4.8524) -- (4.3602,4.6968) -- (4.3789,4.7038) -- (4.3977,4.7140) -- (4.4165,4.6833) -- (4.4527,4.6510) -- (4.5342,4.5085) -- (4.6302,4.2735) -- (4.6911,4.3614) -- (4.7087,4.4070) -- (4.7279,4.3524) -- (4.7632,4.2626) -- (4.7990,4.1987) -- (4.8353,4.1614) -- (4.8759,4.1041) -- (4.9534,4.0030) -- (4.9897,3.9676) -- (5.0243,3.9258) -- (5.0762,3.9839) -- (5.1137,4.0976) -- (5.1605,4.3093) -- (5.1891,4.5210) -- (5.2722,4.9245) -- (5.3006,5.0129) -- (5.3382,5.0565) -- (5.3738,5.0281) -- (5.3944,5.0378) -- (5.4314,4.9877) -- (5.4670,4.9343) -- (5.5165,4.9530) -- (5.5366,5.0470) -- (5.5579,5.1297) -- (5.5756,5.1219) -- (5.5905,5.1168) -- (5.6119,5.2214) -- (5.6501,5.3429) -- (5.6966,5.4970) -- (5.7298,5.5267) -- (current page.south east) -- (current page.south west) -- cycle;
end{tikzpicture}
end{document}

enter image description here

share|improve this answer

  • This is coming close! Is there a way to somehow hide all the code that is necessary, because the code looks huge in the file. Furthermore, is adjusting the positioning possible?
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:48

  • The position adjustment is resolved. But the code is still taking a huge amount of space
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:56

  • 1

    @Sean Well, your stock price curve contains a lot of data, if you want it shorter, you could approximate it with a rectangle 🙂
    – samcarter
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:58

  • ahh, never mind then, because the result looks stunning! Last question, any idea how I can create a grid over the page? Thanks for answering on the Christmas eve 😉
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:00

  • 2

    @Sean: You can put all the code in a second file, say titlepage.tex and then simply input{titlepage} in your main document.
    – Patrick Happel
    Dec 25 ’18 at 0:47

3

A tikz version of the mountain range:

documentclass{article}
usepackage{tikz}

definecolor{vua}{RGB}{106,153,218}

begin{document}


begin{tikzpicture}[yscale=-1,remember picture,overlay,scale=4.1,yshift=-1.7cm,xshift=-1.7cm]
shadedraw[vua,top color=vua!30!white, bottom color=white,ultra thick]  (0.4235,7.2111) -- (0.4817,7.2296) -- (0.5329,7.2404) -- (0.5531,7.1788) -- (0.5959,7.1293) -- (0.6374,7.1233) -- (0.6555,7.1050) -- (0.6952,7.1397) -- (0.7293,7.1693) -- (0.7459,7.0832) -- (0.7954,7.0434) -- (0.8272,7.1134) -- (0.8642,7.1423) -- (0.9119,7.2006) -- (0.9764,7.1723) -- (0.9984,7.1256) -- (1.0216,7.1517) -- (1.0439,7.1797) -- (1.0912,7.1256) -- (1.1394,7.0867) -- (1.2079,7.0282) -- (1.2411,6.9956) -- (1.2826,6.9526) -- (1.3213,6.9121) -- (1.3700,6.9439) -- (1.4111,6.9602) -- (1.4498,6.7843) -- (1.4737,6.7972) -- (1.4882,6.8109) -- (1.5118,6.7241) -- (1.5474,6.6155) -- (1.5861,6.5290) -- (1.6488,6.4263) -- (1.6735,6.4628) -- (1.7218,6.5092) -- (1.7587,6.5116) -- (1.7768,6.4481) -- (1.8204,6.3702) -- (1.8582,6.3455) -- (1.9301,6.3196) -- (1.9637,6.2909) -- (2.0110,6.1985) -- (2.0849,6.0881) -- (2.1081,6.0465) -- (2.1249,6.0683) -- (2.1405,6.0900) -- (2.1643,6.0092) -- (2.2058,5.9980) -- (2.2462,6.0963) -- (2.2776,6.0122) -- (2.2969,5.9441) -- (2.3590,6.0104) -- (2.3963,6.0443) -- (2.4195,6.0483) -- (2.4771,6.3049) -- (2.5167,6.4263) -- (2.6031,6.4744) -- (2.6262,6.5306) -- (2.6448,6.5757) -- (2.6638,6.5399) -- (2.6949,6.4636) -- (2.7642,6.2239) -- (2.8125,6.1192) -- (2.8482,6.0591) -- (2.8912,6.0216) -- (2.9065,6.0402) -- (2.9313,5.9722) -- (2.9859,5.8908) -- (3.0013,5.9079) -- (3.0841,5.9219) -- (3.1528,5.7742) -- (3.1860,5.6956) -- (3.2203,5.6106) -- (3.2778,5.6701) -- (3.2911,5.6696) -- (3.3108,5.5924) -- (3.3267,5.5248) -- (3.3718,5.5913) -- (3.4261,5.6778) -- (3.4580,5.6168) -- (3.4969,5.5489) -- (3.5292,5.5009) -- (3.5421,5.4505) -- (3.5751,5.4092) -- (3.6164,5.4295) -- (3.6316,5.4530) -- (3.6515,5.3443) -- (3.6685,5.2281) -- (3.6975,5.2587) -- (3.7162,5.3024) -- (3.7330,5.2910) -- (3.7838,5.2619) -- (3.8352,5.3058) -- (3.9191,5.2277) -- (3.9397,5.1066) -- (3.9584,5.1212) -- (3.9795,5.1332) -- (3.9934,5.0876) -- (4.0281,4.9995) -- (4.0684,4.8470) -- (4.0871,4.7342) -- (4.1169,4.7508) -- (4.1329,4.7790) -- (4.1718,4.7173) -- (4.2116,4.6517) -- (4.2330,4.7404) -- (4.2530,4.8354) -- (4.2703,4.8276) -- (4.3042,4.8354) -- (4.3264,4.8524) -- (4.3602,4.6968) -- (4.3789,4.7038) -- (4.3977,4.7140) -- (4.4165,4.6833) -- (4.4527,4.6510) -- (4.5342,4.5085) -- (4.6302,4.2735) -- (4.6911,4.3614) -- (4.7087,4.4070) -- (4.7279,4.3524) -- (4.7632,4.2626) -- (4.7990,4.1987) -- (4.8353,4.1614) -- (4.8759,4.1041) -- (4.9534,4.0030) -- (4.9897,3.9676) -- (5.0243,3.9258) -- (5.0762,3.9839) -- (5.1137,4.0976) -- (5.1605,4.3093) -- (5.1891,4.5210) -- (5.2722,4.9245) -- (5.3006,5.0129) -- (5.3382,5.0565) -- (5.3738,5.0281) -- (5.3944,5.0378) -- (5.4314,4.9877) -- (5.4670,4.9343) -- (5.5165,4.9530) -- (5.5366,5.0470) -- (5.5579,5.1297) -- (5.5756,5.1219) -- (5.5905,5.1168) -- (5.6119,5.2214) -- (5.6501,5.3429) -- (5.6966,5.4970) -- (5.7298,5.5267) -- (current page.south east) -- (current page.south west) -- cycle;
end{tikzpicture}
end{document}

enter image description here

share|improve this answer

  • This is coming close! Is there a way to somehow hide all the code that is necessary, because the code looks huge in the file. Furthermore, is adjusting the positioning possible?
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:48

  • The position adjustment is resolved. But the code is still taking a huge amount of space
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:56

  • 1

    @Sean Well, your stock price curve contains a lot of data, if you want it shorter, you could approximate it with a rectangle 🙂
    – samcarter
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:58

  • ahh, never mind then, because the result looks stunning! Last question, any idea how I can create a grid over the page? Thanks for answering on the Christmas eve 😉
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:00

  • 2

    @Sean: You can put all the code in a second file, say titlepage.tex and then simply input{titlepage} in your main document.
    – Patrick Happel
    Dec 25 ’18 at 0:47

3

3

3

A tikz version of the mountain range:

documentclass{article}
usepackage{tikz}

definecolor{vua}{RGB}{106,153,218}

begin{document}


begin{tikzpicture}[yscale=-1,remember picture,overlay,scale=4.1,yshift=-1.7cm,xshift=-1.7cm]
shadedraw[vua,top color=vua!30!white, bottom color=white,ultra thick]  (0.4235,7.2111) -- (0.4817,7.2296) -- (0.5329,7.2404) -- (0.5531,7.1788) -- (0.5959,7.1293) -- (0.6374,7.1233) -- (0.6555,7.1050) -- (0.6952,7.1397) -- (0.7293,7.1693) -- (0.7459,7.0832) -- (0.7954,7.0434) -- (0.8272,7.1134) -- (0.8642,7.1423) -- (0.9119,7.2006) -- (0.9764,7.1723) -- (0.9984,7.1256) -- (1.0216,7.1517) -- (1.0439,7.1797) -- (1.0912,7.1256) -- (1.1394,7.0867) -- (1.2079,7.0282) -- (1.2411,6.9956) -- (1.2826,6.9526) -- (1.3213,6.9121) -- (1.3700,6.9439) -- (1.4111,6.9602) -- (1.4498,6.7843) -- (1.4737,6.7972) -- (1.4882,6.8109) -- (1.5118,6.7241) -- (1.5474,6.6155) -- (1.5861,6.5290) -- (1.6488,6.4263) -- (1.6735,6.4628) -- (1.7218,6.5092) -- (1.7587,6.5116) -- (1.7768,6.4481) -- (1.8204,6.3702) -- (1.8582,6.3455) -- (1.9301,6.3196) -- (1.9637,6.2909) -- (2.0110,6.1985) -- (2.0849,6.0881) -- (2.1081,6.0465) -- (2.1249,6.0683) -- (2.1405,6.0900) -- (2.1643,6.0092) -- (2.2058,5.9980) -- (2.2462,6.0963) -- (2.2776,6.0122) -- (2.2969,5.9441) -- (2.3590,6.0104) -- (2.3963,6.0443) -- (2.4195,6.0483) -- (2.4771,6.3049) -- (2.5167,6.4263) -- (2.6031,6.4744) -- (2.6262,6.5306) -- (2.6448,6.5757) -- (2.6638,6.5399) -- (2.6949,6.4636) -- (2.7642,6.2239) -- (2.8125,6.1192) -- (2.8482,6.0591) -- (2.8912,6.0216) -- (2.9065,6.0402) -- (2.9313,5.9722) -- (2.9859,5.8908) -- (3.0013,5.9079) -- (3.0841,5.9219) -- (3.1528,5.7742) -- (3.1860,5.6956) -- (3.2203,5.6106) -- (3.2778,5.6701) -- (3.2911,5.6696) -- (3.3108,5.5924) -- (3.3267,5.5248) -- (3.3718,5.5913) -- (3.4261,5.6778) -- (3.4580,5.6168) -- (3.4969,5.5489) -- (3.5292,5.5009) -- (3.5421,5.4505) -- (3.5751,5.4092) -- (3.6164,5.4295) -- (3.6316,5.4530) -- (3.6515,5.3443) -- (3.6685,5.2281) -- (3.6975,5.2587) -- (3.7162,5.3024) -- (3.7330,5.2910) -- (3.7838,5.2619) -- (3.8352,5.3058) -- (3.9191,5.2277) -- (3.9397,5.1066) -- (3.9584,5.1212) -- (3.9795,5.1332) -- (3.9934,5.0876) -- (4.0281,4.9995) -- (4.0684,4.8470) -- (4.0871,4.7342) -- (4.1169,4.7508) -- (4.1329,4.7790) -- (4.1718,4.7173) -- (4.2116,4.6517) -- (4.2330,4.7404) -- (4.2530,4.8354) -- (4.2703,4.8276) -- (4.3042,4.8354) -- (4.3264,4.8524) -- (4.3602,4.6968) -- (4.3789,4.7038) -- (4.3977,4.7140) -- (4.4165,4.6833) -- (4.4527,4.6510) -- (4.5342,4.5085) -- (4.6302,4.2735) -- (4.6911,4.3614) -- (4.7087,4.4070) -- (4.7279,4.3524) -- (4.7632,4.2626) -- (4.7990,4.1987) -- (4.8353,4.1614) -- (4.8759,4.1041) -- (4.9534,4.0030) -- (4.9897,3.9676) -- (5.0243,3.9258) -- (5.0762,3.9839) -- (5.1137,4.0976) -- (5.1605,4.3093) -- (5.1891,4.5210) -- (5.2722,4.9245) -- (5.3006,5.0129) -- (5.3382,5.0565) -- (5.3738,5.0281) -- (5.3944,5.0378) -- (5.4314,4.9877) -- (5.4670,4.9343) -- (5.5165,4.9530) -- (5.5366,5.0470) -- (5.5579,5.1297) -- (5.5756,5.1219) -- (5.5905,5.1168) -- (5.6119,5.2214) -- (5.6501,5.3429) -- (5.6966,5.4970) -- (5.7298,5.5267) -- (current page.south east) -- (current page.south west) -- cycle;
end{tikzpicture}
end{document}

