Is it common to refer to someone as “Prof. Dr. [LastName]”?

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31

I have generally only heard people refer to professors as either “Dr. Smith” or “Prof. Smith”. However, I received an email that referred to the keynote speakers at a conference as “Prof. Dr. Smith”. Is this common? (It is for a conference in taking place in the EU and I am from the US if that helps).

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  • 20

    It was (at least at one time) common in Germany. Herr Professor Doktor Klein. No, it is not common in the US and never was … except maybe among German Jewish immigrants arriving here during the Nazi times.

    – GEdgar
    Feb 20 at 14:37

  • 17

    Indeed very common in Germany. If somebody earned multiple doctorates, you would list each one, so you may sometimes actually find Prof. Dr. Dr. or even Prof. Dr. Dr. Dr. Also important: that only applies to actual Dr. – in Germany, it is illegal for somebody with a Ph. D. to substitute the title Dr.

    – Kevin Keane
    Feb 20 at 19:08

  • 7

    @MikeHill Ordinarily, a Ph.D. is indeed equivalent to a Dr., but not in front of the law. In Germany, it is a crime to use the title Dr. when you don’t have it – and there was a case a few years ago when somebody with a Ph.D. was convicted for using the Dr. The regulations are explicit about it. rp.baden-wuerttemberg.de/Themen/Bildung/Ausbildung/Documents/… page 6 : you cannot use a domestic title even if your foreign one is materially equivalent. You aren’t even allowed to use the German translation; you must use the original foreign-language title.

    – Kevin Keane
    Feb 20 at 20:36

  • 6

    @KevinKeane it is a crime to use the title Dr. when you don’t have it. Well, let’s say it’s a misdemeanor, or an offence. (It’s a Vergehen, not a Verbrechen.)

    – sgf
    Feb 21 at 8:15

  • 5

    @KevinKeane In your document, page 11: Danach können Inhaber des Doktorgrades „Doctor of Philosophy“, Abkürzung: „Ph.D.“ von Universitäten der sog. Carnegie-Liste anstelle der in den USA üblichen Abkürzung die Abkürzung: „Dr.“ ohne fachlichen Zusatz und ohne Herkunftsbe-zeichnung führen.

    – Shuangistan
    Feb 21 at 14:18

31

I have generally only heard people refer to professors as either “Dr. Smith” or “Prof. Smith”. However, I received an email that referred to the keynote speakers at a conference as “Prof. Dr. Smith”. Is this common? (It is for a conference in taking place in the EU and I am from the US if that helps).

share|improve this question

  • 20

    It was (at least at one time) common in Germany. Herr Professor Doktor Klein. No, it is not common in the US and never was … except maybe among German Jewish immigrants arriving here during the Nazi times.

    – GEdgar
    Feb 20 at 14:37

  • 17

    Indeed very common in Germany. If somebody earned multiple doctorates, you would list each one, so you may sometimes actually find Prof. Dr. Dr. or even Prof. Dr. Dr. Dr. Also important: that only applies to actual Dr. – in Germany, it is illegal for somebody with a Ph. D. to substitute the title Dr.

    – Kevin Keane
    Feb 20 at 19:08

  • 7

    @MikeHill Ordinarily, a Ph.D. is indeed equivalent to a Dr., but not in front of the law. In Germany, it is a crime to use the title Dr. when you don’t have it – and there was a case a few years ago when somebody with a Ph.D. was convicted for using the Dr. The regulations are explicit about it. rp.baden-wuerttemberg.de/Themen/Bildung/Ausbildung/Documents/… page 6 : you cannot use a domestic title even if your foreign one is materially equivalent. You aren’t even allowed to use the German translation; you must use the original foreign-language title.

    – Kevin Keane
    Feb 20 at 20:36

  • 6

    @KevinKeane it is a crime to use the title Dr. when you don’t have it. Well, let’s say it’s a misdemeanor, or an offence. (It’s a Vergehen, not a Verbrechen.)

    – sgf
    Feb 21 at 8:15

  • 5

    @KevinKeane In your document, page 11: Danach können Inhaber des Doktorgrades „Doctor of Philosophy“, Abkürzung: „Ph.D.“ von Universitäten der sog. Carnegie-Liste anstelle der in den USA üblichen Abkürzung die Abkürzung: „Dr.“ ohne fachlichen Zusatz und ohne Herkunftsbe-zeichnung führen.

    – Shuangistan
    Feb 21 at 14:18

31

31

31

7

I have generally only heard people refer to professors as either “Dr. Smith” or “Prof. Smith”. However, I received an email that referred to the keynote speakers at a conference as “Prof. Dr. Smith”. Is this common? (It is for a conference in taking place in the EU and I am from the US if that helps).

share|improve this question

I have generally only heard people refer to professors as either “Dr. Smith” or “Prof. Smith”. However, I received an email that referred to the keynote speakers at a conference as “Prof. Dr. Smith”. Is this common? (It is for a conference in taking place in the EU and I am from the US if that helps).

etiquette professors titles

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edited Feb 20 at 18:21

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  • 20

    It was (at least at one time) common in Germany. Herr Professor Doktor Klein. No, it is not common in the US and never was … except maybe among German Jewish immigrants arriving here during the Nazi times.

    – GEdgar
    Feb 20 at 14:37

  • 17

    Indeed very common in Germany. If somebody earned multiple doctorates, you would list each one, so you may sometimes actually find Prof. Dr. Dr. or even Prof. Dr. Dr. Dr. Also important: that only applies to actual Dr. – in Germany, it is illegal for somebody with a Ph. D. to substitute the title Dr.

    – Kevin Keane
    Feb 20 at 19:08

  • 7

    @MikeHill Ordinarily, a Ph.D. is indeed equivalent to a Dr., but not in front of the law. In Germany, it is a crime to use the title Dr. when you don’t have it – and there was a case a few years ago when somebody with a Ph.D. was convicted for using the Dr. The regulations are explicit about it. rp.baden-wuerttemberg.de/Themen/Bildung/Ausbildung/Documents/… page 6 : you cannot use a domestic title even if your foreign one is materially equivalent. You aren’t even allowed to use the German translation; you must use the original foreign-language title.

    – Kevin Keane
    Feb 20 at 20:36

  • 6

    @KevinKeane it is a crime to use the title Dr. when you don’t have it. Well, let’s say it’s a misdemeanor, or an offence. (It’s a Vergehen, not a Verbrechen.)

    – sgf
    Feb 21 at 8:15

  • 5

    @KevinKeane In your document, page 11: Danach können Inhaber des Doktorgrades „Doctor of Philosophy“, Abkürzung: „Ph.D.“ von Universitäten der sog. Carnegie-Liste anstelle der in den USA üblichen Abkürzung die Abkürzung: „Dr.“ ohne fachlichen Zusatz und ohne Herkunftsbe-zeichnung führen.

    – Shuangistan
    Feb 21 at 14:18

  • 20

    It was (at least at one time) common in Germany. Herr Professor Doktor Klein. No, it is not common in the US and never was … except maybe among German Jewish immigrants arriving here during the Nazi times.

    – GEdgar
    Feb 20 at 14:37

  • 17

    Indeed very common in Germany. If somebody earned multiple doctorates, you would list each one, so you may sometimes actually find Prof. Dr. Dr. or even Prof. Dr. Dr. Dr. Also important: that only applies to actual Dr. – in Germany, it is illegal for somebody with a Ph. D. to substitute the title Dr.

    – Kevin Keane
    Feb 20 at 19:08

  • 7

    @MikeHill Ordinarily, a Ph.D. is indeed equivalent to a Dr., but not in front of the law. In Germany, it is a crime to use the title Dr. when you don’t have it – and there was a case a few years ago when somebody with a Ph.D. was convicted for using the Dr. The regulations are explicit about it. rp.baden-wuerttemberg.de/Themen/Bildung/Ausbildung/Documents/… page 6 : you cannot use a domestic title even if your foreign one is materially equivalent. You aren’t even allowed to use the German translation; you must use the original foreign-language title.

    – Kevin Keane
    Feb 20 at 20:36

  • 6

    @KevinKeane it is a crime to use the title Dr. when you don’t have it. Well, let’s say it’s a misdemeanor, or an offence. (It’s a Vergehen, not a Verbrechen.)

    – sgf
    Feb 21 at 8:15

  • 5

    @KevinKeane In your document, page 11: Danach können Inhaber des Doktorgrades „Doctor of Philosophy“, Abkürzung: „Ph.D.“ von Universitäten der sog. Carnegie-Liste anstelle der in den USA üblichen Abkürzung die Abkürzung: „Dr.“ ohne fachlichen Zusatz und ohne Herkunftsbe-zeichnung führen.

    – Shuangistan
    Feb 21 at 14:18

20

20

It was (at least at one time) common in Germany. Herr Professor Doktor Klein. No, it is not common in the US and never was … except maybe among German Jewish immigrants arriving here during the Nazi times.

– GEdgar
Feb 20 at 14:37

It was (at least at one time) common in Germany. Herr Professor Doktor Klein. No, it is not common in the US and never was … except maybe among German Jewish immigrants arriving here during the Nazi times.

– GEdgar
Feb 20 at 14:37

17

17

Indeed very common in Germany. If somebody earned multiple doctorates, you would list each one, so you may sometimes actually find Prof. Dr. Dr. or even Prof. Dr. Dr. Dr. Also important: that only applies to actual Dr. – in Germany, it is illegal for somebody with a Ph. D. to substitute the title Dr.

– Kevin Keane
Feb 20 at 19:08

Indeed very common in Germany. If somebody earned multiple doctorates, you would list each one, so you may sometimes actually find Prof. Dr. Dr. or even Prof. Dr. Dr. Dr. Also important: that only applies to actual Dr. – in Germany, it is illegal for somebody with a Ph. D. to substitute the title Dr.

– Kevin Keane
Feb 20 at 19:08

7

7

@MikeHill Ordinarily, a Ph.D. is indeed equivalent to a Dr., but not in front of the law. In Germany, it is a crime to use the title Dr. when you don’t have it – and there was a case a few years ago when somebody with a Ph.D. was convicted for using the Dr. The regulations are explicit about it. rp.baden-wuerttemberg.de/Themen/Bildung/Ausbildung/Documents/… page 6 : you cannot use a domestic title even if your foreign one is materially equivalent. You aren’t even allowed to use the German translation; you must use the original foreign-language title.

– Kevin Keane
Feb 20 at 20:36

@MikeHill Ordinarily, a Ph.D. is indeed equivalent to a Dr., but not in front of the law. In Germany, it is a crime to use the title Dr. when you don’t have it – and there was a case a few years ago when somebody with a Ph.D. was convicted for using the Dr. The regulations are explicit about it. rp.baden-wuerttemberg.de/Themen/Bildung/Ausbildung/Documents/… page 6 : you cannot use a domestic title even if your foreign one is materially equivalent. You aren’t even allowed to use the German translation; you must use the original foreign-language title.

– Kevin Keane
Feb 20 at 20:36

6

6

@KevinKeane it is a crime to use the title Dr. when you don’t have it. Well, let’s say it’s a misdemeanor, or an offence. (It’s a Vergehen, not a Verbrechen.)

– sgf
Feb 21 at 8:15

@KevinKeane it is a crime to use the title Dr. when you don’t have it. Well, let’s say it’s a misdemeanor, or an offence. (It’s a Vergehen, not a Verbrechen.)

– sgf
Feb 21 at 8:15

5

5

@KevinKeane In your document, page 11: Danach können Inhaber des Doktorgrades „Doctor of Philosophy“, Abkürzung: „Ph.D.“ von Universitäten der sog. Carnegie-Liste anstelle der in den USA üblichen Abkürzung die Abkürzung: „Dr.“ ohne fachlichen Zusatz und ohne Herkunftsbe-zeichnung führen.

– Shuangistan
Feb 21 at 14:18

@KevinKeane In your document, page 11: Danach können Inhaber des Doktorgrades „Doctor of Philosophy“, Abkürzung: „Ph.D.“ von Universitäten der sog. Carnegie-Liste anstelle der in den USA üblichen Abkürzung die Abkürzung: „Dr.“ ohne fachlichen Zusatz und ohne Herkunftsbe-zeichnung führen.

– Shuangistan
Feb 21 at 14:18

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70

German academia traditionally expects that one will use all relevant titles, so Prof. Dr. is pretty common there. Likewise other places with an academic system related to Germany in some way. As you note, in the US this would be very uncommon and the two titles you mention often used interchangeably there, even when it isn’t clear that both apply.

And, if I remember correctly, it is always Prof. Dr. and never Dr. Prof. since the professorship was earned after the doctorate and is a “higher level” honorific. But “Herr Prof. Dr.” doesn’t fit that rule, I guess.

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  • 6

    This is also the usual form in the Netherlands. I guess this is covered by the ‘academic system related to Germany’ in so far as it’s next door.

    – mfitzp
    Feb 20 at 17:08

  • 19

    FWIW, I just randomly typed some honorifics into google and found an obituary for Prof. em. Dr. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dieter Schneider. Which tells us that Prof. Schneider was a former professor who earned one doctorate the usual way and was awarded an additional four honorary doctorates. (However, note that an obituary is of course an extremely formal situation. You would not have addressed him that way, you would have addressed him as Prof. Dr. or maybe Prof. em. Dr. if you wanted to emphasize that he is retired.)

    – Jörg W Mittag
    Feb 20 at 19:56

  • 18

    And just to add to the last comment, the commonly used formal way to list multiple honorary degrees in Germany would be Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. mult. Schneider.

    – user2705196
    Feb 20 at 20:07

  • 6

    @JörgWMittag I take it that h. c. stands for honoris causa?

    – Robert Furber
    Feb 20 at 21:04

  • 11

    I’d like to add that this is common in formal situations. I’d expect to hear “Prof. Dr. X” in the introduction of the speaker before the award lecture at a conference, but an introduction in the coffee break by a 3rd person to be maybe “Prof. X” if not Herr/Frau X. If Prof. Dr. X introduces themselves in the coffee break, that would often be a handshake with e.g. “X, angenehm” (= “X, nice [to meet you]”).

    – cbeleites
    Feb 21 at 10:19

9

Background.
In Italy, Dottore (short version dr. or dott.) refers to those who hold either a bachelor’s degree, or a graduate degree, or a Ph.D., or those who are physicians.

Reply.
Those who both serve as physicians and teach at medical school are commonly regarded as Prof. Dott. or Prof. Dr.

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    5

    Yes, it is common to use both, and the reason is that these are two completely different categories. Doctorates are academic degrees that come in different flavors including “Dr. h.c.” and “Dr. habil.”. They indicate the academic level, just like Bachelor or Master degrees. For academic degrees, you typically use all degrees on the highest level, so you don’t mention a Master degree when someone also holds a PhD, but you mention all doctorates. “Professor” on the other hand is (in almost all cases) an official title which you mention just like you would always refer to a judge as “Judge XXX”, whether or not he/she’s holds a PhD. That also explains the order: Titles come first, and you lose them when you lose the job. Degrees become part of the name (so to say, until recently, it was possible to have them on your ID card.)

    share|improve this answer

    • 14

      Common in Germany, unheard of elsewhere

      – George M
      Feb 20 at 21:52

    • 1

      @GeorgeM Also common in Belgium. Most of my professors signed everything, even their class handouts, with Prof. Dr. Ir. because they were all professors after doing a doctorate after receiving their engineering titles.

      – DonFusili
      Feb 21 at 8:15

    • 3

      @DonFusili Where have you seen this in Belgium? In my experience it is done in Dutch-speaking Belgian universities but never in French-speaking ones.

      – Arnaud D.
      Feb 21 at 11:03

    • 2

      @GeorgeM it’s common wherever Professor is not essentially a synonym for Teacher.

      – OrangeDog
      Feb 21 at 13:27

    • 5

      @OrangeDog Nope. “Prof Dr” is never used in the UK, where, in most universities, “professor” is only used for the most senior academics.

      – David Richerby
      Feb 21 at 15:14

    4

    All the other answers focus on the formal importance of titles and etiquette in German speaking countries. While refering to a person by his/her titles is normal, has not to be taken too far.

    Still the level of formality isn’t always the same. While the name and titles on a board can be meter long, normally an entitled person is approached by students as Herr/Frau followed by the most prestigious title and that suffices.

    Professor will work well in your case. And this depends on situations, too. You might be for a beer after session and call American professors by name, it could be seen bizarre to switch to professor even, not to mention Mr or Sir professor 🙂

    The language will often,if not always, be English, and somehow the level of formality goes along with.

    I have worked in Austria and visited Germany. I never heard of herr Prof. Dr. or viceversa if not in pompous presentation as in special academic events. For sure students do not approach someone using two titles.

    So there is nothing to worry about.

    Edit: driven by other answers and comments I have focused on german speaking academia. I see the Q is more general. In a way the answer is still valid as Professor serves well the purpose of directly speaking to whom has that title (for foreigners, europeans or not, in Europe). Again printed material, official listing, ecc. might well detail all the titles. So Prof. Dr. might be encountered, but it will be always in the same fashion as the OP has already experienced, namely a third person or a third inanimate thing as a board introducing you an entitled person.

    share|improve this answer

    • 1

      +1. OP mentions an email introducing the keynote speaker – in my experience that’s one of the special events where one would mention ALL titles.

      – Sabine
      Feb 21 at 11:26

    • @Sabine. Indeed I’ve formulated my answer as if the OP is going to meet a German professor in person. If it is matter of addressing in letter and email, I would write dear Professor, still. While for organizational things would be safe to list all. Though I doubt that someone sitting in Italy or America would be responsible for, say, printing the badges for a conference in Berlin. Otherwise if a I print a flyer yes, all titles needed especially if the happening is in Germany. Hope our comments complement the answer.

      – Alchimista
      Feb 21 at 11:48

    -3

    I have personally never seen Prof. Dr. X. At least from my experience Prof. is reserved for those who are teaching a course, but do not have a Ph.D. degree (graduate students teaching intro level undergrad courses) or faculty members who only have a MA/MS degree. Dr. in contrast is used for people who have a Ph.D. degree.

    share|improve this answer

    • Matter here is about persons who are professor. While in many countries a teacher can be called professor, the actual case is quite different. While a person might be called professor in german high school I have no idea. Surely at german universities a teacher is not called professor. Is not exactly but quite opposite to what your answer suggests.

      – Alchimista
      Feb 21 at 10:24

    • 2

      @Alchimista The only people called Professor in Germany are actual professors. Period. A teacher, highschool or otherwise, is never called Professor.

      – Roland
      Feb 21 at 10:32

    • Even better for the sense of my comment. @Roland

      – Alchimista
      Feb 21 at 10:35

    • 1

      In the US, grad students spend half their time trying to get first-year undergraduates to stop calling them “professor.” The title professor is not generally used for grad students or anybody who is not, in fact, a professor.

      – Zach Lipton
      Feb 21 at 10:57

    • 2

      Where are you from? In the U.S., nobody from my school calls me “Doctor”. It’s always “Professor” (unless it’s just my first name).

      – Peter Shor
      Feb 21 at 12:07

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    70

    German academia traditionally expects that one will use all relevant titles, so Prof. Dr. is pretty common there. Likewise other places with an academic system related to Germany in some way. As you note, in the US this would be very uncommon and the two titles you mention often used interchangeably there, even when it isn’t clear that both apply.

    And, if I remember correctly, it is always Prof. Dr. and never Dr. Prof. since the professorship was earned after the doctorate and is a “higher level” honorific. But “Herr Prof. Dr.” doesn’t fit that rule, I guess.

    share|improve this answer

    • 6

      This is also the usual form in the Netherlands. I guess this is covered by the ‘academic system related to Germany’ in so far as it’s next door.

      – mfitzp
      Feb 20 at 17:08

    • 19

      FWIW, I just randomly typed some honorifics into google and found an obituary for Prof. em. Dr. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dieter Schneider. Which tells us that Prof. Schneider was a former professor who earned one doctorate the usual way and was awarded an additional four honorary doctorates. (However, note that an obituary is of course an extremely formal situation. You would not have addressed him that way, you would have addressed him as Prof. Dr. or maybe Prof. em. Dr. if you wanted to emphasize that he is retired.)

      – Jörg W Mittag
      Feb 20 at 19:56

    • 18

      And just to add to the last comment, the commonly used formal way to list multiple honorary degrees in Germany would be Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. mult. Schneider.

      – user2705196
      Feb 20 at 20:07

    • 6

      @JörgWMittag I take it that h. c. stands for honoris causa?

      – Robert Furber
      Feb 20 at 21:04

    • 11

      I’d like to add that this is common in formal situations. I’d expect to hear “Prof. Dr. X” in the introduction of the speaker before the award lecture at a conference, but an introduction in the coffee break by a 3rd person to be maybe “Prof. X” if not Herr/Frau X. If Prof. Dr. X introduces themselves in the coffee break, that would often be a handshake with e.g. “X, angenehm” (= “X, nice [to meet you]”).

      – cbeleites
      Feb 21 at 10:19

    70

    German academia traditionally expects that one will use all relevant titles, so Prof. Dr. is pretty common there. Likewise other places with an academic system related to Germany in some way. As you note, in the US this would be very uncommon and the two titles you mention often used interchangeably there, even when it isn’t clear that both apply.

    And, if I remember correctly, it is always Prof. Dr. and never Dr. Prof. since the professorship was earned after the doctorate and is a “higher level” honorific. But “Herr Prof. Dr.” doesn’t fit that rule, I guess.

    share|improve this answer

    • 6

      This is also the usual form in the Netherlands. I guess this is covered by the ‘academic system related to Germany’ in so far as it’s next door.

      – mfitzp
      Feb 20 at 17:08

    • 19

      FWIW, I just randomly typed some honorifics into google and found an obituary for Prof. em. Dr. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dieter Schneider. Which tells us that Prof. Schneider was a former professor who earned one doctorate the usual way and was awarded an additional four honorary doctorates. (However, note that an obituary is of course an extremely formal situation. You would not have addressed him that way, you would have addressed him as Prof. Dr. or maybe Prof. em. Dr. if you wanted to emphasize that he is retired.)

      – Jörg W Mittag
      Feb 20 at 19:56

    • 18

      And just to add to the last comment, the commonly used formal way to list multiple honorary degrees in Germany would be Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. mult. Schneider.

      – user2705196
      Feb 20 at 20:07

    • 6

      @JörgWMittag I take it that h. c. stands for honoris causa?

      – Robert Furber
      Feb 20 at 21:04

    • 11

      I’d like to add that this is common in formal situations. I’d expect to hear “Prof. Dr. X” in the introduction of the speaker before the award lecture at a conference, but an introduction in the coffee break by a 3rd person to be maybe “Prof. X” if not Herr/Frau X. If Prof. Dr. X introduces themselves in the coffee break, that would often be a handshake with e.g. “X, angenehm” (= “X, nice [to meet you]”).

      – cbeleites
      Feb 21 at 10:19

    70

    70

    70

    German academia traditionally expects that one will use all relevant titles, so Prof. Dr. is pretty common there. Likewise other places with an academic system related to Germany in some way. As you note, in the US this would be very uncommon and the two titles you mention often used interchangeably there, even when it isn’t clear that both apply.

    And, if I remember correctly, it is always Prof. Dr. and never Dr. Prof. since the professorship was earned after the doctorate and is a “higher level” honorific. But “Herr Prof. Dr.” doesn’t fit that rule, I guess.

    share|improve this answer

    German academia traditionally expects that one will use all relevant titles, so Prof. Dr. is pretty common there. Likewise other places with an academic system related to Germany in some way. As you note, in the US this would be very uncommon and the two titles you mention often used interchangeably there, even when it isn’t clear that both apply.

    And, if I remember correctly, it is always Prof. Dr. and never Dr. Prof. since the professorship was earned after the doctorate and is a “higher level” honorific. But “Herr Prof. Dr.” doesn’t fit that rule, I guess.

    share|improve this answer

    share|improve this answer

    share|improve this answer

    answered Feb 20 at 14:38

    BuffyBuffy

    52.9k15170261

    52.9k15170261

    • 6

      This is also the usual form in the Netherlands. I guess this is covered by the ‘academic system related to Germany’ in so far as it’s next door.

      – mfitzp
      Feb 20 at 17:08

    • 19

      FWIW, I just randomly typed some honorifics into google and found an obituary for Prof. em. Dr. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dieter Schneider. Which tells us that Prof. Schneider was a former professor who earned one doctorate the usual way and was awarded an additional four honorary doctorates. (However, note that an obituary is of course an extremely formal situation. You would not have addressed him that way, you would have addressed him as Prof. Dr. or maybe Prof. em. Dr. if you wanted to emphasize that he is retired.)

      – Jörg W Mittag
      Feb 20 at 19:56

    • 18

      And just to add to the last comment, the commonly used formal way to list multiple honorary degrees in Germany would be Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. mult. Schneider.

      – user2705196
      Feb 20 at 20:07

    • 6

      @JörgWMittag I take it that h. c. stands for honoris causa?

      – Robert Furber
      Feb 20 at 21:04

    • 11

      I’d like to add that this is common in formal situations. I’d expect to hear “Prof. Dr. X” in the introduction of the speaker before the award lecture at a conference, but an introduction in the coffee break by a 3rd person to be maybe “Prof. X” if not Herr/Frau X. If Prof. Dr. X introduces themselves in the coffee break, that would often be a handshake with e.g. “X, angenehm” (= “X, nice [to meet you]”).

      – cbeleites
      Feb 21 at 10:19

    • 6

      This is also the usual form in the Netherlands. I guess this is covered by the ‘academic system related to Germany’ in so far as it’s next door.

      – mfitzp
      Feb 20 at 17:08

    • 19

      FWIW, I just randomly typed some honorifics into google and found an obituary for Prof. em. Dr. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dieter Schneider. Which tells us that Prof. Schneider was a former professor who earned one doctorate the usual way and was awarded an additional four honorary doctorates. (However, note that an obituary is of course an extremely formal situation. You would not have addressed him that way, you would have addressed him as Prof. Dr. or maybe Prof. em. Dr. if you wanted to emphasize that he is retired.)

      – Jörg W Mittag
      Feb 20 at 19:56

    • 18

      And just to add to the last comment, the commonly used formal way to list multiple honorary degrees in Germany would be Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. mult. Schneider.

      – user2705196
      Feb 20 at 20:07

    • 6

      @JörgWMittag I take it that h. c. stands for honoris causa?

      – Robert Furber
      Feb 20 at 21:04

    • 11

      I’d like to add that this is common in formal situations. I’d expect to hear “Prof. Dr. X” in the introduction of the speaker before the award lecture at a conference, but an introduction in the coffee break by a 3rd person to be maybe “Prof. X” if not Herr/Frau X. If Prof. Dr. X introduces themselves in the coffee break, that would often be a handshake with e.g. “X, angenehm” (= “X, nice [to meet you]”).

      – cbeleites
      Feb 21 at 10:19

    6

    6

    This is also the usual form in the Netherlands. I guess this is covered by the ‘academic system related to Germany’ in so far as it’s next door.

    – mfitzp
    Feb 20 at 17:08

    This is also the usual form in the Netherlands. I guess this is covered by the ‘academic system related to Germany’ in so far as it’s next door.

    – mfitzp
    Feb 20 at 17:08

    19

    19

    FWIW, I just randomly typed some honorifics into google and found an obituary for Prof. em. Dr. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dieter Schneider. Which tells us that Prof. Schneider was a former professor who earned one doctorate the usual way and was awarded an additional four honorary doctorates. (However, note that an obituary is of course an extremely formal situation. You would not have addressed him that way, you would have addressed him as Prof. Dr. or maybe Prof. em. Dr. if you wanted to emphasize that he is retired.)

    – Jörg W Mittag
    Feb 20 at 19:56

    FWIW, I just randomly typed some honorifics into google and found an obituary for Prof. em. Dr. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dr. h.c. Dieter Schneider. Which tells us that Prof. Schneider was a former professor who earned one doctorate the usual way and was awarded an additional four honorary doctorates. (However, note that an obituary is of course an extremely formal situation. You would not have addressed him that way, you would have addressed him as Prof. Dr. or maybe Prof. em. Dr. if you wanted to emphasize that he is retired.)

    – Jörg W Mittag
    Feb 20 at 19:56

    18

    18

    And just to add to the last comment, the commonly used formal way to list multiple honorary degrees in Germany would be Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. mult. Schneider.

    – user2705196
    Feb 20 at 20:07

    And just to add to the last comment, the commonly used formal way to list multiple honorary degrees in Germany would be Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. mult. Schneider.

    – user2705196
    Feb 20 at 20:07

    6

    6

    @JörgWMittag I take it that h. c. stands for honoris causa?

    – Robert Furber
    Feb 20 at 21:04

    @JörgWMittag I take it that h. c. stands for honoris causa?

    – Robert Furber
    Feb 20 at 21:04

    11

    11

    I’d like to add that this is common in formal situations. I’d expect to hear “Prof. Dr. X” in the introduction of the speaker before the award lecture at a conference, but an introduction in the coffee break by a 3rd person to be maybe “Prof. X” if not Herr/Frau X. If Prof. Dr. X introduces themselves in the coffee break, that would often be a handshake with e.g. “X, angenehm” (= “X, nice [to meet you]”).

    – cbeleites
    Feb 21 at 10:19

    I’d like to add that this is common in formal situations. I’d expect to hear “Prof. Dr. X” in the introduction of the speaker before the award lecture at a conference, but an introduction in the coffee break by a 3rd person to be maybe “Prof. X” if not Herr/Frau X. If Prof. Dr. X introduces themselves in the coffee break, that would often be a handshake with e.g. “X, angenehm” (= “X, nice [to meet you]”).

    – cbeleites
    Feb 21 at 10:19

    9

    Background.
    In Italy, Dottore (short version dr. or dott.) refers to those who hold either a bachelor’s degree, or a graduate degree, or a Ph.D., or those who are physicians.

    Reply.
    Those who both serve as physicians and teach at medical school are commonly regarded as Prof. Dott. or Prof. Dr.

    share|improve this answer

      9

      Background.
      In Italy, Dottore (short version dr. or dott.) refers to those who hold either a bachelor’s degree, or a graduate degree, or a Ph.D., or those who are physicians.

      Reply.
      Those who both serve as physicians and teach at medical school are commonly regarded as Prof. Dott. or Prof. Dr.

      share|improve this answer

        9

        9

        9

        Background.
        In Italy, Dottore (short version dr. or dott.) refers to those who hold either a bachelor’s degree, or a graduate degree, or a Ph.D., or those who are physicians.

        Reply.
        Those who both serve as physicians and teach at medical school are commonly regarded as Prof. Dott. or Prof. Dr.

        share|improve this answer

        Background.
        In Italy, Dottore (short version dr. or dott.) refers to those who hold either a bachelor’s degree, or a graduate degree, or a Ph.D., or those who are physicians.