enter image description here

share|improve this answer

A tikz version of the mountain range:

documentclass{article}
usepackage{tikz}

definecolor{vua}{RGB}{106,153,218}

begin{document}


begin{tikzpicture}[yscale=-1,remember picture,overlay,scale=4.1,yshift=-1.7cm,xshift=-1.7cm]
shadedraw[vua,top color=vua!30!white, bottom color=white,ultra thick]  (0.4235,7.2111) -- (0.4817,7.2296) -- (0.5329,7.2404) -- (0.5531,7.1788) -- (0.5959,7.1293) -- (0.6374,7.1233) -- (0.6555,7.1050) -- (0.6952,7.1397) -- (0.7293,7.1693) -- (0.7459,7.0832) -- (0.7954,7.0434) -- (0.8272,7.1134) -- (0.8642,7.1423) -- (0.9119,7.2006) -- (0.9764,7.1723) -- (0.9984,7.1256) -- (1.0216,7.1517) -- (1.0439,7.1797) -- (1.0912,7.1256) -- (1.1394,7.0867) -- (1.2079,7.0282) -- (1.2411,6.9956) -- (1.2826,6.9526) -- (1.3213,6.9121) -- (1.3700,6.9439) -- (1.4111,6.9602) -- (1.4498,6.7843) -- (1.4737,6.7972) -- (1.4882,6.8109) -- (1.5118,6.7241) -- (1.5474,6.6155) -- (1.5861,6.5290) -- (1.6488,6.4263) -- (1.6735,6.4628) -- (1.7218,6.5092) -- (1.7587,6.5116) -- (1.7768,6.4481) -- (1.8204,6.3702) -- (1.8582,6.3455) -- (1.9301,6.3196) -- (1.9637,6.2909) -- (2.0110,6.1985) -- (2.0849,6.0881) -- (2.1081,6.0465) -- (2.1249,6.0683) -- (2.1405,6.0900) -- (2.1643,6.0092) -- (2.2058,5.9980) -- (2.2462,6.0963) -- (2.2776,6.0122) -- (2.2969,5.9441) -- (2.3590,6.0104) -- (2.3963,6.0443) -- (2.4195,6.0483) -- (2.4771,6.3049) -- (2.5167,6.4263) -- (2.6031,6.4744) -- (2.6262,6.5306) -- (2.6448,6.5757) -- (2.6638,6.5399) -- (2.6949,6.4636) -- (2.7642,6.2239) -- (2.8125,6.1192) -- (2.8482,6.0591) -- (2.8912,6.0216) -- (2.9065,6.0402) -- (2.9313,5.9722) -- (2.9859,5.8908) -- (3.0013,5.9079) -- (3.0841,5.9219) -- (3.1528,5.7742) -- (3.1860,5.6956) -- (3.2203,5.6106) -- (3.2778,5.6701) -- (3.2911,5.6696) -- (3.3108,5.5924) -- (3.3267,5.5248) -- (3.3718,5.5913) -- (3.4261,5.6778) -- (3.4580,5.6168) -- (3.4969,5.5489) -- (3.5292,5.5009) -- (3.5421,5.4505) -- (3.5751,5.4092) -- (3.6164,5.4295) -- (3.6316,5.4530) -- (3.6515,5.3443) -- (3.6685,5.2281) -- (3.6975,5.2587) -- (3.7162,5.3024) -- (3.7330,5.2910) -- (3.7838,5.2619) -- (3.8352,5.3058) -- (3.9191,5.2277) -- (3.9397,5.1066) -- (3.9584,5.1212) -- (3.9795,5.1332) -- (3.9934,5.0876) -- (4.0281,4.9995) -- (4.0684,4.8470) -- (4.0871,4.7342) -- (4.1169,4.7508) -- (4.1329,4.7790) -- (4.1718,4.7173) -- (4.2116,4.6517) -- (4.2330,4.7404) -- (4.2530,4.8354) -- (4.2703,4.8276) -- (4.3042,4.8354) -- (4.3264,4.8524) -- (4.3602,4.6968) -- (4.3789,4.7038) -- (4.3977,4.7140) -- (4.4165,4.6833) -- (4.4527,4.6510) -- (4.5342,4.5085) -- (4.6302,4.2735) -- (4.6911,4.3614) -- (4.7087,4.4070) -- (4.7279,4.3524) -- (4.7632,4.2626) -- (4.7990,4.1987) -- (4.8353,4.1614) -- (4.8759,4.1041) -- (4.9534,4.0030) -- (4.9897,3.9676) -- (5.0243,3.9258) -- (5.0762,3.9839) -- (5.1137,4.0976) -- (5.1605,4.3093) -- (5.1891,4.5210) -- (5.2722,4.9245) -- (5.3006,5.0129) -- (5.3382,5.0565) -- (5.3738,5.0281) -- (5.3944,5.0378) -- (5.4314,4.9877) -- (5.4670,4.9343) -- (5.5165,4.9530) -- (5.5366,5.0470) -- (5.5579,5.1297) -- (5.5756,5.1219) -- (5.5905,5.1168) -- (5.6119,5.2214) -- (5.6501,5.3429) -- (5.6966,5.4970) -- (5.7298,5.5267) -- (current page.south east) -- (current page.south west) -- cycle;
end{tikzpicture}
end{document}

enter image description here

share|improve this answer

share|improve this answer

share|improve this answer

edited Dec 24 ’18 at 21:46

answered Dec 24 ’18 at 20:45

samcarter

86.2k795276

86.2k795276

  • This is coming close! Is there a way to somehow hide all the code that is necessary, because the code looks huge in the file. Furthermore, is adjusting the positioning possible?
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:48

  • The position adjustment is resolved. But the code is still taking a huge amount of space
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:56

  • 1

    @Sean Well, your stock price curve contains a lot of data, if you want it shorter, you could approximate it with a rectangle 🙂
    – samcarter
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:58

  • ahh, never mind then, because the result looks stunning! Last question, any idea how I can create a grid over the page? Thanks for answering on the Christmas eve 😉
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:00

  • 2

    @Sean: You can put all the code in a second file, say titlepage.tex and then simply input{titlepage} in your main document.
    – Patrick Happel
    Dec 25 ’18 at 0:47

  • This is coming close! Is there a way to somehow hide all the code that is necessary, because the code looks huge in the file. Furthermore, is adjusting the positioning possible?
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:48

  • The position adjustment is resolved. But the code is still taking a huge amount of space
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:56

  • 1

    @Sean Well, your stock price curve contains a lot of data, if you want it shorter, you could approximate it with a rectangle 🙂
    – samcarter
    Dec 24 ’18 at 20:58

  • ahh, never mind then, because the result looks stunning! Last question, any idea how I can create a grid over the page? Thanks for answering on the Christmas eve 😉
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:00

  • 2

    @Sean: You can put all the code in a second file, say titlepage.tex and then simply input{titlepage} in your main document.
    – Patrick Happel
    Dec 25 ’18 at 0:47

This is coming close! Is there a way to somehow hide all the code that is necessary, because the code looks huge in the file. Furthermore, is adjusting the positioning possible?
– Sean
Dec 24 ’18 at 20:48

This is coming close! Is there a way to somehow hide all the code that is necessary, because the code looks huge in the file. Furthermore, is adjusting the positioning possible?
– Sean
Dec 24 ’18 at 20:48

The position adjustment is resolved. But the code is still taking a huge amount of space
– Sean
Dec 24 ’18 at 20:56

The position adjustment is resolved. But the code is still taking a huge amount of space
– Sean
Dec 24 ’18 at 20:56

1

1

@Sean Well, your stock price curve contains a lot of data, if you want it shorter, you could approximate it with a rectangle 🙂
– samcarter
Dec 24 ’18 at 20:58

@Sean Well, your stock price curve contains a lot of data, if you want it shorter, you could approximate it with a rectangle 🙂
– samcarter
Dec 24 ’18 at 20:58

ahh, never mind then, because the result looks stunning! Last question, any idea how I can create a grid over the page? Thanks for answering on the Christmas eve 😉
– Sean
Dec 24 ’18 at 21:00

ahh, never mind then, because the result looks stunning! Last question, any idea how I can create a grid over the page? Thanks for answering on the Christmas eve 😉
– Sean
Dec 24 ’18 at 21:00

2

2

@Sean: You can put all the code in a second file, say titlepage.tex and then simply input{titlepage} in your main document.
– Patrick Happel
Dec 25 ’18 at 0:47

@Sean: You can put all the code in a second file, say titlepage.tex and then simply input{titlepage} in your main document.
– Patrick Happel
Dec 25 ’18 at 0:47

5

Very similar to @samcarter’s nice answer and also a grid. (I am not very enthusiastic about punching in texts from a screen shot, so I let it be, but it will be straightforward to add the nodes or to use whatever template you have for that.) A local coordinate system a la this answer is installed.

documentclass{report}
usepackage{tikz}
usetikzlibrary{calc}
begin{document}
thispagestyle{empty} % probably not necessary when using a template with titlepage
begin{tikzpicture}[overlay,remember picture]
draw[dotted] let p1=($(current page.north east)-(current page.south west)$),
n1={(x1+2pt)/7},n2={(y1+2pt)/8}
in pgfextra{xdefmyw{x1}}
foreach X in {1,...,6}
{([xshift=-1pt+X*n1,yshift=-1pt]current page.south west) --
([xshift=-1pt+X*n1,yshift=1pt]current page.north west)}
foreach X in {1,...,7}
{([xshift=-1pt,yshift=-1pt+X*n2]current page.south west) --
([xshift=1pt,yshift=-1pt+X*n2]current page.south east)};
draw[blue,shift={(current page.south west)},top color=blue!30,bottom color=white] 
  plot[variable=x,domain=0:myw,samples=61,smooth] 
({x*1pt},{0.7*x*1pt+(2*myw/(myw+x))*sin((x*1pt/myw)*630)*60pt-
pow(x/myw,4)*140pt+20pt*rand}) % https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/28463/121799
 -- ++(2mm,0) --
([xshift=2mm,yshift=-2mm]current page.south east)
-- ([xshift=-2mm,yshift=-2mm]current page.south west);
begin{scope}[x={($(current page.south east)-(current page.south west)$)},
y={($(current page.north west)-(current page.south west)$)},
shift={(current page.south west)}] % inspired by https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/9562/121799
draw  (0.2,0.8) -- (0.8,0.8)  (0.2,0.6) -- (0.8,0.6);
fill[white] (0.25,0.62) rectangle (0.75,0.78);
end{scope}
end{tikzpicture}
end{document}

enter image description here

share|improve this answer

  • Thank you for your reply. Is it possible to have the figure look a little more like the stock price process as in the example?
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:05

  • nice answer! Are these the honey liquor stock prices?
    – samcarter
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:05

  • @samcarter No, obviously these are the “Blauberge”, see here. 😉
    – marmot
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:07

  • 1

    @Sean You should switch your field, I’d say. 😉
    – marmot
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:29

  • 2

    @Sean Amsterdam seems also not the best place to study mountains 🙂
    – samcarter
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:33

5

Very similar to @samcarter’s nice answer and also a grid. (I am not very enthusiastic about punching in texts from a screen shot, so I let it be, but it will be straightforward to add the nodes or to use whatever template you have for that.) A local coordinate system a la this answer is installed.

documentclass{report}
usepackage{tikz}
usetikzlibrary{calc}
begin{document}
thispagestyle{empty} % probably not necessary when using a template with titlepage
begin{tikzpicture}[overlay,remember picture]
draw[dotted] let p1=($(current page.north east)-(current page.south west)$),
n1={(x1+2pt)/7},n2={(y1+2pt)/8}
in pgfextra{xdefmyw{x1}}
foreach X in {1,...,6}
{([xshift=-1pt+X*n1,yshift=-1pt]current page.south west) --
([xshift=-1pt+X*n1,yshift=1pt]current page.north west)}
foreach X in {1,...,7}
{([xshift=-1pt,yshift=-1pt+X*n2]current page.south west) --
([xshift=1pt,yshift=-1pt+X*n2]current page.south east)};
draw[blue,shift={(current page.south west)},top color=blue!30,bottom color=white] 
  plot[variable=x,domain=0:myw,samples=61,smooth] 
({x*1pt},{0.7*x*1pt+(2*myw/(myw+x))*sin((x*1pt/myw)*630)*60pt-
pow(x/myw,4)*140pt+20pt*rand}) % https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/28463/121799
 -- ++(2mm,0) --
([xshift=2mm,yshift=-2mm]current page.south east)
-- ([xshift=-2mm,yshift=-2mm]current page.south west);
begin{scope}[x={($(current page.south east)-(current page.south west)$)},
y={($(current page.north west)-(current page.south west)$)},
shift={(current page.south west)}] % inspired by https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/9562/121799
draw  (0.2,0.8) -- (0.8,0.8)  (0.2,0.6) -- (0.8,0.6);
fill[white] (0.25,0.62) rectangle (0.75,0.78);
end{scope}
end{tikzpicture}
end{document}

enter image description here

share|improve this answer

  • Thank you for your reply. Is it possible to have the figure look a little more like the stock price process as in the example?
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:05

  • nice answer! Are these the honey liquor stock prices?
    – samcarter
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:05

  • @samcarter No, obviously these are the “Blauberge”, see here. 😉
    – marmot
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:07

  • 1

    @Sean You should switch your field, I’d say. 😉
    – marmot
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:29

  • 2

    @Sean Amsterdam seems also not the best place to study mountains 🙂
    – samcarter
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:33

5

5

5

Very similar to @samcarter’s nice answer and also a grid. (I am not very enthusiastic about punching in texts from a screen shot, so I let it be, but it will be straightforward to add the nodes or to use whatever template you have for that.) A local coordinate system a la this answer is installed.

documentclass{report}
usepackage{tikz}
usetikzlibrary{calc}
begin{document}
thispagestyle{empty} % probably not necessary when using a template with titlepage
begin{tikzpicture}[overlay,remember picture]
draw[dotted] let p1=($(current page.north east)-(current page.south west)$),
n1={(x1+2pt)/7},n2={(y1+2pt)/8}
in pgfextra{xdefmyw{x1}}
foreach X in {1,...,6}
{([xshift=-1pt+X*n1,yshift=-1pt]current page.south west) --
([xshift=-1pt+X*n1,yshift=1pt]current page.north west)}
foreach X in {1,...,7}
{([xshift=-1pt,yshift=-1pt+X*n2]current page.south west) --
([xshift=1pt,yshift=-1pt+X*n2]current page.south east)};
draw[blue,shift={(current page.south west)},top color=blue!30,bottom color=white] 
  plot[variable=x,domain=0:myw,samples=61,smooth] 
({x*1pt},{0.7*x*1pt+(2*myw/(myw+x))*sin((x*1pt/myw)*630)*60pt-
pow(x/myw,4)*140pt+20pt*rand}) % https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/28463/121799
 -- ++(2mm,0) --
([xshift=2mm,yshift=-2mm]current page.south east)
-- ([xshift=-2mm,yshift=-2mm]current page.south west);
begin{scope}[x={($(current page.south east)-(current page.south west)$)},
y={($(current page.north west)-(current page.south west)$)},
shift={(current page.south west)}] % inspired by https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/9562/121799
draw  (0.2,0.8) -- (0.8,0.8)  (0.2,0.6) -- (0.8,0.6);
fill[white] (0.25,0.62) rectangle (0.75,0.78);
end{scope}
end{tikzpicture}
end{document}

enter image description here

share|improve this answer

Very similar to @samcarter’s nice answer and also a grid. (I am not very enthusiastic about punching in texts from a screen shot, so I let it be, but it will be straightforward to add the nodes or to use whatever template you have for that.) A local coordinate system a la this answer is installed.

documentclass{report}
usepackage{tikz}
usetikzlibrary{calc}
begin{document}
thispagestyle{empty} % probably not necessary when using a template with titlepage
begin{tikzpicture}[overlay,remember picture]
draw[dotted] let p1=($(current page.north east)-(current page.south west)$),
n1={(x1+2pt)/7},n2={(y1+2pt)/8}
in pgfextra{xdefmyw{x1}}
foreach X in {1,...,6}
{([xshift=-1pt+X*n1,yshift=-1pt]current page.south west) --
([xshift=-1pt+X*n1,yshift=1pt]current page.north west)}
foreach X in {1,...,7}
{([xshift=-1pt,yshift=-1pt+X*n2]current page.south west) --
([xshift=1pt,yshift=-1pt+X*n2]current page.south east)};
draw[blue,shift={(current page.south west)},top color=blue!30,bottom color=white] 
  plot[variable=x,domain=0:myw,samples=61,smooth] 
({x*1pt},{0.7*x*1pt+(2*myw/(myw+x))*sin((x*1pt/myw)*630)*60pt-
pow(x/myw,4)*140pt+20pt*rand}) % https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/28463/121799
 -- ++(2mm,0) --
([xshift=2mm,yshift=-2mm]current page.south east)
-- ([xshift=-2mm,yshift=-2mm]current page.south west);
begin{scope}[x={($(current page.south east)-(current page.south west)$)},
y={($(current page.north west)-(current page.south west)$)},
shift={(current page.south west)}] % inspired by https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/9562/121799
draw  (0.2,0.8) -- (0.8,0.8)  (0.2,0.6) -- (0.8,0.6);
fill[white] (0.25,0.62) rectangle (0.75,0.78);
end{scope}
end{tikzpicture}
end{document}

enter image description here

share|improve this answer

share|improve this answer

share|improve this answer

edited Dec 24 ’18 at 21:14

answered Dec 24 ’18 at 21:01

marmot

89k4102191

89k4102191

  • Thank you for your reply. Is it possible to have the figure look a little more like the stock price process as in the example?
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:05

  • nice answer! Are these the honey liquor stock prices?
    – samcarter
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:05

  • @samcarter No, obviously these are the “Blauberge”, see here. 😉
    – marmot
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:07

  • 1

    @Sean You should switch your field, I’d say. 😉
    – marmot
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:29

  • 2

    @Sean Amsterdam seems also not the best place to study mountains 🙂
    – samcarter
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:33

  • Thank you for your reply. Is it possible to have the figure look a little more like the stock price process as in the example?
    – Sean
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:05

  • nice answer! Are these the honey liquor stock prices?
    – samcarter
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:05

  • @samcarter No, obviously these are the “Blauberge”, see here. 😉
    – marmot
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:07

  • 1

    @Sean You should switch your field, I’d say. 😉
    – marmot
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:29

  • 2

    @Sean Amsterdam seems also not the best place to study mountains 🙂
    – samcarter
    Dec 24 ’18 at 21:33

Thank you for your reply. Is it possible to have the figure look a little more like the stock price process as in the example?
– Sean
Dec 24 ’18 at 21:05

Thank you for your reply. Is it possible to have the figure look a little more like the stock price process as in the example?
– Sean
Dec 24 ’18 at 21:05

nice answer! Are these the honey liquor stock prices?
– samcarter
Dec 24 ’18 at 21:05

nice answer! Are these the honey liquor stock prices?
– samcarter
Dec 24 ’18 at 21:05

@samcarter No, obviously these are the “Blauberge”, see here. 😉
– marmot
Dec 24 ’18 at 21:07

@samcarter No, obviously these are the “Blauberge”, see here. 😉
– marmot
Dec 24 ’18 at 21:07

1

1

@Sean You should switch your field, I’d say. 😉
– marmot
Dec 24 ’18 at 21:29

@Sean You should switch your field, I’d say. 😉
– marmot
Dec 24 ’18 at 21:29

2

2

@Sean Amsterdam seems also not the best place to study mountains 🙂
– samcarter
Dec 24 ’18 at 21:33

@Sean Amsterdam seems also not the best place to study mountains 🙂
– samcarter
Dec 24 ’18 at 21:33

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Brigadier general

Senior rank in the armed forces
Comparative military ranks in English
Navies Armies Air forces
Commissioned officers
Admiral of
the fleet
Field marshal or
General of the Army
Marshal of
the air force
Admiral General Air chief marshal
Vice admiral Lieutenant general Air marshal
Rear admiral Major general Air vice-marshal
Commodore Brigadier or
brigadier general
Air commodore
Captain Colonel Group captain
Commander Lieutenant colonel Wing commander
Lieutenant
commander
Major or
Commandant
Squadron leader
Lieutenant Captain Flight lieutenant
Lieutenant
junior grade or
sub-lieutenant
Lieutenant or
first lieutenant
Flying officer
Ensign or
midshipman
Second lieutenant Pilot officer
Officer cadet Officer cadet Flight cadet
Enlisted grades
Warrant officer or
chief petty officer
Warrant officer or
sergeant major
Warrant officer
Petty officer Sergeant Sergeant
Leading seaman Corporal or
bombardier
Corporal
Seaman Private or
gunner or
trooper
Aircraftman or
airman
Talk·View

Brigadier general (Brig. Gen.) or Brigade general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general. When appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is typically in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000 troops (four battalions). In some countries a brigadier general is informally designated as a one-star general (OF-6).

In some countries, this rank is given the name of brigadier, which is usually equivalent to brigadier general in the armies of nations that use the rank.

The rank can be traced back to the militaries of Europe where a brigadier general, or simply a brigadier, would command a brigade in the field. The rank name général de brigade, (which translates as “brigade general”), was first used in the French revolutionary armies.

In the first quarter of the 20th century, British and Commonwealth armies used the rank of brigadier general as a temporary appointment, or as an honorary appointment on retirement; in the 1920s this practice changed to the use of brigadier, which was not classed as a general officer.

Some armies, such as Taiwan and Japan, use major general as the equivalent of brigadier general. Some of these armies then use the rank of colonel general to make four general-officer ranks.[citation needed]

Mexico uses the ranks of both General brigadier and General de brigada.

Contents

  • 1 Insignia

    • 1.1 Army insignia
    • 1.2 Air force insignia
    • 1.3 Naval infantry insignia
    • 1.4 Other insignia
  • 2 Brigadier general ranks by country

    • 2.1 Argentina
    • 2.2 Australia
    • 2.3 Bangladesh
    • 2.4 Belgium
    • 2.5 Brazil
    • 2.6 Burma (Myanmar)
    • 2.7 Canada
    • 2.8 China
    • 2.9 Colombia
    • 2.10 Denmark
    • 2.11 Estonia
    • 2.12 France
    • 2.13 Germany
    • 2.14 Greece
    • 2.15 Hungary
    • 2.16 Indonesia
    • 2.17 Iran
    • 2.18 Ireland
    • 2.19 Israel
    • 2.20 Italy
    • 2.21 Jordan
    • 2.22 Mexico
    • 2.23 Nepal
    • 2.24 Poland
    • 2.25 Portugal
    • 2.26 Romania
    • 2.27 South Korea
    • 2.28 Spain
    • 2.29 Sweden
    • 2.30 Turkey
    • 2.31 United Kingdom
    • 2.32 United States
  • 3 See also
  • 4 Notes
  • 5 References
  • 6 External links

Insignia

Army insignia

Air force insignia

This gallery displays Air Force brigadier general insignia if they are different from the Army brigadier general insignia. (They usually are.)
Note that in many Commonwealth countries, the equivalent air force rank is Air Commodore (and in the Netherlands, it is simply Commodore).

Naval infantry insignia

Other insignia

Brigadier general ranks by country

Argentina

The rank of brigadier general (with some local variations) is used in the Argentine Air Force. Unlike other armed forces of the World, the rank of brigadier general is actually the highest rank in the Air Force. This is due to the use of the rank of brigadier and its derivatives to designate all general officers in the Air Force: brigadier (lowest general officer); brigadier-major (middle); and brigadier-general (highest). The rank of brigadier general is reserved for the Chief General Staff of the Air Force, as well as the Chief of the Joint General Staff if he should be an Air Force officer.

The Argentine Army does not use the rank of brigadier-general, instead using brigade general ( Spanish: General de brigada ) which in turn is the lowest general officer before Divisional General ( Spanish: General de Division ) and Lieutenant General ( Spanish: Teniente General ).

Australia

In the Australian Imperial Force during World War I, the rank of brigadier general was always temporary and held only while the officer was posted to a particular task, typically the command of a brigade. When posted elsewhere, the rank would be relinquished and the former rank resumed. This policy prevented an accumulation of high-ranking general officers brought about by the relatively high turnover of brigade commanders. Brigadier general was also used as an honorary rank on retirement. The rank insignia was like that of the current major general, but without the star/pip[note 2] – example.

As in the United Kingdom, the rank was later replaced by brigadier. Hence, prior to 1922, a “brigadier general” was a “general officer”; subsequently, brigadiers were not “generals”; this is shown by the rank insignia being like that of a colonel, but with an extra (third) star/pip[note 2] – example.

Bangladesh

Prior to 2001, the Bangladesh Army rank was known as brigadier, in conformity with the rank structure of the Commonwealth Nations. In 2001 the Bangladesh Army introduced the rank of brigadier general, however “the grade stayed equivalent to brigadier”, and although classified as a “one-star rank”, a brigadier general is not considered to be a general officer – the lowest ranking general officer is Major General. Brigadier general is equivalent to commodore of the Bangladesh Navy and air commodore of the Bangladesh Air Force. It is still more popularly called brigadier.

Belgium

The Belgian Army uses the rank of général de brigade (French) and brigadegeneraal (Dutch) (Brigade General). However, in this small military there are no permanent promotions to this rank, and it is only awarded as a temporary promotion to a full colonel who assumes a post requiring the rank, notably in an international context (e.g. as Military Attaché in a major embassy).