        Reply.
        Those who both serve as physicians and teach at medical school are commonly regarded as Prof. Dott. or Prof. Dr.

        share|improve this answer

        share|improve this answer

        share|improve this answer

        answered Feb 21 at 10:29

        user3664452user3664452

        1911

        1911

            5

            Yes, it is common to use both, and the reason is that these are two completely different categories. Doctorates are academic degrees that come in different flavors including “Dr. h.c.” and “Dr. habil.”. They indicate the academic level, just like Bachelor or Master degrees. For academic degrees, you typically use all degrees on the highest level, so you don’t mention a Master degree when someone also holds a PhD, but you mention all doctorates. “Professor” on the other hand is (in almost all cases) an official title which you mention just like you would always refer to a judge as “Judge XXX”, whether or not he/she’s holds a PhD. That also explains the order: Titles come first, and you lose them when you lose the job. Degrees become part of the name (so to say, until recently, it was possible to have them on your ID card.)

            share|improve this answer

            • 14

              Common in Germany, unheard of elsewhere

              – George M
              Feb 20 at 21:52

            • 1

              @GeorgeM Also common in Belgium. Most of my professors signed everything, even their class handouts, with Prof. Dr. Ir. because they were all professors after doing a doctorate after receiving their engineering titles.

              – DonFusili
              Feb 21 at 8:15

            • 3

              @DonFusili Where have you seen this in Belgium? In my experience it is done in Dutch-speaking Belgian universities but never in French-speaking ones.

              – Arnaud D.
              Feb 21 at 11:03

            • 2

              @GeorgeM it’s common wherever Professor is not essentially a synonym for Teacher.

              – OrangeDog
              Feb 21 at 13:27

            • 5

              @OrangeDog Nope. “Prof Dr” is never used in the UK, where, in most universities, “professor” is only used for the most senior academics.

              – David Richerby
              Feb 21 at 15:14

            5

            Yes, it is common to use both, and the reason is that these are two completely different categories. Doctorates are academic degrees that come in different flavors including “Dr. h.c.” and “Dr. habil.”. They indicate the academic level, just like Bachelor or Master degrees. For academic degrees, you typically use all degrees on the highest level, so you don’t mention a Master degree when someone also holds a PhD, but you mention all doctorates. “Professor” on the other hand is (in almost all cases) an official title which you mention just like you would always refer to a judge as “Judge XXX”, whether or not he/she’s holds a PhD. That also explains the order: Titles come first, and you lose them when you lose the job. Degrees become part of the name (so to say, until recently, it was possible to have them on your ID card.)

            share|improve this answer

            • 14

              Common in Germany, unheard of elsewhere

              – George M
              Feb 20 at 21:52

            • 1

              @GeorgeM Also common in Belgium. Most of my professors signed everything, even their class handouts, with Prof. Dr. Ir. because they were all professors after doing a doctorate after receiving their engineering titles.

              – DonFusili
              Feb 21 at 8:15

            • 3

              @DonFusili Where have you seen this in Belgium? In my experience it is done in Dutch-speaking Belgian universities but never in French-speaking ones.

              – Arnaud D.
              Feb 21 at 11:03

            • 2

              @GeorgeM it’s common wherever Professor is not essentially a synonym for Teacher.

              – OrangeDog
              Feb 21 at 13:27

            • 5

              @OrangeDog Nope. “Prof Dr” is never used in the UK, where, in most universities, “professor” is only used for the most senior academics.

              – David Richerby
              Feb 21 at 15:14

            5

            5

            5

            Yes, it is common to use both, and the reason is that these are two completely different categories. Doctorates are academic degrees that come in different flavors including “Dr. h.c.” and “Dr. habil.”. They indicate the academic level, just like Bachelor or Master degrees. For academic degrees, you typically use all degrees on the highest level, so you don’t mention a Master degree when someone also holds a PhD, but you mention all doctorates. “Professor” on the other hand is (in almost all cases) an official title which you mention just like you would always refer to a judge as “Judge XXX”, whether or not he/she’s holds a PhD. That also explains the order: Titles come first, and you lose them when you lose the job. Degrees become part of the name (so to say, until recently, it was possible to have them on your ID card.)

            share|improve this answer

            Yes, it is common to use both, and the reason is that these are two completely different categories. Doctorates are academic degrees that come in different flavors including “Dr. h.c.” and “Dr. habil.”. They indicate the academic level, just like Bachelor or Master degrees. For academic degrees, you typically use all degrees on the highest level, so you don’t mention a Master degree when someone also holds a PhD, but you mention all doctorates. “Professor” on the other hand is (in almost all cases) an official title which you mention just like you would always refer to a judge as “Judge XXX”, whether or not he/she’s holds a PhD. That also explains the order: Titles come first, and you lose them when you lose the job. Degrees become part of the name (so to say, until recently, it was possible to have them on your ID card.)

            share|improve this answer

            share|improve this answer

            share|improve this answer

            answered Feb 20 at 20:21

            Bastian JBastian J

            511

            511

            • 14

              Common in Germany, unheard of elsewhere

              – George M
              Feb 20 at 21:52

            • 1

              @GeorgeM Also common in Belgium. Most of my professors signed everything, even their class handouts, with Prof. Dr. Ir. because they were all professors after doing a doctorate after receiving their engineering titles.

              – DonFusili
              Feb 21 at 8:15

            • 3

              @DonFusili Where have you seen this in Belgium? In my experience it is done in Dutch-speaking Belgian universities but never in French-speaking ones.

              – Arnaud D.
              Feb 21 at 11:03

            • 2

              @GeorgeM it’s common wherever Professor is not essentially a synonym for Teacher.

              – OrangeDog
              Feb 21 at 13:27

            • 5

              @OrangeDog Nope. “Prof Dr” is never used in the UK, where, in most universities, “professor” is only used for the most senior academics.

              – David Richerby
              Feb 21 at 15:14

            • 14

              Common in Germany, unheard of elsewhere

              – George M
              Feb 20 at 21:52

            • 1

              @GeorgeM Also common in Belgium. Most of my professors signed everything, even their class handouts, with Prof. Dr. Ir. because they were all professors after doing a doctorate after receiving their engineering titles.

              – DonFusili
              Feb 21 at 8:15

            • 3

              @DonFusili Where have you seen this in Belgium? In my experience it is done in Dutch-speaking Belgian universities but never in French-speaking ones.

              – Arnaud D.
              Feb 21 at 11:03

            • 2

              @GeorgeM it’s common wherever Professor is not essentially a synonym for Teacher.

              – OrangeDog
              Feb 21 at 13:27

            • 5

              @OrangeDog Nope. “Prof Dr” is never used in the UK, where, in most universities, “professor” is only used for the most senior academics.

              – David Richerby
              Feb 21 at 15:14

            14

            14

            Common in Germany, unheard of elsewhere

            – George M
            Feb 20 at 21:52

            Common in Germany, unheard of elsewhere

            – George M
            Feb 20 at 21:52

            1

            1

            @GeorgeM Also common in Belgium. Most of my professors signed everything, even their class handouts, with Prof. Dr. Ir. because they were all professors after doing a doctorate after receiving their engineering titles.

            – DonFusili
            Feb 21 at 8:15

            @GeorgeM Also common in Belgium. Most of my professors signed everything, even their class handouts, with Prof. Dr. Ir. because they were all professors after doing a doctorate after receiving their engineering titles.

            – DonFusili
            Feb 21 at 8:15

            3

            3

            @DonFusili Where have you seen this in Belgium? In my experience it is done in Dutch-speaking Belgian universities but never in French-speaking ones.

            – Arnaud D.
            Feb 21 at 11:03

            @DonFusili Where have you seen this in Belgium? In my experience it is done in Dutch-speaking Belgian universities but never in French-speaking ones.

            – Arnaud D.
            Feb 21 at 11:03

            2

            2

            @GeorgeM it’s common wherever Professor is not essentially a synonym for Teacher.

            – OrangeDog
            Feb 21 at 13:27

            @GeorgeM it’s common wherever Professor is not essentially a synonym for Teacher.

            – OrangeDog
            Feb 21 at 13:27

            5

            5

            @OrangeDog Nope. “Prof Dr” is never used in the UK, where, in most universities, “professor” is only used for the most senior academics.

            – David Richerby
            Feb 21 at 15:14

            @OrangeDog Nope. “Prof Dr” is never used in the UK, where, in most universities, “professor” is only used for the most senior academics.

            – David Richerby
            Feb 21 at 15:14

            4

            All the other answers focus on the formal importance of titles and etiquette in German speaking countries. While refering to a person by his/her titles is normal, has not to be taken too far.

            Still the level of formality isn’t always the same. While the name and titles on a board can be meter long, normally an entitled person is approached by students as Herr/Frau followed by the most prestigious title and that suffices.

            Professor will work well in your case. And this depends on situations, too. You might be for a beer after session and call American professors by name, it could be seen bizarre to switch to professor even, not to mention Mr or Sir professor 🙂

            The language will often,if not always, be English, and somehow the level of formality goes along with.

            I have worked in Austria and visited Germany. I never heard of herr Prof. Dr. or viceversa if not in pompous presentation as in special academic events. For sure students do not approach someone using two titles.

            So there is nothing to worry about.

            Edit: driven by other answers and comments I have focused on german speaking academia. I see the Q is more general. In a way the answer is still valid as Professor serves well the purpose of directly speaking to whom has that title (for foreigners, europeans or not, in Europe). Again printed material, official listing, ecc. might well detail all the titles. So Prof. Dr. might be encountered, but it will be always in the same fashion as the OP has already experienced, namely a third person or a third inanimate thing as a board introducing you an entitled person.

            share|improve this answer

            • 1

              +1. OP mentions an email introducing the keynote speaker – in my experience that’s one of the special events where one would mention ALL titles.

              – Sabine
              Feb 21 at 11:26

            • @Sabine. Indeed I’ve formulated my answer as if the OP is going to meet a German professor in person. If it is matter of addressing in letter and email, I would write dear Professor, still. While for organizational things would be safe to list all. Though I doubt that someone sitting in Italy or America would be responsible for, say, printing the badges for a conference in Berlin. Otherwise if a I print a flyer yes, all titles needed especially if the happening is in Germany. Hope our comments complement the answer.

              – Alchimista
              Feb 21 at 11:48

            4

            All the other answers focus on the formal importance of titles and etiquette in German speaking countries. While refering to a person by his/her titles is normal, has not to be taken too far.

            Still the level of formality isn’t always the same. While the name and titles on a board can be meter long, normally an entitled person is approached by students as Herr/Frau followed by the most prestigious title and that suffices.

            Professor will work well in your case. And this depends on situations, too. You might be for a beer after session and call American professors by name, it could be seen bizarre to switch to professor even, not to mention Mr or Sir professor 🙂

            The language will often,if not always, be English, and somehow the level of formality goes along with.

            I have worked in Austria and visited Germany. I never heard of herr Prof. Dr. or viceversa if not in pompous presentation as in special academic events. For sure students do not approach someone using two titles.

            So there is nothing to worry about.

            Edit: driven by other answers and comments I have focused on german speaking academia. I see the Q is more general. In a way the answer is still valid as Professor serves well the purpose of directly speaking to whom has that title (for foreigners, europeans or not, in Europe). Again printed material, official listing, ecc. might well detail all the titles. So Prof. Dr. might be encountered, but it will be always in the same fashion as the OP has already experienced, namely a third person or a third inanimate thing as a board introducing you an entitled person.

            share|improve this answer

            • 1

              +1. OP mentions an email introducing the keynote speaker – in my experience that’s one of the special events where one would mention ALL titles.

              – Sabine
              Feb 21 at 11:26

            • @Sabine. Indeed I’ve formulated my answer as if the OP is going to meet a German professor in person. If it is matter of addressing in letter and email, I would write dear Professor, still. While for organizational things would be safe to list all. Though I doubt that someone sitting in Italy or America would be responsible for, say, printing the badges for a conference in Berlin. Otherwise if a I print a flyer yes, all titles needed especially if the happening is in Germany. Hope our comments complement the answer.

              – Alchimista
              Feb 21 at 11:48

            4

            4

            4

            All the other answers focus on the formal importance of titles and etiquette in German speaking countries. While refering to a person by his/her titles is normal, has not to be taken too far.

            Still the level of formality isn’t always the same. While the name and titles on a board can be meter long, normally an entitled person is approached by students as Herr/Frau followed by the most prestigious title and that suffices.

            Professor will work well in your case. And this depends on situations, too. You might be for a beer after session and call American professors by name, it could be seen bizarre to switch to professor even, not to mention Mr or Sir professor 🙂

            The language will often,if not always, be English, and somehow the level of formality goes along with.

            I have worked in Austria and visited Germany. I never heard of herr Prof. Dr. or viceversa if not in pompous presentation as in special academic events. For sure students do not approach someone using two titles.

            So there is nothing to worry about.

            Edit: driven by other answers and comments I have focused on german speaking academia. I see the Q is more general. In a way the answer is still valid as Professor serves well the purpose of directly speaking to whom has that title (for foreigners, europeans or not, in Europe). Again printed material, official listing, ecc. might well detail all the titles. So Prof. Dr. might be encountered, but it will be always in the same fashion as the OP has already experienced, namely a third person or a third inanimate thing as a board introducing you an entitled person.

            share|improve this answer

            All the other answers focus on the formal importance of titles and etiquette in German speaking countries. While refering to a person by his/her titles is normal, has not to be taken too far.

            Still the level of formality isn’t always the same. While the name and titles on a board can be meter long, normally an entitled person is approached by students as Herr/Frau followed by the most prestigious title and that suffices.

            Professor will work well in your case. And this depends on situations, too. You might be for a beer after session and call American professors by name, it could be seen bizarre to switch to professor even, not to mention Mr or Sir professor 🙂

            The language will often,if not always, be English, and somehow the level of formality goes along with.

            I have worked in Austria and visited Germany. I never heard of herr Prof. Dr. or viceversa if not in pompous presentation as in special academic events. For sure students do not approach someone using two titles.

            So there is nothing to worry about.

            Edit: driven by other answers and comments I have focused on german speaking academia. I see the Q is more general. In a way the answer is still valid as Professor serves well the purpose of directly speaking to whom has that title (for foreigners, europeans or not, in Europe). Again printed material, official listing, ecc. might well detail all the titles. So Prof. Dr. might be encountered, but it will be always in the same fashion as the OP has already experienced, namely a third person or a third inanimate thing as a board introducing you an entitled person.

            share|improve this answer

            share|improve this answer

            share|improve this answer

            edited Feb 21 at 12:03

            answered Feb 21 at 10:18

            AlchimistaAlchimista

            31026

            31026

            • 1

              +1. OP mentions an email introducing the keynote speaker – in my experience that’s one of the special events where one would mention ALL titles.

              – Sabine
              Feb 21 at 11:26

            • @Sabine. Indeed I’ve formulated my answer as if the OP is going to meet a German professor in person. If it is matter of addressing in letter and email, I would write dear Professor, still. While for organizational things would be safe to list all. Though I doubt that someone sitting in Italy or America would be responsible for, say, printing the badges for a conference in Berlin. Otherwise if a I print a flyer yes, all titles needed especially if the happening is in Germany. Hope our comments complement the answer.

              – Alchimista
              Feb 21 at 11:48

            • 1

              +1. OP mentions an email introducing the keynote speaker – in my experience that’s one of the special events where one would mention ALL titles.

              – Sabine
              Feb 21 at 11:26

            • @Sabine. Indeed I’ve formulated my answer as if the OP is going to meet a German professor in person. If it is matter of addressing in letter and email, I would write dear Professor, still. While for organizational things would be safe to list all. Though I doubt that someone sitting in Italy or America would be responsible for, say, printing the badges for a conference in Berlin. Otherwise if a I print a flyer yes, all titles needed especially if the happening is in Germany. Hope our comments complement the answer.

              – Alchimista
              Feb 21 at 11:48

            1

            1

            +1. OP mentions an email introducing the keynote speaker – in my experience that’s one of the special events where one would mention ALL titles.

            – Sabine
            Feb 21 at 11:26

            +1. OP mentions an email introducing the keynote speaker – in my experience that’s one of the special events where one would mention ALL titles.

            – Sabine
            Feb 21 at 11:26

            @Sabine. Indeed I’ve formulated my answer as if the OP is going to meet a German professor in person. If it is matter of addressing in letter and email, I would write dear Professor, still. While for organizational things would be safe to list all. Though I doubt that someone sitting in Italy or America would be responsible for, say, printing the badges for a conference in Berlin. Otherwise if a I print a flyer yes, all titles needed especially if the happening is in Germany. Hope our comments complement the answer.

            – Alchimista
            Feb 21 at 11:48

            @Sabine. Indeed I’ve formulated my answer as if the OP is going to meet a German professor in person. If it is matter of addressing in letter and email, I would write dear Professor, still. While for organizational things would be safe to list all. Though I doubt that someone sitting in Italy or America would be responsible for, say, printing the badges for a conference in Berlin. Otherwise if a I print a flyer yes, all titles needed especially if the happening is in Germany. Hope our comments complement the answer.

            – Alchimista
            Feb 21 at 11:48

            -3

            I have personally never seen Prof. Dr. X. At least from my experience Prof. is reserved for those who are teaching a course, but do not have a Ph.D. degree (graduate students teaching intro level undergrad courses) or faculty members who only have a MA/MS degree. Dr. in contrast is used for people who have a Ph.D. degree.

            share|improve this answer

            • Matter here is about persons who are professor. While in many countries a teacher can be called professor, the actual case is quite different. While a person might be called professor in german high school I have no idea. Surely at german universities a teacher is not called professor. Is not exactly but quite opposite to what your answer suggests.

              – Alchimista
              Feb 21 at 10:24

            • 2

              @Alchimista The only people called Professor in Germany are actual professors. Period. A teacher, highschool or otherwise, is never called Professor.

              – Roland
              Feb 21 at 10:32

            • Even better for the sense of my comment. @Roland

              – Alchimista
              Feb 21 at 10:35

            • 1

              In the US, grad students spend half their time trying to get first-year undergraduates to stop calling them “professor.” The title professor is not generally used for grad students or anybody who is not, in fact, a professor.

              – Zach Lipton
              Feb 21 at 10:57

            • 2

              Where are you from? In the U.S., nobody from my school calls me “Doctor”. It’s always “Professor” (unless it’s just my first name).

              – Peter Shor
              Feb 21 at 12:07

            -3

            I have personally never seen Prof. Dr. X. At least from my experience Prof. is reserved for those who are teaching a course, but do not have a Ph.D. degree (graduate students teaching intro level undergrad courses) or faculty members who only have a MA/MS degree. Dr. in contrast is used for people who have a Ph.D. degree.

            share|improve this answer

            • Matter here is about persons who are professor. While in many countries a teacher can be called professor, the actual case is quite different. While a person might be called professor in german high school I have no idea. Surely at german universities a teacher is not called professor. Is not exactly but quite opposite to what your answer suggests.

              – Alchimista
              Feb 21 at 10:24

            • 2

              @Alchimista The only people called Professor in Germany are actual professors. Period. A teacher, highschool or otherwise, is never called Professor.

              – Roland
              Feb 21 at 10:32

            • Even better for the sense of my comment. @Roland

              – Alchimista
              Feb 21 at 10:35

            • 1

              In the US, grad students spend half their time trying to get first-year undergraduates to stop calling them “professor.” The title professor is not generally used for grad students or anybody who is not, in fact, a professor.

              – Zach Lipton
              Feb 21 at 10:57

            • 2

              Where are you from? In the U.S., nobody from my school calls me “Doctor”. It’s always “Professor” (unless it’s just my first name).

              – Peter Shor
              Feb 21 at 12:07

            -3

            -3

            -3

            I have personally never seen Prof. Dr. X. At least from my experience Prof. is reserved for those who are teaching a course, but do not have a Ph.D. degree (graduate students teaching intro level undergrad courses) or faculty members who only have a MA/MS degree. Dr. in contrast is used for people who have a Ph.D. degree.

            share|improve this answer

            I have personally never seen Prof. Dr. X. At least from my experience Prof. is reserved for those who are teaching a course, but do not have a Ph.D. degree (graduate students teaching intro level undergrad courses) or faculty members who only have a MA/MS degree. Dr. in contrast is used for people who have a Ph.D. degree.

            share|improve this answer

            share|improve this answer

            share|improve this answer

            answered Feb 21 at 6:18

            MeowsMeows

            283

            283

            • Matter here is about persons who are professor. While in many countries a teacher can be called professor, the actual case is quite different. While a person might be called professor in german high school I have no idea. Surely at german universities a teacher is not called professor. Is not exactly but quite opposite to what your answer suggests.

              – Alchimista
              Feb 21 at 10:24

            • 2

              @Alchimista The only people called Professor in Germany are actual professors. Period. A teacher, highschool or otherwise, is never called Professor.

              – Roland
              Feb 21 at 10:32

            • Even better for the sense of my comment. @Roland

              – Alchimista
              Feb 21 at 10:35

            • 1

              In the US, grad students spend half their time trying to get first-year undergraduates to stop calling them “professor.” The title professor is not generally used for grad students or anybody who is not, in fact, a professor.

              – Zach Lipton
              Feb 21 at 10:57

            • 2

              Where are you from? In the U.S., nobody from my school calls me “Doctor”. It’s always “Professor” (unless it’s just my first name).

              – Peter Shor
              Feb 21 at 12:07

            • Matter here is about persons who are professor. While in many countries a teacher can be called professor, the actual case is quite different. While a person might be called professor in german high school I have no idea. Surely at german universities a teacher is not called professor. Is not exactly but quite opposite to what your answer suggests.

              – Alchimista
              Feb 21 at 10:24

            • 2

              @Alchimista The only people called Professor in Germany are actual professors. Period. A teacher, highschool or otherwise, is never called Professor.

              – Roland
              Feb 21 at 10:32

            • Even better for the sense of my comment. @Roland

              – Alchimista
              Feb 21 at 10:35

            • 1

              In the US, grad students spend half their time trying to get first-year undergraduates to stop calling them “professor.” The title professor is not generally used for grad students or anybody who is not, in fact, a professor.

              – Zach Lipton
              Feb 21 at 10:57

            • 2

              Where are you from? In the U.S., nobody from my school calls me “Doctor”. It’s always “Professor” (unless it’s just my first name).

              – Peter Shor
              Feb 21 at 12:07

            Matter here is about persons who are professor. While in many countries a teacher can be called professor, the actual case is quite different. While a person might be called professor in german high school I have no idea. Surely at german universities a teacher is not called professor. Is not exactly but quite opposite to what your answer suggests.

            – Alchimista
            Feb 21 at 10:24

            Matter here is about persons who are professor. While in many countries a teacher can be called professor, the actual case is quite different. While a person might be called professor in german high school I have no idea. Surely at german universities a teacher is not called professor. Is not exactly but quite opposite to what your answer suggests.

            – Alchimista
            Feb 21 at 10:24

            2

            2

            @Alchimista The only people called Professor in Germany are actual professors. Period. A teacher, highschool or otherwise, is never called Professor.

            – Roland
            Feb 21 at 10:32

            @Alchimista The only people called Professor in Germany are actual professors. Period. A teacher, highschool or otherwise, is never called Professor.

            – Roland
            Feb 21 at 10:32

            Even better for the sense of my comment. @Roland

            – Alchimista
            Feb 21 at 10:35

            Even better for the sense of my comment. @Roland

            – Alchimista
            Feb 21 at 10:35

            1

            1

            In the US, grad students spend half their time trying to get first-year undergraduates to stop calling them “professor.” The title professor is not generally used for grad students or anybody who is not, in fact, a professor.

            – Zach Lipton
            Feb 21 at 10:57

            In the US, grad students spend half their time trying to get first-year undergraduates to stop calling them “professor.” The title professor is not generally used for grad students or anybody who is not, in fact, a professor.

            – Zach Lipton
            Feb 21 at 10:57

            2

            2

            Where are you from? In the U.S., nobody from my school calls me “Doctor”. It’s always “Professor” (unless it’s just my first name).

            – Peter Shor
            Feb 21 at 12:07

            Where are you from? In the U.S., nobody from my school calls me “Doctor”. It’s always “Professor” (unless it’s just my first name).

            – Peter Shor
            Feb 21 at 12:07

            protected by Alexandros Feb 21 at 22:22

            Thank you for your interest in this question.
            Because it has attracted low-quality or spam answers that had to be removed, posting an answer now requires 10 reputation on this site (the association bonus does not count).

            Would you like to answer one of these unanswered questions instead?

            Preceptor

            A preceptor (Turkic-Persian Ataaleeq) is a teacher responsible to uphold a certain law or tradition, a precept.

            Contents

            • 1 Christian military orders
            • 2 Freemasonry
            • 3 Music
            • 4 Education
            • 5 Health
            • 6 References
            • 7 External links

            Christian military orders

            A preceptor was historically in charge of a preceptory, the headquarters of certain orders of monastic knights, such as the Knights Hospitaller and Knights Templar, within a given geographical area.[1] The preceptor had supreme control of his brethren and was only answerable to the grand master of his particular order. A preceptory’s main focus would be its church and accommodation for the brethren.

            Examples include the Hospitaller Torphichen Preceptory in West Lothian, Scotland; West Peckham Preceptory in West Peckham, England and the Templar Aslackby Preceptory in Lincolnshire, Keele Preceptory in Staffordshire and Temple, Midlothian.

            Freemasonry

            Within modern-day Freemasonry the preceptor is the head of a lodge of instruction.[2] Such lodges operate within a geographical area and provide training in the performance of the order’s ritual for members of the order. The preceptor is an elected position and is usually a Freemason who has spent several years as a director of ceremonies in his local lodge and is considered an expert in the ritual of the order.

            In English Freemasonry, the Preceptor of the lodge is usually appointed by the Master. His main responsibility is to prompt those masons who have forgotten their words. Some lodges, and some preceptors, take his theoretical status as a teacher more seriously than others.

            Music

            Musically, the title preceptor usually refers to a monk responsible for making music in a monastery. He trained the monks in the traditions of plainchant for daily services and prayers.

            Education

            Some North American universities have a special student position called preceptor. Preceptors are student volunteers who assist the staff professor and teaching assistants of a large lecture class by helping design certain lessons and holding his or her own office hours and review sessions. In some cases, volunteers are required to take an outside class focused on leadership development, where the final grade is determined by both the lecture professor and leadership development teacher. Thus, the preceptor earns credit for his or her preceptorship. It is considered a good leadership experience and reflects well on the student in his or her transcript. Preceptor can also refer to a paid student grader.[citation needed]

            At some universities, including Harvard, Cambridge and Oxford, “preceptors” are not students at all but faculty members teaching courses in writing, music, mathematics, languages, and the life sciences. In some departments they are not tenured faculty but rather non-ladder faculty (generally PhDs) who help administer and run the course, especially with the larger ones. Harvard preceptors, who teach introductory writing, have included New Yorker staff writer George Packer, novelist Tom Perrotta, former Globe music critic Richard Dyer and poet Dan Chiasson.[citation needed] At Columbia University, on the other hand, “preceptors” are senior graduate students who, along with senior faculty, teach courses on “Literature Humanities” and “Contemporary Civilization”. The title is also used to refer to teaching assistants at Princeton, who are typically graduate students.

            At Elon University School of Law, a preceptor is an attorney who mentors two or three first-year law students.

            Health

            In medicine, allied health, midwifery, paramedicine, pharmacy and nursing education, a preceptor is a skilled practitioner or faculty member who supervises students in a clinical setting to allow practical experience with patients.[3][4]

            References

            1. ^ Zsolt Hunyadi, József Laszlovszky, The Crusades and the Military Orders: Expanding the Frontiers of Medieval Latin Christianity (Budapest, 2001), pp. 235, 270
            2. ^ Arthur Edward Waite, A New Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Volume 1 (New York: Cosimo, 2007), p. xxi
            3. ^ Florence Myrick, Olive Yonge, Nursing Preceptorship: Connecting Practice and Education (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005), p. 4
            4. ^ Mercer, C (28 May 2018). “Family medicine faces shortage of doctors willing to teach”. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l’Association medicale canadienne. 190 (21): E666. doi:10.1503/cmaj.109-5604. PMC 5973894. PMID 29807944..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}

            External links

            • http://etcweb.princeton.edu/CampusWWW/Companion/preceptorial_method.html
            • http://www.elon.edu/e-web/law/academics/PreceptorProgram.xhtml
            • http://www.elon.edu/e-web/law/leadership/preceptor.xhtml

            Figure and subfigures titles should be left justified

            The name of the pictureThe name of the pictureThe name of the pictureClash Royale CLAN TAG#URR8PPP

            2

            Could you please give me some advice about this situation?
            Thank you so much.

            I would like to move all the titles to the left.

            But if we want to draw the following figure with 2 subfigures then we have to use packages “caption” and “subcaption”, but these two packages will not allow us to move all the figure titles to the left.


            documentclass[smallextended,referee,envcountsect]{svjour3}
            smartqed
            usepackage{graphicx}
            usepackage[hyperfootnotes=false]{hyperref}
            hypersetup{colorlinks=true,citecolor=blue,linkcolor=blue,urlcolor=blue}
            usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra,amssymb,latexsym,amsfonts,amscd}
            usepackage{multicol,color}
            usepackage{float}
            usepackage{soul}
            usepackage{graphicx}
            usepackage{caption}
            usepackage{subcaption}
            usepackage{pstricks-add}
            usepackage{pgf,tikz}
            usepackage{mathrsfs}
            usetikzlibrary{arrows}
            usepackage{amssymb}
            usepackage{theorem}
            usepackage{fancyhdr}
            
            usepackage{tikz}
            usepackage{enumerate}
            usepackage[margin=1.1in]{geometry}
            parskip 5pt
            fancyfoot[C]{thepage}
            setlength{textwidth}{6.31in}setlength{topmargin}{-0.25in}
            setlength{textheight}{9.2in}setlength{oddsidemargin}{0in}
            renewcommand{baselinestretch}{1.1}
            renewcommand{headrulewidth}{0pt}
            renewcommand{footrulewidth}{0pt}
            defdisp{displaystyle}
            begin{document}
            
            begin{center}
            begin{figure}[!tbp]
            begin{subfigure}[b]{0.45textwidth}
            definecolor{uuuuuu}{rgb}{0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666}
            definecolor{zzttqq}{rgb}{0.6,0.2,0.}
            definecolor{ududff}{rgb}{0.30196078431372547,0.30196078431372547,1.}
            begin{tikzpicture}[line cap=round,line join=round,>=triangle 45,x=0.75cm,y=0.75cm]
            clip(-5.039786976492287,-4.976475903092999) rectangle (5.225636493163389,4.854891605900701);
            fill[line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq,fill=zzttqq,fill opacity=0.10000000149011612] (-2.9782972019669014,-3.011675055168333) -- (3.0217027980330986,-3.011675055168333) -- (3.021702798033099,2.9883249448316658) -- (-2.9782972019669005,2.988324944831667) -- cycle;
            draw [line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq] (-2.9782972019669014,-3.011675055168333)-- (3.0217027980330986,-3.011675055168333);
            draw [line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq] (3.0217027980330986,-3.011675055168333)-- (3.021702798033099,2.9883249448316658);
            draw [line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq] (3.021702798033099,2.9883249448316658)-- (-2.9782972019669005,2.988324944831667);
            draw [line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq] (-2.9782972019669005,2.988324944831667)-- (-2.9782972019669014,-3.011675055168333);
            begin{scriptsize}
            draw [fill=ududff] (-2.9782972019669014,-3.011675055168333) circle (2.5pt);
            draw [fill=ududff] (3.0217027980330986,-3.011675055168333) circle (2.5pt);
            draw [fill=uuuuuu] (3.021702798033099,2.9883249448316658) circle (2.5pt);
            draw [fill=uuuuuu] (-2.9782972019669005,2.988324944831667) circle (2.5pt);
            end{scriptsize}
            end{tikzpicture}
            vspace*{-0.1in}
            caption{bf This is a square.}
            label{picnew}
            end{subfigure}
            hfill
            begin{subfigure}[b]{0.45textwidth}
            definecolor{uuuuuu}{rgb}{0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666}
            begin{tikzpicture}[line cap=round,line join=round,>=triangle 45,x=0.4cm,y=0.4cm]
            clip(-10.437883908168581,-9.13468903671252) rectangle (10.578095056602637,9.583415234871898);
            draw [line width=2.pt] (0.,0.) circle (2.4cm);
            begin{scriptsize}
            draw [fill=uuuuuu] (0.,0.) circle (2.0pt);
            end{scriptsize}
            end{tikzpicture}
            vspace*{-0.1in}
            caption{bf This is a circle.}
            label{pic2a*}
            end{subfigure}
            caption{bf Geometry.}
            end{figure}
            end{center}
            
            end{document}
            

            share|improve this question

            • Unrelated to your problem, most likely, but you’re loading hyperref ways too early.

              – Christian Hupfer
              Feb 4 at 8:46

            2

            Could you please give me some advice about this situation?
            Thank you so much.

            I would like to move all the titles to the left.

            But if we want to draw the following figure with 2 subfigures then we have to use packages “caption” and “subcaption”, but these two packages will not allow us to move all the figure titles to the left.


            documentclass[smallextended,referee,envcountsect]{svjour3}
            smartqed
            usepackage{graphicx}
            usepackage[hyperfootnotes=false]{hyperref}
            hypersetup{colorlinks=true,citecolor=blue,linkcolor=blue,urlcolor=blue}
            usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra,amssymb,latexsym,amsfonts,amscd}
            usepackage{multicol,color}
            usepackage{float}
            usepackage{soul}
            usepackage{graphicx}
            usepackage{caption}
            usepackage{subcaption}
            usepackage{pstricks-add}
            usepackage{pgf,tikz}
            usepackage{mathrsfs}
            usetikzlibrary{arrows}
            usepackage{amssymb}
            usepackage{theorem}
            usepackage{fancyhdr}
            
            usepackage{tikz}
            usepackage{enumerate}
            usepackage[margin=1.1in]{geometry}
            parskip 5pt
            fancyfoot[C]{thepage}
            setlength{textwidth}{6.31in}setlength{topmargin}{-0.25in}
            setlength{textheight}{9.2in}setlength{oddsidemargin}{0in}
            renewcommand{baselinestretch}{1.1}
            renewcommand{headrulewidth}{0pt}
            renewcommand{footrulewidth}{0pt}
            defdisp{displaystyle}
            begin{document}
            
            begin{center}
            begin{figure}[!tbp]
            begin{subfigure}[b]{0.45textwidth}
            definecolor{uuuuuu}{rgb}{0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666}
            definecolor{zzttqq}{rgb}{0.6,0.2,0.}
            definecolor{ududff}{rgb}{0.30196078431372547,0.30196078431372547,1.}
            begin{tikzpicture}[line cap=round,line join=round,>=triangle 45,x=0.75cm,y=0.75cm]
            clip(-5.039786976492287,-4.976475903092999) rectangle (5.225636493163389,4.854891605900701);
            fill[line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq,fill=zzttqq,fill opacity=0.10000000149011612] (-2.9782972019669014,-3.011675055168333) -- (3.0217027980330986,-3.011675055168333) -- (3.021702798033099,2.9883249448316658) -- (-2.9782972019669005,2.988324944831667) -- cycle;
            draw [line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq] (-2.9782972019669014,-3.011675055168333)-- (3.0217027980330986,-3.011675055168333);
            draw [line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq] (3.0217027980330986,-3.011675055168333)-- (3.021702798033099,2.9883249448316658);
            draw [line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq] (3.021702798033099,2.9883249448316658)-- (-2.9782972019669005,2.988324944831667);
            draw [line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq] (-2.9782972019669005,2.988324944831667)-- (-2.9782972019669014,-3.011675055168333);
            begin{scriptsize}
            draw [fill=ududff] (-2.9782972019669014,-3.011675055168333) circle (2.5pt);
            draw [fill=ududff] (3.0217027980330986,-3.011675055168333) circle (2.5pt);
            draw [fill=uuuuuu] (3.021702798033099,2.9883249448316658) circle (2.5pt);
            draw [fill=uuuuuu] (-2.9782972019669005,2.988324944831667) circle (2.5pt);
            end{scriptsize}
            end{tikzpicture}
            vspace*{-0.1in}
            caption{bf This is a square.}
            label{picnew}
            end{subfigure}
            hfill
            begin{subfigure}[b]{0.45textwidth}
            definecolor{uuuuuu}{rgb}{0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666}
            begin{tikzpicture}[line cap=round,line join=round,>=triangle 45,x=0.4cm,y=0.4cm]
            clip(-10.437883908168581,-9.13468903671252) rectangle (10.578095056602637,9.583415234871898);
            draw [line width=2.pt] (0.,0.) circle (2.4cm);
            begin{scriptsize}
            draw [fill=uuuuuu] (0.,0.) circle (2.0pt);
            end{scriptsize}
            end{tikzpicture}
            vspace*{-0.1in}
            caption{bf This is a circle.}
            label{pic2a*}
            end{subfigure}
            caption{bf Geometry.}
            end{figure}
            end{center}
            
            end{document}
            

            share|improve this question

            • Unrelated to your problem, most likely, but you’re loading hyperref ways too early.

              – Christian Hupfer
              Feb 4 at 8:46

            2

            2

            2

            0

            Could you please give me some advice about this situation?
            Thank you so much.

            I would like to move all the titles to the left.

            But if we want to draw the following figure with 2 subfigures then we have to use packages “caption” and “subcaption”, but these two packages will not allow us to move all the figure titles to the left.


            documentclass[smallextended,referee,envcountsect]{svjour3}
            smartqed
            usepackage{graphicx}
            usepackage[hyperfootnotes=false]{hyperref}
            hypersetup{colorlinks=true,citecolor=blue,linkcolor=blue,urlcolor=blue}
            usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra,amssymb,latexsym,amsfonts,amscd}
            usepackage{multicol,color}
            usepackage{float}
            usepackage{soul}
            usepackage{graphicx}
            usepackage{caption}
            usepackage{subcaption}
            usepackage{pstricks-add}
            usepackage{pgf,tikz}
            usepackage{mathrsfs}
            usetikzlibrary{arrows}
            usepackage{amssymb}
            usepackage{theorem}
            usepackage{fancyhdr}
            
            usepackage{tikz}
            usepackage{enumerate}
            usepackage[margin=1.1in]{geometry}
            parskip 5pt
            fancyfoot[C]{thepage}
            setlength{textwidth}{6.31in}setlength{topmargin}{-0.25in}
            setlength{textheight}{9.2in}setlength{oddsidemargin}{0in}
            renewcommand{baselinestretch}{1.1}
            renewcommand{headrulewidth}{0pt}
            renewcommand{footrulewidth}{0pt}
            defdisp{displaystyle}
            begin{document}
            
            begin{center}
            begin{figure}[!tbp]
            begin{subfigure}[b]{0.45textwidth}
            definecolor{uuuuuu}{rgb}{0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666}
            definecolor{zzttqq}{rgb}{0.6,0.2,0.}
            definecolor{ududff}{rgb}{0.30196078431372547,0.30196078431372547,1.}
            begin{tikzpicture}[line cap=round,line join=round,>=triangle 45,x=0.75cm,y=0.75cm]
            clip(-5.039786976492287,-4.976475903092999) rectangle (5.225636493163389,4.854891605900701);
            fill[line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq,fill=zzttqq,fill opacity=0.10000000149011612] (-2.9782972019669014,-3.011675055168333) -- (3.0217027980330986,-3.011675055168333) -- (3.021702798033099,2.9883249448316658) -- (-2.9782972019669005,2.988324944831667) -- cycle;
            draw [line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq] (-2.9782972019669014,-3.011675055168333)-- (3.0217027980330986,-3.011675055168333);
            draw [line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq] (3.0217027980330986,-3.011675055168333)-- (3.021702798033099,2.9883249448316658);
            draw [line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq] (3.021702798033099,2.9883249448316658)-- (-2.9782972019669005,2.988324944831667);
            draw [line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq] (-2.9782972019669005,2.988324944831667)-- (-2.9782972019669014,-3.011675055168333);
            begin{scriptsize}
            draw [fill=ududff] (-2.9782972019669014,-3.011675055168333) circle (2.5pt);
            draw [fill=ududff] (3.0217027980330986,-3.011675055168333) circle (2.5pt);
            draw [fill=uuuuuu] (3.021702798033099,2.9883249448316658) circle (2.5pt);
            draw [fill=uuuuuu] (-2.9782972019669005,2.988324944831667) circle (2.5pt);
            end{scriptsize}
            end{tikzpicture}
            vspace*{-0.1in}
            caption{bf This is a square.}
            label{picnew}
            end{subfigure}
            hfill
            begin{subfigure}[b]{0.45textwidth}
            definecolor{uuuuuu}{rgb}{0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666}
            begin{tikzpicture}[line cap=round,line join=round,>=triangle 45,x=0.4cm,y=0.4cm]
            clip(-10.437883908168581,-9.13468903671252) rectangle (10.578095056602637,9.583415234871898);
            draw [line width=2.pt] (0.,0.) circle (2.4cm);
            begin{scriptsize}
            draw [fill=uuuuuu] (0.,0.) circle (2.0pt);
            end{scriptsize}
            end{tikzpicture}
            vspace*{-0.1in}
            caption{bf This is a circle.}
            label{pic2a*}
            end{subfigure}
            caption{bf Geometry.}
            end{figure}
            end{center}
            
            end{document}
            

            share|improve this question

            Could you please give me some advice about this situation?
            Thank you so much.

            I would like to move all the titles to the left.

            But if we want to draw the following figure with 2 subfigures then we have to use packages “caption” and “subcaption”, but these two packages will not allow us to move all the figure titles to the left.


            documentclass[smallextended,referee,envcountsect]{svjour3}
            smartqed
            usepackage{graphicx}
            usepackage[hyperfootnotes=false]{hyperref}
            hypersetup{colorlinks=true,citecolor=blue,linkcolor=blue,urlcolor=blue}
            usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra,amssymb,latexsym,amsfonts,amscd}
            usepackage{multicol,color}
            usepackage{float}
            usepackage{soul}
            usepackage{graphicx}
            usepackage{caption}
            usepackage{subcaption}
            usepackage{pstricks-add}
            usepackage{pgf,tikz}
            usepackage{mathrsfs}
            usetikzlibrary{arrows}
            usepackage{amssymb}
            usepackage{theorem}
            usepackage{fancyhdr}
            
            usepackage{tikz}
            usepackage{enumerate}
            usepackage[margin=1.1in]{geometry}
            parskip 5pt
            fancyfoot[C]{thepage}
            setlength{textwidth}{6.31in}setlength{topmargin}{-0.25in}
            setlength{textheight}{9.2in}setlength{oddsidemargin}{0in}
            renewcommand{baselinestretch}{1.1}
            renewcommand{headrulewidth}{0pt}
            renewcommand{footrulewidth}{0pt}
            defdisp{displaystyle}
            begin{document}
            
            begin{center}
            begin{figure}[!tbp]
            begin{subfigure}[b]{0.45textwidth}
            definecolor{uuuuuu}{rgb}{0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666}
            definecolor{zzttqq}{rgb}{0.6,0.2,0.}
            definecolor{ududff}{rgb}{0.30196078431372547,0.30196078431372547,1.}
            begin{tikzpicture}[line cap=round,line join=round,>=triangle 45,x=0.75cm,y=0.75cm]
            clip(-5.039786976492287,-4.976475903092999) rectangle (5.225636493163389,4.854891605900701);
            fill[line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq,fill=zzttqq,fill opacity=0.10000000149011612] (-2.9782972019669014,-3.011675055168333) -- (3.0217027980330986,-3.011675055168333) -- (3.021702798033099,2.9883249448316658) -- (-2.9782972019669005,2.988324944831667) -- cycle;
            draw [line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq] (-2.9782972019669014,-3.011675055168333)-- (3.0217027980330986,-3.011675055168333);
            draw [line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq] (3.0217027980330986,-3.011675055168333)-- (3.021702798033099,2.9883249448316658);
            draw [line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq] (3.021702798033099,2.9883249448316658)-- (-2.9782972019669005,2.988324944831667);
            draw [line width=2.pt,color=zzttqq] (-2.9782972019669005,2.988324944831667)-- (-2.9782972019669014,-3.011675055168333);
            begin{scriptsize}
            draw [fill=ududff] (-2.9782972019669014,-3.011675055168333) circle (2.5pt);
            draw [fill=ududff] (3.0217027980330986,-3.011675055168333) circle (2.5pt);
            draw [fill=uuuuuu] (3.021702798033099,2.9883249448316658) circle (2.5pt);
            draw [fill=uuuuuu] (-2.9782972019669005,2.988324944831667) circle (2.5pt);
            end{scriptsize}
            end{tikzpicture}
            vspace*{-0.1in}
            caption{bf This is a square.}
            label{picnew}
            end{subfigure}
            hfill
            begin{subfigure}[b]{0.45textwidth}
            definecolor{uuuuuu}{rgb}{0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666}
            begin{tikzpicture}[line cap=round,line join=round,>=triangle 45,x=0.4cm,y=0.4cm]
            clip(-10.437883908168581,-9.13468903671252) rectangle (10.578095056602637,9.583415234871898);
            draw [line width=2.pt] (0.,0.) circle (2.4cm);
            begin{scriptsize}
            draw [fill=uuuuuu] (0.,0.) circle (2.0pt);
            end{scriptsize}
            end{tikzpicture}
            vspace*{-0.1in}
            caption{bf This is a circle.}
            label{pic2a*}
            end{subfigure}
            caption{bf Geometry.}
            end{figure}
            end{center}
            
            end{document}
            

            horizontal-alignment captions titles subcaption

            share|improve this question

            share|improve this question

            share|improve this question

            share|improve this question

            edited Feb 4 at 8:50

            Christian Hupfer

            151k15199394

            151k15199394

            asked Feb 4 at 8:29

            RossRoss

            404

            404

            • Unrelated to your problem, most likely, but you’re loading hyperref ways too early.

              – Christian Hupfer
              Feb 4 at 8:46

            • Unrelated to your problem, most likely, but you’re loading hyperref ways too early.

              – Christian Hupfer
              Feb 4 at 8:46

            Unrelated to your problem, most likely, but you’re loading hyperref ways too early.

            – Christian Hupfer
            Feb 4 at 8:46

            Unrelated to your problem, most likely, but you’re loading hyperref ways too early.

            – Christian Hupfer
            Feb 4 at 8:46

            1 Answer
            1

            active

            oldest

            votes

            3

            you have more problems with your code:

            • in preamble of your mwe you have some packages loaded twice
            • document class svjour3 load graphicx, so you not need to load them (twice!)
            • tikz is not able to handle so accurate defined coordinates as you use. it is sufficient to round them to two decimals
            • for your problem are relevant only the following packages: tikz, subcaption and hyperref.
            • float environments should not be inside other environments like center or minipage
            • for left align of caption and sub-captions use caption set up captionsetup{singlelinecheck=off}

            edit:
            mostly of topic …

            • your image code is really unnecessary complicated
            • it is far more simple (to my experiences) for your geometric elements use shapes defined in tikz package (rectangle, circle`)
            • for caption and sub-captions set up see documentations for caption and subcaption packages, both are part of your LaTeX installation
            • definitions of your colors should be in document preamble
            • changes in preamble are indicated by % <---

            mwe, considering aforementioned, is:

            documentclass[smallextended,referee,envcountsect]{svjour3}
            usepackage[margin=1.1in]{geometry}
            smartqed
            usepackage{tikz}
            usetikzlibrary{arrows}
            definecolor{uuuuuu}{rgb}{0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666}
            definecolor{zzttqq}{rgb}{0.6,0.2,0.}
            definecolor{ududff}{rgb}{0.30196078431372547,0.30196078431372547,1.}
            usepackage{subcaption}
            captionsetup{skip=0.5ex,           % <---
                          font=bf,              % <---
                          singlelinecheck=off}  % <---
            captionsetup{skip=0.5ex}           % <---
            captionsetup[subfigure]{skip=0ex}  % <---
            defdisp{displaystyle}
            
            usepackage[hyperfootnotes=false]{hyperref}
                hypersetup{colorlinks=true,
                        citecolor=blue,
                        linkcolor=blue,
                        urlcolor=blue}
            
            begin{document}
                begin{figure}[!htbp]
            tikzset{% definiton of used styles
            box/.style args = {#1/#2}{rectangle, draw=#1, fill=#1, minimum size=#2,
                                      line width=2pt, fill opacity=0.1,
                                      outer sep=0pt},
            cir/.style args = {#1/#2/#3}{circle, draw=#1, fill=#2, minimum size=#3,
                                         line width=2pt},
            dot/.style = {circle, draw, thin, fill=#1,
                          inner sep=0pt, outer sep=0pt, minimum size=5pt},
                    }            
            begin{subfigure}[b]{0.45linewidth}
                    noindentbegin{tikzpicture}
            node (s) [box=zzttqq/45mm] {};
            foreach i/j in {north east/uuuuuu, north west/uuuuuu, 
                              south west/ududff, south east/ududff}
                node [dot=j] at (s.i) {};
                end{tikzpicture}
            caption{bf This is a square.}
            label{picnew}
                end{subfigure}
            hfill
            begin{subfigure}[b]{0.45linewidth}
                begin{tikzpicture}[x=0.4cm,y=0.4cm]
            node (s) [cir=black/white/45mm] {};%(2.4cm);
            node [dot=uuuuuu] {};
                end{tikzpicture}
            caption{This is a circle.}
            label{pic2a*}
            end{subfigure}
            caption{Geometry.}
            end{figure}
            
            end{document}
            

            enter image description here

            share|improve this answer

            • Thank you so much for your great help. Could you please let me know how can you make “(a)”, “(b)” and “Fig. 1” in bold? I just know how to make the sentences “This is a square” in bold by command {bf …}.

              – Ross
              Feb 4 at 10:04

            • @Ross, later evening (CET) now i’m on the way.

              – Zarko
              Feb 4 at 10:05

            • Please take your time. Thank you very much, Zarko.

              – Ross
              Feb 4 at 10:20

            • I found it usepackage[labelfont=bf]{caption}. Thank you again. ^^

              – Ross
              Feb 4 at 10:58

            • 1

              @Ross, you are right. size of page is determined by document class (svjour3), however you can say a4paper or letterpaper or select others size. for details about geometry package see documentation for this package. it is part of its installation. docement also load default (desired) font size.

              – Zarko
              Feb 5 at 8:17

            Your Answer

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            1 Answer
            1

            active

            oldest

            votes

            1 Answer
            1

            active

            oldest

            votes

            active

            oldest

            votes

            active

            oldest

            votes

            3

            you have more problems with your code:

            • in preamble of your mwe you have some packages loaded twice
            • document class svjour3 load graphicx, so you not need to load them (twice!)
            • tikz is not able to handle so accurate defined coordinates as you use. it is sufficient to round them to two decimals
            • for your problem are relevant only the following packages: tikz, subcaption and hyperref.
            • float environments should not be inside other environments like center or minipage
            • for left align of caption and sub-captions use caption set up captionsetup{singlelinecheck=off}

            edit:
            mostly of topic …

            • your image code is really unnecessary complicated
            • it is far more simple (to my experiences) for your geometric elements use shapes defined in tikz package (rectangle, circle`)
            • for caption and sub-captions set up see documentations for caption and subcaption packages, both are part of your LaTeX installation
            • definitions of your colors should be in document preamble
            • changes in preamble are indicated by % <---

            mwe, considering aforementioned, is:

            documentclass[smallextended,referee,envcountsect]{svjour3}
            usepackage[margin=1.1in]{geometry}
            smartqed
            usepackage{tikz}
            usetikzlibrary{arrows}
            definecolor{uuuuuu}{rgb}{0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666}
            definecolor{zzttqq}{rgb}{0.6,0.2,0.}
            definecolor{ududff}{rgb}{0.30196078431372547,0.30196078431372547,1.}
            usepackage{subcaption}
            captionsetup{skip=0.5ex,           % <---
                          font=bf,              % <---
                          singlelinecheck=off}  % <---
            captionsetup{skip=0.5ex}           % <---
            captionsetup[subfigure]{skip=0ex}  % <---
            defdisp{displaystyle}
            
            usepackage[hyperfootnotes=false]{hyperref}
                hypersetup{colorlinks=true,
                        citecolor=blue,
                        linkcolor=blue,
                        urlcolor=blue}
            
            begin{document}
                begin{figure}[!htbp]
            tikzset{% definiton of used styles
            box/.style args = {#1/#2}{rectangle, draw=#1, fill=#1, minimum size=#2,
                                      line width=2pt, fill opacity=0.1,
                                      outer sep=0pt},
            cir/.style args = {#1/#2/#3}{circle, draw=#1, fill=#2, minimum size=#3,
                                         line width=2pt},
            dot/.style = {circle, draw, thin, fill=#1,
                          inner sep=0pt, outer sep=0pt, minimum size=5pt},
                    }            
            begin{subfigure}[b]{0.45linewidth}
                    noindentbegin{tikzpicture}
            node (s) [box=zzttqq/45mm] {};
            foreach i/j in {north east/uuuuuu, north west/uuuuuu, 
                              south west/ududff, south east/ududff}
                node [dot=j] at (s.i) {};
                end{tikzpicture}
            caption{bf This is a square.}
            label{picnew}
                end{subfigure}
            hfill
            begin{subfigure}[b]{0.45linewidth}
                begin{tikzpicture}[x=0.4cm,y=0.4cm]
            node (s) [cir=black/white/45mm] {};%(2.4cm);
            node [dot=uuuuuu] {};
                end{tikzpicture}
            caption{This is a circle.}
            label{pic2a*}
            end{subfigure}
            caption{Geometry.}
            end{figure}
            
            end{document}
            

            enter image description here

            share|improve this answer

            • Thank you so much for your great help. Could you please let me know how can you make “(a)”, “(b)” and “Fig. 1” in bold? I just know how to make the sentences “This is a square” in bold by command {bf …}.

              – Ross
              Feb 4 at 10:04

            • @Ross, later evening (CET) now i’m on the way.

              – Zarko
              Feb 4 at 10:05

            • Please take your time. Thank you very much, Zarko.

              – Ross
              Feb 4 at 10:20

            • I found it usepackage[labelfont=bf]{caption}. Thank you again. ^^

              – Ross
              Feb 4 at 10:58

            • 1

              @Ross, you are right. size of page is determined by document class (svjour3), however you can say a4paper or letterpaper or select others size. for details about geometry package see documentation for this package. it is part of its installation. docement also load default (desired) font size.

              – Zarko
              Feb 5 at 8:17

            3

            you have more problems with your code:

            • in preamble of your mwe you have some packages loaded twice
            • document class svjour3 load graphicx, so you not need to load them (twice!)
            • tikz is not able to handle so accurate defined coordinates as you use. it is sufficient to round them to two decimals
            • for your problem are relevant only the following packages: tikz, subcaption and hyperref.
            • float environments should not be inside other environments like center or minipage
            • for left align of caption and sub-captions use caption set up captionsetup{singlelinecheck=off}

            edit:
            mostly of topic …

            • your image code is really unnecessary complicated
            • it is far more simple (to my experiences) for your geometric elements use shapes defined in tikz package (rectangle, circle`)
            • for caption and sub-captions set up see documentations for caption and subcaption packages, both are part of your LaTeX installation
            • definitions of your colors should be in document preamble
            • changes in preamble are indicated by % <---

            mwe, considering aforementioned, is:

            documentclass[smallextended,referee,envcountsect]{svjour3}
            usepackage[margin=1.1in]{geometry}
            smartqed
            usepackage{tikz}
            usetikzlibrary{arrows}
            definecolor{uuuuuu}{rgb}{0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666}
            definecolor{zzttqq}{rgb}{0.6,0.2,0.}
            definecolor{ududff}{rgb}{0.30196078431372547,0.30196078431372547,1.}
            usepackage{subcaption}
            captionsetup{skip=0.5ex,           % <---
                          font=bf,              % <---
                          singlelinecheck=off}  % <---
            captionsetup{skip=0.5ex}           % <---
            captionsetup[subfigure]{skip=0ex}  % <---
            defdisp{displaystyle}
            
            usepackage[hyperfootnotes=false]{hyperref}
                hypersetup{colorlinks=true,
                        citecolor=blue,
                        linkcolor=blue,
                        urlcolor=blue}
            
            begin{document}
                begin{figure}[!htbp]
            tikzset{% definiton of used styles
            box/.style args = {#1/#2}{rectangle, draw=#1, fill=#1, minimum size=#2,
                                      line width=2pt, fill opacity=0.1,
                                      outer sep=0pt},
            cir/.style args = {#1/#2/#3}{circle, draw=#1, fill=#2, minimum size=#3,
                                         line width=2pt},
            dot/.style = {circle, draw, thin, fill=#1,
                          inner sep=0pt, outer sep=0pt, minimum size=5pt},
                    }            
            begin{subfigure}[b]{0.45linewidth}
                    noindentbegin{tikzpicture}
            node (s) [box=zzttqq/45mm] {};
            foreach i/j in {north east/uuuuuu, north west/uuuuuu, 
                              south west/ududff, south east/ududff}
                node [dot=j] at (s.i) {};
                end{tikzpicture}
            caption{bf This is a square.}
            label{picnew}
                end{subfigure}
            hfill
            begin{subfigure}[b]{0.45linewidth}
                begin{tikzpicture}[x=0.4cm,y=0.4cm]
            node (s) [cir=black/white/45mm] {};%(2.4cm);
            node [dot=uuuuuu] {};
                end{tikzpicture}
            caption{This is a circle.}
            label{pic2a*}
            end{subfigure}
            caption{Geometry.}
            end{figure}
            
            end{document}
            

            enter image description here

            share|improve this answer

            • Thank you so much for your great help. Could you please let me know how can you make “(a)”, “(b)” and “Fig. 1” in bold? I just know how to make the sentences “This is a square” in bold by command {bf …}.

              – Ross
              Feb 4 at 10:04

            • @Ross, later evening (CET) now i’m on the way.

              – Zarko
              Feb 4 at 10:05

            • Please take your time. Thank you very much, Zarko.

              – Ross
              Feb 4 at 10:20

            • I found it usepackage[labelfont=bf]{caption}. Thank you again. ^^

              – Ross
              Feb 4 at 10:58

            • 1

              @Ross, you are right. size of page is determined by document class (svjour3), however you can say a4paper or letterpaper or select others size. for details about geometry package see documentation for this package. it is part of its installation. docement also load default (desired) font size.

              – Zarko
              Feb 5 at 8:17

            3

            3

            3

            you have more problems with your code:

            • in preamble of your mwe you have some packages loaded twice
            • document class svjour3 load graphicx, so you not need to load them (twice!)
            • tikz is not able to handle so accurate defined coordinates as you use. it is sufficient to round them to two decimals
            • for your problem are relevant only the following packages: tikz, subcaption and hyperref.
            • float environments should not be inside other environments like center or minipage
            • for left align of caption and sub-captions use caption set up captionsetup{singlelinecheck=off}

            edit:
            mostly of topic …

            • your image code is really unnecessary complicated
            • it is far more simple (to my experiences) for your geometric elements use shapes defined in tikz package (rectangle, circle`)
            • for caption and sub-captions set up see documentations for caption and subcaption packages, both are part of your LaTeX installation
            • definitions of your colors should be in document preamble
            • changes in preamble are indicated by % <---

            mwe, considering aforementioned, is:

            documentclass[smallextended,referee,envcountsect]{svjour3}
            usepackage[margin=1.1in]{geometry}
            smartqed
            usepackage{tikz}
            usetikzlibrary{arrows}
            definecolor{uuuuuu}{rgb}{0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666}
            definecolor{zzttqq}{rgb}{0.6,0.2,0.}
            definecolor{ududff}{rgb}{0.30196078431372547,0.30196078431372547,1.}
            usepackage{subcaption}
            captionsetup{skip=0.5ex,           % <---
                          font=bf,              % <---
                          singlelinecheck=off}  % <---
            captionsetup{skip=0.5ex}           % <---
            captionsetup[subfigure]{skip=0ex}  % <---
            defdisp{displaystyle}
            
            usepackage[hyperfootnotes=false]{hyperref}
                hypersetup{colorlinks=true,
                        citecolor=blue,
                        linkcolor=blue,
                        urlcolor=blue}
            
            begin{document}
                begin{figure}[!htbp]
            tikzset{% definiton of used styles
            box/.style args = {#1/#2}{rectangle, draw=#1, fill=#1, minimum size=#2,
                                      line width=2pt, fill opacity=0.1,
                                      outer sep=0pt},
            cir/.style args = {#1/#2/#3}{circle, draw=#1, fill=#2, minimum size=#3,
                                         line width=2pt},
            dot/.style = {circle, draw, thin, fill=#1,
                          inner sep=0pt, outer sep=0pt, minimum size=5pt},
                    }            
            begin{subfigure}[b]{0.45linewidth}
                    noindentbegin{tikzpicture}
            node (s) [box=zzttqq/45mm] {};
            foreach i/j in {north east/uuuuuu, north west/uuuuuu, 
                              south west/ududff, south east/ududff}
                node [dot=j] at (s.i) {};
                end{tikzpicture}
            caption{bf This is a square.}
            label{picnew}
                end{subfigure}
            hfill
            begin{subfigure}[b]{0.45linewidth}
                begin{tikzpicture}[x=0.4cm,y=0.4cm]
            node (s) [cir=black/white/45mm] {};%(2.4cm);
            node [dot=uuuuuu] {};
                end{tikzpicture}
            caption{This is a circle.}
            label{pic2a*}
            end{subfigure}
            caption{Geometry.}
            end{figure}
            
            end{document}
            

            enter image description here

            share|improve this answer

            you have more problems with your code:

            • in preamble of your mwe you have some packages loaded twice
            • document class svjour3 load graphicx, so you not need to load them (twice!)
            • tikz is not able to handle so accurate defined coordinates as you use. it is sufficient to round them to two decimals
            • for your problem are relevant only the following packages: tikz, subcaption and hyperref.
            • float environments should not be inside other environments like center or minipage
            • for left align of caption and sub-captions use caption set up captionsetup{singlelinecheck=off}

            edit:
            mostly of topic …

            • your image code is really unnecessary complicated
            • it is far more simple (to my experiences) for your geometric elements use shapes defined in tikz package (rectangle, circle`)
            • for caption and sub-captions set up see documentations for caption and subcaption packages, both are part of your LaTeX installation
            • definitions of your colors should be in document preamble
            • changes in preamble are indicated by % <---

            mwe, considering aforementioned, is:

            documentclass[smallextended,referee,envcountsect]{svjour3}
            usepackage[margin=1.1in]{geometry}
            smartqed
            usepackage{tikz}
            usetikzlibrary{arrows}
            definecolor{uuuuuu}{rgb}{0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666,0.26666666666666666}
            definecolor{zzttqq}{rgb}{0.6,0.2,0.}
            definecolor{ududff}{rgb}{0.30196078431372547,0.30196078431372547,1.}
            usepackage{subcaption}
            captionsetup{skip=0.5ex,           % <---
                          font=bf,              % <---
                          singlelinecheck=off}  % <---
            captionsetup{skip=0.5ex}           % <---
            captionsetup[subfigure]{skip=0ex}  % <---
            defdisp{displaystyle}
            
            usepackage[hyperfootnotes=false]{hyperref}
                hypersetup{colorlinks=true,
                        citecolor=blue,
                        linkcolor=blue,
                        urlcolor=blue}
            
            begin{document}
                begin{figure}[!htbp]
            tikzset{% definiton of used styles
            box/.style args = {#1/#2}{rectangle, draw=#1, fill=#1, minimum size=#2,
                                      line width=2pt, fill opacity=0.1,
                                      outer sep=0pt},
            cir/.style args = {#1/#2/#3}{circle, draw=#1, fill=#2, minimum size=#3,
                                         line width=2pt},
            dot/.style = {circle, draw, thin, fill=#1,
                          inner sep=0pt, outer sep=0pt, minimum size=5pt},
                    }            
            begin{subfigure}[b]{0.45linewidth}
                    noindentbegin{tikzpicture}
            node (s) [box=zzttqq/45mm] {};
            foreach i/j in {north east/uuuuuu, north west/uuuuuu, 
                              south west/ududff, south east/ududff}
                node [dot=j] at (s.i) {};
                end{tikzpicture}
            caption{bf This is a square.}
            label{picnew}
                end{subfigure}
            hfill
            begin{subfigure}[b]{0.45linewidth}
                begin{tikzpicture}[x=0.4cm,y=0.4cm]
            node (s) [cir=black/white/45mm] {};%(2.4cm);
            node [dot=uuuuuu] {};
                end{tikzpicture}
            caption{This is a circle.}
            label{pic2a*}
            end{subfigure}
            caption{Geometry.}
            end{figure}
            
            end{document}
            

            enter image description here

            share|improve this answer

            share|improve this answer

            share|improve this answer

            edited Feb 4 at 18:28

            answered Feb 4 at 9:39

            ZarkoZarko

            125k867164

            125k867164

            • Thank you so much for your great help. Could you please let me know how can you make “(a)”, “(b)” and “Fig. 1” in bold? I just know how to make the sentences “This is a square” in bold by command {bf …}.