Brazil

General de brigada (Brigade general) is the lowest rank amongst general officers of the Brazilian Army – i.e. like in most British Commonwealth counties, the lowest general officer rank is a two-star rank, and a General de Brigada wears a two-star insignia. Hence, it is equivalent to the major general rank of many counties. In the Brazilian Air Force, all of the senior ranks include “Brigadeiro” – the two-star rank is Brigadeiro (Brigadier), the three-star rank is Major-Brigadeiro (Major-Brigadier) and the four-star rank is Tenente-Brigadeiro-do-Ar (Lieutenant-Air-Brigadier). (See Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier#Latin America for more information.)

Burma (Myanmar)

The rank of brigadier general is known in Burma as bo hmu gyoke and is often the deputy commander of one of Burma’s Regional Military Commands, commander of the light infantry division (LID) or Military Operation Commands. In civil service, a brigadier general often holds the office of deputy minister or director general of certain ministries.

Canada

In the Canadian Forces, the rank of brigadier-general (BGen) (brigadier-général or bgén in French) is a rank for members who wear army or air force uniform, equal to a commodore for those in navy uniform. A brigadier-general is the lowest rank of general officer. A brigadier-general is senior to a colonel or naval captain, and junior to a major-general or rear admiral.

The rank title brigadier-general is still used notwithstanding that brigades in the army are now commanded by colonels. Until the late 1990s brigades were commanded by brigadier-generals. In the air force context, brigadier-generals used to command air force groups until these bodies were abolished in the late 1990s.

The rank insignia for a brigadier-general on air force uniforms is a single wide braid on the cuff, as well as a single silver maple leaf beneath crossed sabre and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward’s Crown, worn on the shoulder straps of the service dress jacket, and on slip-ons on other uniforms. The rank insignia on army uniforms is a gold maple leaf beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward’s Crown, on the shoulder straps. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves; the air force wedge cap features silver braid on the edges of the ear flaps. The cap insignia for a general officer is a modified version of the Canadian Forces insignia. Army brigadier-generals wear gorget patches on the collar of the service uniform tunic.

Brigadier-generals are initially addressed verbally as “General” and name; thereafter by subordinates as “Sir” or “Ma’am” in English or mon général in French. They are normally entitled to staff cars.

Note: Until unification in 1968 of the Royal Canadian Air Force, Canadian Army, and the Royal Canadian Navy, rank structure and insignia followed the British pattern. This system of rank insignia was reinstated in 2014. In army usage, the term “brigadier” was used to denote what is now known as a brigadier-general while the air force used the rank of air commodore.

China

Chinese rank of (Da-Xiao 大校) or Senior Colonel is a direct equivalent of a brigadier. It ranks above colonel (Shang-Xiao 上校) and below major general (Shao-Jiang 少将). A brigadier is commonly in command of a division (Shi 师) or a brigade (Lu 旅). Divisional commanders are seldom general officers.

Colombia

The rank of brigadier general is the first general officer rank in the Fuerzas Militares,[1] and the National Police.[2]

Denmark

Denmark, a NATO member, has for many years been following NATO standards and adapting its rank system to closely relate. As in the armies of most other NATO nations, brigadier general is the lowest of the general ranks, usually a brigade commander.

Estonia

In the Estonian military, the rank is called Brigaadikindral.

France

Charles de Gaulle during World War II in his uniform of Général de Brigade.

France uses the rank of “brigade general” (général de brigade). It formerly used the historic rank, until 1793, of brigadier des armées (“brigadier of the armies”). The rank contrasts with the French sub-officer rank of brigadier. As with all French general officers, a French brigade general is titled “general” without any implication that he is an army general; for instance General Charles de Gaulle never rose higher than brigade general.

Until 1793, a rank of brigadier des armées (“brigadier of the armies”) existed in the French Army, which could be described as a senior colonel or junior brigade commander. The normal brigade command rank was field marshal (maréchal de camp) (which elsewhere is a more senior rank). A “brigadier of the armies” wore one-star and a “field marshal” wore two stars. During the French Revolution, the revolutionaries’ drive to rationalise the state led to a change in the system of ranks. The rank of “brigadier of the armies” was abolished and the normal brigade command rank, field marshal, was replaced by brigade general. The rank of brigade general inherited the two stars of the rank of field marshal, explaining the absence since 1793 of a French rank with only one star.

Nowadays, a French général de brigade generally commands a brigade, which is the biggest permanent formation in the French army. The rank can also be awarded in an honorary fashion to retiring colonels. The insignias are two stars, worn on the shoulder are at the sleeve of the uniform, depending on the dress. Two different kepis are issued : the service kepi sports the two stars, while the formal kepi features a large band of oak leaves (the kepi of a division general has two smaller such bands).

Charles de Gaulle held the rank of brigade general. He was given a temporary promotion to this rank in May 1940 as commander of the 4th Armoured Reserve Division (4e division cuirassée de réserve). However his authority as head of the Free French really came from being the only cabinet member outside occupied France, not from his military rank. As a reminder of his war position, he refused any further promotion.

Germany

The equivalent modern German OF6-rank is Brigadegeneral. The concept of a brigadier general rank is relatively new, as prior to 1945 the lowest German general officer OF6-rank was Generalmajor, which was often considered equivalent to brigadier general in other armies.

Greece

Hungary

In Hungary the brigadier general is a relatively new military rank used from 1992. The army and the air force insignia are not different.

Indonesia

Brigadir jenderal (abbreviated as brigjen) is the fourth highest rank and the lowest general rank in the Indonesian National Police, the Indonesian National Armed Forces, and the Indonesian Marine Corps. The insignia is a gold star.

Iran

The equivalent rank for brigadier general in the Iranian army and air force is called sar-tip. In Persian the word tip means brigade, and sar means head or commander. After 1987 the rank sar-tip dovom (second brigadier general) was introduced between sar-tip and sar-hang (colonel or literally head of regiment). There is no equivalent for sar-tip dovom in other countries. The rank above sar-tip is sar-lashgar. Lashgar means division so, sar-lashgar means divisional general (major general).

The Iranian Revolutionary Guards also use this rank; the difference is in salutation. One refers an army or air force brigadier general as “amir sar-tip”, while a revolutionary guard general is referred to as “sardar sar-tip”.

Major general is the highest Iranian military rank, and therefore brigadier general is considered to be second highest rank. It is equivalent to the rank of the commander of the air force, and commodore of the Navy.

Ireland

The country is divided into two areas for administrative and operational reasons, and in each area there is an infantry brigade. The two brigade group structure envisages distinct operational areas of responsibility for each of the brigades and is supported in its responsibilities by the Naval Service and Air Corps. Each of the brigade formations and the Air Corps is commanded by a brigadier general, while the Naval Service is commanded by a commodore.

Israel

In the Israel Defense Forces, the rank of brigadier general is called tat aluf and is the third highest rank, below aluf (major general) and rav aluf (lieutenant general or general), and above aluf mishne (colonel).

Italy

In the Italian Armed Forces the rank has different denominations. In the Army, the rank for combat arms officers is generale di brigata whilst for the logistics and technical corps is called brigadier generale. The rank is also present in the other armed forces, police corps and other services of Italy, with different denominations, and it is associated with the lowest level within the government top management.

Jordan

In the Jordanian military, the rank of brigadier general is known as amid (عميد), and it is higher than colonel (akeed عقيد) and lower than major general (liwa لواء).

Mexico

In Mexico, general brigadier wears the arms of Mexico with one star, and is the rank below general de brigada who wears as rank insignia the arms of Mexico with two stars.

Nepal

In Nepal, Brigadier General (Nepali: सहायक रथी) is the lowest ranking general officer sitting between Colonel (Nepali: महासेनानी) and Major General (Nepali: उप रथी), with one star.

Poland

Prior to 2002, the Polish rank of generał brygady was equivalent to both the ranks of major general and brigadier general.

Portugal

In the Portuguese Army and Air Force, brigadeiro-general is a temporary general rank for the colonels that have to exercise a special command. It is the equivalent of the commodore rank in the Portuguese Navy.

The rank was reintroduced in 1999. Before that, simply as brigadeiro, it existed from 1707 to 1864 and again from 1929 to 1947, not being considered a general rank. From 1947 to 1999, brigadeiro become the two-star general rank in the Portuguese Army. As two-star rank, it was substituted by the rank of major-general in 1999.

Romania

In the Romanian Army the general de brigadă is the lowest rank of general officers, The equivalent in the Navy is contra-amiral and in the Air-Force general de flotilă aeriană.

South Korea

The rank of brigadier general is known in South Korea as junjang (Korean: 준장; hanja: 准將)[3] and is a direct equivalent to the United States one-star rank, with very similar insignia. The military of North Korea does not technically maintain a brigadier general rank, but the rank of senior colonel (대좌, taejwa) which is above colonel (상좌, sangjwa) and below major general (소장, Sojang) is an effective equivalent.

Spain

In the Spanish Army and Spanish Air Force, general de brigada is the lowest rank of general officers. Its equivalent in the Navy is contraalmirante.

Sweden

In the Swedish Army, Swedish Air Force and Swedish Amphibious Corps brigadgeneral is the lowest rank of general officers. Its equivalent in the Navy is flottiljamiral.

Turkey

In the Turkish Army and the Turkish Air Force, the equivalent rank is tuğgeneral (the Turkish Navy equivalent would be tuğamiral). The name is derived from tugay, the Turkish word for a brigade. Both tugay and tuğ- as military terms may owe their origins to the older Turkish word tuğ, meaning horsetail, which was used as a symbol of authority and rank in Ottoman and pre-Ottoman times.

United Kingdom

Brigadier-general was formerly a rank or appointment in the British Army and Royal Marines, and briefly in the Royal Air Force. The appointment was abolished in both the Army and the Marines in 1921 and the equivalent rank today is simply Brigadier.

United States

In the United States Army, United States Air Force and United States Marine Corps, a brigadier general is a one-star general officer. It is equivalent to the rank of rear admiral (lower half) in the other uniformed services.

See also

  • British Army officer rank insignia
  • Comparative military ranks
  • History of Russian military ranks
  • Military unit
  • NATO Air Force officers
  • NATO Army officers
  • U.S. Army officer rank insignia
  • United Kingdom and United States military ranks compared

Notes

  1. ^ The général de brigade of the French Foreign Legion is the commander of the (entire) Legion.
  2. ^ ab Australian Army rank insignia for 2LT, LT, CAPT, LTCOL, COL, BRIG, MAJGEN and GEN use the Order of the Bath star, which is commonly referred to as a “pip”.

References

  1. ^ Decreto 1428 de 2007 Archived 2009-06-19 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ Decreti 1791 de 2000 (septiembre 14) Archived May 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ (Korean) Empas hanja dictionary, Junjang entry

External links

  • The dictionary definition of brigadier general at Wiktionary


Mayor

In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior [majˈjɔr], meaning “bigger”) is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.

Worldwide, there is a wide variance in local laws and customs regarding the powers and responsibilities of a mayor as well as the means by which a mayor is elected or otherwise mandated. Depending on the system chosen, a mayor may be the chief executive officer of the municipal government, may simply chair a multi-member governing body with little or no independent power, or may play a solely ceremonial role. Options for selection of a mayor include direct election by the public, or selection by an elected governing council or board.

Contents

  • 1 History

    • 1.1 British Isles
    • 1.2 Continental Europe

      • 1.2.1 Scandinavia
  • 2 Mayors by country

    • 2.1 Australia
    • 2.2 Brazil
    • 2.3 Canada
    • 2.4 Dominican Republic
    • 2.5 France
    • 2.6 Germany
    • 2.7 Greece
    • 2.8 India
    • 2.9 Indonesia
    • 2.10 Iran
    • 2.11 Ireland
    • 2.12 Italy
    • 2.13 Japan
    • 2.14 Kazakhstan
    • 2.15 Malaysia
    • 2.16 Malta
    • 2.17 Moldova
    • 2.18 Netherlands
    • 2.19 Nepal
    • 2.20 New Zealand
    • 2.21 Pakistan
    • 2.22 Philippines
    • 2.23 Poland
    • 2.24 Portugal
    • 2.25 Romania
    • 2.26 Russia
    • 2.27 Serbia
    • 2.28 Spain and Hispanic America
    • 2.29 Sweden
    • 2.30 Switzerland
    • 2.31 Taiwan
    • 2.32 Turkey
    • 2.33 Ukraine
    • 2.34 United States
  • 3 Multi-tier local government
  • 4 Acting mayor
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

History

British Isles

In modern England and Wales, the position of mayor descends from the feudal lord’s bailiff or reeve (see borough). The chief magistrate of London bore the title of portreeve for considerably more than a century after the Norman Conquest. This official was elected by popular choice, a privilege secured from King John. By the beginning of the 12th century, the title of portreeve gave way to that of mayor as the designation of the chief officer of London, followed around 1190 by that of Winchester. Other boroughs adopted the title later. In the 19th century, in the United Kingdom, the Municipal Corporations Act 1882, Section 15, regulated the election of mayors. The mayor was to be a fit person elected annually on 9 November by the council of the borough from among the aldermen or councillors or persons qualified to be such. His term of office was one year, but he was eligible for re-election. He might appoint a deputy to act during illness or absence, and such deputy must be either an alderman or councillor. A mayor who was absent from the borough for more than two months became disqualified and had to vacate his office. A mayor was ex officio a justice of the peace for the borough during his year of office and the following year. He received such remuneration as the council thought reasonable. These provisions have now been repealed.