              – Ross
              Feb 4 at 10:04

            • @Ross, later evening (CET) now i’m on the way.

              – Zarko
              Feb 4 at 10:05

            • Please take your time. Thank you very much, Zarko.

              – Ross
              Feb 4 at 10:20

            • I found it usepackage[labelfont=bf]{caption}. Thank you again. ^^

              – Ross
              Feb 4 at 10:58

            • 1

              @Ross, you are right. size of page is determined by document class (svjour3), however you can say a4paper or letterpaper or select others size. for details about geometry package see documentation for this package. it is part of its installation. docement also load default (desired) font size.

              – Zarko
              Feb 5 at 8:17

            • Thank you so much for your great help. Could you please let me know how can you make “(a)”, “(b)” and “Fig. 1” in bold? I just know how to make the sentences “This is a square” in bold by command {bf …}.

              – Ross
              Feb 4 at 10:04

            • @Ross, later evening (CET) now i’m on the way.

              – Zarko
              Feb 4 at 10:05

            • Please take your time. Thank you very much, Zarko.

              – Ross
              Feb 4 at 10:20

            • I found it usepackage[labelfont=bf]{caption}. Thank you again. ^^

              – Ross
              Feb 4 at 10:58

            • 1

              @Ross, you are right. size of page is determined by document class (svjour3), however you can say a4paper or letterpaper or select others size. for details about geometry package see documentation for this package. it is part of its installation. docement also load default (desired) font size.

              – Zarko
              Feb 5 at 8:17

            Thank you so much for your great help. Could you please let me know how can you make “(a)”, “(b)” and “Fig. 1” in bold? I just know how to make the sentences “This is a square” in bold by command {bf …}.

            – Ross
            Feb 4 at 10:04

            Thank you so much for your great help. Could you please let me know how can you make “(a)”, “(b)” and “Fig. 1” in bold? I just know how to make the sentences “This is a square” in bold by command {bf …}.

            – Ross
            Feb 4 at 10:04

            @Ross, later evening (CET) now i’m on the way.

            – Zarko
            Feb 4 at 10:05

            @Ross, later evening (CET) now i’m on the way.

            – Zarko
            Feb 4 at 10:05

            Please take your time. Thank you very much, Zarko.

            – Ross
            Feb 4 at 10:20

            Please take your time. Thank you very much, Zarko.

            – Ross
            Feb 4 at 10:20

            I found it usepackage[labelfont=bf]{caption}. Thank you again. ^^

            – Ross
            Feb 4 at 10:58

            I found it usepackage[labelfont=bf]{caption}. Thank you again. ^^

            – Ross
            Feb 4 at 10:58

            1

            1

            @Ross, you are right. size of page is determined by document class (svjour3), however you can say a4paper or letterpaper or select others size. for details about geometry package see documentation for this package. it is part of its installation. docement also load default (desired) font size.

            – Zarko
            Feb 5 at 8:17

            @Ross, you are right. size of page is determined by document class (svjour3), however you can say a4paper or letterpaper or select others size. for details about geometry package see documentation for this package. it is part of its installation. docement also load default (desired) font size.

            – Zarko
            Feb 5 at 8:17

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            Why is this tabular environment necessary?

            The name of the pictureThe name of the pictureThe name of the pictureClash Royale CLAN TAG#URR8PPP

            5

            In this post I discovered that the definition of maketitle is:

            def@maketitle{%
              newpage
              null
              vskip 2em%
              begin{center}%
              let footnote thanks
                {LARGE @title par}%
                vskip 1.5em%
                {large
                  lineskip .5em%
                  begin{tabular}[t]{c}%
                    @author
                  end{tabular}par}%
                vskip 1em%
                {large @date}%
              end{center}%
              par
              vskip 1.5em}
            fi
            

            My question is: why is author typeset in a tabular environment when the title and date aren’t?

            share|improve this question

            • 3

              Because of the alignment in case of having more than one author. It’s easier. and is a cunning way of endtabular...tabular

              – Christian Hupfer
              Jan 26 at 22:40

            • Also, is maketitle necessary?

              – John Kormylo
              Jan 27 at 19:56

            5

            In this post I discovered that the definition of maketitle is:

            def@maketitle{%
              newpage
              null
              vskip 2em%
              begin{center}%
              let footnote thanks
                {LARGE @title par}%
                vskip 1.5em%
                {large
                  lineskip .5em%
                  begin{tabular}[t]{c}%
                    @author
                  end{tabular}par}%
                vskip 1em%
                {large @date}%
              end{center}%
              par
              vskip 1.5em}
            fi
            

            My question is: why is author typeset in a tabular environment when the title and date aren’t?

            share|improve this question

            • 3

              Because of the alignment in case of having more than one author. It’s easier. and is a cunning way of endtabular...tabular

              – Christian Hupfer
              Jan 26 at 22:40

            • Also, is maketitle necessary?

              – John Kormylo
              Jan 27 at 19:56

            5

            5

            5

            In this post I discovered that the definition of maketitle is:

            def@maketitle{%
              newpage
              null
              vskip 2em%
              begin{center}%
              let footnote thanks
                {LARGE @title par}%
                vskip 1.5em%
                {large
                  lineskip .5em%
                  begin{tabular}[t]{c}%
                    @author
                  end{tabular}par}%
                vskip 1em%
                {large @date}%
              end{center}%
              par
              vskip 1.5em}
            fi
            

            My question is: why is author typeset in a tabular environment when the title and date aren’t?

            share|improve this question

            In this post I discovered that the definition of maketitle is:

            def@maketitle{%
              newpage
              null
              vskip 2em%
              begin{center}%
              let footnote thanks
                {LARGE @title par}%
                vskip 1.5em%
                {large
                  lineskip .5em%
                  begin{tabular}[t]{c}%
                    @author
                  end{tabular}par}%
                vskip 1em%
                {large @date}%
              end{center}%
              par
              vskip 1.5em}
            fi
            

            My question is: why is author typeset in a tabular environment when the title and date aren’t?

            titles

            share|improve this question

            share|improve this question

            share|improve this question

            share|improve this question

            asked Jan 26 at 22:25

            crmdgncrmdgn

            1,13111223

            1,13111223

            • 3

              Because of the alignment in case of having more than one author. It’s easier. and is a cunning way of endtabular...tabular

              – Christian Hupfer
              Jan 26 at 22:40

            • Also, is maketitle necessary?

              – John Kormylo
              Jan 27 at 19:56

            • 3

              Because of the alignment in case of having more than one author. It’s easier. and is a cunning way of endtabular...tabular

              – Christian Hupfer
              Jan 26 at 22:40

            • Also, is maketitle necessary?

              – John Kormylo
              Jan 27 at 19:56

            3

            3

            Because of the alignment in case of having more than one author. It’s easier. and is a cunning way of endtabular...tabular

            – Christian Hupfer
            Jan 26 at 22:40

            Because of the alignment in case of having more than one author. It’s easier. and is a cunning way of endtabular...tabular

            – Christian Hupfer
            Jan 26 at 22:40

            Also, is maketitle necessary?

            – John Kormylo
            Jan 27 at 19:56

            Also, is maketitle necessary?

            – John Kormylo
            Jan 27 at 19:56

            1 Answer
            1

            active

            oldest

            votes

            5

            You have to supplement this with the definition of and:

            end{tabular}hskip 1em plus .17filbegin {tabular}[t]{c}
            

            So if you specify

            author{A. Uthor \ Here University and W. Riter \ There University}
            

            the author part will become (reformatted and with and replaced for clarity)

            begin{tabular}[t]{c}%
              A. Uthor \ Here University
            end{tabular}
            hskip 1em plus .17fil
            begin {tabular}[t]{c}
              W. Riter \ There University
            end{tabular}par
            

            Thus you get two distinct tabular, separated by some horizontal spacing. If only one author is expected, then tabular wouldn’t be necessary, but this is frequently not the case.

            share|improve this answer

              Your Answer

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              5

              You have to supplement this with the definition of and:

              end{tabular}hskip 1em plus .17filbegin {tabular}[t]{c}
              

              So if you specify

              author{A. Uthor \ Here University and W. Riter \ There University}
              

              the author part will become (reformatted and with and replaced for clarity)

              begin{tabular}[t]{c}%
                A. Uthor \ Here University
              end{tabular}
              hskip 1em plus .17fil
              begin {tabular}[t]{c}
                W. Riter \ There University
              end{tabular}par
              

              Thus you get two distinct tabular, separated by some horizontal spacing. If only one author is expected, then tabular wouldn’t be necessary, but this is frequently not the case.

              share|improve this answer

                5

                You have to supplement this with the definition of and:

                end{tabular}hskip 1em plus .17filbegin {tabular}[t]{c}
                

                So if you specify

                author{A. Uthor \ Here University and W. Riter \ There University}
                

                the author part will become (reformatted and with and replaced for clarity)

                begin{tabular}[t]{c}%
                  A. Uthor \ Here University
                end{tabular}
                hskip 1em plus .17fil
                begin {tabular}[t]{c}
                  W. Riter \ There University
                end{tabular}par
                

                Thus you get two distinct tabular, separated by some horizontal spacing. If only one author is expected, then tabular wouldn’t be necessary, but this is frequently not the case.

                share|improve this answer

                  5

                  5

                  5

                  You have to supplement this with the definition of and:

                  end{tabular}hskip 1em plus .17filbegin {tabular}[t]{c}
                  

                  So if you specify

                  author{A. Uthor \ Here University and W. Riter \ There University}
                  

                  the author part will become (reformatted and with and replaced for clarity)

                  begin{tabular}[t]{c}%
                    A. Uthor \ Here University
                  end{tabular}
                  hskip 1em plus .17fil
                  begin {tabular}[t]{c}
                    W. Riter \ There University
                  end{tabular}par
                  

                  Thus you get two distinct tabular, separated by some horizontal spacing. If only one author is expected, then tabular wouldn’t be necessary, but this is frequently not the case.

                  share|improve this answer

                  You have to supplement this with the definition of and:

                  end{tabular}hskip 1em plus .17filbegin {tabular}[t]{c}
                  

                  So if you specify

                  author{A. Uthor \ Here University and W. Riter \ There University}
                  

                  the author part will become (reformatted and with and replaced for clarity)

                  begin{tabular}[t]{c}%
                    A. Uthor \ Here University
                  end{tabular}
                  hskip 1em plus .17fil
                  begin {tabular}[t]{c}
                    W. Riter \ There University
                  end{tabular}par
                  

                  Thus you get two distinct tabular, separated by some horizontal spacing. If only one author is expected, then tabular wouldn’t be necessary, but this is frequently not the case.

                  share|improve this answer

                  share|improve this answer

                  share|improve this answer

                  answered Jan 26 at 22:45

                  egregegreg

                  719k8719083207

                  719k8719083207

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                      Post-nominal letters

                      Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles or designatory letters, are letters placed after a person’s name to indicate that that individual holds a position, academic degree, accreditation, office, military decoration, or honour, or is a member of a religious institute or fraternity. An individual may use several different sets of post-nominal letters, but in some contexts it may be customary to limit the number of sets to one or just a few. The order in which post-nominals are listed after a name is based on rules of precedence and what is appropriate for a given situation. Post-nominal letters are one of the main types of name suffix. In contrast, pre-nominal letters precede the name rather than following it.

                      Contents

                      • 1 List
                      • 2 Usage

                        • 2.1 Order in which qualifications/awards and honours are listed

                          • 2.1.1 Order of post-nominals in the United States
                          • 2.1.2 Order of post-nominals in the UK

                            • 2.1.2.1 Civil usage in the UK
                            • 2.1.2.2 Academic usage in the UK
                          • 2.1.3 In European fraternities
                          • 2.1.4 In Australia
                          • 2.1.5 In Canada
                        • 2.2 Etiquette for higher educational qualifications

                          • 2.2.1 Higher education qualifications in the US
                          • 2.2.2 Higher education qualifications in the UK
                        • 2.3 Etiquette for listing medical qualifications

                          • 2.3.1 Medical qualifications in the UK
                        • 2.4 Etiquette for listing fellowships or memberships of learned societies, royal academies or professional institutions

                          • 2.4.1 Learned societies, royal academies and professional institutions in the UK
                      • 3 Examples
                      • 4 See also
                      • 5 References
                      • 6 External links

                      List

                      Different awards and post-nominal letters are in use in the English-speaking countries.

                      Usage

                      Order in which qualifications/awards and honours are listed

                      The order in which post-nominal letters are listed after a person’s name is dictated by standard practice, which may vary by region and context.

                      Order of post-nominals in the United States

                      In the United States, standard protocol is to list post-nominal letters in the following order:[1]

                      1. Religious institutions
                      2. Theological degrees
                      3. Military Decorations
                      4. Academic degrees
                      5. Honorary degrees, honors, decorations
                      6. Professional licenses, certifications and affiliations
                      7. Retired uniformed service.

                      Active duty services personnel do not use any post-nominals other than, if applicable, Staff Corps affiliation (Navy only) followed by a comma and then their branch of service. Names are bracketed by the appropriate pre-nominal and post-nominal, e.g. LCDR John Q. Public, MC, USN.[1]

                      Order of post-nominals in the UK

                      Civil usage in the UK

                      In the United Kingdom various sources have issued guidance on the ordering of styles and titles for British citizens, including the Ministry of Justice, Debrett’s and A & C Black’s Titles and Forms of Address; these are generally in close agreement, with the exception of the position of MP, etc., in the listing:[2][3][4]

                      1. Bt/Bart or Esq;

                        • In the UK, “Esq.” may be used to refer to any gentleman in place of the pre-nominal Mr or Dr;[5]
                      2. British Orders and decorations (e.g. OBE; in descending order of precedence);
                      3. Crown Appointments, i.e.:
                        1. Privy Counsellor (PC), Aide-de-Camp to the Queen (ADC(P)), Physician to the Queen (QHP), Honorary Surgeon to the Queen (QHS), Honorary Dental Surgeon to the Queen (QHDS), Honorary Nursing Sister to the Queen (QHNS), and Honorary Chaplain to the Queen (QHC)
                        2. Queen’s Counsel (QC), Justice of the Peace (JP) and Deputy Lieutenant (DL); (according to the Ministry of Justice) Member of Parliament or of a devolved assembly (MP, MSP, AM, MLA);
                      4. University degrees:

                        • According to Debrett’s, DD, MD and MS degrees are always given; other doctorates, other medical degrees, and other divinity degrees are sometimes given; and other degrees are seldom shown, with BA and MA never used socially (although formal lists may include them);[6]
                      5.  
                        1. Religious institutes (e.g. SSF),
                        2. Medical qualifications (e.g. FRCP);
                      6.  
                        1. Fellowship of learned societies (e.g., FRS, FRGS),
                        2. Royal Academicians and associates, (e.g., RA, ARA),
                        3. Fellowships, Membership, etc. of professional institutions, associations, etc. (e.g. FICE) – chartered and other professional statuses should be shown before the designatory letters for the relevant professional body (e.g. CEng FMIET; EngTech TMIET),[7]
                        4. According to Debrett’s: Writers to the Signet (WS);
                      7. According to Debrett’s and Black’s: Member of Parliament (MP), etc.[what does the etc encompass?] (Black’s also includes Writers to the Signet here);
                      8. Membership of the Armed Forces (e.g. RAF, RN, VR, RM, RMP) (not included by Black’s).[8]

                      In addition, British citizens who have received honours from Commonwealth countries are usually given permission from the Queen to use the postnominals for that honour[9]

                      Academic usage in the UK

                      The Oxford University Style Guide and the University of Nottingham Style Guide give the alternative ordering:[10][11]

                      1. Civil Honours
                      2. Military Honours
                      3. QC
                      4. Degrees in the order:
                        1. Bachelor’s
                        2. Master’s
                        3. Doctorates
                        4. Postdoctoral
                      5. Diplomas
                      6. Certificates
                      7. Membership of academic or professional bodies

                      This differs from the civil ordering in that it omits appointments except for QC, includes diplomas and certificates in addition to degrees, merges medical qualifications, fellowships of learned societies, royal academicians, and membership of professional bodies into a single item, and omits membership of the armed forces.

                      Loughborough University gives a very similar ordering, but with “Appointments (e.g MP, QC)” replacing item 3 (QC) and “Higher Education awards (in ascending order, commencing with undergraduate)” replacing items 4–6 (Degrees, Diplomas and Certificates). This restores the
                      Appointments section from the civil list omitted by Oxford and Nottingham, although the other differences remain.[12]

                      Nottingham Trent University gives essentially the same ordering as Oxford and Nottingham, but without specifying the order in which degrees should be given.[13] Nottingham Trent, Oxford and Loughborough recommend degree abbreviations be given in mixed case without stops between the letters (e.g. BA, not B.A.; PhD, not Ph.D.), as does Cambridge.[14]Imperial College London, however, uses all small caps for post-nominals (e.g. .mw-parser-output .smallcaps{font-variant:small-caps}phd, not PhD).[15]

                      Where all degrees are shown, as in university calendars, most universities will give these in ascending order.[16] However, advice on the precise ordering varies:

                      • The Oxford University Calendar Style Guide places degrees in the order: bachelor’s degrees (including postgraduate bachelor’s degrees such as the Oxford BCL) and other first degrees; master’s degrees (including those that are first degrees, such as MPhys); doctorates; higher doctorates in order of academic precedence. Degrees at the same level are ordered alphabetically by awarding institution and multiple degrees from the same institution are grouped, with position determined by the lowest degree in the grouping. Certificates and diplomas are listed after degrees (no mention is made of foundation degrees). Oxford recommends giving institution names separated by a space from the degree, not enclosed in parentheses, and that degrees from the same institution be separated by spaces only, with commas between degrees from different institutions.[17]
                      • Loughborough University advises listing all higher education awards in ascending order starting from undergraduate, so MPhys would come before BCL and postgraduate certificates and diplomas would come between undergraduate and postgraduate degrees. The examples given do not include institution names.[12]

                      The Zirkel of a German Student Corps. This symbol captures the letters “v, c, f, A”, as post-nominal for that fraternity.

                      In European fraternities

                      Going back to the mid 17th century, today’s classical European fraternities such as the German Student Corps are using post-nominal symbols and letters to allow their members to indicate their fraternity membership and honorary positions held in their signature. The German word for the symbol is “Zirkel”, literally “circle”, referring to the hand-written symbol representing the fraternity which is commonly composed by combining letters from an acronym such as “vivat, crescat, floreat” (Latin: grow, bloom, prosper) followed by the first letter of the fraternity. The word “Zirkel” became a synonym in the late Middle Ages representing the entire group of close brothers. An example was Schiller’s use of the sentence “Schließt den heil’gen Zirkel dichter” (literally: closer draw the holy circle [of brothers]) in the original version of the Ode to the Joy.

                      In Australia

                      The University of Sydney Style Guide and the Australian Government Style Manual give the ordering:[18]

                      1. National and Royal honours
                      2. Degrees before diplomas, in order of conferral
                      3. Fellowships then memberships of professional bodies and learned societies
                      4. Parliamentary designations

                      The University of Technology Sydney adds QC between honours and degrees and specifies that honours should be in order of precedence.[19]

                      In Canada

                      The Canadian government’s The Canadian Style specifies that no more than two sets of post-nominal letters should normally be given, unless all are to be given either for information or for reasons of protocol, and that these should be the two highest of different types. The types and the order in which they are given are:[20]

                      1. Distinctions conferred directly by the Crown
                      2. University degrees
                      3. Memberships of societies and other distinctions

                      Etiquette for higher educational qualifications

                      Higher education qualifications in the US

                      In academia and research, all degrees may be listed. In general, however, it is normal to only list those relevant to the circumstance. For example, if Jane Doe had a BS, MS, and PhD in computer science as well as an MBA, then if working in management in a retail company she would write “Jane Doe, MBA”, but if working in an IT company she might write “Jane Doe, PhD”, and if working in academia she could write “Jane Doe, BS, MS, MBA, PhD”.[1]

                      The Gregg Reference Manual recommends placing periods between the letters of post-nominals (e.g. B.S., Ph.D.), however The Chicago Manual of Style recommends writing degrees without periods (e.g. BS, PhD). If post-nominals are given, the full name should be used, without Dr., Mr., Ms., Mrs., or Miss. Other prefixes (e.g. Professor) may be used.[21]

                      Higher education qualifications in the UK

                      In the UK, it is usual to list only doctorates, degrees in medicine, and degrees in divinity.[6] In particular, when a person has letters indicating Crown honours or decorations, only the principal degree would normally be given.[3] The University of Oxford Style Guide advises writers: “Remember that you do not need to list all awards, degrees, memberships etc held by an individual – only those items relevant to your writing.”[10]

                      In an academic context, or in formal lists, all degrees may be listed in ascending order of academic status, which may not be the same as the order in which they were obtained (although see notes on medical qualifications, below). The Oxford style is to list qualifications by their title starting with bachelor’s degrees, then master’s degrees, then doctorates. Postgraduate Certificates and Diplomas are listed after doctorates, but before professional qualifications,[17] with a similar ordering being used by other universities.[22] In this style, foundation degrees and other sub-bachelor qualifications are not shown. An alternative style is to give all higher education qualifications, starting from undergraduate, ordered by their level rather than their title. In this style, one might list a Certificate or Diploma of Higher Education first, then foundation degrees, first degrees at bachelor level, first degrees at master level (integrated master’s degrees and first degrees in medicine), postgraduate degrees at master level (including postgraduate bachelor’s degrees such the Oxford BCL), and doctorates. In this style, postgraduate certificates and diplomas could be shown either before postgraduate degrees at master’s level (as in the table given by Loughborough University) or before first degrees at master’s level (reflecting their position in the Frameworks for Higher Education Qualifications of UK Degree-Awarding Bodies).[12][23] Strictly speaking, both the Debrett’s and Ministry of Justice lists only allow for the inclusion of degrees, not non-degree academic awards.

                      For someone with a substantive doctorate, it is usual either to give “Dr” as the title (without a stop as per normal British usage) or to list their degrees post-nominally, e.g. “Dr John Smith” or “John Smith, PhD” but not “Dr John Smith, PhD”. Postnominals may be used with other titles, e.g. “Mr John Smith, PhD”, “Sir John Smith, PhD”, or “The Rev John Smith, PhD”.[24]

                      In the case of a BA from Oxford, Cambridge or Dublin who proceeds to be an MA of those universities (which is taken without further study), the MA replaces the BA and thus only the MA should be listed.[25] Oxford has said that there is no risk of confusion between their MA and “earned” MAs as the Oxford MA is denoted “MA (Oxon)” rather than simply MA.[26] However, Debrett’s has advised using just “MA” to describe a Cambridge Master of Arts.[27]

                      Graduates from British and Irish universities sometimes add the name of the university that awarded their degree after the post-nominals for their degree, either in parentheses or not, depending on preferred style. University names are often abbreviated and sometimes given in Latin, e.g.”BA, MA (Dunelm), PhD (Ebor)”;[28] a list of abbreviations used for university names can be found at Universities in the United Kingdom#Post-nominal abbreviations. Where the same degree has been granted by more than one university, this can be shown by placing the names or abbreviations in a single bracket after the degree name, e.g. “Sir Edward Elgar, Mus.D. (Oxon., Cantab., Dunelm. et Yale, U.S.A.), LL.D. (Leeds, Aberdeen, and W. University, Pennsylvania.)”.[29]

                      Honorary degrees, if shown, can be indicated either by “Hon” before the post-nominals for the degree or “hc” (for honoris causa) after the post-nominals, e.g. “Professor Evelyn Algernon Valentine Ebsworth CBE, PhD, MA, ScD, DCL hc, FRSC, FRSE” (emphasis added);[30] “Professor Stephen Hawking Hon.ScD, CH, CBE, FRS” (emphasis added).[31] The Oxford University Calendar Style Guide recommends not giving honorary degrees in post-nominals.[17]

                      Etiquette for listing medical qualifications

                      Medical qualifications in the UK

                      In contrast to the style for academic qualifications, medical qualifications are listed in descending order, i.e.: doctorates, master’s degrees, bachelor’s degrees, postgraduate diplomas, and qualifying diplomas. Letters indicating doctorates, master’s degrees and fellowships of royal colleges are always given, while bachelor’s degrees, memberships and qualifying diplomas are only shown for people with no higher qualifications. In all but formal lists, only three medical qualifications are normally given.[32]

                      Where someone holds qualifications in multiple fields, they are normally given in the order: medicine, surgery (except for MRCS, which is considered a qualifying diploma), obstetrics, gynaecology and other specialities. These are followed by qualifying diplomas and other diplomas.[33]

                      Note that the academic style guides do not have a separate section for medical qualifications, so if following one of these guides, medical degrees should be listed with other degrees, medical diplomas with other diplomas, and fellowships and memberships of royal colleges with other fellowships and memberships of professional bodies.

                      Etiquette for listing fellowships or memberships of learned societies, royal academies or professional institutions

                      Learned societies, royal academies and professional institutions in the UK

                      In the UK there is, according to Debrett’s, no defined order of precedence for placing designatory letters for fellowships of learned societies and memberships of professional bodies within their respective groups. Debrett’s suggests that “In practice, where one society is indisputably of greater importance than another the letters are usually placed in that order. Alternatively, the fellowship of the junior society may be omitted. If such precedence cannot be determined, the letters may be placed in order of conferment. Where this is not known, they may be placed in alphabetical order.”[34] Earlier guidance that “Strictly speaking, they should be arranged according to date of foundation or incorporation of the societies concerned”[35] has now been removed.

                      Only postnominals indicating honorific fellowships (e.g. FRS, FBA) are normally used socially. For professional bodies it is usual to list those most relevant to a person’s profession first, or those most relevant to the particular circumstances. It is common to omit fellowships (except honorific fellowships) and memberships that are not relevant in a given situation.[36][37]

                      Debrett’s notes that although Royal Academicians are listed after fellows of learned societies (and before members of professional bodies), they do not yield to them in precedence, “In practice the two lists do not coincide.”[38]

                      It should also be noted that the distinction between a learned society and a professional body is not well defined. Many organisations (e.g. the Royal Society of Chemistry) claim to be both learned societies and professional bodies.[39] However, it is clear from both the Ministry of Justice and Debrett’s that only fellowships of learned societies are listed, while fellowships and memberships may be listed for professional bodies.

                      Examples

                      Examples of post-nominal letters:

                      • A Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire is authorised to use the post-nominal KBE, e.g. “Sir Terry Wogan KBE DL” (DL indicating he was Deputy Lieutenant of Buckinghamshire).
                      • A Fellow of the Royal Society uses the post-nominal FRS and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh FRSE, e.g. “Professor Malcolm Longair CBE, FRS, FRSE” (CBE indicating he is also a Commander of the Order of the British Empire).[40]
                      • A Doctor of Philosophy may use the post-nominal PhD or DPhil (according to the usage of the awarding institution), or the pre-nominals Dr or Dr., e.g. Indiana Jones could be styled “Dr. Henry Walton Jones, Jr.” or “Henry Walton Jones, Jr., PhD”, but not “Dr. Henry Walton Jones, Jr., PhD”.
                      • A Postgraduate Diploma is indicated by the post-nominals PgDip. Someone with a BA, MA and postgraduate diploma could write “BA PgDip MA”[41] or (following the Oxford Calendar’s style) “BA MA PgDip”.
                      • Commonly seen postnominals for religious orders include OFM for the Franciscans (Order of Friars Minor), SJ for the Jesuits (Society of Jesus), e.g. “Jorge Bergoglio, SJ,[42] and OP for the Dominicans (Order of Preachers); most other Catholic religious institutes have specific post-nominal letters.
                      • A BA graduate of the Open University could indicate the university from which they got their degree using “BA (Open)” or “BA Open”.
                      • Someone with a BSc from Cardiff, an MSc from London and a PhD from Cardiff could write “BSc PhD Card, MSc Lond”, or “BSc Card, MSc Lond, PhD Card”; alternatively they could choose to omit the lower degrees and simply write “PhD Card” (“London” may be substituted for “Lond” and “Cardiff” for “Card”, and institution names could be enclosed in parentheses). If not indicating the awarding universities, they would write “BSc MSc PhD”, or simply “PhD”.
                      • A member of the British parliament may use the postnominals “MP”, e.g. “Caroline Lucas MP”.[43] Note the post-nominals MP may not be used once someone ceases to be a Member of Parliament, including after Parliament has been dissolved for an election.
                      • A peer who is a member of the Privy Council may use the postnominals “PC”; for non-peers, the pre-nominal “Right Honourable”, abbreviated “Rt Hon”, identifies them as members.[44] Thus: “The Rt Hon David Cameron MP”,[45] but “The Rt Hon Earl Grey KG PC” (KG indicating he was also a Knight of the Garter).
                      • Chartered status is shown before the relevant professional membership, e.g. “Prof. Dame Carole Jordan DBE FRS CPhys FInstP”, where DBE indicates Dame of the Order of the British Empire, FRS Fellow of the Royal Society, CPhys Chartered Physicist, and FInstP Fellow of the Institute of Physics, the awarding body for CPhys.[46]
                      • In the UK, someone who earned a BA, MA and BSc in that order would normally write “BA, BSc, MA”, but in Australia they would normally write “BA, MA, BSc”.
                      • “Reverend Canon Mark Tanner MA (Oxon), BA (Hons), MTh”[47] demonstrates: 1) the use of ‘(Oxon)’ to indicate an Oxbridge MA (to avoid confusion with an earned MA); 2) the use of ‘(Hons)’ to indicate an honours degree; 3) ordering of degrees by date gained.

                      See also

                      • List of post-nominal letters
                      • Pre-nominal letters

                      References

                      1. ^ abc Hickey, Robert. “Forms of Address”. Honor & Respect. The Protocol School of Washington. Retrieved 5 March 2012..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
                      2. ^ “Honours and Decorations”. Ministry of Justice (UK). 2009-03-14. Archived from the original on 2011-02-04. Retrieved 2012-06-04.
                      3. ^ ab “Forms of address: Hierarchies: Letters after the name”. Debrett’s. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
                      4. ^ Titles and Forms of Address: A Guide to Correct Use (22nd ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing. 10 October 2014. pp. 163–165.
                      5. ^ “Untitled Men”. Debrett’s. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
                      6. ^ ab “University Degrees”. Debrett’s. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
                      7. ^ “Use of designatory letters”. Institution of Engineering and Technology. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
                      8. ^ “Letters after the name: Armed Forces”. Debrett’s. Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
                      9. ^ “Commonwealth Honours”. Royal.uk. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
                      10. ^ ab University of Oxford Style Guide (PDF). University of Oxford. 2016. p. 20. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
                      11. ^ “Names and titles”. University of Nottingham. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
                      12. ^ abc “Post-Nominal Letters”. Loughborough University. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
                      13. ^ NTU Marketing. Editorial Style Guide for Print Publications and Web. Nottingham Trent University. p. 9. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
                      14. ^ Communications Resources. “Editorial Style Guide”. University of Cambridge. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
                      15. ^ “Imperial College London House Style” (PDF). Imperial College London. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
                      16. ^ “Questions on Professions”. Debrett’s. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
                      17. ^ abc Calendar Style Guide (PDF). University of Oxford. 2015.
                      18. ^ Paul Meredith (16 July 2010). “I before E, except after CA”. The Institute of Chartered Accountants in Australia. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
                      19. ^ “Names and Titles”. UTS Publications Style Guide. University of Technology Sydney. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
                      20. ^ “1.08 University degrees, professional designations, military decorations, honours, awards and memberships”. The Canadian Style. Public Works and Government Services Canada. 2017. Retrieved 26 March 2017.
                      21. ^ “Academic Degrees & Professional Designations”. Accu-Assist. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
                      22. ^ “Names and titles”. University of Nottingham. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
                      23. ^ “Diagram of higher education qualification levels in England, Wales and Northern Ireland” (PDF). UK NARIC. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
                      24. ^ “Doctor”. Debrett’s. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
                      25. ^ “The Oxford MA”. Oriel College, Oxford. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
                      26. ^ John Carvel (18 October 1999). “Oxbridge defends automatic MAs under threat from quality watchdog”. The Guardian. Retrieved 30 May 2016. There was no question of confusing an Oxford MA with a taught MA because the university did not offer specific MA courses and graduates used the title MA (Oxon) rather than just MA.
                      27. ^ “Questions on Professions”. Debrett’s. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
                      28. ^ “Peter Fifield”. Birkbeck, University of London. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
                      29. ^ Calendar for the Session 1907 – 1908. University of Birmingham. 1907. p. 374.
                      30. ^ “Professor Evelyn Algernon Valentine Ebsworth CBE, PhD, MA, ScD, DCL hc, FRSC, FRSE”. University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
                      31. ^ “Professor Stephen Hawking Hon.ScD, CH, CBE, FRS”. Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
                      32. ^ “Medical Qualifications”. Debrett’s. Archived from the original on 28 May 2016. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
                      33. ^ “Religious and Medical Qualifications”. Debrett’s. Retrieved 4 June 2016.
                      34. ^ “Fellowships of Learned Societies”. Debrett’s. 28 March 2016. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 11 July 2016.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
                      35. ^ “Fellowships of Learned Societies”. Wayback Machine. Debrett’s. 3 February 2014. Archived from the original on February 3, 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2016.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
                      36. ^ “Fellowships of Learned Societies”. Debrett’s. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
                      37. ^ “Professional Fellowships”. Debrett’s. Archived from the original on 28 May 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
                      38. ^ “Royal Academicians and Associates”. Debrett’s. Archived from the original on 28 May 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2016.
                      39. ^ “Our Charter”. Royal Society of Chemistry. Retrieved 29 May 2016. ‘As a learned society we are concerned with advancing chemistry as a science, developing its applications, and disseminating chemical knowledge. As a professional body we maintain professional qualifications and set high standards of competence and conduct for professional chemists. We also provide a wide range of services and activities of value both to members, and to the community.’ (emphasis added)
                      40. ^ “Professor Malcolm Longair CBE, FRS, FRSE”. University of Cambridge Department of Physics. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
                      41. ^ “Peter McAllister, BA, PGDip, MA”. Royal Central School of Speech and Drama. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
                      42. ^ Thomas Reese (30 April 2013). “The Mind of Francis: Denying Communion”. National Catholic Reporter.
                      43. ^ “Caroline Lucas MP”. Parliament.uk. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
                      44. ^ “Privy Counsellors and Crown Appointments”. Archived from the original on 28 May 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2016.)
                      45. ^ “Rt Hon David Cameron MP”. Parliament.uk. Retrieved 30 May 2016.
                      46. ^ “Annual Review 2007” (PDF). Institute of Physics. 2007. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
                      47. ^ “Canon Mark Tanner announced as new Suffragan Bishop of Berwick”. Diocese of Newcastle. 1 September 2016. Retrieved 2 September 2016.

                      External links

                      • Letters after the name, Debrett’s (UK usage)
                      • How to Use Post-Nominal Abbreviations, Robert Hickey (US usage)


                      Commandant

                      Commandant (/ˌkɒmənˈdɑːnt/ or /ˌkɒmənˈdænt/) is a title often given to the officer in charge of a military (or other uniformed service) training establishment or academy. This usage is common in English-speaking nations. In some countries it may be a military or police rank. It is also often used to refer to the commander of a military prison or prison camp (including concentration camps and prisoner of war camps).

                      Contents

                      • 1 Canada
                      • 2 France
                      • 3 India
                      • 4 Ireland
                      • 5 South Africa
                      • 6 New Zealand
                      • 7 Singapore
                      • 8 Sri Lanka
                      • 9 United Kingdom
                      • 10 United States
                      • 11 See also
                      • 12 References
                      • 13 External links

                      Canada

                      Commandant is the normal Canadian French-language term for the commanding officer of a mid-sized unit, such as a regiment or battalion, within the Canadian Forces. In smaller units, the commander is usually known in French as the officier commandant.

                      Conversely, in Canadian English, the word commandant is used exclusively for the commanding officers of military units that provide oversight and/or services to a resident population (such as a military school or college, a long-term health care facility or a detention facility.

                      France

                      In the French Army and French Air Force, the term commandant is used as a rank equivalent to major (NATO rank code OF-3). However, in the French Navy commandant is the style, but not the rank, of the senior officers, specifically capitaine de corvette, capitaine de frégate and capitaine de vaisseau.

                      India

                      In the British Indian Army, the commanding officer of an infantry battalion or cavalry regiment was known as the commandant. Commanding officers of each battalion in Central Armed Police Forces (BSF, CRPF, CISF, ITBP, SSB) and among two of the three Indian paramilitary forces (ICG, AR) are also designated as commandant (senior superintendent rank).

                      The Indian Army also used the appointment of colonel-commandant between 1922 and 1928 in the same way as the British Army.

                      Ireland

                      In the Irish Army, commandant is the equivalent of major in other armies. Irish Army commandants can sometimes be referred to as major if serving overseas under the umbrella of the United Nations or the European Union to alleviate misunderstanding.

                      South Africa

                      South African army commandant insignia
                      1950-1994

                      In South Africa, Commandant was the title of the commanding officer of a commando (militia) unit in the 19th and early 20th centuries.

                      During the First World War, Commandant was used as a title by officers commanding Defence Rifle Association units, also known as Burgher commandoes. The commandoes were militia units raised in emergencies and constituted the third line of defence after the Permanent Force and the part-time Active Citizen Force regiments. The commandant rank was equivalent to major[1][2] or lieutenant-colonel, depending on the size of the commando.

                      From 1950 to 1994 commandant (rank) was the rank equivalent of lieutenant colonel.[3] and commander of a battalion. The rank was used by both the Army and the Air Force. The naval equivalent was commander [kommandeur in Afrikaans].[4] The rank was not used by the South African Police, who continued with lieutenant colonel [luitenant-kolonel].

                      The rank insignia for a Commandant (Kommandant in Afrikaans) was initially a crown over a five-pointed star.[5]:113-128[1] In 1957 the crown was replaced by a pentagonal castle device [6] based on the floor plan of the Castle of Good Hope in Cape Town, South Africa’s oldest military building. In 1994, the rank of Commandant / Kommandant reverted to lieutenant colonel.[7]:4

                      From 1968 to 1970, a related rank, Chief Commandant, existed in the commando forces (the part-time, territorial reserve, roughly equivalent to a National Guard or Home Guard).[8]

                      Recently, use of the term has followed the standard practice, i.e. the commanding officer of a training institute.

                      New Zealand

                      In the New Zealand Defence Force, the term commandant is used for the senior officer (or commander) of garrisoned units that do not deploy and are not operational. This typically includes learning institutes such as the New Zealand Defence College, the New Zealand Cadet Force, and (formerly) the Command and Staff College. The title could also be used for other non-deploying units such as the Services Corrective Establishment in Burnham, or depot-level engineering units.

                      The equivalent term for operational units is ‘commander’, such as commander of the Joint Force Headquarters New Zealand.

                      Under the 2010 creation of the Training and Education Directorate, an additional position of commandant was established for the Training Institute to complement the commandant of the Defence College.

                      Singapore

                      In the National Police Cadet Corps (NPCC), the position of Commandant is given to a Singapore Police Force officer who heads NPCC. The Commandant is aided by his Assistant Commandants, who are NPCC officers. As NPCC units around Singapore are divided into 20 “areas”, each area is headed by an Area Commandant who is an NPCC officer. This Area Commandant is also usually an Officer from one of the units in the area that he/she is taking charge of. [9]

                      Sri Lanka

                      In Sri Lanka, the Commandant of the Volunteer Force is the head of the Sri Lanka Army Volunteer Force. Commandant is also the title used for the commanding officer (one-star rank) of military academies – Sri Lanka Military Academy, Naval and Maritime Academy and Air Force Academy – and the commanding officer (two-star rank) of the Defence Services Command and Staff College. It is also the title of the de facto vice-chancellor of the General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, usually an officer of two-star rank.

                      Colonel-commandant is an honorary post in corps of the army and the Sri Lanka National Guard, similar to that of Colonel of the Regiment found in infantry regiments. The post of centre commandant is the commanding officer of a corps or regiment.

                      United Kingdom

                      In the British Armed Forces, a commandant is usually the commanding officer of a training establishment, such as the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst or the Royal Air Force College Cranwell.

                      Colonel-commandant was an appointment which existed in the British Army between 1922 and 1928, and in the Royal Marines from 1755 to some time after World War II. It replaced brigadier-general in the army, and was itself replaced by brigadier in both the army and the Marines. The colonel-commandant is also the ceremonial head of some Army corps and this position is usually held by a senior general.

                      Commandant was also the appointment, equivalent to commodore, held by the director of the Women’s Royal Naval Service between 1951 and 1993.

                      In the Royal Air Force Air Cadets, the officer in charge of the organisation is given the title Commandant Air Cadets and will hold the position for two years.

                      Formerly, commandant was the usual title for the head of the Special Constabulary within a police force. In some forces the title was chief commandant, with subordinate divisional or sub-divisional commandants. The standard title for this position is now “chief officer”.

                      United States

                      In the United States, ‘commandant’ is an appointment, not a rank, and the following three appointments currently exist:

                      • Commandant of the Marine Corps
                      • Commandant of the Coast Guard
                      • Commandant of the Operations (Ships)

                      Formerly, admirals were appointed as commandants of naval districts.

                      The commandant is the second most senior officer (after the superintendent) of United States Service academies, such as West Point, United States Naval Academy, and the United States Air Force Academy, equivalent to the Dean of Students at a civilian college. Commandant is also the title of the commanding officer of many units of the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command, including the non-commissioned officer academies, whose commandants are typically command sergeants major.

                      Commandant is also the title of the ranking officer in charge of each War College of the United States military, and is responsible for the administration, academic progress and success of the civilians and military officers assigned to the college. He is a model for all personnel, a military academy graduate of impeccable character and bearing who has demonstrated accomplishment in both academic excellence and active military service in the field. They include the Naval War College, the Air War College, the Army War College, the Marine Corps War College and the National War College.[10]

                      Commandant is the duty title for the commanding officer of the US Air Force Test Pilot School.

                      Commandant is also the duty title of the senior enlisted leader of a Professional Military Education (PME) academy, such as the Airman Leadership School, Non-Commissioned Officer Academy, and Senior Non-Commissioned Officer Academy.

                      The title may also be used for the commander of a unit headquarters, who is usually responsible for administrative matters such as billeting and is called the headquarters commandant; this may also be a duty assigned to a staff officer in large headquarters.

                      See also

                      • Commandant general, in Fascist Italy, was the head of the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (National Security Volunteer Militia or “Blackshirts”), a position held by Benito Mussolini.
                      • Commandant’s Service, a military police type force in some militaries.

                      References

                      1. ^ ab Radburn, A. (1990). “South African Army Ranks and Insignia”. Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies. 20 (2)..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
                      2. ^ Naamlys, Lindley Kommando, Military Archives, Pretoria
                      3. ^ Government Notice 2092 (25 Aug 1950)
                      4. ^ Rank Chart, Paratus, 1974
                      5. ^ Jooste, L. (1996). “Die politieke koerswending van 1948 besorg ‘n nuwe identiteit aan die Unieverdedigingsma”. Militaria (in Afrikaans). 26 (2).
                      6. ^ Radburn, A, South African Army Ranks and Insignia, In: Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies, Vol 20, Nr 2, 1990
                      7. ^ Salut. 1 (1). May 1994. Missing or empty |title= (help)
                      8. ^ Retief, J.J. (December 1997). “Die rang van hoofkommandant in die Suid-Afrikaanse Weermag”. Military History Journal (in Afrikaans). 10 (6).
                      9. ^ “National Police Cadet Corps”. www.npcc.org.sg. Retrieved 2018-11-21.
                      10. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2011-06-15. Retrieved 2010-03-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

                      External links

                      How does one make just one word in the title a different color? [duplicate]

                      The name of the pictureThe name of the pictureThe name of the pictureClash Royale CLAN TAG#URR8PPP

                      4

                      This question already has an answer here:

                      • Change the color of the main title without redefining maketitle

                        1 answer

                      The following works to give the title all in black:

                      title{The Title}
                      

                      But this does not work to make the first word in the title red:

                      title{{color{red}The} Title}
                      

                      How does one make just one word in the title a different color?

                      share|improve this question

                      marked as duplicate by Werner, marmot, Phelype Oleinik, Stefan Pinnow, flav Jan 15 at 7:47

                      This question has been asked before and already has an answer. If those answers do not fully address your question, please ask a new question.

                      • textcolor{red}{The} should work in a standard class.

                        – Bernard
                        Jan 14 at 23:53

                      • Thanks for the suggestion, but it does not work either. Could the problem be my use of documentclass ?

                        – Michael B. Heaney
                        Jan 14 at 23:56

                      • Well, you should post a minimal non-working example code.

                        – Bernard
                        Jan 14 at 23:58

                      • Thanks for your helpful advice. Here is a minimal non-working example code: documentclass[11pt]{amsart} usepackage{color} title{The title} begin{document} maketitle end{document}

                        – Michael B. Heaney
                        Jan 15 at 0:08

                      4

                      This question already has an answer here:

                      • Change the color of the main title without redefining maketitle

                        1 answer

                      The following works to give the title all in black:

                      title{The Title}
                      

                      But this does not work to make the first word in the title red:

                      title{{color{red}The} Title}
                      

                      How does one make just one word in the title a different color?

                      share|improve this question

                      marked as duplicate by Werner, marmot, Phelype Oleinik, Stefan Pinnow, flav Jan 15 at 7:47

                      This question has been asked before and already has an answer. If those answers do not fully address your question, please ask a new question.

                      • textcolor{red}{The} should work in a standard class.

                        – Bernard
                        Jan 14 at 23:53

                      • Thanks for the suggestion, but it does not work either. Could the problem be my use of documentclass ?

                        – Michael B. Heaney
                        Jan 14 at 23:56

                      • Well, you should post a minimal non-working example code.

                        – Bernard
                        Jan 14 at 23:58

                      • Thanks for your helpful advice. Here is a minimal non-working example code: documentclass[11pt]{amsart} usepackage{color} title{The title} begin{document} maketitle end{document}

                        – Michael B. Heaney
                        Jan 15 at 0:08

                      4

                      4

                      4

                      This question already has an answer here:

                      • Change the color of the main title without redefining maketitle

                        1 answer

                      The following works to give the title all in black:

                      title{The Title}
                      

                      But this does not work to make the first word in the title red:

                      title{{color{red}The} Title}
                      

                      How does one make just one word in the title a different color?

                      share|improve this question

                      This question already has an answer here:

                      • Change the color of the main title without redefining maketitle

                        1 answer

                      The following works to give the title all in black:

                      title{The Title}
                      

                      But this does not work to make the first word in the title red:

                      title{{color{red}The} Title}
                      

                      How does one make just one word in the title a different color?

                      This question already has an answer here:

                      • Change the color of the main title without redefining maketitle

                        1 answer

                      color titles amsart

                      share|improve this question

                      share|improve this question

                      share|improve this question

                      share|improve this question

                      edited Jan 15 at 0:15

                      Werner

                      442k679741670

                      442k679741670

                      asked Jan 14 at 23:50

                      Michael B. HeaneyMichael B. Heaney

                      1286

                      1286

                      marked as duplicate by Werner, marmot, Phelype Oleinik, Stefan Pinnow, flav Jan 15 at 7:47

                      This question has been asked before and already has an answer. If those answers do not fully address your question, please ask a new question.

                      marked as duplicate by Werner, marmot, Phelype Oleinik, Stefan Pinnow, flav Jan 15 at 7:47

                      This question has been asked before and already has an answer. If those answers do not fully address your question, please ask a new question.

                      • textcolor{red}{The} should work in a standard class.

                        – Bernard
                        Jan 14 at 23:53

                      • Thanks for the suggestion, but it does not work either. Could the problem be my use of documentclass ?

                        – Michael B. Heaney
                        Jan 14 at 23:56

                      • Well, you should post a minimal non-working example code.

                        – Bernard
                        Jan 14 at 23:58

                      • Thanks for your helpful advice. Here is a minimal non-working example code: documentclass[11pt]{amsart} usepackage{color} title{The title} begin{document} maketitle end{document}

                        – Michael B. Heaney
                        Jan 15 at 0:08

                      • textcolor{red}{The} should work in a standard class.

                        – Bernard
                        Jan 14 at 23:53

                      • Thanks for the suggestion, but it does not work either. Could the problem be my use of documentclass ?

                        – Michael B. Heaney
                        Jan 14 at 23:56

                      • Well, you should post a minimal non-working example code.

                        – Bernard
                        Jan 14 at 23:58

                      • Thanks for your helpful advice. Here is a minimal non-working example code: documentclass[11pt]{amsart} usepackage{color} title{The title} begin{document} maketitle end{document}

                        – Michael B. Heaney
                        Jan 15 at 0:08

                      textcolor{red}{The} should work in a standard class.

                      – Bernard
                      Jan 14 at 23:53

                      textcolor{red}{The} should work in a standard class.

                      – Bernard
                      Jan 14 at 23:53

                      Thanks for the suggestion, but it does not work either. Could the problem be my use of documentclass ?

                      – Michael B. Heaney
                      Jan 14 at 23:56

                      Thanks for the suggestion, but it does not work either. Could the problem be my use of documentclass ?

                      – Michael B. Heaney
                      Jan 14 at 23:56

                      Well, you should post a minimal non-working example code.

                      – Bernard
                      Jan 14 at 23:58

                      Well, you should post a minimal non-working example code.

                      – Bernard
                      Jan 14 at 23:58

                      Thanks for your helpful advice. Here is a minimal non-working example code: documentclass[11pt]{amsart} usepackage{color} title{The title} begin{document} maketitle end{document}

                      – Michael B. Heaney
                      Jan 15 at 0:08

                      Thanks for your helpful advice. Here is a minimal non-working example code: documentclass[11pt]{amsart} usepackage{color} title{The title} begin{document} maketitle end{document}

                      – Michael B. Heaney
                      Jan 15 at 0:08

                      2 Answers
                      2

                      active

                      oldest

                      votes

                      4

                      The title under amsart is set in CAPITAL LETTERS. As such, merely using

                      title{textcolor{red}{The} title}
                      

                      doesn’t work out-of-the-box because there is no colour RED. However, it’s simple enough to define RED to be the same as red:

                      enter image description here

                      documentclass{amsart}
                      
                      usepackage{xcolor}
                      
                      colorlet{RED}{red}
                      title{textcolor{red}{The} title}
                      author{An Author}
                      
                      begin{document}
                      
                      maketitle
                      
                      end{document}
                      

                      share|improve this answer

                      • That works, thanks!

                        – Michael B. Heaney
                        Jan 15 at 0:24

                      5

                      With amsart there is the problem of capitalization, but it is easily solved.

                      documentclass{amsart}
                      usepackage{xcolor}
                      usepackage{textcase}
                      
                      DeclareRobustCommand{foo}[1]{textcolor{red}{#1}}
                      
                      begin{document}
                      
                      title[The title]{foo{The} title}
                      author{An Author}
                      
                      maketitle
                      
                      end{document}
                      

                      Use a more meaningful name than foo, of course. Omit the optional argument if you also want the coloring in the page headings.

                      See https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/468247/4427 for details about why loading textcase is better for the application.

                      The rationale for defining a command is that hardwiring a color means having to chase for every occurrence in the document for it, whereas with a command you can just modify the definition in case you change your mind about what color to use (or no color at all).

                      share|improve this answer

                        2 Answers
                        2

                        active

                        oldest

                        votes

                        2 Answers
                        2

                        active

                        oldest

                        votes

                        active

                        oldest

                        votes

                        active

                        oldest

                        votes

                        4

                        The title under amsart is set in CAPITAL LETTERS. As such, merely using

                        title{textcolor{red}{The} title}
                        

                        doesn’t work out-of-the-box because there is no colour RED. However, it’s simple enough to define RED to be the same as red:

                        enter image description here

                        documentclass{amsart}
                        
                        usepackage{xcolor}
                        
                        colorlet{RED}{red}
                        title{textcolor{red}{The} title}
                        author{An Author}
                        
                        begin{document}
                        
                        maketitle
                        
                        end{document}
                        

                        share|improve this answer

                        • That works, thanks!

                          – Michael B. Heaney
                          Jan 15 at 0:24

                        4

                        The title under amsart is set in CAPITAL LETTERS. As such, merely using

                        title{textcolor{red}{The} title}
                        

                        doesn’t work out-of-the-box because there is no colour RED. However, it’s simple enough to define RED to be the same as red:

                        enter image description here

                        documentclass{amsart}
                        
                        usepackage{xcolor}
                        
                        colorlet{RED}{red}
                        title{textcolor{red}{The} title}
                        author{An Author}
                        
                        begin{document}
                        
                        maketitle
                        
                        end{document}
                        

                        share|improve this answer

                        • That works, thanks!

                          – Michael B. Heaney
                          Jan 15 at 0:24

                        4

                        4

                        4

                        The title under amsart is set in CAPITAL LETTERS. As such, merely using

                        title{textcolor{red}{The} title}
                        

                        doesn’t work out-of-the-box because there is no colour RED. However, it’s simple enough to define RED to be the same as red:

                        enter image description here

                        documentclass{amsart}
                        
                        usepackage{xcolor}
                        
                        colorlet{RED}{red}
                        title{textcolor{red}{The} title}
                        author{An Author}
                        
                        begin{document}
                        
                        maketitle
                        
                        end{document}
                        

                        share|improve this answer

                        The title under amsart is set in CAPITAL LETTERS. As such, merely using

                        title{textcolor{red}{The} title}
                        

                        doesn’t work out-of-the-box because there is no colour RED. However, it’s simple enough to define RED to be the same as red:

                        enter image description here

                        documentclass{amsart}
                        
                        usepackage{xcolor}
                        
                        colorlet{RED}{red}
                        title{textcolor{red}{The} title}
                        author{An Author}
                        
                        begin{document}
                        
                        maketitle
                        
                        end{document}
                        

                        share|improve this answer

                        share|improve this answer

                        share|improve this answer

                        answered Jan 15 at 0:14

                        WernerWerner

                        442k679741670

                        442k679741670

                        • That works, thanks!

                          – Michael B. Heaney
                          Jan 15 at 0:24

                        • That works, thanks!

                          – Michael B. Heaney
                          Jan 15 at 0:24

                        That works, thanks!

                        – Michael B. Heaney
                        Jan 15 at 0:24

                        That works, thanks!

                        – Michael B. Heaney
                        Jan 15 at 0:24

                        5

                        With amsart there is the problem of capitalization, but it is easily solved.

                        documentclass{amsart}
                        usepackage{xcolor}
                        usepackage{textcase}
                        
                        DeclareRobustCommand{foo}[1]{textcolor{red}{#1}}
                        
                        begin{document}
                        
                        title[The title]{foo{The} title}
                        author{An Author}
                        
                        maketitle
                        
                        end{document}
                        

                        Use a more meaningful name than foo, of course. Omit the optional argument if you also want the coloring in the page headings.

                        See https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/468247/4427 for details about why loading textcase is better for the application.

                        The rationale for defining a command is that hardwiring a color means having to chase for every occurrence in the document for it, whereas with a command you can just modify the definition in case you change your mind about what color to use (or no color at all).

                        share|improve this answer

                          5

                          With amsart there is the problem of capitalization, but it is easily solved.

                          documentclass{amsart}
                          usepackage{xcolor}
                          usepackage{textcase}
                          
                          DeclareRobustCommand{foo}[1]{textcolor{red}{#1}}
                          
                          begin{document}
                          
                          title[The title]{foo{The} title}
                          author{An Author}
                          
                          maketitle
                          
                          end{document}
                          

                          Use a more meaningful name than foo, of course. Omit the optional argument if you also want the coloring in the page headings.

                          See https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/468247/4427 for details about why loading textcase is better for the application.

                          The rationale for defining a command is that hardwiring a color means having to chase for every occurrence in the document for it, whereas with a command you can just modify the definition in case you change your mind about what color to use (or no color at all).

                          share|improve this answer

                            5

                            5

                            5

                            With amsart there is the problem of capitalization, but it is easily solved.

                            documentclass{amsart}
                            usepackage{xcolor}
                            usepackage{textcase}
                            
                            DeclareRobustCommand{foo}[1]{textcolor{red}{#1}}
                            
                            begin{document}
                            
                            title[The title]{foo{The} title}
                            author{An Author}
                            
                            maketitle
                            
                            end{document}
                            

                            Use a more meaningful name than foo, of course. Omit the optional argument if you also want the coloring in the page headings.

                            See https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/468247/4427 for details about why loading textcase is better for the application.

                            The rationale for defining a command is that hardwiring a color means having to chase for every occurrence in the document for it, whereas with a command you can just modify the definition in case you change your mind about what color to use (or no color at all).

                            share|improve this answer

                            With amsart there is the problem of capitalization, but it is easily solved.

                            documentclass{amsart}
                            usepackage{xcolor}
                            usepackage{textcase}
                            
                            DeclareRobustCommand{foo}[1]{textcolor{red}{#1}}
                            
                            begin{document}
                            
                            title[The title]{foo{The} title}
                            author{An Author}
                            
                            maketitle
                            
                            end{document}
                            

                            Use a more meaningful name than foo, of course. Omit the optional argument if you also want the coloring in the page headings.

                            See https://tex.stackexchange.com/a/468247/4427 for details about why loading textcase is better for the application.

                            The rationale for defining a command is that hardwiring a color means having to chase for every occurrence in the document for it, whereas with a command you can just modify the definition in case you change your mind about what color to use (or no color at all).

                            share|improve this answer

                            share|improve this answer

                            share|improve this answer

                            answered Jan 15 at 0:23

                            egregegreg

                            716k8619033189

                            716k8619033189

                                High commissioner

                                Title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment

                                High commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment.

                                The English term is also used to render various equivalent titles in other languages.

                                Contents

                                • 1 The Commonwealth

                                  • 1.1 Bilateral diplomacy
                                  • 1.2 British colonial usage

                                    • 1.2.1 British indirect rule
                                    • 1.2.2 High commissioners as administrators
                                • 2 Other territorial administrators

                                  • 2.1 External territories and decolonisation

                                    • 2.1.1 Kingdom of Denmark
                                    • 2.1.2 French
                                    • 2.1.3 Greece
                                    • 2.1.4 Italian
                                    • 2.1.5 Portuguese
                                    • 2.1.6 Spanish
                                    • 2.1.7 United States
                                  • 2.2 Temporary administration of acquired territories
                                  • 2.3 High commissions that never realized
                                • 3 Domestic High Commissioners
                                • 4 Multilaterally mandated

                                  • 4.1 Representing an international alliance

                                    • 4.1.1 Crete
                                    • 4.1.2 Constantinople
                                    • 4.1.3 Post-World War II
                                  • 4.2 Representing an international organisation

                                    • 4.2.1 League of Nations

                                      • 4.2.1.1 Mandate territories
                                    • 4.2.2 United Nations

                                      • 4.2.2.1 UN Trust Territories
                                      • 4.2.2.2 Other UN administration
                                      • 4.2.2.3 Representing the world universally
                                    • 4.2.3 Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
                                • 5 See also
                                • 6 References

                                The Commonwealth

                                Bilateral diplomacy

                                The Tanzanian High Commission in London. Tanzania and the United Kingdom are both members of the Commonwealth of Nations.