In medieval Wales, the Laws of Hywel Dda codified the mayor (Latin: maior; Welsh: maer) as a position at the royal courts charged with administering the serfs of the king’s lands. To maintain its dependence on and loyalty to the Crown, the position was forbidden to the leaders of the clan groups.[1] A separate mayor, known as the “cow dung mayor” (maer biswail), was charged with overseeing the royal cattle.[1] There were similar offices at the Scottish and Irish courts.[citation needed]

The office of mayor in most modern English and Welsh boroughs and towns did not in the 20th century entail any important administrative duties, and was generally regarded as an honour conferred for local distinction, long service on the Council, or for past services. The mayor was expected to devote much of his (or her) time to civic, ceremonial, and representational functions, and to preside over meetings for the advancement of the public welfare. His or her administrative duties were to act as returning officer at parliamentary elections, and as chairman of the meetings of the council. However, since reforms introduced in 2000, 14 English local authorities have directly elected mayors who combine the ‘civic’ mayor role with that of Leader of the Council and have significantly greater powers than either. The mayor of a town council is officially known as “town mayor” (although in popular parlance, the word “town” is often dropped). Women mayors are also known as “mayor”; the wife of a mayor is sometimes known as the “mayoress”. Mayors are not appointed to District Councils which do not have borough status. Their place is taken by the Chairman of Council, who undertakes exactly the same functions and is, like a mayor, the civic head of the district concerned.

In Scotland the post holders are known as Convenors, Provosts, or Lord Provosts depending on the local authority.

Continental Europe

The original Frankish mayors or majordomos were – like the Welsh meiri – lords commanding the king’s lands around the Merovingian courts in Austrasia, Burgundy, and Neustria. The mayorship of Paris eventually became hereditary in the Pippinids, who later established the Carolingian dynasty.

In modern France, since the Revolution, a mayor (maire) and a number of mayoral adjuncts (adjoints au maire) are selected by the municipal council from among their number. Most of the administrative work is left in their hands, with the full council meeting comparatively infrequently. The model was copied throughout Europe in Britain’s mayors, Italy’s sindacos, most of the German states’ burgomasters, and Portugal’s presidents of the municipal chambers.

In Medieval Italy, the city-states who did not consider themselves independent principalities or dukedoms – particularly those of the Imperial Ghibelline faction – were led by podestàs.

The Greek equivalent of a mayor is the demarch (Greek: δήμαρχος, lit. “archon of the deme”).

Scandinavia

In Denmark all municipalities are led by a political official called borgmester, “mayor”. The mayor of Copenhagen is however called overborgmester “superior mayor”. In that city other mayors, borgmestre (plural), are subordinate to him with different undertakings, like ministers to a prime minister. In other municipalities in Denmark there is only a single mayor.

In Norway and Sweden the mayoral title borgermester/borgmästare has now been abolished. Norway abolished it in 1937 as a title of the non-political top manager of (city) municipalities and replaced it with the title rådmann (“alderman” or “magistrate”), which is still in use when referring to the top managers of the municipalities of Norway. The top elected official of the municipalities of Norway, on the other hand, has the title ordfører, which actually means “word-bearer”, i.e. “chairman” or “president”, an equivalent to the Swedish word ordförande.

In Sweden borgmästare was a title of the senior judge of the courts of the cities, courts which were called rådhusrätt, literally “town hall court”, somewhat of an equivalent to an English magistrates’ court. These courts were abolished in 1971. Until 1965 these mayor judges on historical grounds also performed administrative functions in the “board of magistrates”, in Swedish known collegially[clarification needed] as magistrat. Until 1965 there were also municipal mayors (kommunalborgmästare), who had these non-political administrative roles in smaller cities without a magistrates’ court or magistrat. This office was an invention of the 20th century as the smaller cities in Sweden during the first half of the 20th century subsequently lost their own courts and magistrates.

In the 16th century in Sweden, king Gustav Vasa considerably centralised government and appointed the mayors directly. In 1693 king Charles XI accepted a compromise after repeated petitions from the Estate of the Burgesses over decades against the royal mayor appointments. The compromise was that the burgesses in a city could normally nominate a mayor under the supervision of the local governor. The nominee was then to be presented to and appointed by the king, but the king could appoint mayors directly in exceptional cases. This was codified in the Instrument of Government of 1720 and on 8 July the same year Riksrådet (“the Council of the Realm”) decided, after a petition from the said Estate, that only the city could present nominees, not the king or anyone else. Thus the supervision of the local governor and directly appointed mayors by the king ceased after 1720 (the so-called Age of Liberty). On 16 October 1723, it was decided after a petition that the city should present three nominees, of whom the king (or the Council of the Realm) appointed one.[2] This was kept as a rule from then on in all later regulations[2] and was also kept as a tradition in the 1809 Instrument of Government (§ 31) until 1965.

In Finland, there are two mayors, in Tampere and Pirkkala. Usually in Finland the highest executive official is not democratically elected, but is appointed to a public office by the city council, and is called simply kaupunginjohtaja “city manager” or kunnanjohtaja “municipal manager”, depending on whether the municipality defines itself as a city. The term pormestari “mayor”, from Swedish borgmästare confusingly on historical grounds has referred to the highest official in the registry office and in the city courts (abolished in 1993) as in Sweden, not the city manager. In addition, pormestari is also an honorary title, which may be given for distinguished service in the post of the city manager. The city manager of Helsinki is called ylipormestari, which translates to “Chief Mayor”, for historical reasons. Furthermore, the term “city manager” may be seen translated as “mayor”.

Mayors by country

Australia

On Australian councils, the mayor is generally the member of the council who acts as ceremonial figurehead at official functions, as well as carrying the authority of council between meetings. Mayoral decisions made between meetings are subject to Council and may be confirmed or repealed if necessary. Mayors in Australia may be elected either directly through a ballot for the position of mayor at a local-government election, or alternatively may be elected from within the council at a meeting.

The civic regalia and insignia of local government have basically remained unaltered for centuries.
The robes, the mayoral chain and the mace are not intended to glorify the individual, but rather they are a uniform of office and are used to respect and honour the people whom the users serve.

The mayoral robe may be crimson with lapels and sleeves trimmed in ermine. The mayor may also wear a lace fall (neck piece) and cuffs.

The deputy-mayoral robe may be crimson with lapels and sleeves trimmed with black velvet and bordered with lapin.

Mayors have the title of ‘His/Her Worship’ whilst holding the position.

In councils where Councillors are elected representing political parties, the mayor is normally the leader of the party receiving the most seats on council. In Queensland the Lord Mayor and Mayors are elected by popular vote at the general council election.

Brazil

Every municipality in Brazil elects a mayor (Portuguese: prefeito/prefeita), for a four-year term, acting as an executive officer with the city council (Portuguese: Câmara Municipal) functioning with legislative powers. The mayor can be re-elected and manage the city for two consecutive terms.

The Brazilian system works similarly to the mayor-council government in the United States.

Canada

The chief executives of boroughs (arrondissements) in Quebec are termed mayors (maires/mairesses in French). A borough mayor simultaneously serves as head of the borough council and as a regular councillor on the main city council.

As is the practice in most Commonwealth countries, in Canada a mayor is addressed as His/Her Worship while holding office.

In some small townships in Ontario, the title reeve was historically used instead of mayor. In some other municipalities, “mayor” and “reeve” were two separate offices, with the mayor retaining leadership powers while the reeve was equivalent to what other municipalities called an “at-large councillor”. While most municipalities in the province now designate their elected municipal government heads as mayors, in certain areas of the province, the elected head of the municipality continues to be refereed to as reeve, and the second-in-command is referred to as the deputy reeve. For example, this continues to be the case in the municipalities of Algonquin Highlands, Dysart et al, Highlands East, and Minden Hills, all located within the Haliburton County.

Many municipalities in Alberta continue to use the title reeve to denote the office of mayor or chief elected official in accordance with the Municipal Government Act.

In rural municipalities (RM) in the provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan, the elected head of the RM is still referred to as a “reeve”, as are the heads of most counties and district municipalities (DMs) in Alberta.

The scheduling of municipal elections in Canada varies by jurisdiction, as each province and territory has its own laws regarding municipal governance. See also municipal elections in Canada.

Dominican Republic

The mayor of a municipality in the Dominican Republic is called indistinctly alcalde or síndico. The latter name is preferred as to avoid confusing the title with the similarly sounding alcaide (lit. prison warden). Such person is the governor of the municipality whose township elected him (or her) by direct vote for a term of four years. The mayor’s office daily duties are restricted to the local governance, and as such, it is responsible for the coordination of waste collection, upkeep of public spaces (parks, undeveloped urban parcels, streets, city ornate, traffic light control, sewage and most public utilities). In practice most of it duties are centered in light street repairing (new or big road projects, like overpasses, bridges, pedestrian crossings, etc. are handled by the Public Works Ministry (Ministerio de Obras Públicas in Spanish) office), under the direct control of the Central Government. Subcontracting garbage collection and management, overseeing the use of public spaces and arbitring neighborhood land use disputes which is managed by the National Property office (Oficina de Bienes Nacionales in Spanish) is also controlled by the mayor’s office. Water, electrical supply and public transportation coordination are handled by several Central Government’s offices, and as such, are not under control of the mayor.

France

Mayors (maires) in France are elected every six years in local elections.

Germany

In Germany local government is regulated by state statutes. Nowadays only the mayors of the three city-states (Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen) are still elected by the respective city-state parliaments. In all the other states the mayors are now elected directly by the EU citizens living in that area. The post of mayor may be said to be a professional one, the mayor being the head of the local government, and requiring, in order to be eligible, a training in administration. In big cities (details are regulated by state statutes) the official title is Oberbürgermeister (Lord Mayor). In these cities a “simple” mayor is just a deputy responsible for a distinct task (e.g., welfare or construction works). Big cities are usually kreisfrei (“free of district”). That means that the city council also has the powers and duties of a rural district council. The leader of a rural district council is called Landrat (“land counsellor”). In that case the chief mayor has also the duties and powers of a Landrat. The term Oberbürgermeister is not used in the three city-states, where the mayors are simultaneously head of state governments, but Regierender Bürgermeister (Governing Mayor of Berlin), Erster Bürgermeister (First Mayor of the city-state of Hamburg) and Präsident des Senats und Bürgermeister (President of the Senate and Mayor of Bremen) are used.

Greece

Mayors in Greece were elected every four years in local elections and are the head of various municipal governments in which the state is divided. Starting from 2014, mayors are elected for a 5-year term. Local administration elections for the new, consolidated municipalities and peripheries will henceforth be held together with the elections for the European Parliament.

Local administration in Greece recently underwent extensive reform in two phases: the first phase, implemented in 1997 and commonly called the “Kapodistrias Project”, consolidated the country’s numerous municipalities and communities down to approximately 1000. The second phase, initially called “Kapodistrias II” but eventually called the “Callicrates Project”, was implemented in 2010, further consolidated municipalities down to 370, and merged the country’s 54 prefectures into 13 peripheries. The Callicratean municipalities were designed according to several guidelines; for example each island (except Crete) was incorporated into a single municipality, while the majority of small towns were consolidated so as to have an average municipal population of 25,000.

India

In India, the mayor is leader of the council and has a number of roles, both legislative and functional. The legislative requirements are outlined in Section 73 and 73AA of Local Government Act 1989. In most Indian states mayors are elected indirectly among the council members themselves except in eight states Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Haryana, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand; where mayors are elected directly by the public.

Indonesia

In Indonesia, mayor (Indonesian: wali kota, formerly called walikotamadya and walikota) is a regional head of a city or town. A mayor has the same level as a regent (Indonesian: bupati), head of a regency (Indonesian: kabupaten). Basically, a mayor has duties and authority to lead the implementation of the policies established by the region along with the city council (Indonesian: Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah Kota, DPRD Kota; formerly called Tier 2-DPRD (DPRD tingkat II)). A mayor is elected in a pair with a vice mayor through direct elections and is a political office, except in Jakarta. There, mayoralty is a civil-service career position with limited authority and is designated by the Governor of Jakarta. Their region are called administration cities (Indonesian: kota administrasi).

Before 1999, there were administrative cities (Indonesian: kota administratif, id) which were headed by administrative mayors.

Iran

In Iran, the mayor is the executive manager of city and elected by the Islamic City Council. The mayor is elected for a four-year term.

Ireland

In the Republic of Ireland, the head of a borough corporation was called “mayor” from the Municipal Corporations (Ireland) Act 1840 until boroughs were abolished by the Local Government Reform Act 2014. The Local Government Act 2001 allowed county councils to style their chairperson as “mayor” and most do so. City council chairs are “mayor” (or “lord mayor” in the cases of Dublin and of Cork). Since 2000 there have been proposals for a directly elected mayor of the Dublin Metropolitan Area.