                                In the Commonwealth of Nations, a high commissioner is the senior diplomat (ranking as an ambassador) in charge of the diplomatic mission of one Commonwealth government to another. In this usage, a Commonwealth nation’s high commission is its embassy to another Commonwealth nation.

                                British colonial usage

                                Historically, in the British Empire (most of which would become the Commonwealth) high commissioners were envoys of the Imperial government appointed to manage protectorates or groups of territories not fully under the sovereignty of the British Crown, while Crown colonies (which were British sovereign territory) would normally be administered by a Governor and the most significant possessions, large confederations and the independent Commonwealth Dominions would be headed by a Governor-General.

                                An example was the island of Cyprus. Until 12 July 1878 Cyprus was under Ottoman rule based in Istanbul. From that date it was under British administration, but Istanbul retained nominal sovereignty until Cyprus was fully annexed by Britain on 5 November 1914. There were 9 successive High Commissioners, all but one already knighted, from 22 July 1878 until on 10 March 1925 Cyprus became a crown colony, and the last incumbent stayed on as its first Governor.

                                The High Commissioners for Palestine and Transjordan, who administered Mandatory Palestine, had a considerable effect on the history of Zionism and the early stages of what would become the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.

                                A high commission could also be charged with the last phase of a decolonisation, as in the crown colony of the Seychelles, granted autonomy on 12 November 1970: the last governor, Colin Hamilton Allen (1921–1993) stayed on as the only colonial high commissioner from 1 October 1975, when self-rule under the Crown was granted, until 28 June 1976 when the Seychelles became an independent republic within the Commonwealth.

                                British indirect rule

                                As diplomatic residents (as diplomatic ranks were codified, this became a lower class than ambassadors and high commissioners) were sometimes appointed to native rulers, high commissioners could likewise be appointed as British agents of indirect rule upon native states. Thus high commissioners could be charged with managing diplomatic relations with native rulers and their states (analogous to the resident minister), and might have under them several resident commissioners or similar agents attached to each state.

                                In present Nigeria:

                                • Northern Nigeria, three incumbents 1900–1907, the last of whom stayed on as first governor,
                                • Southern Nigeria, three incumbents 1900–1906 (four terms), the last of whom stayed on as first governor.

                                In certain regions of particular importance, a commissioner-general would be appointed, to have control over several high commissioners and governors, e.g. the commissioner-general for south-east Asia had responsibility for Malaya, Singapore and British Borneo.

                                High commissioners as administrators

                                The role of High Commissioner for Southern Africa was coupled with that of British Governor of the Cape Colony in the 19th century, giving the colonial administrator responsibility both for administering British possessions and relating to neighbouring Boer settlements. The best known of these high commissioners, Alfred Milner who was appointed to both positions in the 1890s, is considered responsible by some for igniting the Second Boer War.

                                Historically, in southern Africa, the protectorates of Bechuanaland (now Botswana), Basutoland (now Lesotho) and Swaziland were administered as High Commission Territories by the Governor-General of South Africa, who was also the British High Commissioner for Bechuanaland, Basutoland, and Swaziland, until the 1930s, with various local representatives, and subsequently by the British High Commissioner (from 1961 Ambassador) to South Africa, who was represented locally in each territory by a resident commissioner.

                                The British Governor of the crown colony of the Straits Settlements, based in Singapore, doubled as High Commissioner of the Federated Malay States, and had authority over the Resident-General in Kuala Lumpur, who in turn was responsible for the various Residents appointed to the native rulers of the Malay states under British protection.

                                The British Western Pacific Territories were permanently governed as a group of minor insular colonial territories, under one single part-time Western Pacific High Commissioner (1905–1953), an office attached first to the governorship of Fiji, and subsequently to that of the Solomon Islands. He was represented in each of the other islands units by a Resident Commissioner, Consul (representative) or other official (on tiny Pitcairn a mere Chief Magistrate).

                                Currently there is still one high commissioner who also serves in an additional capacity as a governor: the British High Commissioner to New Zealand serves ex officio as British colonial Governor of the Pitcairn Islands.

                                Other territorial administrators

                                External territories and decolonisation

                                In the (post-)colonial sense, some other powers have or previously had high commissioners, or rather the exact equivalent in their language.

                                Kingdom of Denmark

                                In the Kingdom of Denmark, High Commissioners (Danish: Rigsombudsmanden) represent the Government of Denmark in Greenland and the Faroe Islands (two self-governing regions of the kingdom) and take part in negotiations on policies and decisions affecting their region (including negotiations with the devolved legislatures and the Danish parliament). Greenland and the Faroe Islands have one Commissioner each.

                                French

                                Originally the French word Haut Commissaire, or in full Haut Commissaire de la république (High Commissioner of the Republic), was rarely used for governatorial functions, rather (Lieutenant-)gouverneur(-général) and various lower titles. Exceptions were:

                                • since 22 March 1907, the colonial Gouverneur of New Caledonia was also appointed as High Commissioner in the Pacific Ocean, to co-ordinate with the governors of the French Settlements in Oceania and the Governors-general of French Indochina; the French resident commissioner of the Anglo-French condominium Nouvelles Hébrides and the Residents to the island protectorates of Wallis and Futuna were subordinated to him
                                  • once Charles de Gaulle named someone else as High Commissioner for the French Territory of the Pacific and the Far East, January 1941 – 1945: Georges Thierry d’Argenlieu (b. 1889 – d. 1964), while in December 1941 the Vichy (pro-German) government named Jean Decoux (b. 1884 – d. 1963) to the post (who in fact was only responsible for Wallis and Futuna, which was the only Pacific territory not to have rallied to the Free French at that time).
                                • In Atlantic waters, from 14 September 1939 till September 1943, four French Possessions in the Americas (French Guiana, Guadeloupe and Martinique, all in the Caribbean, as well as Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, off the Canadian coast) were temporarily grouped together (from June 1940 under Vichy France, so remaining on the Allied side). The two consecutive ‘High Commissioners in the Antilles’ (quite a misleading title: French Guiana is in continental South America, Saint Pierre and Miquelon off the Canadian coast, so in North America) held both administrative authority over the local Governors and equivalent officers (rather like a gouverneur général did elsewhere on a permanent basis) and military command in the ‘Theater Atlantic West’:
                                  • 14 September 1939 – 14 July 1943 Georges Robert (b. 1875 – d. 1965)
                                  • 14 July 1943 – September 1943 Henri Hoppenot (b. 1891 – d. 1977)

                                In the later period of decolonisation, the office of High Commissioner in a colony to become an allied nation was intended to become remarkably analogous to the Commonwealth’s ‘close relationship diplomats’ in President General De Gaulle’s project for a French Union to match the Commonwealth, but it soon started to fall apart, so they actually just presided over most of the peaceful decolonisation.

                                • Algérie (Algeria), once similar to Tunis, but incorporated directly into the French Republic, got its only High commissioner on 19 March 1962: Christian Fouchet (b. 1911 – d. 1974), until its 3 July 1962 independence from France (Algerian State; 25 September 1962 People’s Democratic Algerian Republic ruled by the FLN, the former armed revolt)
                                • in present Benin, since 13 October 1946 Dahomey overseas territory, on 4 December 1958 granted autonomy as Republic of Dahomey, the last (acting) governor, René Tirant (b. 1907), stayed on as only High commissioner till the 1 August 1960 independence
                                • Chad, since 27 October 1946 an overseas territory of France (part of AEF colony) under its own Governor, shortly after it was on 28 November 1958 granted autonomy as Republic of Chad, had a single High Commissioner from 22 January 1959: Daniel Marius Doustin (b. 1920) until its 11 August 1960 independence from France.
                                • Congo-Brazzaville (variously named, often Middle Congo) had a single High commissioner, a bit after it was granted on 28 November 1958 autonomy (as Republic of Congo), 7 January 1959 – 15 August 1960: Guy Noël Georgy (b. 1918 – d. 2003) after many Lieutenant governors since 11 December 1888 (under the governor-general of AEF, except the several cases when he governed the French Congo personally); afterwards it was an independent republic
                                • Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) had two High Commissioners since it was granted autonomy as republic of Ivory Coast:

                                  • 4 December 1958 – 15 July 1960 Ernest de Nattes (b. 1908), the last of the long list of governors since 10 March 1893 (colony till 27 October 1946, then overseas territory)
                                  • 15 July 1960 – 7 August 1960 Yves René Henri Guéna (b. 1922); thereafter it was an independent republic
                                • Gabon had two High Commissioners since on 28 November 1958 autonomy was granted (as Gabonese Republic) to the former overseas territory (since 1946)

                                  • November 1958 – July 1959 Louis Marius Pascal Sanmarco (b. 1912 – d. 2015), also the last of the Governors since 1941 (after various otherwise styled chief executives before; it had since 15 January 1910 been part of French Equatorial Africa, AEF)
                                  • July 1959 – 17 August 1960 Jean Risterucci (b. 1911 – d. 1982); thereafter it was an independent republic
                                • Mauritania had two High commissioners, after having been a protectorate since 12 May 1903 (under a single military Commandant), from 18 October 1904 the French civil territory of Mauritania under a Commissioner (part of French West Africa (AOF); under its Governor-general in Dakar, Senegal), and since 12 January 1920 a French colony under a lieutenant governor (many incumbents, again under Dakar), on 28 November 1958 obtaining autonomy (as Islamic Republic of Mauritania):

                                  • 5 October 1958 – February 1959 Henri Joseph Marie Bernard (b. 1920)
                                  • February 1959 – 28 November 1960 Amédée Joseph Émile Jean Pierre Anthonioz (b. 1913 – d. 1996); since independence from France it had its own President (or a junta chief);
                                • In Niger, since 13 October 1946 an overseas territory of France (part of French West Africa, see Senegal) under a lieutenant-governor, on 19 December 1958 granted autonomy as Republic of Niger, there was a single High commissioner 25 August 1958 – 10 November 1960: Jean Colombani (b. 1903), i.e. still several months after the formal 3 August 1960 independence whilst there was no President
                                • In Senegal, since 27 October 1946 an overseas territory of France, which on 25 November 1958 had obtained autonomy (as Republic of Senegal), the last Governor stayed on as first (and only?) Haut commissaire 25 November 1958 – 20 June 1960: Pierre Auguste Michel Marie Lami (b. 1909); meanwhile on 4 April 1959 the Sudanese Republic (now Mali) and Senegal formed the Mali Federation and his term ended at the 20 June 1960 independence of that Mali Federation from France (on 20 August 1960 the Republic of Senegal withdrew from the thus dissolved Mali Federation).
                                • in French Sudan, an overseas territory of France since 27 October 1946 (earlier a colony; stayed within French West Africa), which on 24 November 1958 obtained autonomy (as Sudanese Republic), there were two High commissioners:
                                  • 3 November 1956 – 24 November 1958 Henri Victor Gipoulon
                                  • 24 November 1958 – 20 June 1960 Jean Charles Sicurani (b. 1915 – d. 1977); during his term on 4 April 1959 this Sudanese Republic and Senegal (cfr. above) united to form the Mali Federation; his office ceased at the 20 June 1960 independence of the Mali Federation from France
                                • In the Republic of Upper Volta (since 4 January 1947 a French territory; present Burkina Faso, renamed 4 August 1984), since the 11 December 1958 grant of Autonomy as a ‘republic’, République de Haute-Volta, there were two High commissioners:
                                  • 11 December 1958 – February 1959 Max Berthet, who stayed on, having been the last (acting) Governor
                                  • February 1959 – 5 August 1960 Paul Jean Marie Masson (b. 1920), till the Independence from France as the Republic of Upper Volta.

                                While the colonies above were generally artificially carved creations, Haut commissaires also were appointed by Paris to prepare the (de facto) independence of pre-existing monarchies that had formally been French protectorates, such as:

                                • Tunisia, known as the Régence (since 3 June 1955 autonomous), where France had a Resident-general (posted with the Basha bey of Tunis, who once the French protectorate was terminated on 20 March 1956 restyled his realm al-Mamlaka at-Tunisiyya ‘Tunisian Kingdom’), instead got a High commissioner from 13 September 1955 to 20 March 1956: Roger Seydoux Fornier de Clausonne (b. 1908 – d. 1985); in continued shortly as independent monarchy, but on 25 July 1957 became the Tunisian Republic.

                                Yet a colony could achieve independence without a High Commissioner, e.g. Guinée (French Guinea).

                                In one case a French Haut Commissaire was the exact match and colleague of a British High Commissioner: they represented both powers in the south sea condominium (i.e. territory under joint sovereignty) of the New Hebrides, which became the present republic of Vanuatu. The current High Commissioner of Vanuatu to the US [5 February 2009] is David J. Wilson (born 1956).

                                A very special category was the Haut Commissaire as ‘liquidator’ of a gouvernement-général (the colonial echelon grouping several neighbouring colonies under a Governor-general), notably:

                                • in Afrique Equatoriale Française (French Equatorial Africa, AEF), three High commissioners:
                                  • 4 April 1957 – 29 January 1958 Paul Louis Gabriel Chauvet (b. 1904), also the last of the long list of Governors-general since 28 June 1908 (before it had five Commissioners-general since 27 April 1886)
                                  • 29 January 1958 – 15 July 1958 Pierre Messmer (b. 1916)
                                  • 15 July 1958 – 15 August 1960 Yvon Bourges (b. 1921)
                                • in Afrique Occidentale Française (AOF), i.e. French West Africa, the last of a long list of Governors-general since 1895 stayed on as first of only two High Commissioners:
                                  • 4 April 1957 – July 1958 Gaston Custin (b. 1903 – d. 1993)
                                  • July 1958 – 22 December 1958 Pierre Messmer (b. 1916)

                                Another use for the title was found in the rare remaining insulara (formerly no longer colonial) overseas possessions, in these cases still functioning:

                                • In French Polynesia it is the title of the representative of the French republic in the overseas territory (restyled ‘overseas collectivity’ in 2003, ‘overseas country’ on 27 February 2004) since 13 July 1977 (until 14 September 1984 he also presided the local council of ministers, that got its own president, as the legislature already had)
                                • In New Caledonia (Nouvelle Calédonie in French, colonised in 1853; its Governors had been High Commissioners in the Pacific Ocean from 22 March 1907, see above) the title (commonly corrupted to Haussaire) was chosen for the chief executive on 19 December 1981, when it was an overseas territory (since 1946), even before autonomy was granted on 18 November 1984, and maintained after its status was changed on 20 July 1998 to the unique French collectivité sui generis; he represents the Paris government, while there are a native legislature and government.

                                Greece

                                In early May 1919, the Kingdom of Greece was given a mandate by the Supreme Allied War Council for the city of Smyrna (Izmir) and its hinterland, which it proceeded to occupy on 12 May. A civilian administration was set up in the “Smyrna Zone”, headed, from 21 May 1919 until 9 September 1922, when Greece lost Smyrna to Turkey, by the High Commissioner (Greek: Ὕπατος Ἁρμοστὴς) Aristeidis Stergiadis (1861–1950).

                                Italian

                                • while only various military commanders and since 1916 a Secretary for Civil Affairs in Albania (Ugo Capialbi) had acted for Rome since Italy invaded on 27 December 1914 (occupying Valorë and parts of Southern Albania; on 3 June 1917 Albanian independence under an Italian protectorate was declared by Italy, opposed by most Albanians; adding in November 1918 the former Austro-Hungarian occupied areas to the Italian zone) only since in 1919 an Albanian provisional government recognised by Italy as the legal government of the protected zone, consecutive High Commissioners for the Crown were appointed until Italy effectively withdraw its troops on 3 September 1920 (as agreed on 22 August 1920 when formally recognising the total independence of Albania):
                                  • 1919–1920 ….
                                  • 1920 Fortunato Castoldi
                                  • 1920 – 3 September 1920 Gaetano Conti Manzoni
                                • two incumbents appointed by the kingdom in Fiume (a former Austrian province; now Rijeka, in Croatia), after an extraordinary commissionary, in the 31 December 1920 declared, short-lived “Independent State of Fiume”, until the accession of its first President
                                  • 13 June 1921 – 1921 Antonio Foschini (b. 1872 – d. 19..)
                                  • 1921 – 5 October 1921 Luigi Amantea (b. 1869 – d. 19..)
                                • in Slovenia, which after 6–17 April 1941 Italian-German occupation, was on 17 April 1941 partitioned between Italy, Hungary and Germany, the Italian portion was named province of Lubiana, from 3 May 1941 under a Civil Commissioner, from 3 May 1941 restyled the first of two High Commissioners:
                                  • 18 April 1941 – 1942 Francesco Saverio Grazioli (b. 1869 – d. 1951)
                                  • 1942–1943 Giuseppe Lombrassa (b. 1906 – d. 1966)

                                Portuguese

                                The title Alto Comissário da República (High Commissioner of the Republic) or, simply Alto Comissário, was given to some Portuguese colonial governors to who were given, excepcional, enlarged executive and legislative powers, superiors to those of common Governors. In the Monarchy, before 1910, they were known as Comissários Régios (Royal Commissioners). Altos Comissários (or Comissários Régios when indicated) had been nominated for:

                                • Angola:

                                  • Guilherme Augusto de Brito Capelo (Comissário Régio) – 1896–1897
                                  • José Mendes Ribeiro de Norton de Matos – 1921–1923
                                  • Francisco da Cunha Rego Chaves – 1925–1926
                                  • António Vicente Ferreira – 1926–1928
                                  • Filomeno da Câmara Melo Cabral – 1929–1930
                                • Cabo Verde (Cape Verde):

                                  • Vicente Almeida d’Eça – 30 December 1974 – 5 July 1975
                                • Portuguese India:

                                  • João António de Brissac das Neves Ferreira (Comissário Régio) – 1896–1897
                                • Mozambique:

                                  • António Enes (Comissário Régio) – 1895
                                  • José Francisco de Azevedo e Silva – 1911–1912
                                  • Manuel de Brito Camacho – 1921–1923
                                  • Vitor Hugo de Azevedo Coutinho – 1924–1926
                                • São Tomé and Príncipe:

                                  • António Elísio Capelo Pires Veloso – 18 December 1974 (three days before the formal granting of autonomy), actually the last of many governors (since 1753, before both islands were separate), staying on until it became an independent republic on 12 July 1975
                                • Portuguese Timor:

                                  • José Joaquim Lopes de Lima (Comissário Régio) – 1851–1852

                                Spanish

                                Alto comisario was the Spanish title of the official exercing the functions of a governor in the following colonial possessions:

                                • Equatorial Guinea had three consecutive High Commissioners:

                                  • 15 December 1963 – 1964 Francisco Núñez Rodríguez (b. 1902 – d. 1972), also the last of many Governors since 7 June 1494
                                  • 1964–1966 Pedro Latorre Alcubierre
                                  • 1966 – 12 October 1968 Víctor Suances Díaz del Río; his term ended when it became an independent republic

                                The title Alto Comisario was also used for the representative of Spain in its protectorate zone within the Sherifan sultanate of Morocco (most of the country was under French protectorate), known as el Jalifato after the khalifa (Jalifa in Spanish), the Sultan’s fully mandated, princely Viceroy in this protectorate, to which the High Commissioner was formally accredited, but whose senior he was in reality.
                                In 1934–1956 the Governors of the Western Sahara (which from 27 November 1912 were also Governors-general of Spanish West Africa) were subordinated to him.
                                The office itself was however filled by the governors of Spanish West Africa from 1939 to 1956.

                                United States

                                • While being a US protectorate from 1905 to 1941, the Dominican Republic had first various native regimes, then US military Governors 29 November 1916 – 24 July 1922, and just before it again had the first of its own presidents on 21 October 1922, a single US High Commissioner, Sumner Welles, who served from 1922–1924.
                                • Haiti, the other (western) half of the island of Hispaniola, had a similar experience. It was a US protectorate from 1915 to 1936, after five US military commanders, there was one High Commissioner, John H. Russell, Jr., who served from 11 February 1922 to 16 November 1930.
                                • Following World War I, Rear Admiral Mark Lambert Bristol served as United States High Commissioner for Turkey from 1919 to 1927.
                                • The Philippines became a United States unincorporated territory on 13 August 1898. After gaining autonomy on 15 November 1935, it had the following High Commissioners:

                                  • 1935–1937 William Francis “Frank” Murphy, who was also the last Governor-General over the Islands.
                                  • 1937–1939 Paul V. McNutt (first commission)
                                  • 1939 – 7 September 1942 Francis Bowes Sayers (exiled in the US from 24 December 1942 during the Japanese Occupation).
                                  • 7 September 1942 – 4 July 1946 Paul V. McNutt (second commission; exiled in the US until August 1945 during the Japanese Occupation). Term ended when the Philippines achieved full sovereignty.
                                • Okinawa and Ryukyu Islands (Japanese archipelago), and later just Okinawa had six US High Commissioners:

                                  • 4 July 1957 – 1 May 1958 James Edward Moore. Moore was also the last Deputy governor and Commanding General, Ryukyu Islands Command.
                                  • 1 May 1958 – 12 February 1961 Donald Prentice Booth.
                                  • 16 February 1961 – 31 July 1964 Paul Wyatt Caraway.
                                  • 1 August 1964 – 31 October 1966 Albert Watson II.
                                  • 2 November 1966 – 28 January 1968 Ferdinand Thomas Unger.
                                  • 28 January 1968 – 15 May 1972 James Benjamin Lampert. On 15 May 1972 Okinawa reverted to Japanese sovereignty as a prefecture; therefore, the office of US High Commissioner on Okinawa ceased to exist.

                                Temporary administration of acquired territories

                                In many cases, a political vacuum created by war, occupation or other events discontinuing a country’s constitutional government has been filled by those able to do so, one nation or often an alliance, installing a transitional (often minimal) governance administered by, or under supervision of, one or more High Commissioners representing it/them.

                                Examples of multilaterally appointed administrations are discussed further below. Examples of administrations appointed during decolonisation processes are described above. Examples of non-colonial transitional administrations titled “High Commissioners” are:

                                • 22 November 1918 – 1919 Alsace-Lorraine, till then part of the defeated German Empire as Elsaß-Lothringen but just occupied by and restored to France, was under haut commissaire Maringer (it would be only fully reintegrated in 1925, after three Commissioners General)
                                • When Mussolini’s Italy occupied Montenegro 17 April 1941 – 10 September 1943, it first appointed a (Nominal) Governor (17 May 1941 – 23 July 1941? Mihajlo Ivanovic), then a Civil Commissioner 29 April 1941 – 22 May 1941 Conte Serafino Mazzolini (b. 1890 – d. 1945), who next stayed on as High Commissioner (from 12 July 1941, also styled Regent at the proclamation of Nominal independence under Italian control, but exiled King Mihajlo I refused the throne, when offered the Montenegrin crown; Prince Roman Petrovich of Russia (b. 1896 – d. 1978) also refused to be enthroned) till 23 July 1941 followed by two Governors before the German occupation

                                High commissions that never realized

                                During the negotiations about Hong Kong’s further status, the Chinese delegations proposed any state that have diplomatic relations with China can establish a consulate in Hong Kong. The British delegations instead want to establish a High commission, thinking the Chinese will not notice the difference. A Chinese delegate, who had worked in Commonwealth countries, were furious and said “What is your heart in demanding this? I know, you only establish High Commissions in capital cities in British Commenwealth. … China’s capital is Beijing, not Hong Kong. Do you want to change Hong Kong into a proto-British-Commonwealth Republic, or outright full British-Commonwealth Republic?” The British were shocked and said “we also have commercial commissions in other countries.” The Chinese replied: “This is just a play on words, these two things are not related at all, you can’t fool us this way.” The British were unsuccessful and agreed to establish a consulate in Hong Kong.

                                Domestic High Commissioners

                                • In France, a high commissioner, in French haut-commissaire, is a civil servant appointed by the President of France to some high-level position within France:
                                  • The High commissioner for atomic energy is the head of the CEA
                                  • cfr. Haute Autorité.
                                • In Portugal, high commissioner (alto comissário in Portuguese) is the title of certain officials appointed by the President, the Parliament or the Government to deal with special matters of national importance (e.g.: the High Commissioner for Immigration and Intercultural Dialogue is the government official responsible for the immigration and ethnic minorities affairs).

                                Multilaterally mandated

                                Representing an international alliance

                                Crete

                                After the naval blockade of Crete in 1898 by France, Italy, Russia and the United Kingdom, Crete became an autonomous state within the Ottoman Empire. These protecting powers appointed the following as High Commissioner (Greek: Ὕπατος Ἁρμοστὴς) until 1908, when the Cretan Assembly unilaterally declared union with Greece (with Crete subsequently formally becoming part of Greece in 1913, after the Balkan Wars):

                                • 1898–1906 Prince George of Greece
                                • 18 September 1906 – 24 September 1908 Alexandros Zaimis

                                Constantinople

                                Following the capitulation of the Ottoman Empire in the Armistice of Mudros, on 8 December 1918 the Allies occupied the shores of the Bosporus, the Dardanelles, the eastern coast of the Sea of Marmara up to 15 km deep, the islands of Imbros, Lemnos, Samothrace and Tenedos. The entire area demilitarised (Zone of the Straits). This was complemented in 16 March – 10 August 1920 as the allies occupied the Ottoman capital Constantinople (Istanbul). Until the termination of Allied occupation on 22 October 1923, there were at all times one British Senior Allied High Commissioner and one (junior) Allied High Commissioner (incumbents from France, thrice, Italy and the US, each twice).

                                Post-World War II

                                Often the main/locally concerned members of an alliance would not set up a joint occupation authority (as in Italy after the Nazi defeat) but simply each appoint one for each of the zones into which they physically divided amongst themselves an occupied state or territory, e.g. after World War II:

                                • in Austria, until 27 July 1955 when Allied occupation ended, restoring Austrian sovereignty, it was administered as a British Zone (6 consecutive High Commissioners, July 1945), a US Zone (4 incumbents from 5 July 1945), a Soviet Zone (4 from July 1945; only this had first been under a Military Governor from 8 April 1945), and a French Zone (2, from 8 July 1945);
                                • in Germany there were also four major occupation zones: the British Zone (after three consecutive Military governors from 22 May 1945, the last stayed on as first of three consecutive High Commissioners 21 September 1949 – 5 May 1955), the US Zone (after five Military governors from 8 May 1945, four High Commissioners 2 September 1949 – 5 May 1955), the Soviet Zone (after a military commander April 1945 – 9 June 1945 who stayed as first of three Military governors 9 June 1945 – 10 October 1949, the last of whom stayed on as only Chairman of the Soviet Control Commission 10 October 1949 – 28 May 1953, two High commissioners 28 May 1953 – 20 September 1955), and the French Zone (after a Military commander from May 1945 and a Military governor from July 1945, a single High commissioner 21 September 1949 – 5 May 1955); the Nazi capital, Berlin, enclaved in the Soviet zone, was separately quartered under four military City Commanders; only the small Dutch zone by the border with the Netherlands was destined for annexation in 1949, so it was divided up in two districts, each under a landdrost (Tudderen, attached to the province of (Dutch) Limburg and Elten, attached to Gelderland province), but returned to Germany after compensation payments and minor border corrections on 11 August 1963

                                Representing an international organisation

                                As the ‘world community’ became a widely accepted ideal in diplomacy and was embodied first in the League of Nations and later the United Nations, these often came to play a key role in extraordinary situations that would earlier probably have been dealt with by states as above, sometimes reflected in the appointment of High Commissioners under their auspices, sometimes just from the same leading powers, sometimes rather from ‘neutral’ member states.

                                The title of High Commissioner was specifically used for the administrators during the ’emancipation from colonial rule’ of League of Nations mandates and United Nations Trust Territories, i.e. non-sovereign states under a ‘transitional’ regime established under the authority of the League of Nations or the UN, respectively, to prepare them for full independence.

                                These ‘guardianships’ most often were simply awarded to the former colonial power or if that was a loser in the preceding World War, to the ‘liberating’ Allied victor(s). The trust territories have all now attained self-government or independence, either as separate nations or by joining neighbouring independent countries.

                                League of Nations

                                • Fridtjof Nansen
                                Mandate territories
                                • The British Mandate of Iraq High Commissioners – After Ottoman Iraq was conquered by British forces, the mandate territory had four incumbents, after a single civilian Administrator (10 January 1919 – 1 October 1920 Sir Arnold Talbot Wilson), continuing ten years after the accession to the throne and most of the rule of the country’s first Malik (King, reigned 23 August 1921 – 8 September 1933) Faysal I (b. 1885 – d. 1933) :
                                  • 1 October 1920 – 4 May 1923 Sir Percy Zachariah Cox (b. 1864 – d. 1937)
                                  • 4 May 1923 – October 1928 Sir Henry Robert Conway Dobbs (acting to 15 September 1923) (b. 1871 – d. 1934)
                                  • October 1928 – 11 September 1929 Sir Gilbert Falkingham Clayton (b. 1875 – d. 1929)
                                  • 3 October 1929 – 3 October 1932 Sir Francis Henry Humphrys (b. 1879 – d. 1971)
                                • The British Mandate of Palestine High Commissioners
                                  • 1 July 1920 – 1925 Sir Herbert Louis Samuel (1879–1963), until the 1922 establishment of the mandate actually the first civilian who took over, already as High Commissioner, from the three consecutive military administrators since the 1917 conquest by British forces
                                  • 1925 Sir Gilbert Falkingham Clayton (acting) (1875–1929)
                                  • 25 August 1925 – August 1928 Herbert Charles Onslow Plumer, Baron Plumer (1857–1932)
                                  • August 1928 – 6 December 1928 Sir Harry Charles Luke (acting) (1884–1969)
                                  • 6 December 1928 – 1931 Sir John Robert Chancellor (1870–1952)
                                  • 1931–1932 Mark Aitchison Young (acting) (1886–1974)
                                  • 1932 – September 1937 Sir Arthur Grenfell Wauchope (1874–1947)
                                  • September 1937 – March 1938 William Denis Battershill (acting) (1896–1959)
                                  • 3 March 1938 – 3 September 1944 Sir Harold Alfred MacMichael (1882–1969)
                                  • 3 September 1944 – 21 November 1945 John Standish Surtees Prendergast Vereker, Viscount Gort (1886–1946)
                                  • 21 November 1945 – 14 May 1948 Sir Alan Gordon Cunningham (1887–1983)

                                United Nations

                                UN Trust Territories
                                • In Togo, once a German colony, then a League of Nations mandate, * three High commissioners
                                  • 21 September 1956 – 23 March 1957 Jean Louis Philippe Bérard (b. 1910), in fact the last of many Commissioners since 4 September 1916
                                  • 23 March 1957 – June 1957 Joseph Édouard Georges Rigal (acting)
                                  • June 1957 – 27 April 1960 Georges Léon Spénale (b. 1913 – d. 1983); next it was an independent republic.
                                • The UN Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (originally comprising Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands and Palau), after Allied military occupations, since 18 July 1947, had a dozen high commissioners, also presiding over the splitting off of Palau and Marshall Islands in 1980 and the 10 May 1979 granting of autonomy to the Federated States of Micronesia (former Ponape, Truk and Yap districts of the Trust Territory) until on 3 November 1986 the Trust Territory was dissolved by the US (a single Director of the Office of Transition, Charles Jordan, stepped in from 3 November 1986 – 30 September 1991, a while after the 22 December 1990 proclamation of final independence as the UN Security Council ratified the termination of US trusteeship).
                                Other UN administration
                                • After the former Italian colony of Eritrea had been under victor Britain’s administration since 5 May 1941, a specific United Nations administration, under Britain, was installed on 19 February 1951, under a UN High Commissioner, Edoardo Anze Matienzo (Bolivian, b. 1902), whose office ceased on 15 September 1952 when it was Federated with Ethiopia under the sovereignty of the Ethiopian emperor.
                                Representing the world universally

                                At the United Nations and affiliated global organisations, a High Commissioner serves as the permanent chief executive of a commission composed of representatives of various member nations.

                                • the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, who has the rank of Under-secretary-general, serves the United Nations Human Rights Commission. In fact in 2005, the US Ambassador at the UN complained that the incumbent, as a ‘civil servant’, was not authorised to act upon information (in this case worldwide press reports on abnormal detention forms in the ‘war against terrorism’ suspected to breach the rights of the suspects) not obtained by the organisation’s official channels.
                                • the UN High Commissioner for Refugees heads the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

                                Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

                                • High Commissioner on National Minorities

                                See also

                                • Lord High Commissioner
                                • High Representative

                                References

                                • History of the title High Commissioner
                                • WorldStatesmen click on the present countries mentioned
                                • The Commonwealth – UK government site


                                As adjunct faculty at four-year university, with no PhD, what should I have my students call me?

                                The name of the pictureThe name of the pictureThe name of the pictureClash Royale CLAN TAG#URR8PPP

                                10

                                I will be teaching at a four year university as adjunct faculty. Is it okay to have my students to call me Professor LastName, even if I do not have this title formally? If not, what other options do I have? I quite dislike Ms.. At my old college, I had my students call me by my first name, but instead I got a strange combination of “Teacher” and “Ms. FirstName” and “Miss FirstName” which makes me feel like a kindergarten teacher.

                                (Note: I have seen this question asked in a variety of ways but not in the case where the asker does not have a PhD.)

                                share|improve this question

                                • 11

                                  An adjunct professor is still a professor, no?

                                  – Thomas
                                  Jan 4 at 16:48

                                • 10

                                  Do also check with the dean and a couple colleagues about the convention in the department. Some places are more formal, some aren’t.

                                  – Penguin_Knight
                                  Jan 4 at 16:52

                                • 4

                                  @MathStudent1324 I suggest reading the linked-to article They Call Me Dr Berry. That seems like a direct answer, even if it’s not on this site.

                                  – Peter K.
                                  Jan 4 at 17:19

                                • 5

                                  “Professor X is my father. Please, call me Legion.”

                                  – Ink blot
                                  Jan 4 at 21:20

                                • 5

                                  @curiousdannii When they don’t specify the country, it’s generally safe to assume they are American 🙂

                                  – Felipe Voloch
                                  Jan 5 at 2:47

                                10

                                I will be teaching at a four year university as adjunct faculty. Is it okay to have my students to call me Professor LastName, even if I do not have this title formally? If not, what other options do I have? I quite dislike Ms.. At my old college, I had my students call me by my first name, but instead I got a strange combination of “Teacher” and “Ms. FirstName” and “Miss FirstName” which makes me feel like a kindergarten teacher.

                                (Note: I have seen this question asked in a variety of ways but not in the case where the asker does not have a PhD.)

                                share|improve this question

                                • 11

                                  An adjunct professor is still a professor, no?

                                  – Thomas
                                  Jan 4 at 16:48

                                • 10

                                  Do also check with the dean and a couple colleagues about the convention in the department. Some places are more formal, some aren’t.

                                  – Penguin_Knight
                                  Jan 4 at 16:52

                                • 4

                                  @MathStudent1324 I suggest reading the linked-to article They Call Me Dr Berry. That seems like a direct answer, even if it’s not on this site.

                                  – Peter K.
                                  Jan 4 at 17:19

                                • 5

                                  “Professor X is my father. Please, call me Legion.”

                                  – Ink blot
                                  Jan 4 at 21:20

                                • 5

                                  @curiousdannii When they don’t specify the country, it’s generally safe to assume they are American 🙂

                                  – Felipe Voloch
                                  Jan 5 at 2:47

                                10

                                10

                                10

                                I will be teaching at a four year university as adjunct faculty. Is it okay to have my students to call me Professor LastName, even if I do not have this title formally? If not, what other options do I have? I quite dislike Ms.. At my old college, I had my students call me by my first name, but instead I got a strange combination of “Teacher” and “Ms. FirstName” and “Miss FirstName” which makes me feel like a kindergarten teacher.

                                (Note: I have seen this question asked in a variety of ways but not in the case where the asker does not have a PhD.)

                                share|improve this question

                                I will be teaching at a four year university as adjunct faculty. Is it okay to have my students to call me Professor LastName, even if I do not have this title formally? If not, what other options do I have? I quite dislike Ms.. At my old college, I had my students call me by my first name, but instead I got a strange combination of “Teacher” and “Ms. FirstName” and “Miss FirstName” which makes me feel like a kindergarten teacher.

                                (Note: I have seen this question asked in a variety of ways but not in the case where the asker does not have a PhD.)

                                teaching university students titles

                                share|improve this question

                                share|improve this question

                                share|improve this question

                                share|improve this question

                                edited Jan 5 at 7:56

                                Buzz

                                14.6k94877

                                14.6k94877

                                asked Jan 4 at 16:44

                                MathStudent1324MathStudent1324

                                1514

                                1514

                                • 11

                                  An adjunct professor is still a professor, no?

                                  – Thomas
                                  Jan 4 at 16:48

                                • 10

                                  Do also check with the dean and a couple colleagues about the convention in the department. Some places are more formal, some aren’t.

                                  – Penguin_Knight
                                  Jan 4 at 16:52

                                • 4

                                  @MathStudent1324 I suggest reading the linked-to article They Call Me Dr Berry. That seems like a direct answer, even if it’s not on this site.

                                  – Peter K.
                                  Jan 4 at 17:19

                                • 5

                                  “Professor X is my father. Please, call me Legion.”

                                  – Ink blot
                                  Jan 4 at 21:20

                                • 5

                                  @curiousdannii When they don’t specify the country, it’s generally safe to assume they are American 🙂

                                  – Felipe Voloch
                                  Jan 5 at 2:47

                                • 11

                                  An adjunct professor is still a professor, no?

                                  – Thomas
                                  Jan 4 at 16:48

                                • 10

                                  Do also check with the dean and a couple colleagues about the convention in the department. Some places are more formal, some aren’t.

                                  – Penguin_Knight
                                  Jan 4 at 16:52

                                • 4

                                  @MathStudent1324 I suggest reading the linked-to article They Call Me Dr Berry. That seems like a direct answer, even if it’s not on this site.

                                  – Peter K.
                                  Jan 4 at 17:19

                                • 5

                                  “Professor X is my father. Please, call me Legion.”

                                  – Ink blot
                                  Jan 4 at 21:20

                                • 5

                                  @curiousdannii When they don’t specify the country, it’s generally safe to assume they are American 🙂

                                  – Felipe Voloch
                                  Jan 5 at 2:47

                                11

                                11

                                An adjunct professor is still a professor, no?

                                – Thomas
                                Jan 4 at 16:48

                                An adjunct professor is still a professor, no?

                                – Thomas
                                Jan 4 at 16:48

                                10

                                10

                                Do also check with the dean and a couple colleagues about the convention in the department. Some places are more formal, some aren’t.

                                – Penguin_Knight
                                Jan 4 at 16:52

                                Do also check with the dean and a couple colleagues about the convention in the department. Some places are more formal, some aren’t.

                                – Penguin_Knight
                                Jan 4 at 16:52

                                4

                                4

                                @MathStudent1324 I suggest reading the linked-to article They Call Me Dr Berry. That seems like a direct answer, even if it’s not on this site.

                                – Peter K.
                                Jan 4 at 17:19

                                @MathStudent1324 I suggest reading the linked-to article They Call Me Dr Berry. That seems like a direct answer, even if it’s not on this site.

                                – Peter K.
                                Jan 4 at 17:19

                                5

                                5

                                “Professor X is my father. Please, call me Legion.”

                                – Ink blot
                                Jan 4 at 21:20

                                “Professor X is my father. Please, call me Legion.”

                                – Ink blot
                                Jan 4 at 21:20

                                5

                                5

                                @curiousdannii When they don’t specify the country, it’s generally safe to assume they are American 🙂

                                – Felipe Voloch
                                Jan 5 at 2:47

                                @curiousdannii When they don’t specify the country, it’s generally safe to assume they are American 🙂

                                – Felipe Voloch
                                Jan 5 at 2:47

                                5 Answers
                                5

                                active

                                oldest

                                votes

                                12

                                To a fairly large extent this can be student driven, actually. The students get into habits of speech. Some places it results in fairly formal address, in which case “Professor” would be fine in the US. Other places it is common to use first names. Your colleagues should be able to tell you the local custom.

                                In the US, “Professor” has both a generic and a technical sense. Students normally use it as a generic term. Undergraduates, at least. There are some places in which you are Doctor if you have a doctorate and Professor otherwise. Not especially consistent, but as the kids say, “whatever”.

                                There are a few places that impose formal rules, but you’d have been informed of that if it were the case. But, no matter your wishes, the students will likely do what they do.

                                I once tried to impose “first names only” rules on a set of doctoral students. Some went along ok, but others couldn’t make the jump. I was, forever, Professor Buffy to them.

                                If, on the first day of class, you write your name on the board as “Professor MathStudent1324”, most will go along. And if you write “Maria MathStudent1324” you will probably wind up as Maria. But like I said, they will do what feels comfortable to them.

                                share|improve this answer

                                • 2

                                  Yes, it really depends on the students. I’m an adjunct at two colleges, and the students all call me professor. Unfortunately, my family name looks hard to pronounce so they often stumble over it. I might try just putting up my name as “Professor K.” in the future, so they know it’s OK. 🙂

                                  – Peter K.
                                  Jan 4 at 17:41

                                • 5

                                  I sympathize with your students. If I had a professor named Buffy, I would not drop the honorific either 🙂

                                  – Boris Bukh
                                  Jan 4 at 19:06

                                • 10

                                  Professor Buffy, eh? Were you teaching in UC Sunnydale?

                                  – Ink blot
                                  Jan 4 at 21:22

                                • @Inkblot, unlikely.

                                  – Buffy
                                  Jan 4 at 21:31

                                4

                                It all depends on the customs in your institution and in your country.

                                When I was studying at Cambridge University for my masters in pure mathematics, one course was given by Mr Swinnerton-Dyer – he had never bothered with a mere PhD, was already a Fellow of the Royal Society, and it would have been inconceivable to address him as Professor, a job title to which he was not then entitled. We all called him Mr and everyone was happy.

                                Now, many years later, I am a student at another distinguished British university, and it would be considered odd not to use first names to address the variously titled lecturers, senior lecturers, readers, and professors with whom we have the honour of studying. If I addressed my supervisor as Professor he would assume that I was using formal language because I was upset about something.

                                These things are culturally dependent too. I worked at one time in Germany as head of a bilingual team. If they spoke to me in German I was always addressed as “Herr C” but if they happened to be speaking English I was equally invariably known as “Jeremy”.

                                You just have to ask around to find out what is appropriate in your institution.

                                share|improve this answer

                                • 4

                                  You must be really old. I am old myself and, by the time I was a student at Cambridge, he already was Prof. Sir Peter Swinnerton-Dyer. RIP.

                                  – Felipe Voloch
                                  Jan 5 at 2:41

                                • 3

                                  I am really old.

                                  – JeremyC
                                  Jan 5 at 5:24

                                • 2

                                  @FelipeVoloch I had not realised the Sir Peter had died as recently as 26 December last year. Thanks for pointing that out. RIP indeed.

                                  – JeremyC
                                  Jan 5 at 22:47

                                3

                                I have to add a bit of local flavour to the answers: Whilst in some countries “professor” is just a job title, in others it is an academic title which may not be used unless you earned it. E.g. in Germany it could result in up to a year of prison (see https://dejure.org/gesetze/StGB/132a.html) in severe cases.
                                Therefore, in Germany you should not give yourself a title (neither “Dr.” nor “Professor”) unless you are holding the title.

                                share|improve this answer

                                • @Alchimista yes, this will never happen if you are just writing “Professor XYZ” on a blackboard – this is why I cited the “up to”. But I’ll add a “in severe cases” to avoid misinterpretations.

                                  – OBu
                                  Jan 5 at 9:41

                                • In the Netherlands it is possible to have the job title of professor but not the academic title of doctor. My daily supervisor was prof.ir. XXX

                                  – Eric
                                  Jan 5 at 14:59

                                2

                                One of my colleagues was called Doctor R by the students and he was happy, while they avoided the formality of his family name but showed sufficient respect. Honour on both sides then…

                                share|improve this answer

                                  1

                                  Professor 1234 is the proper greeting. You don’t need to be permanent faculty or have a Ph.D. to get this title when in class and doing the work of a professor.

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  • 7

                                    Please edit this to specify which country you’re from. This would not be the proper greeting in many countries, for example, Australia.

                                    – curiousdannii
                                    Jan 5 at 0:17

                                  Your Answer

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                                  12

                                  To a fairly large extent this can be student driven, actually. The students get into habits of speech. Some places it results in fairly formal address, in which case “Professor” would be fine in the US. Other places it is common to use first names. Your colleagues should be able to tell you the local custom.

                                  In the US, “Professor” has both a generic and a technical sense. Students normally use it as a generic term. Undergraduates, at least. There are some places in which you are Doctor if you have a doctorate and Professor otherwise. Not especially consistent, but as the kids say, “whatever”.

                                  There are a few places that impose formal rules, but you’d have been informed of that if it were the case. But, no matter your wishes, the students will likely do what they do.

                                  I once tried to impose “first names only” rules on a set of doctoral students. Some went along ok, but others couldn’t make the jump. I was, forever, Professor Buffy to them.

                                  If, on the first day of class, you write your name on the board as “Professor MathStudent1324”, most will go along. And if you write “Maria MathStudent1324” you will probably wind up as Maria. But like I said, they will do what feels comfortable to them.

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  • 2

                                    Yes, it really depends on the students. I’m an adjunct at two colleges, and the students all call me professor. Unfortunately, my family name looks hard to pronounce so they often stumble over it. I might try just putting up my name as “Professor K.” in the future, so they know it’s OK. 🙂

                                    – Peter K.
                                    Jan 4 at 17:41

                                  • 5

                                    I sympathize with your students. If I had a professor named Buffy, I would not drop the honorific either 🙂

                                    – Boris Bukh
                                    Jan 4 at 19:06

                                  • 10

                                    Professor Buffy, eh? Were you teaching in UC Sunnydale?

                                    – Ink blot
                                    Jan 4 at 21:22

                                  • @Inkblot, unlikely.

                                    – Buffy
                                    Jan 4 at 21:31

                                  12

                                  To a fairly large extent this can be student driven, actually. The students get into habits of speech. Some places it results in fairly formal address, in which case “Professor” would be fine in the US. Other places it is common to use first names. Your colleagues should be able to tell you the local custom.

                                  In the US, “Professor” has both a generic and a technical sense. Students normally use it as a generic term. Undergraduates, at least. There are some places in which you are Doctor if you have a doctorate and Professor otherwise. Not especially consistent, but as the kids say, “whatever”.

                                  There are a few places that impose formal rules, but you’d have been informed of that if it were the case. But, no matter your wishes, the students will likely do what they do.

                                  I once tried to impose “first names only” rules on a set of doctoral students. Some went along ok, but others couldn’t make the jump. I was, forever, Professor Buffy to them.

                                  If, on the first day of class, you write your name on the board as “Professor MathStudent1324”, most will go along. And if you write “Maria MathStudent1324” you will probably wind up as Maria. But like I said, they will do what feels comfortable to them.

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  • 2

                                    Yes, it really depends on the students. I’m an adjunct at two colleges, and the students all call me professor. Unfortunately, my family name looks hard to pronounce so they often stumble over it. I might try just putting up my name as “Professor K.” in the future, so they know it’s OK. 🙂

                                    – Peter K.
                                    Jan 4 at 17:41

                                  • 5

                                    I sympathize with your students. If I had a professor named Buffy, I would not drop the honorific either 🙂

                                    – Boris Bukh
                                    Jan 4 at 19:06

                                  • 10

                                    Professor Buffy, eh? Were you teaching in UC Sunnydale?

                                    – Ink blot
                                    Jan 4 at 21:22

                                  • @Inkblot, unlikely.

                                    – Buffy
                                    Jan 4 at 21:31

                                  12

                                  12

                                  12

                                  To a fairly large extent this can be student driven, actually. The students get into habits of speech. Some places it results in fairly formal address, in which case “Professor” would be fine in the US. Other places it is common to use first names. Your colleagues should be able to tell you the local custom.

                                  In the US, “Professor” has both a generic and a technical sense. Students normally use it as a generic term. Undergraduates, at least. There are some places in which you are Doctor if you have a doctorate and Professor otherwise. Not especially consistent, but as the kids say, “whatever”.

                                  There are a few places that impose formal rules, but you’d have been informed of that if it were the case. But, no matter your wishes, the students will likely do what they do.

                                  I once tried to impose “first names only” rules on a set of doctoral students. Some went along ok, but others couldn’t make the jump. I was, forever, Professor Buffy to them.

                                  If, on the first day of class, you write your name on the board as “Professor MathStudent1324”, most will go along. And if you write “Maria MathStudent1324” you will probably wind up as Maria. But like I said, they will do what feels comfortable to them.

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  To a fairly large extent this can be student driven, actually. The students get into habits of speech. Some places it results in fairly formal address, in which case “Professor” would be fine in the US. Other places it is common to use first names. Your colleagues should be able to tell you the local custom.

                                  In the US, “Professor” has both a generic and a technical sense. Students normally use it as a generic term. Undergraduates, at least. There are some places in which you are Doctor if you have a doctorate and Professor otherwise. Not especially consistent, but as the kids say, “whatever”.

                                  There are a few places that impose formal rules, but you’d have been informed of that if it were the case. But, no matter your wishes, the students will likely do what they do.

                                  I once tried to impose “first names only” rules on a set of doctoral students. Some went along ok, but others couldn’t make the jump. I was, forever, Professor Buffy to them.

                                  If, on the first day of class, you write your name on the board as “Professor MathStudent1324”, most will go along. And if you write “Maria MathStudent1324” you will probably wind up as Maria. But like I said, they will do what feels comfortable to them.

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  edited Jan 4 at 17:37

                                  answered Jan 4 at 17:22

                                  BuffyBuffy

                                  40.6k9130209

                                  40.6k9130209

                                  • 2

                                    Yes, it really depends on the students. I’m an adjunct at two colleges, and the students all call me professor. Unfortunately, my family name looks hard to pronounce so they often stumble over it. I might try just putting up my name as “Professor K.” in the future, so they know it’s OK. 🙂

                                    – Peter K.
                                    Jan 4 at 17:41

                                  • 5

                                    I sympathize with your students. If I had a professor named Buffy, I would not drop the honorific either 🙂

                                    – Boris Bukh
                                    Jan 4 at 19:06

                                  • 10

                                    Professor Buffy, eh? Were you teaching in UC Sunnydale?

                                    – Ink blot
                                    Jan 4 at 21:22

                                  • @Inkblot, unlikely.

                                    – Buffy
                                    Jan 4 at 21:31

                                  • 2

                                    Yes, it really depends on the students. I’m an adjunct at two colleges, and the students all call me professor. Unfortunately, my family name looks hard to pronounce so they often stumble over it. I might try just putting up my name as “Professor K.” in the future, so they know it’s OK. 🙂

                                    – Peter K.
                                    Jan 4 at 17:41

                                  • 5

                                    I sympathize with your students. If I had a professor named Buffy, I would not drop the honorific either 🙂

                                    – Boris Bukh
                                    Jan 4 at 19:06

                                  • 10

                                    Professor Buffy, eh? Were you teaching in UC Sunnydale?

                                    – Ink blot
                                    Jan 4 at 21:22

                                  • @Inkblot, unlikely.

                                    – Buffy
                                    Jan 4 at 21:31

                                  2

                                  2

                                  Yes, it really depends on the students. I’m an adjunct at two colleges, and the students all call me professor. Unfortunately, my family name looks hard to pronounce so they often stumble over it. I might try just putting up my name as “Professor K.” in the future, so they know it’s OK. 🙂

                                  – Peter K.
                                  Jan 4 at 17:41

                                  Yes, it really depends on the students. I’m an adjunct at two colleges, and the students all call me professor. Unfortunately, my family name looks hard to pronounce so they often stumble over it. I might try just putting up my name as “Professor K.” in the future, so they know it’s OK. 🙂

                                  – Peter K.
                                  Jan 4 at 17:41

                                  5

                                  5

                                  I sympathize with your students. If I had a professor named Buffy, I would not drop the honorific either 🙂

                                  – Boris Bukh
                                  Jan 4 at 19:06

                                  I sympathize with your students. If I had a professor named Buffy, I would not drop the honorific either 🙂

                                  – Boris Bukh
                                  Jan 4 at 19:06

                                  10

                                  10

                                  Professor Buffy, eh? Were you teaching in UC Sunnydale?

                                  – Ink blot
                                  Jan 4 at 21:22

                                  Professor Buffy, eh? Were you teaching in UC Sunnydale?

                                  – Ink blot
                                  Jan 4 at 21:22

                                  @Inkblot, unlikely.

                                  – Buffy
                                  Jan 4 at 21:31

                                  @Inkblot, unlikely.

                                  – Buffy
                                  Jan 4 at 21:31

                                  4

                                  It all depends on the customs in your institution and in your country.

                                  When I was studying at Cambridge University for my masters in pure mathematics, one course was given by Mr Swinnerton-Dyer – he had never bothered with a mere PhD, was already a Fellow of the Royal Society, and it would have been inconceivable to address him as Professor, a job title to which he was not then entitled. We all called him Mr and everyone was happy.

                                  Now, many years later, I am a student at another distinguished British university, and it would be considered odd not to use first names to address the variously titled lecturers, senior lecturers, readers, and professors with whom we have the honour of studying. If I addressed my supervisor as Professor he would assume that I was using formal language because I was upset about something.

                                  These things are culturally dependent too. I worked at one time in Germany as head of a bilingual team. If they spoke to me in German I was always addressed as “Herr C” but if they happened to be speaking English I was equally invariably known as “Jeremy”.

                                  You just have to ask around to find out what is appropriate in your institution.

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  • 4

                                    You must be really old. I am old myself and, by the time I was a student at Cambridge, he already was Prof. Sir Peter Swinnerton-Dyer. RIP.

                                    – Felipe Voloch
                                    Jan 5 at 2:41

                                  • 3

                                    I am really old.

                                    – JeremyC
                                    Jan 5 at 5:24

                                  • 2

                                    @FelipeVoloch I had not realised the Sir Peter had died as recently as 26 December last year. Thanks for pointing that out. RIP indeed.

                                    – JeremyC
                                    Jan 5 at 22:47

                                  4

                                  It all depends on the customs in your institution and in your country.

                                  When I was studying at Cambridge University for my masters in pure mathematics, one course was given by Mr Swinnerton-Dyer – he had never bothered with a mere PhD, was already a Fellow of the Royal Society, and it would have been inconceivable to address him as Professor, a job title to which he was not then entitled. We all called him Mr and everyone was happy.

                                  Now, many years later, I am a student at another distinguished British university, and it would be considered odd not to use first names to address the variously titled lecturers, senior lecturers, readers, and professors with whom we have the honour of studying. If I addressed my supervisor as Professor he would assume that I was using formal language because I was upset about something.

                                  These things are culturally dependent too. I worked at one time in Germany as head of a bilingual team. If they spoke to me in German I was always addressed as “Herr C” but if they happened to be speaking English I was equally invariably known as “Jeremy”.

                                  You just have to ask around to find out what is appropriate in your institution.

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  • 4

                                    You must be really old. I am old myself and, by the time I was a student at Cambridge, he already was Prof. Sir Peter Swinnerton-Dyer. RIP.

                                    – Felipe Voloch
                                    Jan 5 at 2:41

                                  • 3

                                    I am really old.

                                    – JeremyC
                                    Jan 5 at 5:24

                                  • 2

                                    @FelipeVoloch I had not realised the Sir Peter had died as recently as 26 December last year. Thanks for pointing that out. RIP indeed.

                                    – JeremyC
                                    Jan 5 at 22:47

                                  4

                                  4

                                  4

                                  It all depends on the customs in your institution and in your country.

                                  When I was studying at Cambridge University for my masters in pure mathematics, one course was given by Mr Swinnerton-Dyer – he had never bothered with a mere PhD, was already a Fellow of the Royal Society, and it would have been inconceivable to address him as Professor, a job title to which he was not then entitled. We all called him Mr and everyone was happy.

                                  Now, many years later, I am a student at another distinguished British university, and it would be considered odd not to use first names to address the variously titled lecturers, senior lecturers, readers, and professors with whom we have the honour of studying. If I addressed my supervisor as Professor he would assume that I was using formal language because I was upset about something.

                                  These things are culturally dependent too. I worked at one time in Germany as head of a bilingual team. If they spoke to me in German I was always addressed as “Herr C” but if they happened to be speaking English I was equally invariably known as “Jeremy”.

                                  You just have to ask around to find out what is appropriate in your institution.

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  It all depends on the customs in your institution and in your country.

                                  When I was studying at Cambridge University for my masters in pure mathematics, one course was given by Mr Swinnerton-Dyer – he had never bothered with a mere PhD, was already a Fellow of the Royal Society, and it would have been inconceivable to address him as Professor, a job title to which he was not then entitled. We all called him Mr and everyone was happy.

                                  Now, many years later, I am a student at another distinguished British university, and it would be considered odd not to use first names to address the variously titled lecturers, senior lecturers, readers, and professors with whom we have the honour of studying. If I addressed my supervisor as Professor he would assume that I was using formal language because I was upset about something.

                                  These things are culturally dependent too. I worked at one time in Germany as head of a bilingual team. If they spoke to me in German I was always addressed as “Herr C” but if they happened to be speaking English I was equally invariably known as “Jeremy”.

                                  You just have to ask around to find out what is appropriate in your institution.

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  answered Jan 4 at 22:55

                                  JeremyCJeremyC

                                  85938

                                  85938

                                  • 4

                                    You must be really old. I am old myself and, by the time I was a student at Cambridge, he already was Prof. Sir Peter Swinnerton-Dyer. RIP.

                                    – Felipe Voloch
                                    Jan 5 at 2:41

                                  • 3

                                    I am really old.

                                    – JeremyC
                                    Jan 5 at 5:24

                                  • 2

                                    @FelipeVoloch I had not realised the Sir Peter had died as recently as 26 December last year. Thanks for pointing that out. RIP indeed.

                                    – JeremyC
                                    Jan 5 at 22:47

                                  • 4

                                    You must be really old. I am old myself and, by the time I was a student at Cambridge, he already was Prof. Sir Peter Swinnerton-Dyer. RIP.

                                    – Felipe Voloch
                                    Jan 5 at 2:41

                                  • 3

                                    I am really old.

                                    – JeremyC
                                    Jan 5 at 5:24

                                  • 2

                                    @FelipeVoloch I had not realised the Sir Peter had died as recently as 26 December last year. Thanks for pointing that out. RIP indeed.

                                    – JeremyC
                                    Jan 5 at 22:47

                                  4

                                  4

                                  You must be really old. I am old myself and, by the time I was a student at Cambridge, he already was Prof. Sir Peter Swinnerton-Dyer. RIP.

                                  – Felipe Voloch
                                  Jan 5 at 2:41

                                  You must be really old. I am old myself and, by the time I was a student at Cambridge, he already was Prof. Sir Peter Swinnerton-Dyer. RIP.

                                  – Felipe Voloch
                                  Jan 5 at 2:41

                                  3

                                  3

                                  I am really old.

                                  – JeremyC
                                  Jan 5 at 5:24

                                  I am really old.

                                  – JeremyC
                                  Jan 5 at 5:24

                                  2

                                  2

                                  @FelipeVoloch I had not realised the Sir Peter had died as recently as 26 December last year. Thanks for pointing that out. RIP indeed.

                                  – JeremyC
                                  Jan 5 at 22:47

                                  @FelipeVoloch I had not realised the Sir Peter had died as recently as 26 December last year. Thanks for pointing that out. RIP indeed.

                                  – JeremyC
                                  Jan 5 at 22:47

                                  3

                                  I have to add a bit of local flavour to the answers: Whilst in some countries “professor” is just a job title, in others it is an academic title which may not be used unless you earned it. E.g. in Germany it could result in up to a year of prison (see https://dejure.org/gesetze/StGB/132a.html) in severe cases.
                                  Therefore, in Germany you should not give yourself a title (neither “Dr.” nor “Professor”) unless you are holding the title.

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  • @Alchimista yes, this will never happen if you are just writing “Professor XYZ” on a blackboard – this is why I cited the “up to”. But I’ll add a “in severe cases” to avoid misinterpretations.

                                    – OBu
                                    Jan 5 at 9:41

                                  • In the Netherlands it is possible to have the job title of professor but not the academic title of doctor. My daily supervisor was prof.ir. XXX

                                    – Eric
                                    Jan 5 at 14:59

                                  3

                                  I have to add a bit of local flavour to the answers: Whilst in some countries “professor” is just a job title, in others it is an academic title which may not be used unless you earned it. E.g. in Germany it could result in up to a year of prison (see https://dejure.org/gesetze/StGB/132a.html) in severe cases.
                                  Therefore, in Germany you should not give yourself a title (neither “Dr.” nor “Professor”) unless you are holding the title.

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  • @Alchimista yes, this will never happen if you are just writing “Professor XYZ” on a blackboard – this is why I cited the “up to”. But I’ll add a “in severe cases” to avoid misinterpretations.

                                    – OBu
                                    Jan 5 at 9:41

                                  • In the Netherlands it is possible to have the job title of professor but not the academic title of doctor. My daily supervisor was prof.ir. XXX

                                    – Eric
                                    Jan 5 at 14:59

                                  3

                                  3

                                  3

                                  I have to add a bit of local flavour to the answers: Whilst in some countries “professor” is just a job title, in others it is an academic title which may not be used unless you earned it. E.g. in Germany it could result in up to a year of prison (see https://dejure.org/gesetze/StGB/132a.html) in severe cases.
                                  Therefore, in Germany you should not give yourself a title (neither “Dr.” nor “Professor”) unless you are holding the title.