Italy

In Italy the mayor is called sindaco, or informally primo cittadino (“first citizen”). Every municipality (Italian: Comune) has its mayor who represents the local government. The mayor is elected every five years by the inhabitants of the municipality, but he cannot be re-elected after two terms (except in small towns).[3]

Japan

Japan’s Local-Autonomy Law of 1947 defines the structure of Japanese local governments, which were strengthened after World War II. It gives strong executive power to the mayor in the local politics like strong mayors in large cities in the United States of America.
The titles that are translated as “mayor” by the governments are those of the heads of cities shichō (市長), towns chōchō (町長), villages sonchō (村長), and Tokyo’s special wards kuchō (区長).
(The head of the Tokyo prefecture is the Governor (知事, Chiji).)
A mayor is elected every four years by direct popular votes held separately from the assembly. A mayor can be recalled by a popular initiative but the prefectural and the national governments cannot remove a mayor from office. Towards the assembly the mayor prepares budgets, proposes local acts and has vetoes on local acts just approved by the assembly which can be overridden by two-thirds assembly support. A mayor can resolve the assembly if the assembly passes a motion of no confidence or if the mayor thinks the assembly has no confidence in fact.

Kazakhstan

In Kazakhstan, the mayor is called Akim who is the head of an akimat, a municipal, district, or provincial government (mayorat), and serves as the Presidential representative. Akims of provinces and cities are appointed to the post by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister. Meanwhile, the akims of other administrative and territorial units are appointed or selected to the post in an order defined by the President. He may also dismiss akims from their posts. Powers of akims ends with the introduction into the post of new-elected president of the republic. Thus, the akim continues to fulfill the duties before appointment of corresponding akim by the President of Kazakhstan.

Malaysia

The mayor functions as the head of the local government of the cities in Malaysia. To date, there are 14 officially-recognised cities in the country.

In cities which lie within the jurisdiction of any one of the 13 Malaysian states, the mayor is appointed by the state government.[4]Kuala Lumpur, the country’s capital, is a notable exception, as it forms part of the Federal Territories which come under the purview of the Malaysian federal government, via the Ministry of Federal Territories. Thus, the mayor of Kuala Lumpur is selected by, and subordinate to, the Minister of Federal Territories.[5]

Following the 2018 general election, which saw the country undergoing its first ever regime change, there have been calls to revive local government elections, which had been the practice in certain cities such as Kuala Lumpur, George Town, Ipoh and Melaka until their abolishment in 1965.[4][6][7] The reinstatement of local government elections would lead to the mayoral position being elected, instead of being appointed as per the current system.

Malta

In Malta, the mayor (In Maltese: Sindku) is the leader of the majority party in the Local Council. The members of the Local Councils are directly elected and collectively serve as a basic form of local government.

Moldova

The Mayor of the municipality in Moldova is elected for four years. In Chişinău, the last mayor elections had to be repeated three times, because of the low rate of participation.

Netherlands

In the Netherlands, the mayor (in Dutch: burgemeester) is the leader of the municipal executives (‘College van Burgemeester en Wethouders’). In the Netherlands, burgermeesters are de facto appointed by the national cabinet, de jure by the monarch. They preside both the municipal executive and the legislative (‘gemeenteraad’). The title is sometimes translated as burgomaster, to emphasize the appointed, rather than elected, nature of the office. The appointment procedure was brought for discussion in the early 2000s (decade), as some of the political parties represented in parliament regarded the procedure as undemocratic. Generally, mayors in the Netherlands are selected from the established political parties. Alternatives proposed were direct election of the mayor by the people or appointment by the city council (gemeenteraad). A constitutional change to allow for this failed to pass the Senate in March 2005.

Nepal

Mayors in Nepal are elected every Five years in the Local elections.

New Zealand

Mayors in New Zealand are elected every three years in the local body elections.

Pakistan

In Pakistan, a city is headed by the District Nazim (the word means “supervisor” in Urdu, but is sometimes translated as Mayor) and assisted by Naib Nazim who is also speaker of District Council. District Nazim is elected by the nazims of union councils, union councillors and by tehsil nazims, who themselves are elected directly by the votes of the local public. Council elections are held every four years.

Philippines

In the Philippines, mayors (Tagalog: Punong Bayan / Punong Lungsod) are the head of a municipality or a city, with the vice mayor as the second highest position in the city. They are elected every three years during the midterm and national elections, and they can serve until three terms of office. As of – September 2012, there are 1,635 mayors in the Philippines.

Poland

Mayors in Poland are directly elected by inhabitants of their respective municipality. The mayor is the sole chief of the executive branch of the municipality and he cannot serve on the municipal council (city council) or in the parliament. The mayor may appoint a deputy mayor if needed. In Poland, a mayor is called a burmistrz or, in towns with more than 100,000 inhabitants or other municipalities that traditionally use the title, prezydent (“president”, for example “President of Warsaw”, instead of “Mayor of Warsaw”). The equivalent title in a rural community (“gmina”) is “wójt”.

The mayor is elected for a four-year term concurrently with the four-year term of the municipal council, and his/her service is terminated at the end of the municipal council’s term. Mayors cannot be dismissed by the municipal council, but they can be removed from the office by the citizens of their municipality in a referendum. A mayor can also be dismissed by the Prime Minister in case of persistent transgression of the law. Citizens having a criminal record cannot run for mayor, but only if sentenced for intentional offense ex officio.

The mayor manages the municipal estate, issues minor regulations, and incurs liabilities within limits set by the municipal council. The mayor presents a budget to the municipal council, that may then be amended by the council. After the municipal council passes the budget in a form of resolution, the mayor is responsible for its realization. The mayor is the head of the town hall and the register office (he/she may appoint deputies for these specific tasks). Mayors legally act as employers for all of the officials of the town hall. Mayors in Poland have wide administrative authority: the only official that he/she cannot appoint or dismiss is a city treasurer, who is appointed by a city council. Although mayors in Poland do not have veto power over city council resolutions, their position is relatively strong and should be classified as a mayor-council government.

Portugal

In Portugal and many other Portuguese-speaking countries the mayor of a municipality is called the Presidente da Câmara Municipal (President of the Municipal Chamber).

Romania

In Romania the mayor of a commune, town or city is called primar. He is elected for a period of four years. In carrying out his responsibilities he is assisted by an elected local council (consiliu local). Bucharest has a general mayor (primar general) and six sector mayors (primar de sector), one for each sector. The responsibilities of the mayor and of the local council are defined by Law 215/2001 of the Romanian Parliament.[8]

Russia

In Russia, the Мэр, from fr Maire (en transcription = Mer – not to be confused to the NATO OF-3 rank Майор – en: Major), is one of possible titles of the head of the administration of a city or municipality. This title is equivalent to that of the head of a Russian rural district. Exceptionally, the mer of Moscow, Saint-Petersburg and Sevastopol are equivalent to governors in Russia, since these three federal cities are equivalent to Russian federations.

Except for those just-named three large cities, the governance system of a Russian municipality (city, county, district or town) is subordinate to the representative council of the federation in which it is located. The mer, is either directly elected in municipal elections (citywide referendum) or is elected by the members of the municipality’s representative council. Election by council members is now more widespread because it better integrates with the Russian federal three-level vertical governance structure:

  1. National government:
    1. President (executive)
    2. Federal Assembly
  2. Federation governments:
    1. Heads of federation (commonly governors)
    2. Regional representative councils
  3. Local governments:
    1. Heads of administration (who have the official title of mer, whether or not local law defines it as such)
    2. Local representative councils

The typical term of office of a mer in Russia is four years. The mer’s office administers all municipal services, public property, police and fire protection, and most public agencies, and enforces all local and state laws within a city or town.

According to Medialogy,[9] the mer of Novosibirsk, Edward Lokot’, is mentioned in the media more than any other Russian mayor. The mer of Kazan, Il’sur Metshin, is the most popular in Russia, scoring 76 out of 100, according to the Russian People’s Rating of Mers.[10]

Serbia

In Serbia, the mayor is the head of the city or a town. He acts on behalf of the city, and performs an executive function. The position of the mayor of Belgrade is important as the capital city is the most important hub of economics, culture and science in Serbia. Furthermore, the post of the mayor of Belgrade is the third most important position in the government after the Prime Minister and President.

Spain and Hispanic America

Alcalde is the most common Spanish term for the mayor of a town or city. It is derived from the Arabic: al-qaḍi (قاضي‎), i.e., “the (Sharia) judge,” who often had administrative, as well as judicial, functions. Although the Castilian alcalde and the Andalusian qaḍi had slightly different attributes (the qaḍi oversaw an entire province, the alcalde only a municipality; the former was appointed by the ruler of the state but the latter was elected by the municipal council), the adoption of this term reflects how much Muslim society in the Iberian Peninsula influenced the Christian one in the early phases of the Reconquista. As Spanish Christians took over an increasing part of the Peninsula, they adapted the Muslim systems and terminology for their own use.

Today, it refers to the executive head of a municipal or local government, who usually does not have judicial functions. The word intendente is used in Argentina and Paraguay for the office that is analogous to a mayor.

In larger cities in Mexico, the chief executive is known as the presidente municipal or “municipal president”.

Sweden

The Swedish title borgmästare (burgomaster) was abolished in the court reform of 1971 when also the towns of Sweden were officially abolished. Since the middle of the 20th century, the municipal commissioner – the highest-ranking politician in each municipality – is informally titled “mayor”[citation needed] in English.

Switzerland

The function and title for mayor vary from one canton to another. Generally, the mayor presides an executive council of several members governing a municipality.

The title is:

  • in Italian: Sindaco (Ticino), Podestà (Grigioni)
  • in French: Maire (Geneva, Jura, Bern), Syndic (Vaud, Fribourg), Président du Conseil municipal (Valais), Président du Conseil communal (Neuchâtel)
  • in German: e.g. Stadtpräsident, Stadtammann, Gemeindepräsident, Gemeindeammann

Taiwan

In the Republic of China in Taiwan the mayor is the head of city’s government and its city’s council, which is in charge of legislative affairs. The mayor and city council are elected separately by the city’s residents.

Turkey

Mayors (Turkish:Belediye Başkanı) in Turkey are elected by the municipal councill. As a rule, there are municipalities in all province centers and district centers as well as towns (Turkish: belde) which are actually villages with a population in excess of 2000. However beginning by 1983, a new level of municipality is introduced in Turkish administrative system. In big cities Metropolitan municipalities (Turkish: Büyükşehir belediyesi) are established. (See Metropolitan municipalities in Turkey) In a Metropolitan municipality there may be several district municipalities (hence mayors).

Ukraine

In Ukraine the title Mer was introduced for the position of the head of the municipal state administration in the federal cities of Kiev and Sevastopol. In the rest of the urban and rural settlements the position is unofficial and simply refers to the head of a local council who at the moment of such assignment cannot be affiliated with any party of the council.

United States

The mayor is the leader in most United States municipalities (such as cities, townships, etc.). In the United States, there are several distinct types of mayors, depending on the system of local government. Under council-manager government, the mayor is a first among equals on the city council, which acts as a legislative body while executive functions are performed by the appointed manager. The mayor may chair the city council, but lacks any special legislative powers. The mayor and city council serve part-time, with day-to-day administration in the hands of a professional city manager. The system is most common among medium-sized cities from around 25,000 to several hundred thousand, usually rural and suburban municipalities.

In the second form, known as mayor-council government, the mayoralty and city council are separate offices. Under a strong mayor system, the mayor acts as an elected executive with the city council exercising legislative powers. They may select a chief administrative officer to oversee the different departments. This is the system used in most of the United States’ large cities, primarily because mayors serve full-time and have a wide range of services that they oversee. In a weak mayor or ceremonial mayor system, the mayor has appointing power for department heads but is subject to checks by the city council, sharing both executive and legislative duties with the council. This is common for smaller cities, especially in New England. Charlotte, North Carolina and Minneapolis, Minnesota are two notable large cities with a ceremonial mayor.

Many American mayors are styled “His Honor” or “Her Honor” while in office.

Multi-tier local government

In several countries, where there is not local autonomy, mayors are often appointed by some branch of the federal or regional government. In some cities, subdivisions such as boroughs may have their own mayors; this is the case, for example, with the arrondissements of Paris, Montreal, and Mexico City. In Belgium, the capital, Brussels, is administratively one of the federation’s three regions, and is the only city subdivided, without the other regions’ provincial level, into 19 rather small municipalities, which each have an elected—formally appointed—Burgomaster (i.e., Mayor, responsible to his / her elected council); while Antwerp, the other major metropolitan area, has one large city (where the boroughs, former municipalities merged into it, elect a lower level, albeit with very limited competence) and several smaller surrounding municipalities, each under a normal Burgomaster as in Brussels.