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  I have to add a bit of local flavour to the answers: Whilst in some countries “professor” is just a job title, in others it is an academic title which may not be used unless you earned it. E.g. in Germany it could result in up to a year of prison (see https://dejure.org/gesetze/StGB/132a.html) in severe cases.
                                  Therefore, in Germany you should not give yourself a title (neither “Dr.” nor “Professor”) unless you are holding the title.

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  share|improve this answer

                                  edited Jan 5 at 9:41

                                  answered Jan 4 at 21:49

                                  OBuOBu

                                  11.9k22753

                                  11.9k22753

                                  • @Alchimista yes, this will never happen if you are just writing “Professor XYZ” on a blackboard – this is why I cited the “up to”. But I’ll add a “in severe cases” to avoid misinterpretations.

                                    – OBu
                                    Jan 5 at 9:41

                                  • In the Netherlands it is possible to have the job title of professor but not the academic title of doctor. My daily supervisor was prof.ir. XXX

                                    – Eric
                                    Jan 5 at 14:59

                                  • @Alchimista yes, this will never happen if you are just writing “Professor XYZ” on a blackboard – this is why I cited the “up to”. But I’ll add a “in severe cases” to avoid misinterpretations.

                                    – OBu
                                    Jan 5 at 9:41

                                  • In the Netherlands it is possible to have the job title of professor but not the academic title of doctor. My daily supervisor was prof.ir. XXX

                                    – Eric
                                    Jan 5 at 14:59

                                  @Alchimista yes, this will never happen if you are just writing “Professor XYZ” on a blackboard – this is why I cited the “up to”. But I’ll add a “in severe cases” to avoid misinterpretations.

                                  – OBu
                                  Jan 5 at 9:41

                                  @Alchimista yes, this will never happen if you are just writing “Professor XYZ” on a blackboard – this is why I cited the “up to”. But I’ll add a “in severe cases” to avoid misinterpretations.

                                  – OBu
                                  Jan 5 at 9:41

                                  In the Netherlands it is possible to have the job title of professor but not the academic title of doctor. My daily supervisor was prof.ir. XXX

                                  – Eric
                                  Jan 5 at 14:59

                                  In the Netherlands it is possible to have the job title of professor but not the academic title of doctor. My daily supervisor was prof.ir. XXX

                                  – Eric
                                  Jan 5 at 14:59

                                  2

                                  One of my colleagues was called Doctor R by the students and he was happy, while they avoided the formality of his family name but showed sufficient respect. Honour on both sides then…

                                  share|improve this answer

                                    2

                                    One of my colleagues was called Doctor R by the students and he was happy, while they avoided the formality of his family name but showed sufficient respect. Honour on both sides then…

                                    share|improve this answer

                                      2

                                      2

                                      2

                                      One of my colleagues was called Doctor R by the students and he was happy, while they avoided the formality of his family name but showed sufficient respect. Honour on both sides then…

                                      share|improve this answer

                                      One of my colleagues was called Doctor R by the students and he was happy, while they avoided the formality of his family name but showed sufficient respect. Honour on both sides then…

                                      share|improve this answer

                                      share|improve this answer

                                      share|improve this answer

                                      answered Jan 4 at 20:41

                                      Solar MikeSolar Mike

                                      12.9k52550

                                      12.9k52550

                                          1

                                          Professor 1234 is the proper greeting. You don’t need to be permanent faculty or have a Ph.D. to get this title when in class and doing the work of a professor.

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          • 7

                                            Please edit this to specify which country you’re from. This would not be the proper greeting in many countries, for example, Australia.

                                            – curiousdannii
                                            Jan 5 at 0:17

                                          1

                                          Professor 1234 is the proper greeting. You don’t need to be permanent faculty or have a Ph.D. to get this title when in class and doing the work of a professor.

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          • 7

                                            Please edit this to specify which country you’re from. This would not be the proper greeting in many countries, for example, Australia.

                                            – curiousdannii
                                            Jan 5 at 0:17

                                          1

                                          1

                                          1

                                          Professor 1234 is the proper greeting. You don’t need to be permanent faculty or have a Ph.D. to get this title when in class and doing the work of a professor.

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          Professor 1234 is the proper greeting. You don’t need to be permanent faculty or have a Ph.D. to get this title when in class and doing the work of a professor.

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          answered Jan 4 at 18:47

                                          guestguest

                                          191

                                          191

                                          • 7

                                            Please edit this to specify which country you’re from. This would not be the proper greeting in many countries, for example, Australia.

                                            – curiousdannii
                                            Jan 5 at 0:17

                                          • 7

                                            Please edit this to specify which country you’re from. This would not be the proper greeting in many countries, for example, Australia.

                                            – curiousdannii
                                            Jan 5 at 0:17

                                          7

                                          7

                                          Please edit this to specify which country you’re from. This would not be the proper greeting in many countries, for example, Australia.

                                          – curiousdannii
                                          Jan 5 at 0:17

                                          Please edit this to specify which country you’re from. This would not be the proper greeting in many countries, for example, Australia.

                                          – curiousdannii
                                          Jan 5 at 0:17

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                                          How to fix this capitalization issue of a macro in the title-command?

                                          The name of the pictureThe name of the pictureThe name of the pictureClash Royale CLAN TAG#URR8PPP

                                          3

                                          I wrote the following code to typeset the title page of a paper:

                                          documentclass{amsart}
                                          
                                          usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
                                          usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
                                          usepackage[USenglish]{babel}
                                          
                                          begin{document}
                                          
                                          title[Title Title Title]{Title Title Title}
                                          
                                          begin{abstract}
                                              Abstract abstract abstract
                                          end{abstract}
                                          
                                          maketitle
                                          
                                          end{document}
                                          

                                          This outputs the following:

                                          enter image description here

                                          However, I wanted to make my title a macro, because I need it elsewhere too:

                                          documentclass{amsart}
                                          
                                          usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
                                          usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
                                          usepackage[USenglish]{babel}
                                          
                                          newcommandmytitle{Title title title}
                                          
                                          begin{document}
                                          
                                          title[mytitle]{mytitle}
                                          
                                          begin{abstract}
                                              Abstract abstract abstract
                                          end{abstract}
                                          
                                          maketitle
                                          
                                          end{document}
                                          

                                          But this now outputs the following:

                                          enter image description here

                                          No way of fiddling got me the capitalization back. E.g. there is no difference in using def. What is happening here and how to fix it?

                                          share|improve this question

                                          • expandaftertitleexpandafter{mytitle} should work.

                                            – Ulrike Fischer
                                            Jan 2 at 14:17

                                          • @UlrikeFischer I tried this, and unformtunately it does not work.

                                            – M. Winter
                                            Jan 2 at 14:23

                                          3

                                          I wrote the following code to typeset the title page of a paper:

                                          documentclass{amsart}
                                          
                                          usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
                                          usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
                                          usepackage[USenglish]{babel}
                                          
                                          begin{document}
                                          
                                          title[Title Title Title]{Title Title Title}
                                          
                                          begin{abstract}
                                              Abstract abstract abstract
                                          end{abstract}
                                          
                                          maketitle
                                          
                                          end{document}
                                          

                                          This outputs the following:

                                          enter image description here

                                          However, I wanted to make my title a macro, because I need it elsewhere too:

                                          documentclass{amsart}
                                          
                                          usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
                                          usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
                                          usepackage[USenglish]{babel}
                                          
                                          newcommandmytitle{Title title title}
                                          
                                          begin{document}
                                          
                                          title[mytitle]{mytitle}
                                          
                                          begin{abstract}
                                              Abstract abstract abstract
                                          end{abstract}
                                          
                                          maketitle
                                          
                                          end{document}
                                          

                                          But this now outputs the following:

                                          enter image description here

                                          No way of fiddling got me the capitalization back. E.g. there is no difference in using def. What is happening here and how to fix it?

                                          share|improve this question

                                          • expandaftertitleexpandafter{mytitle} should work.

                                            – Ulrike Fischer
                                            Jan 2 at 14:17

                                          • @UlrikeFischer I tried this, and unformtunately it does not work.

                                            – M. Winter
                                            Jan 2 at 14:23

                                          3

                                          3

                                          3

                                          I wrote the following code to typeset the title page of a paper:

                                          documentclass{amsart}
                                          
                                          usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
                                          usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
                                          usepackage[USenglish]{babel}
                                          
                                          begin{document}
                                          
                                          title[Title Title Title]{Title Title Title}
                                          
                                          begin{abstract}
                                              Abstract abstract abstract
                                          end{abstract}
                                          
                                          maketitle
                                          
                                          end{document}
                                          

                                          This outputs the following:

                                          enter image description here

                                          However, I wanted to make my title a macro, because I need it elsewhere too:

                                          documentclass{amsart}
                                          
                                          usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
                                          usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
                                          usepackage[USenglish]{babel}
                                          
                                          newcommandmytitle{Title title title}
                                          
                                          begin{document}
                                          
                                          title[mytitle]{mytitle}
                                          
                                          begin{abstract}
                                              Abstract abstract abstract
                                          end{abstract}
                                          
                                          maketitle
                                          
                                          end{document}
                                          

                                          But this now outputs the following:

                                          enter image description here

                                          No way of fiddling got me the capitalization back. E.g. there is no difference in using def. What is happening here and how to fix it?

                                          share|improve this question

                                          I wrote the following code to typeset the title page of a paper:

                                          documentclass{amsart}
                                          
                                          usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
                                          usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
                                          usepackage[USenglish]{babel}
                                          
                                          begin{document}
                                          
                                          title[Title Title Title]{Title Title Title}
                                          
                                          begin{abstract}
                                              Abstract abstract abstract
                                          end{abstract}
                                          
                                          maketitle
                                          
                                          end{document}
                                          

                                          This outputs the following:

                                          enter image description here

                                          However, I wanted to make my title a macro, because I need it elsewhere too:

                                          documentclass{amsart}
                                          
                                          usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
                                          usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
                                          usepackage[USenglish]{babel}
                                          
                                          newcommandmytitle{Title title title}
                                          
                                          begin{document}
                                          
                                          title[mytitle]{mytitle}
                                          
                                          begin{abstract}
                                              Abstract abstract abstract
                                          end{abstract}
                                          
                                          maketitle
                                          
                                          end{document}
                                          

                                          But this now outputs the following:

                                          enter image description here

                                          No way of fiddling got me the capitalization back. E.g. there is no difference in using def. What is happening here and how to fix it?

                                          macros formatting titles capitalization

                                          share|improve this question

                                          share|improve this question

                                          share|improve this question

                                          share|improve this question

                                          asked Jan 2 at 14:08

                                          M. WinterM. Winter

                                          290110

                                          290110

                                          • expandaftertitleexpandafter{mytitle} should work.

                                            – Ulrike Fischer
                                            Jan 2 at 14:17

                                          • @UlrikeFischer I tried this, and unformtunately it does not work.

                                            – M. Winter
                                            Jan 2 at 14:23

                                          • expandaftertitleexpandafter{mytitle} should work.

                                            – Ulrike Fischer
                                            Jan 2 at 14:17

                                          • @UlrikeFischer I tried this, and unformtunately it does not work.

                                            – M. Winter
                                            Jan 2 at 14:23

                                          expandaftertitleexpandafter{mytitle} should work.

                                          – Ulrike Fischer
                                          Jan 2 at 14:17

                                          expandaftertitleexpandafter{mytitle} should work.

                                          – Ulrike Fischer
                                          Jan 2 at 14:17

                                          @UlrikeFischer I tried this, and unformtunately it does not work.

                                          – M. Winter
                                          Jan 2 at 14:23

                                          @UlrikeFischer I tried this, and unformtunately it does not work.

                                          – M. Winter
                                          Jan 2 at 14:23

                                          2 Answers
                                          2

                                          active

                                          oldest

                                          votes

                                          4

                                          Unfortunately, amsart uses by default uppercase (a big nuisance). Happily, the fix is simple: load textcase.

                                          documentclass{amsart}
                                          
                                          usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
                                          usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
                                          usepackage[USenglish]{babel}
                                          usepackage{textcase}
                                          
                                          newcommandmytitle{Title title title}
                                          
                                          begin{document}
                                          
                                          title[mytitle]{mytitle}
                                          
                                          begin{abstract}
                                              Abstract abstract abstract
                                          end{abstract}
                                          
                                          maketitle
                                          
                                          end{document}
                                          

                                          enter image description here

                                          Let’s see the definition of title

                                          renewcommand*{title}[2]{gdefshorttitle{#1}gdef@title{#2}}
                                          edeftitle{@nx@dblarg
                                            @xp@nxcsnamestringtitleendcsname}
                                          

                                          This is a common trick in the class for telling LaTeX that if the optional argument is missing then the mandatory argument should be supplied instead.

                                          The problem arises when maketitle is processed, which does @settitle:

                                          def@settitle{begin{center}%
                                            baselineskip14p@relax
                                              bfseries
                                          uppercasenonmath@title
                                            @title
                                            end{center}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          OK, we should look at uppercasenonmath:

                                          newcommand{uppercasenonmath}[1]{toks@@emptytoks
                                            @xp@skipmath@xp@empty#1$$%
                                            edef#1{{@nxprotect@nx@upprepthetoks@}}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          This only expands @title once, so at the end the primitive uppercase is applied to mytitle (it would be a bit long to go into the details). However the class also has

                                          AtBeginDocument{%
                                            @ifundefined{MakeTextUppercase}{}{letuppercasenonmathaltucnm}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          and we find

                                          defaltucnm#1{%
                                            MakeTextUppercase{toks@{#1}}%
                                            edef#1{thetoks@}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          and this is much better, because MakeTextUppercase does full (protected) expansion of its argument, so your mytitle gets expanded before uppercasing is done.

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          • Thank you, this solved the problem. Can you tell a little bit about why this problem happened in the first place and how textcase fixed it?

                                            – M. Winter
                                            Jan 2 at 14:24

                                          • @M.Winter Added some details

                                            – egreg
                                            Jan 2 at 14:40

                                          3

                                          Too long for a comment

                                          expandafterexpandafterexpandaftertitleexpandafterexpandafterexpandafter[expandaftermytitleexpandafter]expandafter{mytitle}
                                          

                                          But @egreg answer is worthwile reading too. 🙂

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          • Wow, this is insanity. I mean I tried expandafter, but I was not aware that just using more might fix the problem 😀

                                            – M. Winter
                                            Jan 2 at 14:57

                                          • eh eh… you usually need them by groups of 2^n -1 here n=2 because we need to expand once two things.

                                            – jfbu
                                            Jan 2 at 14:58

                                          • newcommandPassFirstToSecond[2]{#2{#1}} ... expandafterPassFirstToSecondexpandafter{mytitle}{expandaftertitleexpandafter[mytitle]}

                                            – Ulrich Diez
                                            Jan 2 at 19:02

                                          • @UlrichDiez yes, and with unexpandedexpandafter{foo} methods it is even easier to control expansion in arbitrary locations in an edef, begingroupedefx{endgroupnoexpandtitle[unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}]{unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}}}x

                                            – jfbu
                                            Jan 2 at 22:14

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                                          2 Answers
                                          2

                                          active

                                          oldest

                                          votes

                                          2 Answers
                                          2

                                          active

                                          oldest

                                          votes

                                          active

                                          oldest

                                          votes

                                          active

                                          oldest

                                          votes

                                          4

                                          Unfortunately, amsart uses by default uppercase (a big nuisance). Happily, the fix is simple: load textcase.

                                          documentclass{amsart}
                                          
                                          usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
                                          usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
                                          usepackage[USenglish]{babel}
                                          usepackage{textcase}
                                          
                                          newcommandmytitle{Title title title}
                                          
                                          begin{document}
                                          
                                          title[mytitle]{mytitle}
                                          
                                          begin{abstract}
                                              Abstract abstract abstract
                                          end{abstract}
                                          
                                          maketitle
                                          
                                          end{document}
                                          

                                          enter image description here

                                          Let’s see the definition of title

                                          renewcommand*{title}[2]{gdefshorttitle{#1}gdef@title{#2}}
                                          edeftitle{@nx@dblarg
                                            @xp@nxcsnamestringtitleendcsname}
                                          

                                          This is a common trick in the class for telling LaTeX that if the optional argument is missing then the mandatory argument should be supplied instead.

                                          The problem arises when maketitle is processed, which does @settitle:

                                          def@settitle{begin{center}%
                                            baselineskip14p@relax
                                              bfseries
                                          uppercasenonmath@title
                                            @title
                                            end{center}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          OK, we should look at uppercasenonmath:

                                          newcommand{uppercasenonmath}[1]{toks@@emptytoks
                                            @xp@skipmath@xp@empty#1$$%
                                            edef#1{{@nxprotect@nx@upprepthetoks@}}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          This only expands @title once, so at the end the primitive uppercase is applied to mytitle (it would be a bit long to go into the details). However the class also has

                                          AtBeginDocument{%
                                            @ifundefined{MakeTextUppercase}{}{letuppercasenonmathaltucnm}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          and we find

                                          defaltucnm#1{%
                                            MakeTextUppercase{toks@{#1}}%
                                            edef#1{thetoks@}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          and this is much better, because MakeTextUppercase does full (protected) expansion of its argument, so your mytitle gets expanded before uppercasing is done.

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          • Thank you, this solved the problem. Can you tell a little bit about why this problem happened in the first place and how textcase fixed it?

                                            – M. Winter
                                            Jan 2 at 14:24

                                          • @M.Winter Added some details

                                            – egreg
                                            Jan 2 at 14:40

                                          4

                                          Unfortunately, amsart uses by default uppercase (a big nuisance). Happily, the fix is simple: load textcase.

                                          documentclass{amsart}
                                          
                                          usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
                                          usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
                                          usepackage[USenglish]{babel}
                                          usepackage{textcase}
                                          
                                          newcommandmytitle{Title title title}
                                          
                                          begin{document}
                                          
                                          title[mytitle]{mytitle}
                                          
                                          begin{abstract}
                                              Abstract abstract abstract
                                          end{abstract}
                                          
                                          maketitle
                                          
                                          end{document}
                                          

                                          enter image description here

                                          Let’s see the definition of title

                                          renewcommand*{title}[2]{gdefshorttitle{#1}gdef@title{#2}}
                                          edeftitle{@nx@dblarg
                                            @xp@nxcsnamestringtitleendcsname}
                                          

                                          This is a common trick in the class for telling LaTeX that if the optional argument is missing then the mandatory argument should be supplied instead.

                                          The problem arises when maketitle is processed, which does @settitle:

                                          def@settitle{begin{center}%
                                            baselineskip14p@relax
                                              bfseries
                                          uppercasenonmath@title
                                            @title
                                            end{center}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          OK, we should look at uppercasenonmath:

                                          newcommand{uppercasenonmath}[1]{toks@@emptytoks
                                            @xp@skipmath@xp@empty#1$$%
                                            edef#1{{@nxprotect@nx@upprepthetoks@}}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          This only expands @title once, so at the end the primitive uppercase is applied to mytitle (it would be a bit long to go into the details). However the class also has

                                          AtBeginDocument{%
                                            @ifundefined{MakeTextUppercase}{}{letuppercasenonmathaltucnm}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          and we find

                                          defaltucnm#1{%
                                            MakeTextUppercase{toks@{#1}}%
                                            edef#1{thetoks@}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          and this is much better, because MakeTextUppercase does full (protected) expansion of its argument, so your mytitle gets expanded before uppercasing is done.

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          • Thank you, this solved the problem. Can you tell a little bit about why this problem happened in the first place and how textcase fixed it?

                                            – M. Winter
                                            Jan 2 at 14:24

                                          • @M.Winter Added some details

                                            – egreg
                                            Jan 2 at 14:40

                                          4

                                          4

                                          4

                                          Unfortunately, amsart uses by default uppercase (a big nuisance). Happily, the fix is simple: load textcase.

                                          documentclass{amsart}
                                          
                                          usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
                                          usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
                                          usepackage[USenglish]{babel}
                                          usepackage{textcase}
                                          
                                          newcommandmytitle{Title title title}
                                          
                                          begin{document}
                                          
                                          title[mytitle]{mytitle}
                                          
                                          begin{abstract}
                                              Abstract abstract abstract
                                          end{abstract}
                                          
                                          maketitle
                                          
                                          end{document}
                                          

                                          enter image description here

                                          Let’s see the definition of title

                                          renewcommand*{title}[2]{gdefshorttitle{#1}gdef@title{#2}}
                                          edeftitle{@nx@dblarg
                                            @xp@nxcsnamestringtitleendcsname}
                                          

                                          This is a common trick in the class for telling LaTeX that if the optional argument is missing then the mandatory argument should be supplied instead.

                                          The problem arises when maketitle is processed, which does @settitle:

                                          def@settitle{begin{center}%
                                            baselineskip14p@relax
                                              bfseries
                                          uppercasenonmath@title
                                            @title
                                            end{center}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          OK, we should look at uppercasenonmath:

                                          newcommand{uppercasenonmath}[1]{toks@@emptytoks
                                            @xp@skipmath@xp@empty#1$$%
                                            edef#1{{@nxprotect@nx@upprepthetoks@}}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          This only expands @title once, so at the end the primitive uppercase is applied to mytitle (it would be a bit long to go into the details). However the class also has

                                          AtBeginDocument{%
                                            @ifundefined{MakeTextUppercase}{}{letuppercasenonmathaltucnm}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          and we find

                                          defaltucnm#1{%
                                            MakeTextUppercase{toks@{#1}}%
                                            edef#1{thetoks@}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          and this is much better, because MakeTextUppercase does full (protected) expansion of its argument, so your mytitle gets expanded before uppercasing is done.

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          Unfortunately, amsart uses by default uppercase (a big nuisance). Happily, the fix is simple: load textcase.

                                          documentclass{amsart}
                                          
                                          usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
                                          usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
                                          usepackage[USenglish]{babel}
                                          usepackage{textcase}
                                          
                                          newcommandmytitle{Title title title}
                                          
                                          begin{document}
                                          
                                          title[mytitle]{mytitle}
                                          
                                          begin{abstract}
                                              Abstract abstract abstract
                                          end{abstract}
                                          
                                          maketitle
                                          
                                          end{document}
                                          

                                          enter image description here

                                          Let’s see the definition of title

                                          renewcommand*{title}[2]{gdefshorttitle{#1}gdef@title{#2}}
                                          edeftitle{@nx@dblarg
                                            @xp@nxcsnamestringtitleendcsname}
                                          

                                          This is a common trick in the class for telling LaTeX that if the optional argument is missing then the mandatory argument should be supplied instead.

                                          The problem arises when maketitle is processed, which does @settitle:

                                          def@settitle{begin{center}%
                                            baselineskip14p@relax
                                              bfseries
                                          uppercasenonmath@title
                                            @title
                                            end{center}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          OK, we should look at uppercasenonmath:

                                          newcommand{uppercasenonmath}[1]{toks@@emptytoks
                                            @xp@skipmath@xp@empty#1$$%
                                            edef#1{{@nxprotect@nx@upprepthetoks@}}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          This only expands @title once, so at the end the primitive uppercase is applied to mytitle (it would be a bit long to go into the details). However the class also has

                                          AtBeginDocument{%
                                            @ifundefined{MakeTextUppercase}{}{letuppercasenonmathaltucnm}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          and we find

                                          defaltucnm#1{%
                                            MakeTextUppercase{toks@{#1}}%
                                            edef#1{thetoks@}%
                                          }
                                          

                                          and this is much better, because MakeTextUppercase does full (protected) expansion of its argument, so your mytitle gets expanded before uppercasing is done.

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          edited Jan 2 at 14:40

                                          answered Jan 2 at 14:21

                                          egregegreg

                                          712k8618933179

                                          712k8618933179

                                          • Thank you, this solved the problem. Can you tell a little bit about why this problem happened in the first place and how textcase fixed it?

                                            – M. Winter
                                            Jan 2 at 14:24

                                          • @M.Winter Added some details

                                            – egreg
                                            Jan 2 at 14:40

                                          • Thank you, this solved the problem. Can you tell a little bit about why this problem happened in the first place and how textcase fixed it?

                                            – M. Winter
                                            Jan 2 at 14:24

                                          • @M.Winter Added some details

                                            – egreg
                                            Jan 2 at 14:40

                                          Thank you, this solved the problem. Can you tell a little bit about why this problem happened in the first place and how textcase fixed it?

                                          – M. Winter
                                          Jan 2 at 14:24

                                          Thank you, this solved the problem. Can you tell a little bit about why this problem happened in the first place and how textcase fixed it?

                                          – M. Winter
                                          Jan 2 at 14:24

                                          @M.Winter Added some details

                                          – egreg
                                          Jan 2 at 14:40

                                          @M.Winter Added some details

                                          – egreg
                                          Jan 2 at 14:40

                                          3

                                          Too long for a comment

                                          expandafterexpandafterexpandaftertitleexpandafterexpandafterexpandafter[expandaftermytitleexpandafter]expandafter{mytitle}
                                          

                                          But @egreg answer is worthwile reading too. 🙂

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          • Wow, this is insanity. I mean I tried expandafter, but I was not aware that just using more might fix the problem 😀

                                            – M. Winter
                                            Jan 2 at 14:57

                                          • eh eh… you usually need them by groups of 2^n -1 here n=2 because we need to expand once two things.

                                            – jfbu
                                            Jan 2 at 14:58

                                          • newcommandPassFirstToSecond[2]{#2{#1}} ... expandafterPassFirstToSecondexpandafter{mytitle}{expandaftertitleexpandafter[mytitle]}

                                            – Ulrich Diez
                                            Jan 2 at 19:02

                                          • @UlrichDiez yes, and with unexpandedexpandafter{foo} methods it is even easier to control expansion in arbitrary locations in an edef, begingroupedefx{endgroupnoexpandtitle[unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}]{unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}}}x

                                            – jfbu
                                            Jan 2 at 22:14

                                          3

                                          Too long for a comment

                                          expandafterexpandafterexpandaftertitleexpandafterexpandafterexpandafter[expandaftermytitleexpandafter]expandafter{mytitle}
                                          

                                          But @egreg answer is worthwile reading too. 🙂

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          • Wow, this is insanity. I mean I tried expandafter, but I was not aware that just using more might fix the problem 😀

                                            – M. Winter
                                            Jan 2 at 14:57

                                          • eh eh… you usually need them by groups of 2^n -1 here n=2 because we need to expand once two things.

                                            – jfbu
                                            Jan 2 at 14:58

                                          • newcommandPassFirstToSecond[2]{#2{#1}} ... expandafterPassFirstToSecondexpandafter{mytitle}{expandaftertitleexpandafter[mytitle]}

                                            – Ulrich Diez
                                            Jan 2 at 19:02

                                          • @UlrichDiez yes, and with unexpandedexpandafter{foo} methods it is even easier to control expansion in arbitrary locations in an edef, begingroupedefx{endgroupnoexpandtitle[unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}]{unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}}}x

                                            – jfbu
                                            Jan 2 at 22:14

                                          3

                                          3

                                          3

                                          Too long for a comment

                                          expandafterexpandafterexpandaftertitleexpandafterexpandafterexpandafter[expandaftermytitleexpandafter]expandafter{mytitle}
                                          

                                          But @egreg answer is worthwile reading too. 🙂

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          Too long for a comment

                                          expandafterexpandafterexpandaftertitleexpandafterexpandafterexpandafter[expandaftermytitleexpandafter]expandafter{mytitle}
                                          

                                          But @egreg answer is worthwile reading too. 🙂

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          share|improve this answer

                                          answered Jan 2 at 14:55

                                          jfbujfbu

                                          46.5k66148

                                          46.5k66148

                                          • Wow, this is insanity. I mean I tried expandafter, but I was not aware that just using more might fix the problem 😀

                                            – M. Winter
                                            Jan 2 at 14:57

                                          • eh eh… you usually need them by groups of 2^n -1 here n=2 because we need to expand once two things.

                                            – jfbu
                                            Jan 2 at 14:58

                                          • newcommandPassFirstToSecond[2]{#2{#1}} ... expandafterPassFirstToSecondexpandafter{mytitle}{expandaftertitleexpandafter[mytitle]}

                                            – Ulrich Diez
                                            Jan 2 at 19:02

                                          • @UlrichDiez yes, and with unexpandedexpandafter{foo} methods it is even easier to control expansion in arbitrary locations in an edef, begingroupedefx{endgroupnoexpandtitle[unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}]{unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}}}x

                                            – jfbu
                                            Jan 2 at 22:14

                                          • Wow, this is insanity. I mean I tried expandafter, but I was not aware that just using more might fix the problem 😀

                                            – M. Winter
                                            Jan 2 at 14:57

                                          • eh eh… you usually need them by groups of 2^n -1 here n=2 because we need to expand once two things.

                                            – jfbu
                                            Jan 2 at 14:58

                                          • newcommandPassFirstToSecond[2]{#2{#1}} ... expandafterPassFirstToSecondexpandafter{mytitle}{expandaftertitleexpandafter[mytitle]}

                                            – Ulrich Diez
                                            Jan 2 at 19:02

                                          • @UlrichDiez yes, and with unexpandedexpandafter{foo} methods it is even easier to control expansion in arbitrary locations in an edef, begingroupedefx{endgroupnoexpandtitle[unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}]{unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}}}x

                                            – jfbu
                                            Jan 2 at 22:14

                                          Wow, this is insanity. I mean I tried expandafter, but I was not aware that just using more might fix the problem 😀

                                          – M. Winter
                                          Jan 2 at 14:57

                                          Wow, this is insanity. I mean I tried expandafter, but I was not aware that just using more might fix the problem 😀

                                          – M. Winter
                                          Jan 2 at 14:57

                                          eh eh… you usually need them by groups of 2^n -1 here n=2 because we need to expand once two things.

                                          – jfbu
                                          Jan 2 at 14:58

                                          eh eh… you usually need them by groups of 2^n -1 here n=2 because we need to expand once two things.

                                          – jfbu
                                          Jan 2 at 14:58

                                          newcommandPassFirstToSecond[2]{#2{#1}} ... expandafterPassFirstToSecondexpandafter{mytitle}{expandaftertitleexpandafter[mytitle]}

                                          – Ulrich Diez
                                          Jan 2 at 19:02

                                          newcommandPassFirstToSecond[2]{#2{#1}} ... expandafterPassFirstToSecondexpandafter{mytitle}{expandaftertitleexpandafter[mytitle]}

                                          – Ulrich Diez
                                          Jan 2 at 19:02

                                          @UlrichDiez yes, and with unexpandedexpandafter{foo} methods it is even easier to control expansion in arbitrary locations in an edef, begingroupedefx{endgroupnoexpandtitle[unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}]{unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}}}x

                                          – jfbu
                                          Jan 2 at 22:14

                                          @UlrichDiez yes, and with unexpandedexpandafter{foo} methods it is even easier to control expansion in arbitrary locations in an edef, begingroupedefx{endgroupnoexpandtitle[unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}]{unexpandedexpandafter{mytitle}}}x

                                          – jfbu
                                          Jan 2 at 22:14

                                          <