In the People’s Republic of China, the Mayor (市長) may be the administrative head of any municipality, provincial, prefecture-level, or county-level. The Mayor is usually the most recognized official in cities, although the position is the second-highest-ranking official in charge after the local Communist Party Secretary. In principle, the Mayor (who also serves as the Deputy Communist Party Secretary of the city) is responsible for managing the city administration while the Communist Party Secretary is responsible for general policy and managing the party bureaucracy, but in practice the roles blur, frequently causing conflict.

Acting mayor

Acting mayor is a temporary office created by the charter of some municipal governments.

In many cities and towns, the charter or some similar fundamental document provides that in the event of the death, illness, resignation, or removal from office of the incumbent mayor, another official will lead the municipality for a temporary period, which, depending on the jurisdiction, may be for a stated period of days or months until a special election can be held, or until the original end of the term to which the vacating mayor was elected.

Some cities may also provide for a deputy mayor to be temporarily designated as “acting mayor” in the event that the incumbent mayor is temporarily unavailable, such as for health reasons or out-of-town travel, but still continues to hold the position and is expected to return to the duties of the office. In this latter capacity, the acting mayor’s role is to ensure that city government business can continue in the regular mayor’s absence, and the acting mayor is not deemed to have actually held the office of mayor.

The position of acting mayor is usually of considerably more importance in a mayor-council form of municipal government, where the mayor performs functions of day-to-day leadership, than it is in a council-manager form of government, where the city manager provides day-to-day leadership and the position of mayor is either a largely or entirely ceremonial one.

In some jurisdictions, the mayor’s successor is not considered to be an acting mayor but rather fully mayor in his or her own right, much in the manner that the Vice President of the United States is not styled or considered to be Acting President following the death or resignation of the President, but rather President in every sense.

See also

  • Lists of mayors by country
  • Deputy mayor
  • Governor

Concepts:

  • Acting (law)
  • Burgomaster
  • Sarpanch
  • World Mayor

Local government:

  • Seat of local government
  • Council-manager government
  • Mayor-council government
Historical
  • Schultheiß
  • Urban prefect

References

Notes
  1. ^ ab Wade-Evans, Arthur.
    Page:Welsh Medieval Law.djvu/447|Welsh Medieval Law]]. Oxford Univ., 1909. Accessed 1 Feb 2013.
  2. ^ ab The article Borgmästare (in Swedish) in Nordisk Familjebok.
  3. ^ (in Italian) No ai tre mandati dei sindaci. Principio di legalità batte disobbedienti.
  4. ^ ab “Elect local leaders”. www.thesundaily.my. Retrieved 2018-06-17..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  5. ^ “Teresa Kok: Federal Territories Ministry should be abolished”. The Edge Markets. 2018-06-13. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
  6. ^ “Non-partisan local elections the way forward, says Ipoh NGO | Malay Mail”. www.malaymail.com. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
  7. ^ “Local elections to begin as soon as economy stabilises”. The Edge Markets. 2018-05-28. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
  8. ^ APD-Timisoara. “Legea nr. 215/2001”. resurse-pentru-democratie.org.
  9. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. Retrieved 2014-06-14.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ “Регионы России: Рейтинг Мэров (Май, 2014)”. russia-rating.ru.
Bibliography
  • A. Shaw, Municipal Government in Continental Europe
  • J – A. Fairlie, Municipal Administration
  • S. and B. Webb, English Local Government
  • Redlich and Hirst, Local Government in England
  • A. L. Lowell, The Government of England.

External links

  • Comparative database of European mayors


Commissary

A commissary is a government official charged with oversight or an ecclesiastical official who exercises in special circumstances the jurisdiction of a bishop.[1]

In many countries, the term is used as an administrative or police title. It often corresponds to the command of a police station, which is then known as a “commissariat”. In some armed forces, commissaries are officials charged with overseeing the purchase and delivery of supplies, and they have powers of administrative and financial oversight. Then, the “commissariat” is the organization associated with the corps of commissaries.

In some countries, both roles are used; for example, France uses “police commissaries” (commissaires de police) in the French National Police and “armed forces commissaries” (commissaires des armées) in the French armed forces.

The equivalent terms are commissaire in French, commissario in Italian, Kommissar in Standard German, Kommissär in Swiss German and Luxembourgish, comisario in Spanish, commissaris in Dutch and Flemish, komisario in Finnish, komisarz in Polish and comissário in Portuguese.

Contents

  • 1 Etymology
  • 2 Examples

    • 2.1 Government and administration
    • 2.2 Police
    • 2.3 Military

      • 2.3.1 British army
    • 2.4 Ecclesiastical

      • 2.4.1 Anglican Communion
  • 3 See also
  • 4 References

Etymology

The word is recorded in English since 1362, for “one to whom special duty is entrusted by a higher power”. This Anglo-French word derives from Medieval Latin commissarius, from Latin commissus (pp. of committere) “entrusted”.

Examples

Government and administration

Governmental or administrative structures (or bodies) headed by a commissary (or composed of several commissaries) are often referred to as commissary governments or commissary administrations. Such terms were often used during the colonial era, and it was also used to designate various provisional governments of administrations. Executive or administrative body composed of several commissaries is often called Council of Commissaries or Board of Commissaries. Deputy of a commissary is styled as vice-commissary or sub-commissary.

In the Soviet Union, commissaries’ powers of oversight were used for political purposes. These commissaries are often known as commissars in English.

Police

A Spanish police Commissary is considered to be equal in rank to a commandant in the Spanish army.

In the French National Police, a commissaire is assigned to a commune with a population of more than 30,000. Larger communes have more than one. Paris has well over one hundred commissaires. All commissaires are graduates and can fulfill both administrative and investigative roles.

In the Romanian Police, similarly to the French National Police, the rank of comisar is equivalent to the British police rank of superintendent (see also Romanian police ranks).

Military

British army

With the establishment of an English standing army following the Restoration of the Monarchy a Commissary General of Musters was appointed on 20th December 1660. This officer, with the assistance of four deputies, was responsible for mustering troops by regiment and checking their names against the muster roll. These musters took place six or seven times per year (and monthly from 1687). At a muster the total number of officers and men was checked against the roll, each soldier’s arms and accoutrements were inspected and each officer’s rank (and record of leave) was checked against their level of pay. Only after the Commissary General had certified the muster roll would the Paymaster General of the forces issue pay to the regiment. In 1798 the commanding officer of each regiment, together with its regimental Paymaster, took over responsibility for the musters and the Deputy Commissaries were dismissed. The Commissary General continued to oversee a central office of musters until 1817 when the post was abolished and its duties transferred to the Secretary at War.[2]

The appointment of a Commissary General of Provisions was first made by James II in 1685 to provide for his troops encamped on Hounslow Heath. As a permanent post the appointment had lapsed by 1694, but a century later it was revived for senior officer of the Commissariat (a department of HM Treasury responsible for the procurement and issue of various stores and victuals to the army and the provision of transport). The Commissariat officers were uniformed civilians, appointed by the Treasury but issued with letters of commission by the War Office;[2] they were given rank as follows:

  • Commissary General (equivalent to a Brigadier General)
  • Deputy Commissary General (equivalent to a Lieutenant Colonel or Major)
  • Assistant Commissary General (equivalent to a Captain)
  • Deputy Assistant Commissary General (equivalent to a Lieutenant)
  • Commissary Clerk (equivalent to an Ensign).[2]

The department was overseen by a Commissary-in-Chief from 1809-1816, and by a Commissary General in Chief from 1858 to 1869.

Between 1793 and 1859 Assistant Commissary, Commissary and (from 1810) Chief Commissary were (civilian) ranks in the Field Train Department of the Board of Ordnance (the field force element of the Ordnance storekeeping system).[3]

After 1869 Commissary and associated titles were used as junior officer ranks by the Control Department (military successor to both the Commissariat and the Ordnance Field Train). A split in 1875 created the Commissariat and Transport Department and the Ordnance Store Department, which used (respectively) Commissary-General and Commissary-General of Ordnance for their senior officers (along with other Commissary ranks down the chain of command). After 1880 officers of the new Army Service Corps were given full military rank, but the Army Ordnance Department retained Commissary of Ordnance (and Deputy and Assistant Commissary of Ordnance) as its junior officer ranks throughout the First World War.[4]

Ecclesiastical

Anglican Communion

The Canons of the Church of England, referring to the metropolitical jurisdiction of archbishops and to the ordinary jurisdiction of diocesan bishops, states that: “Such jurisdiction is exercised by the (arch)bishop himself, or by a Vicar-General, official, or other commissary to whom authority in that behalf shall have been formally committed by the (arch)bishop concerned.”.[5]

In previous centuries Bishops sometimes appointed representatives, called commissaries, to perform functions in distant portions of their dioceses. In 1684 Henry Compton, the Bishop of London, resolved to use the commissary system to provide leadership for churches in the American colonies.[6] (James Blair was an early such commissary). Commissaries were appointed to some, but not all, of the thirteen colonies into the second half of the eighteenth century. Later, commissaries were sometimes appointed for other parts of the British Empire.

In 2011 the Archbishop of Canterbury appointed commissaries to conduct a visitation upon the Diocese of Chichester with regard to safeguarding failures in the diocese over many years. According to their interim report: “Our appointment by the Archbishop of Canterbury – the first such appointment of Commissaries for over 100 years – is evidence of the deep concern held in the Church of England for this diocese and its failure properly to protect children in its care”.[7]

See also

  • Apostolic Commissary
  • Commissioner
  • Commissar
  • Reichskommissar

References

  1. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “Commissary”. Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 774..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ abc Roper, Michael (1998). The Records of the War Office and Related Departments, 1660-1964. Kew, Surrey: Public Record Office.
  3. ^ Sharpe, L. C. (1993). The Field Train Department of the Board of Ordnance. Royal Logistic Corps museum.
  4. ^ Major General A Forbes ‘A History of the Army Ordnance Services’ Medici Society, London 1929. Vol II
  5. ^ Canons C 17.3 and C 18.3. “Section C: Ministers, their ordination, functions and charge”. Canons of the Church of England. The Church of England. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  6. ^ Prichard, Robert (1991 & 2014). A History of the Episcopal Church. Harrison PA: Morehouse Publishing. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  7. ^ “INTERIM REPORT OF THE COMMISSARIES APPOINTED BY THE ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY IN RELATION TO A VISITATION UPON THE DIOCESE OF CHICHESTER” (PDF). Diocese of Chichester. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). “Commissary Apostolic”. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.
  • commissary at EtymologyOnLine

Sheriff

A sheriff is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England, where the office originated. There is an analogous although independently developed office in Iceland that is commonly translated to English as sheriff, and this is discussed below.

Contents

  • 1 Description
  • 2 Great Britain and Ireland

    • 2.1 England, Wales and Northern Ireland
    • 2.2 Scotland

      • 2.2.1 Sheriffs principal
      • 2.2.2 Sheriffs
      • 2.2.3 Summary sheriffs
    • 2.3 Republic of Ireland
  • 3 Australia
  • 4 North America

    • 4.1 Canada

      • 4.1.1 Alberta
      • 4.1.2 British Columbia
      • 4.1.3 Nova Scotia
    • 4.2 United States
  • 5 India
  • 6 South Africa
  • 7 Related offices

    • 7.1 Iceland
  • 8 References
  • 9 External links

Description

Historically, a sheriff was a legal official with responsibility for a shire, the term being a contraction of
“shire reeve” (Old English scīrgerefa).
In British English, the political or legal office of a sheriff, term of office of a sheriff, or jurisdiction of a sheriff, is called a shrievalty[1] in England and Wales, and a sheriffdom[2] in Scotland.

In modern times, the specific combination of legal, political and ceremonial duties of a sheriff varies greatly from country to country.

  • In England, Northern Ireland, or Wales, a sheriff (or high sheriff) is a ceremonial county or city official.
  • In Scotland, sheriffs are judges.[3]
  • In the Republic of Ireland, in some counties and in the cities of Dublin and Cork, sheriffs are legal officials similar to bailiffs.
  • In the United States, a sheriff is a sworn law enforcement officer, whose duties vary across states and counties. A sheriff is generally an elected county official, with duties that typically include policing unincorporated areas, maintaining county jails, providing security to courts in the county, and (in some states) serving warrants and court papers. In addition to these policing and correction services, a sheriff is often responsible for enforcing civil law within the jurisdiction.
  • In Canada, sheriffs exist in most provinces. The provincial sheriff services generally manage and transport court prisoners, serve court orders, and in some provinces sheriffs provide security for the court system, protect public officials, support investigations by local police services and in Alberta, sheriffs carry out traffic enforcement.
  • In Australia and South Africa sheriffs are legal officials similar to bailiffs. In these countries there is no link maintained between counties and sheriffs.
  • In India, a sheriff is a largely ceremonial office in some major cities.

Great Britain and Ireland

England, Wales and Northern Ireland

The Old English term designated a royal official (a reeve) responsible for keeping the peace throughout a shire or county on behalf of the king.[4] The term was preserved in England notwithstanding the Norman Conquest.

Today, sheriff or high sheriff is a ceremonial county or city official.

Scotland

In Scotland the sheriff is a judicial office holder in the sheriff courts, and they are members of the judiciary of Scotland.[5]

Sheriffs principal

The most senior sheriffs are the sheriffs principal, who have administrative as well as judicial authority in the six sheriffdoms, and are responsible for the effective running and administration of all the sheriff courts in their jurisdiction. Sheriffs principal also sit as appeal sheriffs in the Sheriff Appeal Court; hearing appeals against sentencing and conviction from summary trials in the sheriff courts and justice of the peace courts.[6] The additional duties of a sheriff principal include being Commissioners of the Northern Lighthouse Board (which is the general lighthouse authority for Scotland), and chairing local criminal justice boards which bring together local representatives of procurator fiscal, Police Scotland and Community Justice Scotland, and Scottish Courts and Tribunals Service.[7][8]

Sheriffs

Sheriffs deal with the majority of civil and criminal court cases in Scotland, with the power to preside in solemn proceedings with a jury of 15 for indictable offences and sitting alone in summary proceedings for summary offences. A sheriff must be legally qualified, and have been qualified as an advocate or solicitor for at least 10 years. The maximum sentencing power of sheriff in summary proceedings is 12 months imprisonment, or a fine of up to £10,000. In solemn proceedings the maximum sentence is 5 years imprisonment, or an unlimited fine.[5]

Sheriffs also preside over fatal accident inquiries which are convened to examine the circumstances around sudden or suspicious deaths, including those who die in the course of employment, in custody, or in secure accommodation.[9][10]

Summary sheriffs

Summary sheriffs hear civil cases brought under Simple Procedure and criminal cases brought under summary proceedings. Their sentencing powers are identical to a sheriff sitting in summary proceedings.[11]

Republic of Ireland

Sheriffs have been appointed in Ireland since the Norman conquest (late 12th century) to enforce court judgements. In the modern day, a sheriff (Irish: sirriam) is an officer who collects taxes on behalf of the Collector General (part of the Revenue Commissioners). There are sixteen sheriffs in the country: two in Dublin, two in Cork City and twelve for the rest of the country. These twelve sheriffs are also county registrars. Sheriffs enforce the repayment of a debt which has been specified by court order. This can be in the form of payment or, failing that, in the removal and subsequent disposal of assets (a property and/or its contents).[12]

Australia

A sheriff’s office exists in most Australian states and territories, with various duties.

  • Before 1824, prisons in the British penal colony of New South Wales were overseen by the Provost Marshal. This title/position was replaced by that of Sheriff when a Charter of Justice was proclaimed in 1824.[13] In addition to detaining accused criminals awaiting trial, the sheriff executed death sentences and other sentences, controlled gaols, and handled prison movements, including the chain gangs that worked on Goat Island and in Sydney.[13] In 1867, the sheriff began to be replaced by an independent Prisons Department, led by an inspector general, which was later renamed comptroller general. Most Australian states adopted this mode of prison oversight for many years.[13] In New South Wales, the Office of the Sheriff is part of Courts and Tribunal Services. The office has more than 400 employees at 58 sheriff’s office. In addition to enforcing writs, warrants, and property seizure orders issued by New South Wales courts and tribunals, the Office of the Sheriff also provides court security and administers the state’s jury service.[14]
  • In Victoria, the sheriff’s office is part of the Victoria Department of Justice and Regulation. The office enforces warrants and orders issued by Victoria courts dealing with unpaid fines (in criminal matters) and unpaid money judgments (in civil matters).[15] The Victoria sheriff’s office has various enforcement powers against judgment debtors; they may seize and sell a debtor’s assets to satisfy a judgment, place a wheel clamp on a debtor’s car, or direct VicRoads to suspend a debtor’s driver’s license or vehicle registration.[16]
  • The Sheriff of Western Australia – also known as the Sheriff of the Supreme Court, Marshal of the Family Court and Marshal of the Federal Court in Western Australia – is an officer of those courts, as well as the District Court and the Magistrates Court.[17] The Sheriff has two main roles.
    • “Enforcement services”: managing the serving of court documents, including summonses, and the execution of writs, warrants and orders to recover unpaid fines or debts resulting from court judgments; as such, the Sheriff is also responsible for the appointment of bailiffs – who carry out the above services on behalf of the Sheriff.
    • “Jury services”: preparing jury books, which list people potentially available for jury duty, within 17 jury districts in Western Australia, as well as actually summoning people to act as jurors in the Supreme and District courts; the Sheriff also investigates any failure by jurors to attend court and also has responsibility for the day-to-day management of juries sitting in the Perth metropolitan area.

North America

Canada

Most provinces and territories in Canada operate a sheriffs service. Sheriffs are primarily concerned with services such as courtroom security, post-arrest prisoner transfer, serving legal processes and executing civil judgements. Sheriffs are defined under section 2 of the Criminal Code as “peace officers”. Sheriffs’ duties in Ontario deal only with serving legal processes and executing civil judgments. They do not perform court security-related duties. Court security functions are handled by the jurisdictional police (municipal police or the Ontario Provincial Police) in which the courthouse is located. In other parts of Canada, where sheriff’s services do not exist, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police perform these duties. Quebec has a two-tiered court security system where armed provincial special constables perform court security and the provincial correctional officers perform prisoner escort/transport duties.

Alberta

In 2006, the Province of Alberta expanded the duties[18] of the Alberta Sheriffs Branch (the successor to the former Courts and Prisoner Security agency) to include traffic enforcement, protective security and some investigation functions (Sheriffs Investigative Support Unit and Safer Communities and Neighbourhoods Unit). As of June 2008, the Alberta Sheriffs Branch traffic division includes 105 traffic sheriffs who are assigned to one of seven regions in the province. Sheriffs also assist various police services in Alberta with prisoner management.

British Columbia

The responsibilities of sheriffs in the Province of British Columbia include providing security for the Provincial Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Appeal; planning high-security trials; providing an intelligence unit; assessing threats towards public officials and those employed in the justice system; protecting judges and Crown prosecutors; managing detention cells; transporting prisoners by ground and air; managing and providing protection for juries; serving court-related documents; executing court orders and warrants; and assisting with the coroner’s court.

Nova Scotia

In the Province of Nova Scotia, the sheriffs service focuses on the safety and security of the judiciary, court staff, the public, and persons in custody. There are local sheriffs for every county in Nova Scotia, numbering over 200 in total. They work with up to 20,000 inmates and travel over 2 million kilometers in a year. Sheriffs are responsible for: court security; the transportation of prisoners to and from institutions and all levels of court; the service of some civil and criminal documents; and the execution of court orders.
[19]

United States

The office of sheriff as county official in colonial North America is recorded from the 1660s.
In the modern United States, the scope of a sheriff varies across states and counties (which in Louisiana are called “parishes” and in Alaska “boroughs”). The sheriff is most often an elected county official who serves as the chief civil-law enforcement officer of their jurisdiction. The sheriff enforces court orders and mandates and may perform duties such as evictions, seizing property and assets pursuant to court orders, and serving warrants and legal papers. In some counties where urban areas have their own police departments, a sheriff may be restricted to civil procedure enforcement duties, while in other counties, the sheriff may serve as the principal police force and have jurisdiction over all of the county’s municipalities, regardless if they have their own city or town/township police department. A sheriff often administers the county jails and is responsible for court security functions within their jurisdiction.

India

Among cities in India, only Mumbai (Bombay), Kolkata (Calcutta) and Chennai (Madras), the three former British Presidencies, have had a Sheriff. First established in the 1700s based on the English High Sheriffs, they were the executive arm of the Judiciary, responsible for assembling jurors, bringing people to trial, supervising the gaoling (imprisonment) of prisoners and seizing and selling property. After the mid-1800s the responsibilities and powers of the role were reduced and the positions became ceremonial. The Sheriffs of Mumbai and Kolkata still exist, although the post in Chennai was abolished in 1998.

In present times the sheriff has an apolitical, non-executive role, presides over various city-related functions and conferences and welcomes foreign guests. The post is second to the mayor in the protocol list.

South Africa

In South Africa, the sheriffs are officers of the court and function as the executive arm of the court. They are responsible for serving court processes like summonses and subpoenas. They play an important role in the execution of court orders like the attachments of immovable and movable property; evictions, demolitions etc.

The Sheriffs Act 90 of 1986, which came into operation on 1 March 1990, governs the profession. A sheriff is appointed by the Minister for Justice and Constitutional Development in terms of Section 2 of the Act.[20]

Related offices

Iceland

In Iceland, sýslumenn (singular sýslumaður, translated “sheriff”[by whom?]) are administrators of the state, holders of the executive power in their jurisdiction and heads of their Sheriff’s Office. Sheriffs are in charge of certain legal matters that typically involve registration of some sort and executing the orders of the court. The duties of the sheriffs differ slightly depending on their jurisdiction but they can be broadly categorised as:

  • Duties of all sheriffs: marital matters (such as general registration of marital status and performing civil marriages), statutory matters, inheritance matters and more.[21]
  • Duties of all sheriffs except in Reykjavík: collection of public fees, publication of licences and permits for various personal and business purposes and more.[22]
  • Special duties of some sheriffs: in some jurisdictions the sheriff is also the commissioner of police.[23]

There are 24 sheriffs and sheriff jurisdictions in Iceland. The jurisdictions are not defined by the administrative divisions of Iceland but are mainly a mixture of counties and municipalities.

The post of sheriff was mandated by the Old Covenant, an agreement between the Icelandic Commonwealth and the Kingdom of Norway. The agreement which was ratified between 1262 and 1264 makes the post of sheriff the oldest secular position of government still operating in Iceland.[24]

References

  1. ^ “Definition of SHRIEVALTY”..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  2. ^ “Sheriff Courts and Sheriffdoms in Scotland – Scots Law”. Kevin F Crombie. 2009. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
  3. ^ “Sheriffs – Judicial Office Holders – About the Judiciary – Judiciary of Scotland”.
  4. ^ “Online Etymology Dictionary”.
  5. ^ ab “Sheriffs – Judicial Office Holders – About the Judiciary – Judiciary of Scotland”. www.scotland-judiciary.org.uk. Judicial Office for Scotland. 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  6. ^ Judicial Office for Scotland (March 2016). “The Office of Sheriff Principal”. www.judicialappointments.scot. Judicial Appointments Board for Scotland. Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  7. ^ “Schedule 8 of Merchant Shipping Act 1995”. www.legislation.gov.uk. The National Archives. 19 July 1995. Retrieved 2 April 2017.
  8. ^ “Local Criminal Justice Boards”. www.gov.scot. Scottish Government. 3 April 2006. Retrieved 2 April 2017.
  9. ^ “Fatal Accidents and Sudden Deaths Inquiry (Scotland) Act 1976”. Legislation.gov.uk. 13 April 1976. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  10. ^ Judicial Office for Scotland. “The Office of Sheriff” (DOC). www.judicialappointments.scot. Judicial Appointments Board for Scotland. p. 9. Retrieved 4 April 2017. 34) The sheriff is required to make certain findings and is empowered to make recommendations to avoid a recurrence of the incident.
  11. ^ “Summary Sheriffs – Judicial Office Holders – About the Judiciary – Judiciary of Scotland”. www.scotland-judiciary.org.uk. Judicial Office for Scotland. 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  12. ^ Hyland, Paul. “Explainer: Who and what are Ireland’s sheriffs?”.
  13. ^ abc Sean O’Toole, The History of Australian Corrections (University of New South Wales Press, 2006) p. 48.
  14. ^ Office of the Sheriff of New South Wales, Government of New South Wales (accessed August 20, 2016).
  15. ^ Sheriffs in Victoria, Victoria Department of Justice and Regulation (accessed August 20, 2016).
  16. ^ Sheriff enforcement powers, Victoria Department of Justice and Regulation (accessed August 20, 2016).
  17. ^ General, Department of the Attorney. “Sheriff of Western Australia”.
  18. ^ “Alberta sheriffs make highway debut this weekend”. CBC. September 1, 2006. Archived from the original on July 1, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-03.
  19. ^ “Sheriff Services – novascotia.ca”.
  20. ^ “home”. www.sheriffs.org.za.
  21. ^ “Verkefni allra sýslumanna” [Tasks of all sheriffs] (in Icelandic). Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  22. ^ “Verkefni sýslumanna utan Reykjavíkur” [Tasks of sheriffs outside Reykjavík] (in Icelandic). Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  23. ^ “Sérstök verkefni sýslumanna” [Special tasks of sheriffs] (in Icelandic). Archived from the original on 29 June 2007. Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  24. ^ “Saga sýslumanna” [History of sheriffs] (in Icelandic). Retrieved 31 January 2012. Sýslumanna er fyrst getið hérlendis í einu handriti að sáttmála þeim sem Íslendingar gerðu við Noregskonung og öðlaðist staðfestingu á árunum 1262 til 1264 og síðar var nefndur Gamli sáttmáli, en með sáttmála þessum má segja að Íslendingar hafi gerst þegnar Noregskonungs. Eru sýslumenn elstu veraldlegu embættismenn sem enn starfa hérlendis og hafa alla tíð verið mikilvægur hluti stjórnsýslunnar.

External links